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AS/NZS 2381.

2:2006
(Incorporating Amendment No. 1)
AS/NZS 2381.2:2006

Australian/New Zealand Standard™


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Electrical equipment for explosive


atmospheres—Selection, installation
and maintenance

Part 2: Flameproof enclosure ‘d’


AS/NZS 2381.2:2006
This Joint Australian/New Zealand Standard was prepared by Joint Technical
Committee EL-014, Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas. It was approved on
behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 16 May 2006 and on behalf of the
Council of Standards New Zealand on 26 May 2006.
This Standard was published on 9 June 2006.

The following are represented on Committee EL-014:

Association of Consulting Engineers Australia


Auckland Regional Chamber of Commerce
Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Australian Coal Association
Australian Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers Association
Australian Industry Group
Australian Institute of Petroleum Ltd
Australian Institute of Refrigeration Air Conditioning and Heating (Inc)
Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association
Certification Interests (Australia)
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Committee EL-023
Department of Natural Resources and Mines (Qld)
Department of Primary Industries, Mine Safety (NSW)
Electrical Regulatory Authorities Council
Energy Networks Association
Engineers Australia
Institute of Electrical Inspectors
Institute of Instrumentation, Control and Automation Australia
Mining Electrical and Mining Mechanical Engineering Society
Ministry of Economic Development (New Zealand)
National Electrical and Communications Association
New Zealand Association of Marine, Aviation and Power Engineers
New Zealand Employers and Manufacturers Association
New Zealand Hazardous Areas Electrical Coordinating Committee
WorkCover New South Wales

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This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 06099.


AS/NZS 2381.2:2006
(Incorporating Amendment No. 1)
AS/NZS 2381.2:2006

Australian/New Zealand Standard™


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Electrical equipment for explosive


atmospheres—Selection, installation
and maintenance

Part 2: Flameproof enclosure ‘d’

First published as AS 1076.3—1977.


Revised and redesignated AS 2381.2—1993.
Final edition 2006.
Reissued incorporating Amendment No.1 (September 2006).

COPYRIGHT
© Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand
All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written
permission of the publisher.
Jointly published by Standards Australia, GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001 and Standards
New Zealand, Private Bag 2439, Wellington 6020

ISBN 0 7337 7486 5


AS/NZS 2381.2:2006 2

PREFACE
This Standard was prepared by the Standards Australia Committee on Electrical Equipment
in Hazardous Areas, to supersede AS 2381.2—1993, Electrical equipment for explosive
atmospheres - Selection, installation and maintenance - Flameproof enclosure ‘d’. This is
Part 2 of the AS/NZS 2381 series of Standards covering the selection, installation and
maintenance of electrical equipment for use in areas where flammable materials are
generated, processed, handled or stored, and which therefore are potentially explosive.
This Standard incorporates Amendment No. 1 (September 2006). The changes required by
the Amendment are indicated in the text by a marginal bar and amendment number against
the clause, note, table, figure or part thereof affected.
Each Part details requirements appropriate to one of the types of protection techniques used
to achieve electrical safety. Part 1 of this series details general requirements pertaining to
all types of protection techniques and therefore must be read in conjunction with this Part.
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Other Standards in this series are as follows:


Part 1: General requirements
Part 6: Increased safety ‘e’
Part 7: Intrinsic safety ‘i’
This edition of the Standard should be considered a transitional edition pending future
publication of AS/NZS 60079.14. AS/NZS 60079.14 will be based on IEC 60079-14 and is
intended to supersede all Parts of the AS/NZS 2381 series. Changes in this edition have
been constrained to essential items as an interim step, pending these future changes.
The requirements specified in this Standard are supplementary but not alternative to any
requirements which would apply to installations in non-hazardous areas (see
AS/NZS 3000).
The significant changes in this edition include—
(a) update of references to new Standards and in particular to the AS/NZS 60079 series;
and
(b) alignment of cable gland requirements and other items to IEC Standards.
This Standard is intended to apply to installations, or alterations or additions thereto, made
or carried out after the date of publication.
The terms ‘normative’ and ‘informative’ are used to define the application of the appendix
to which they apply. A normative appendix is an integral part of a standard, whereas an
informative appendix is only for information and guidance.
3 AS/NZS 2381.2:2006

CONTENTS

Page
1.1 SCOPE ........................................................................................................................ 4
1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS .................................................................................. 4
1.3 DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................................ 5
1.4 PRINCIPLE OF TECHNIQUE.................................................................................... 5

2 SELECTION
2.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ................................................................................................. 6
2.2 AREA CLASSIFICATION ......................................................................................... 6
2.3 EQUIPMENT GROUPING ......................................................................................... 6
2.4 TEMPERATURE CLASSIFICATION ........................................................................ 7
2.5 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS .......................................................................... 7
2.6 FAULT CONDITIONS ............................................................................................... 7
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3 INSTALLATION
3.1 SCOPE OF SECTION ................................................................................................. 8
3.2 CLEARANCE FROM OBJECTS ................................................................................ 8
3.3 PROTECTION FROM THE ENVIRONMENT........................................................... 8
3.4 CONDUIT SYSTEMS................................................................................................. 9
3.5 CABLE SYSTEMS ..................................................................................................... 9
3.6 CABLE ENTRY........................................................................................................ 10
3.7 UNUSED ENTRIES.................................................................................................. 11

4 INSPECTION AND TESTING, INCLUDING COMMISSIONING


4.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 11
4.2 DOCUMENTATION................................................................................................. 12
4.3 FORMS OF INSPECTION........................................................................................ 12
4.4 TESTING .................................................................................................................. 12

5 MAINTENANCE
5.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 12
5.2 PROCEDURES ......................................................................................................... 12
5.3 REPAIRS................................................................................................................... 12

APPENDICES
A INSPECTION, TESTING AND MAINTENANCE ................................................... 13
B INFORMATION REGARDING INSTALLATION .................................................. 21
AS/NZS 2381.2:2006 4

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA/STANDARDS NEW ZEALAND

Australian/New Zealand Standard


Electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres—Selection, installation
and maintenance

Part 2: Flameproof enclosure ‘d’

1.1 SCOPE
This Standard sets out requirements for the selection, installation and maintenance of
flameproof enclosures, type of protection ‘d’.
This Standard shall be read in conjunction with AS/NZS 2381.1, which describes the
fundamental considerations which affect the selection, installation and maintenance
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requirements of all electrical equipment used in hazardous areas.


NOTES:
1 Requirements for the design and construction of flameproof electrical equipment are given in
AS/NZS 60079.1.
2 While this Standard may be applied to coal mining installations additional requirements may
be contained in State mining regulations.
1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
The following documents are referred to in this Standard:
AS
1828 Electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres—Cable glands
(superseded by AS/NZS 60079.1)
2052 Metallic conduits and fittings
2380 Electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres—Explosion-protection
techniques
2380.2 Part 2: Flameproof enclosures ‘d’ (superseded by AS/NZS 60079.1)
60529 Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)
AS/NZS
2381 Electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres—Selection, installation
and maintenance
2381.1 Part 1: General requirements
2430 Classification of hazardous areas
2430.3 Part 3: Examples of area classification
2480 Electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres—Flameproof enclosure—
Type of protection ‘d’
3000 Electrical installations (known as the Australian/New Zealand Wiring
Rules)
3760 In-service safety inspection and testing of electrical equipment
3800 Electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres—Repair and overhaul

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AS/NZS
60079 Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres
60079.1 Part 1: Flameproof enclosures ‘d’
60079.4 Part 4: Method of test for ignition temperature
60079.10 Part 10: Classification of hazardous areas
60079.20 Part 20: Data for flammable gases and vapours, relating to the use of
electrical apparatus
1.3 DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of this Standard, the definitions given in AS/NZS 2381.1 and those below
apply.
1.3.1 Flameproof enclosure
Type of protection of electrical equipment in which the enclosure will withstand an internal
explosion of a flammable mixture which has penetrated into the interior without suffering
damage or causing ignition, through any joints or structural openings in the enclosure, of an
external explosive atmosphere consisting of one or more of the gases or vapours for which
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it is designed.
NOTE: This type of protection is indicated by the letter ‘d’.
1.3.2 Flameproof joint
Place where corresponding surfaces of the different parts of a flameproof enclosure (or the
conjunction of enclosures) come together, and where flame or the products of combustion
may be transmitted from inside to the outside of the enclosure.
1.3.3 Gap
Distance between the corresponding surfaces of a flameproof joint when the electrical
equipment has been assembled. For cylindrical surfaces, the gap is the difference between
diameters (diametral clearance) of the bore and the cylindrical component.
1.3.4 Flamepath
The shortest path through a joint from the inside to the outside of a flameproof enclosure.
1.3.5 Normative
An Appendix which is essential to the understanding or implementation of the Standard.
1.4 PRINCIPLE OF TECHNIQUE
1.4.1 General
Electrical equipment which is approved in accordance with the requirement of type of
protection ‘d’ is so designed and constructed that it is not capable, under practical
conditions of operation within the rating of the apparatus, of igniting a surrounding
explosive atmosphere.
This is achieved by—
(a) completely surrounding the electrical apparatus with an enclosure, including where
necessary, pressure-relieving gaps of sufficient strength and integrity of manufacture
to withstand internal explosions without suffering damage and without
communicating internal combustion or flame to the external flammable gas or vapour
for which it is designed through any joints or structural openings in the
enclosure; and
(b) restricting the maximum outer surface temperature to below the ignition temperature
of the gas or vapour which presents the explosion risk.

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AS/NZS 2381.2:2006 6

1.4.2 Enclosures
Flameproof enclosures are designed and generally certified, to house a set number of
predetermined types of electrical equipment. When empty, flameproof enclosures are
available with component certification, (indicated by a ‘U’ in the certificate number), so it
is necessary to obtain a full certificate after any equipment is housed within them.
Alternatively, certificates for empty flameproof enclosures may have ‘conditions of use’
that are used to control the contents of the enclosures. Alterations to the disposition of the
internal components of an already certified piece of equipment is not permitted as
conditions may be inadvertently created which will lead to pressure piling. Pressure piling
is a condition resulting from the ignition of precompressed gases in compartments or
subdivisions other than those in which ignition was initiated, which may lead to a higher
maximum pressure than would otherwise be expected.
Furthermore, extra components such as relays, or contactors, shall not be added unless it is
permitted by the certification documentation or the manufacturer as the addition may alter
the maximum surface temperature of the equipment and possibly the temperature
classification. Similarly additional cable entries, or any other holes, shall not be made in an
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enclosure unless it is permitted on the certification documentation.


NOTE: Additional holes or modification to cable entries is not permitted by the installer.

2 SELECTION
2.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
The general factors affecting the selection of electrical equipment for hazardous areas are
described in detail in AS/NZS 2381.1.
The specific factors which need to be taken into account when selecting equipment with
type of protection ‘d’ are described in this following Section.
2.2 AREA CLASSIFICATION
Equipment with type of protection ‘d’ may be used in Zone 1 or 2 areas.
2.3 EQUIPMENT GROUPING
2.3.1 General
Equipment with type of protection ‘d’ is subject to equipment grouping (see
AS/NZS 2381.1) and therefore the equipment may be used only with gases and vapours
allocated to the appropriate group and subgroup.
Group II equipment of a particular subgroup may also be used with gases or vapours
allocated to a lower subgroup, e.g. equipment for Group IIC may also be used for Groups
IIB and IIA.
Equipment marked for a specific gas, or marked for an apparatus group plus a specific gas,
and used in that specific gas atmosphere shall be installed in accordance with the
requirements for the apparatus group to which the specific gas belongs. For example,
equipment marked ‘IIB + H2’ and used in a hydrogen atmosphere shall be installed as IIC
apparatus.
NOTE: It will sometimes be found necessary to use electrical equipment in applications where
compounds may be present which have not yet been allocated to a subgroup. In these
circumstances, expert advice should be obtained on the subgrouping allocation and temperature
class of gases or vapours in question or the gases should be considered as IIC.

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2.3.2 GroupIIC equipment


Generally, equipment tested and certified as Group IIC in accordance with AS 2380.2 or
AS/NZS 60079.1 is suitable for use in either hydrogen or acetylene environments.
AS 2380.2 and AS/NZS 60079.1 require that where equipment is tested with hydrogen or
acetylene alone it must be clearly identified on both the name plate and certification
documents. Such equipment is only suitable for use with the gas for which it has been
tested.
NOTE: Attention is drawn to the fact that Ex ‘d’ equipment tested and certified to Group IIC in
accordance with previous editions of Australian Standards covering Ex ’d’ equipment, e.g.
AS 2480, may not be suitable for use in acetylene environments. Reference should be made to the
certification documents and test reports.
2.4 TEMPERATURE CLASSIFICATION
2.4.1 Maximum surface temperature
Equipment with type of protection ‘d’ shall be selected according to its temperature
classification. The maximum temperature appropriate to the temperature class shall not
exceed the ignition temperature of the gas or vapour expected to be present in the hazardous
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area, or the lowest value of the ignition temperature if more than one flammable gas is
likely to be present.
NOTES:
1 The temperature class of apparatus is determined according to the results of temperature
measurements made under normal operating conditions and with recognized overloads if any.
2 The temperatures Class T rating which is marked on the label applies only to apparatus
complying with AS 2380.2. The ignition temperature of gases and vapours must be
established in compliance with AS/NZS 60079.4 or AS/NZS 60079.20.
2.4.2 Ambient temperature
Electrical equipment with type of protection ‘d’ is designed for use in an ambient
temperature range between −20°C and +40°C, unless otherwise marked.
Equipment shall be selected having due regard to the range of ambient temperatures likely
to be encountered for each area of the installation. Where the ambient requirements are
outside the range of −20°C to +40°C, the suitability of the equipment shall be verified by
reference to the certification documents of the relevant equipment. Refer to AS/NZS 2381.1
for guidance.
NOTE: Guidance should be sought from the equipment manufacturer and Certification Body
when determining the suitability of the equipment.
2.5 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
Electrical equipment with type of protection ‘d’ shall be chosen taking into account the
environmental conditions existing at the proposed installation site (see AS/NZS 2381.1).
NOTE: Ex ’d’ equipment is not necessarily weatherproof. However, where this is required only
equipment with an appropriate IP rating, in accordance with AS 60529 should be used.
2.6 FAULT CONDITIONS
Electrical equipment and its protective devices shall be selected so that its flameproof
characteristics are not impaired during internal electrical fault conditions (see
AS/NZS 2381.1).
NOTE: The use of earth leakage protection devices may be necessary where either short circuit or
overcurrent fault levels are likely to damage the flameproof enclosure.

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AS/NZS 2381.2:2006 8

3 INSTALLATION
3.1 SCOPE OF SECTION
This Section specifies requirements for the installation of electrical equipment with type of
protection ‘d’. They are additional to the general installation requirements detailed in
AS/NZS 2381.1 and those contained in the certification documents.
NOTE: Appendix B contains details of the information which should be available prior to and
after installation.
3.2 CLEARANCE FROM OBJECTS
When installing equipment, care shall be exercised to prevent the flameproof flange joint
approaching nearer than the distance specified in Table 3.1 to any solid obstacle which is
not part of the equipment, such as steelwork, walls, weatherguards, mounting brackets,
pipes or other electrical equipment, unless the equipment has been tested at a smaller
distance of separation.

TABLE 3.1
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MINIMUM DISTANCE OF OBSTRUCTION FROM THE


FLAMEPROOF FLANGE JOINTS RELATED TO
THE GAS/VAPOUR SUBGROUP OF THE HAZARDOUS AREA
Gas/vapour subgroup Minimum distance
mm
IIA 10
IIB 30
IIC 40

3.3 PROTECTION FROM THE ENVIRONMENT


3.3.1 Weather protection
Gaskets and seals shall not be used as a means of weatherproofing the flame path of a
flameproof enclosure unless supplied by the manufacturer as an integral part of the
enclosure.
3.3.2 Corrosion protection
When reassembling flameproof enclosures, all joints shall be thoroughly cleaned and may
be lightly smeared with a suitable grease in accordance with the flameproof enclosure
manufacturer’s recommendation, to prevent corrosion and assist weatherproofing.
NOTE: Joints should not be treated with substances which harden in use, as these may impair the
efficient operation of the flameproof enclosure.

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9 AS/NZS 2381.2:2006

3.3.3 Use of tape


Flameproof joints shall be protected against corrosion. The gaps shall be protected against
ingress of water. The use of gaskets is only permissible when specified in the apparatus
documentation. Joints shall not be treated with substances which harden in use.
NOTES:
1 A suitable protection method for joints consists of the application of non-setting grease or
anti-corrosive agents. Silicone based greases are often suitable for this purpose but care needs
to be taken concerning use with gas detectors. It cannot be too strongly emphasized that
extreme care should be exercised in the selection and application of these substances to
ensure the retention of the non-setting characteristics and to allow subsequent separation of
the joint surfaces.
2 Non-hardening grease-bearing textile tape may also be employed outside of a straight flanged
joint but only where the apparatus is used in conjunction with gases allocated to Group IIA.
The tape should be restricted to one layer surrounding all parts of the flange joint with a short
overlap. New tape should be applied whenever existing tape is disturbed.
3 Non-hardening grease-bearing textile tape may be applied to straight flanged joints of
Group IIB enclosures but should not be applied to Group IIC (or IIB + H2) enclosures used in
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conjunction with gases allocated to Group IIC. When tape is applied to a Group IIB
enclosure, the gap between the joint surfaces should not exceed 0.1 mm, irrespective of the
flange width.
4 Flanged faces should not be painted before assembly. Painting of the enclosure after complete
assembly is permitted.
3.4 CONDUIT SYSTEMS
3.4.1 Installation
The requirements for the installation of metallic conduit detailed in AS/NZS 2381.1 and
those below apply.
3.4.2 Enclosures, fittings and unions
Screwed conduit and fittings shall comply with AS 2052 and the tolerance requirements for
threaded joints detailed in AS/NZS 60079.1, and be installed in such a way that the
minimum lengths of thread engagement comply with AS/NZS 2381.1.
Unions, inspection type conduit fittings, reducers, adapters and junction boxes shall be
flameproof and comply with AS/NZS 60079.1 or AS 2380.2. The use of running couplers is
not permitted.
3.5 CABLE SYSTEMS
3.5.1 Installation
The requirements for installation of cable systems detailed in AS/NZS 2381.1 and those
below apply.
3.5.2 Cable types
Polyvinyl chloride and other plastic sheathed cables shall not be installed in environments
likely to cause deterioration of the cable sheath or insulating material (for example, buried
cables in contaminated areas). In such cases, protection from the environment shall be
provided or alternatively, other types of cable, not susceptible to deterioration, shall be
used.

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AS/NZS 2381.2:2006 10

3.6 CABLE ENTRY


3.6.1 General
The method of cable entry into flameproof enclosures shall—
(a) maintain the integrity of the type of protection;
(b) prevent propagation of flame through the cable to the external hazardous area; and
(c) prevent migration of flammable liquid or vapour through the cable cores to a non-
hazardous area.
Thread engagement between the cable gland and the threaded entry in the enclosure shall be
at least five full threads but no less than 8 mm.
Flameproof cable glands, conduit sealing devices, adapters and blanking elements with
parallel threads may be fitted with a sealing washer between the device and the flameproof
enclosure, providing that after the washer has been fitted, the minimum thread engagement
is achieved. A suitable grease may be used provided the grease is non-setting and care is
taken to ensure that any earth continuity between the two is maintained.
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Where taper threads are used the connection shall be made wrench tight.
3.6.2 Selection of cable glands
The cable entry system shall comply with one of the following:
(a) Cable gland in compliance with AS/NZS 60079.1 or AS 1828 and certified as part of
the apparatus when tested with a sample of the particular type of cable.
(b) Where a cable has thermoplastic, thermosetting or elastomeric insulation and is
substantially compact and circular, with extruded bedding and fillers that are non-
hygroscopic a flameproof cable gland complying with AS/NZS 60079.1 or AS 1828
shall be selected in accordance with Figure 3.1.
(c) Mineral-insulated cable with serving fitted with appropriate flameproof cable gland,
complying with AS/NZS 60079.1 or AS 2380.2.
(d) Flameproof sealing device (for example a stopping box or sealing chamber) specified
in the apparatus documentation or having component approval and employing cable
entry devices appropriate to the cables used. The sealing devices such as stopping
boxes or sealing chambers shall incorporate compound or other appropriate seals
which permit stopping around individual cores. Sealing devices shall be fitted at the
point of entry of the cables to the apparatus.
(e) Flameproof cable glands complying with AS/NZS 60079.1 or AS 1828 incorporating
compound-filled or elastomeric seals that seal around the individual cores or other
equivalent sealing arrangements.
NOTE: Where a factory-made termination of the encapsulated type is used, forming an
inseparable part of the enclosure, no attempt shall be made to interfere with the connection to the
apparatus or to replace the cable.

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11 AS/NZS 2381.2:2006

A1 Start

Does this
enclosure
Yes No
contain an
internal source
of ignition?*

Does the
Yes hazardous No Use a suitable
gas require IIC flameproof
apparatus? cable entry
device with a
sealing ring

Is the
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Yes area of No
Apply
3.6.2 installation
d) or e) zone 1?

Is the
volume
Yes No
of the enclosure
greater than
2 L?

* Internal sources of ignition include sparks or equipment temperature occurring in normal operation which can
cause ignition. An enclosure containing terminals only or an indirect entry enclosure (see Clause 3.6.2)
is considered not to constitute an internal source of ignition.

The term ‘volume’ is defined in AS/NZS 60079.1.

FIGURE 3.1 SELECTION CHART FOR CABLE ENTRY DEVICES INTO FLAMEPROOF
ENCLOSURES FOR CABLES COMPLYING WITH CLAUSE 3.6.2(b)

3.6.3 Adapters
Flameproof adapters, reducers and the like complying with AS 2380.2 or AS/NZS 60079.1
may be used in conjunction with cable glands complying with Clause 3.6.2. Not more than
one adapter or reducer shall be used on a cable entry.
3.7 UNUSED ENTRIES
Unused conduit or cable entries shall be sealed by flameproof blanking elements certified as
complying with AS 2380.2. or AS/NZS 60079.1.
Adapters or reducers are not permitted with flameproof blanking elements and thread
engagement shall comply with the requirements of Clause 3.6.1.

4 INSPECTION AND TESTING, INCLUDING COMMISSIONING


4.1 GENERAL
The requirements of this Section apply to electrical equipment with type of protection ‘d’.
They are additional to the inspection, testing and maintenance requirements detailed in
AS/NZS 2381.1.

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AS/NZS 2381.2:2006 12

4.2 DOCUMENTATION
To ensure that an installation complies with the requirements of the appropriate
certification documents, a verification dossier shall be prepared for every plant. This
dossier should contain the information listed in Appendix B.
It is the responsibility of the occupier to ensure that the relevant information in Appendix B
is produced and available. It is recognized that the preparation of the document may be
delegated to persons competent in explosion-protection techniques.
The documentation shall be dated and signed by the person carrying out the inspection.
4.3 FORMS OF INSPECTION
There are three types of inspection, as follows:
(a) Initial inspection.
(b) Periodic inspection.
(c) Sample inspection.
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These inspections are detailed in Appendix A.


An initial inspection, as specified in Appendix A, shall be performed for all new
installations.
Further inspections should be performed as recommended in Appendix A.
4.4 TESTING
Testing shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of AS/NZS 2381.1.

5 MAINTENANCE
5.1 GENERAL
General recommendations for the maintenance of electrical equipment for hazardous areas
are described in AS/NZS 2381.1.
5.2 PROCEDURES
Additional recommended procedures for the maintenance of electrical equipment with type
of protection ‘d’ are described in Appendix A.
5.3 REPAIRS
To maintain compliance with the original certification documents, repairs and refurbishing
of apparatus with type of protection ‘d’ should carried out in accordance with
AS/NZS 3800.

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13 AS/NZS 2381.2:2006

APPENDIX A
INSPECTION, TESTING AND MAINTENANCE
(Normative)

A1 TYPES OF INSPECTION
A1.1 Initial inspection
All equipment, systems and installations shall be subjected to an initial inspection before
commissioning to ensure—
(a) the suitability for the hazardous area in which it is installed;
(b) that they comply with the relevant documentation; and
(c) that no obvious damage has occurred during installation.
Initial inspections shall be performed in accordance with the inspection schedule set out in
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Table A1, and all results recorded. Any modifications or repair to any part of a system shall
be followed by a detailed inspection (see Paragraph A2.4) to ensure the continued
suitability of that equipment.
Any change in area classification or process changes on a plant shall be immediately
followed by a detailed inspection of all affected systems to ensure that they are still
suitable.
A1.2 Periodic inspection
Periodic inspections are inspections of all equipment carried out on a routine basis. They
may be visual or close (see Paragraphs A2.2 and 2.3) as indicated in Table A1.
A visual or close periodic inspection may lead to the need for a further detailed inspection.
All equipment, systems and installations should be subjected to periodic inspections to
ensure that they are being maintained in a satisfactory condition for continued use.
Guidance in determining the frequency of inspections is given in Figure A1. The interval
between inspections should not exceed 4 years without seeking expert advice.
The grade of inspection and the interval between periodic inspections should be determined
taking account of the type of equipment, manufacturer’s guidelines if any, factors
governing its deterioration, the zone of use and the results of previous inspections. Where
inspection grades and intervals have been established for similar equipment, plants and
environments, this experience should be used in determining the inspection schedule.
In extremely adverse conditions, such as corrosive or other destructive atmospheres, a high
risk of mechanical damage or vibration, or continuous operation, the interval between
periodic inspections may be as low as three months, but should not normally exceed 12
months.
The results of all periodic inspections shall be recorded.
Once an interval has been fixed, the installation should be subjected to interim sample
inspections to support or modify the proposed interval. Similarly, the grade of inspection
will need to be determined and here again sample inspections can be used to support or
modify the proposed inspection grade. A regular review of the results of inspections will be
required to justify the grade of and interval between each inspection.

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AS/NZS 2381.2:2006 14

When large numbers of similar items such as luminaires and junction boxes, etc. are
installed, it may be feasible to carry out periodic inspections on a sample basis provided
that the number of samples, and the inspection frequency are subject to review. It is,
however, strongly recommended that all items be subject at least to visual inspection.
A1.3 Sample inspections
Sample inspections are inspections of a proportion of the installed equipment. They may be
detailed, close or visual. The size and composition of all samples should be determined
having regard to the purpose of the inspection.
The results of all sample inspections shall be recorded.
Sample inspections should not be expected to reveal faults of a random nature, e.g. loose
connections, but should be used to monitor the effects of environmental conditions,
vibration, inherent design weakness and the like.

A2 GRADES OF INSPECTION
A2.1 General
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The grade of inspection can be visual (V), close (C) or detailed (D); Table A1 details the
specific checks required for these three grades of inspection.
Visual and close inspections can be performed with the equipment energized. Detailed
inspections will generally require the equipment to be isolated.
A2.2 Visual inspection
A visual inspection is an inspection which identifies, without the use of access equipment
or tools, those defects, e.g. missing bolts, which are apparent to the eye.
A2.3 Close inspection
A close inspection is an inspection which encompasses those aspects covered by a visual
inspection and, in addition, identifies those defects, e.g. loose bolts, which will become
apparent only when access equipment, e.g. steps (where necessary) and tools are used.
Close inspections do not normally require the enclosure to be opened or the equipment to be
de-energized.
A2.4 Detailed inspection
A detailed inspection is an inspection which encompasses those aspects covered by a close
inspection and, in addition, identifies those defects, e.g. loose terminations, which only
become apparent when the enclosure is opened up, or by the use of tools and test
equipment.

A3 INSPECTION CHECKS
A3.1 Area classification
Check that the system or equipment installed is in accordance with the area classification
contained in the documentation.
A3.2 Grouping
Check that the group shown on the equipment agrees with the documentation, and is
appropriate to the group associated with the flammable atmospheres shown on the
appropriate area classification drawing (e.g. for a flammable material associated with
Group IIB, equipment of Group IIB or IIC may be used but not that of Group IIA).
A3.3 Temperature class
The temperature class should be checked with the documentation to ensure that it is correct.

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15 AS/NZS 2381.2:2006

A3.4 Circuit identification


Each equipment item should be checked to ensure that the identification tag is both secure,
and correct, and that it identifies the circuit number and switchboard at which the circuit
originates.
A3.5 Marking
All markings, including equipment nameplates, should be inspected to ensure that the
markings are legible and comply with the requirements laid down in the approval
certificate, and documentation, to ensure that the installed equipment is as specified.
A3.6 Enclosure
Checks should be made for obstructions around flanges of equipment. Enclosures and
fittings should be examined to see that all stopping plugs and bolts are in position and tight.
Locking and sealing devices should be checked to confirm that they are secured in the
prescribed manner. Replacement cover-securing fasteners, nuts, studs or bolts shall be of
the types certified by the manufacturer for the particular equipment.
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AS/NZS 2381.2:2006 16

ACTION: DECISION:

Determine
NEW Type: initial provisional
PLANT Grade: detailed periodic interval

Type: sample
Grade: visual

Modify/confirm
periodic interval
EXISTING
PLANT

Type: periodic
Grade: close
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Type: sample
Grade: detailed

Can an increase in No
the periodic inspection
interval be justified?

Yes

Increase No Is the periodic


periodic interval already
interval 4 years?

Yes
Type: sample
Grade: visual

Type: periodic
Grade: close (I.C.)*
visual (not I.C.)* Can an increase in No
the periodic inspection
Type: sample interval be justified?
Grade: detailed

Yes

Carry out safety audit


to recommend new
periodic interval

* I.C. Ignition capable in normal operation, i.e. where the internal components of the apparatus
produce in normal operation, ignition capable arcs, sparks or surface temperatures.

FIGURE A1 TYPICAL INSPECTION PROCEDURE FOR PERIODIC INSPECTIONS

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TABLE A1
INSPECTION SCHEDULE FOR EQUIPMENT WITH TYPE OF PROTECTION ‘d’
Grade of
Check that: Notes
Inspection
D C V
A Equipment

1 Equipment is appropriate to area classification x x x Refer Paragraph A3.1


2 Equipment gas group is correct x x Refer Paragraph A3.2
3 Equipment temperature class is correct x x Refer Paragraph A3.3
4 Equipment carries the correct circuit identification x Refer Paragraph A3.4
5 Equipment is clearly marked x x x Refer Paragraph A3.5
6 Enclosure, glasses and glass to metal sealing gaskets x x x Refer Paragraphs
or compounds are satisfactory A3.6 and A3.7
7 There are no unauthorized modifications x x x Refer Paragraph A3.8
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8 Bolts, cable entry devices (direct and indirect) and x x x Refer Paragraph A3.6
blanking elements are of the correct type and are
complete and tight
9 Flange faces are clean and undamaged and gaskets, x Refer Paragraph A3.9
if any, are satisfactory
10 Flange gap dimensions are within permitted maxima x x Refer Paragraph A3.9
11 Lamp rating, type and position are correct x A detailed inspection is
necessary after relamping
12 Motor fans have sufficient clearance to enclosures x
and covers
B Installation
13 Type of cable is appropriate x Refer Paragraph A3.10
14 There is no obvious damage to cables x x x
15 Sealing of trunking, ducts, pipes and conduits is x x x
satisfactory
16 Stopper boxes and cable boxes are correctly filled x
17 Integrity of conduit system and interface with mixed x
system is maintained
18 Earthing and equipotential bonding is satisfactory x x x Refer Paragraph A3.11
19 Insulation resistance is satisfactory x
20 Automatic electrical protection devices operate x
within permitted limits
21 Automatic electrical protection devices are set x
correctly
22 Special conditions of use (if applicable) are x x Refer Paragraph A3.12
complied with
C Environment
23 Equipment is adequately protected against x x x Refer Paragraph A3.13
corrosion, weather, vibration and other adverse
effects
24 There is no undue accumulation of dust or dirt x x x Accumulation of dust or dirt
can interfere with heat
dissipation and result in surface
temperature higher than that
permitted

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AS/NZS 2381.2:2006 18

A3.7 Sealing gaskets and compounds


These materials should be inspected for evidence of deterioration due to ageing or the
effects of thermal, chemical or corrosive agents.
A3.8 Modifications
The installation should be checked to ensure there has been no modification, addition,
replacement or deletion to the equipment not in accordance with the certification
documentation.
A3.9 Gaps
The dimensions of the gaps at flameproof joints should be checked to see that they do not
exceed the maximum figure laid down in AS 2380.2. At intervals determined by experience,
the flanged joints should be separated and the faces examined for possible defects resulting
from corrosion or other causes.
If flanges are to be sealed, then new non-setting grease or tape should be used on
reassembly.
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A3.10 Cabling
All installations should be inspected to ensure that the cables comply with the
documentation.
A3.11 Earthing
All earthing connections should be checked to ensure that earth continuity is maintained.
A3.12 Compliance with documentation
The installation should be inspected to ensure that any other items not already covered by
the inspection check list comply with the requirements of the relevant documentation and,
particularly, that any special installation conditions have been fulfilled.
This requires a detailed comparison with certificates and installation drawings.
A3.13 Damage
All installations should be checked to ensure that there is no visible damage caused by
corrosion, weather, vibration, accumulation of dirt or dust, excessive temperatures or other
adverse factors.

A4 SPECIAL INSPECTIONS FOR MOVABLE EQUIPMENT


Movable electrical equipment (portable, transposable and hand-held) shall comply with the
inspection and test requirements of AS 3760 and shall be submitted to a detailed inspection
at least every 12 months. Movable equipment is particularly prone to damage or misuse and
it is recommended therefore that the interval between detailed inspections may need to be
reduced. In addition, before use the equipment shall be visually checked by the user, to
ensure that the equipment is not obviously damaged.
Information such as inspections, repairs, maintenance and servicing of tools shall be
recorded.

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19 AS/NZS 2381.2:2006

A5 MAINTENANCE
A5.1 General
To ensure that maintenance work does not reduce the level of safety, the precautions
detailed below should be observed.
Careless maintenance can lead to an unsafe condition, either directly or by damage to safety
components, wiring or clearances. Therefore, it is considered essential that such
maintenance is executed by competent personnel only.
A5.2 Check list
It is recommended that a check list, similar to Table A2, be prepared before maintenance is
performed.
A5.3 Removal of electrical equipment
Where electrical equipment is removed for maintenance, any exposed conductors which
remain should be mechanically secured and electrically isolated in a manner to prevent the
occurrence of any unsafe condition.
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A5.4 Modification or repair


It is recommended that a complete sub-assembly be replaced rather than an attempt be made
to repair the sub-assembly.
A5.5 Inspection after maintenance
It is considered essential that a detailed inspection of relevant items from Table A1 should
be performed after any maintenance work. The inspection should ensure that the installation
remains in compliance with the documentation.

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AS/NZS 2381.2:2006 20

TABLE A2
MAINTENANCE CHECK LIST
Pre-maintenance Necessary documents are available
All records have been examined
Test gear is available and is satisfactory to use in hazardous areas
Prepare an isolation procedure if a detailed inspection is to be carried out
Permission to enter or work has been granted
The area is safe to enter
Any precautions necessary have been taken
Maintenance All reconnections have been made
Equipment is functional
Malfunctions have been reported
Installation conforms to drawings or documentation or both
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Any modifications have been approved


Area classification is still valid
Earthing requirements are still valid
General check in accordance with Table A1 completed
Post maintenance Documentation is completed and filed
Inspection report is complete
Company or operator requirements have been satisfied

A6 RECORDS
The person, dates of all inspections, tests and maintenance, and the details of any defects
found should be recorded.
These records should form part of the dossier information recommended in Appendix B.

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21 AS/NZS 2381.2:2006

APPENDIX B
INFORMATION REGARDING INSTALLATION
(Informative)

B1 GENERAL
It is considered to be the responsibility of the occupier to ensure that the information
specified in this Appendix is produced but it is recognized that such work may be delegated
to other bodies such as consultants, and contractors.

B2 INFORMATION REQUIRED
The following information should be made available prior to installation and, subsequently,
remain available to installation and maintenance staff and those having responsibility for
the safe operation of the plant:
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(a) The classification of areas in which each item of electrical equipment and any
interconnecting cables are to be installed. See AS/NZS 60079.10 and AS/NZS 2430.3
for guidance.
(b) Details of the relevant Standards Australia (or other) certificate numbers together
with reference to any item of equipment, not certified, including type number,
manufacturer and the justification for its suitability in the area of use.
(c) Reference to any special requirements listed in the certification documentation and
the detailed methods by which such requirements are to be met in the particular
installation.
(d) The approximate physical location on the plant of each item of electrical equipment
and the routing of any interconnecting cables.
(e) The equipment group applicable to the flammable material present.
(f) The surface temperature class applicable to the flammable material present.
NOTE: The surface temperature class shown in the documentation for any equipment should
be appropriate to the minimum ignition temperature of the flammable materials shown on the
appropriate area classification drawing (see Clause 2.4).
(g) Inspection check lists against which commissioning and routine inspections should be
carried out.
(h) Details of any electrical testing permitted or required as part of the commissioning
and routine inspections.
(i) A record of any modifications to electrical equipment or systems together with the
justification for each modification.
(j) A record of the date of all inspections, maintenance operations and tests; details of
any defects found and the actions taken to correct any such defects.

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AS/NZS 2381.2:2006 22

AMENDMENT CONTROL SHEET

AS/NZS 2381.2:2006

Amendment No. 1 (2006)

CORRECTION
SUMMARY: This Amendment applies to Figure 3.1.
Published on 6 September 2006.
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23

NOTES
AS/NZS 2381.2:2006
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AS/NZS 2381.2:2006
24

NOTES
Standards Australia
Standards Australia is an independent company, limited by guarantee, which prepares and publishes
most of the voluntary technical and commercial standards used in Australia. These standards are
developed through an open process of consultation and consensus, in which all interested parties are
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invited to participate. Through a Memorandum of Understanding with the Commonwealth


government, Standards Australia is recognized as Australia’s peak national standards body.

Standards New Zealand


The first national Standards organization was created in New Zealand in 1932. The Standards
Council of New Zealand is the national authority responsible for the production of Standards.
Standards New Zealand is the trading arm of the Standards Council established under the Standards
Act 1988.

Australian/New Zealand Standards


Under a Memorandum of Understanding between Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand,
Australian/New Zealand Standards are prepared by committees of experts from industry,
governments, consumers and other sectors. The requirements or recommendations contained
in published Standards are a consensus of the views of representative interests and also take
account of comments received from other sources. They reflect the latest scientific and industry
experience. Australian/New Zealand Standards are kept under continuous review after publication
and are updated regularly to take account of changing technology.

International Involvement
Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand are responsible for ensuring that the Australian
and New Zealand viewpoints are considered in the formulation of international Standards and that
the latest international experience is incorporated in national and Joint Standards. This role is vital
in assisting local industry to compete in international markets. Both organizations are the national
members of ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International
Electrotechnical Commission).

Visit our web sites

www.standards.org.au www.standards.co.nz
www.standards.com.au
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GPO Box 476 Sydney NSW 2001 Level 10 Radio New Zealand House
Administration 155 The Terrace Wellington 6001
Phone (02) 8206 6000 (Private Bag 2439 Wellington 6020)
Fax (02) 8206 6001 Phone (04) 498 5990
Email mail@standards.com.au Fax (04) 498 5994
Customer Service Customer Services (04) 498 5991
Phone 1300 65 46 46 Information Service (04) 498 5992
Fax 1300 65 49 49 Email snz@standards.co.nz
Email sales@standards.com.au Internet www.standards.co.nz
Internet www.standards.org.au

ISBN 0 7337 7486 5 Printed in Australia


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