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You are on page 1of 6

3rd Year Fluid Mechanics

that builds on the methods used in earlier years of applying mass

conservation and force-momentum principles to a control volume.

◮ Defining a small control volume within the flow.

T. J. Craft

◮ Applying the mass conservation and force-momentum principle to

George Begg Building, C41

the control volume.

◮ Considering what happens in the limit as the control volume

becomes infinitesimally small.

Contents: Reading:

◮ Navier-Stokes equations F.M. White, Fluid Mechanics

◮ Inviscid flows J. Mathieu, J. Scott, An Introduction to Turbulent Flow ◮ Although the derivation can be done using any arbitrarily shaped control

◮ Boundary layers P.A. Libby, Introduction to Turbulence volume, for simplicity we consider here a rectangular control volume.

◮ Transition, Reynolds averaging P. Bernard, J. Wallace, Turbulent Flow: Analysis Mea-

◮ Mixing-length models of turbulence surement & Prediction

S.B. Pope, Turbulent Flows

◮ We will first derive the equations for two-dimensional, unsteady, flow

◮ Turbulent kinetic energy equation

◮ One- and Two-equation models D. Wilcox, Turbulence Modelling for CFD conditions, and it should then be apparent how these extend to

◮ Flow management Notes: http://cfd.mace.manchester.ac.uk/tmcfd three-dimensional flows.

- People - T. Craft - Online Teaching Material

The Navier Stokes Equations 2008/9 2 / 22

Mass Conservation (Continuity) ◮ In the limit as ∆x , ∆y → 0, the control volume becomes infinitesimally

small, and using Taylor series expansions we have

The mass conservation principle is ∂ (ρ U) ∂ (ρ V )

◮

(ρ U)x +∆x → (ρ U)x + ∆x (ρ V )y +∆y → (ρ V )y + ∆y

h

Rate of mass accu-

i h i h i ∂x ∂y

= Rate of mass − Rate of mass

mulation within CV flow into CV flow out of CV ◮ Substituting these into equation (2) gives

◮ For a two-dimensional control volume ( ρV) y+∆y ∂ρ ∂ (ρ U) ∂ (ρ V ) ∂ ρ ∂ (ρ U) ∂ (ρ V )

=− − or + + =0 (3)

of dimensions ∆x and ∆y as shown: ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂t ∂x ∂y

( ρU)x

Mass accumulation rate = ∂ (ρ ∆x ∆y )/∂ t ∆y ( ρU)x+∆x ◮ In three-dimensional flows this is easily extended to

Mass inflow = (ρ U)x ∆y + (ρ V )y ∆x ∂ ρ ∂ (ρ U) ∂ (ρ V ) ∂ (ρ W )

∆x + + + =0 (4)

Mass outflow = (ρ U)x +∆x ∆y + (ρ V )y +∆y ∆x ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

( ρV)y

◮ In steady-state flows, ∂ ρ /∂ t = 0, so

◮ The mass conservation equation thus gives

∂ (ρ U) ∂ (ρ V ) ∂ (ρ W )

∂ (ρ ∆x ∆y ) + + =0 (5)

= (ρ U)x ∆y + (ρ V )y ∆x − (ρ U)x +∆x ∆y − (ρ V )y +∆y ∆x (1) ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂t

◮ Division by ∆x ∆y and rearrangement leads to ◮ In incompressible flows the density is constant, so we obtain

∂ρ (ρ U)x − (ρ U)x +∆x (ρ V )y − (ρ V )y +∆y ∂U ∂V ∂W

= + (2) + + =0 (6)

∂t ∆x ∆y ∂x ∂y ∂z

The Navier Stokes Equations 2008/9 3 / 22 The Navier Stokes Equations 2008/9 4 / 22

Force-Momentum Principle ◮ The U-momentum balance then gives

∆x ∆y [∂ (ρ U)/∂ t] = [(ρ UU)x − (ρ UU)x +∆x ] ∆y + (ρ VU)y − (ρ VU)y +∆y ∆x

+ [(P + τxx )x − (P + τxx )x +∆x ] ∆y + (τxy )y − (τxy )y +∆y ∆x

h i h i h i

Accumulation of mo-

= Rate of momen- − Rate of momen-

mentum within CV tum flow into CV tum flow out of CV + ρ Fx ∆x ∆y (7)

h i h i

Forces acting Body forces

+ +

on CV faces within CV

◮ Dividing by ∆x ∆y gives:

( ρVU) y+∆y

(τxy )y+∆y

∂ (ρ U) (ρ UU)x − (ρ UU)x +∆x (ρ VU)y − (ρ VU)y +∆y Px − Px +∆x

◮ Consider the U momentum equation, on a = + +

control volume of dimensions ∆x and ∆y : ∂t ∆x ∆y ∆x

∆y (τxx )x − (τxx )x +∆x (τxy )y − (τxy )y +∆y

( ρUU)x

ρFx (ρUU)x+ + + + ρ Fx (8)

Accumulation rate = ∆x ∆y [∂ (ρ U)/∂ t] ∆x

∆x ∆y

Px Px+ ∆x

∆x

Mom. flux in = ∆y (ρ UU)x + ∆x (ρ VU)y (τxx )x (τxx )x+∆x ◮ As before, as ∆x and ∆y → 0, for any quantity φ we have:

Mom. flux out = ∆y (ρ UU)x +∆x + ∆x (ρ VU)y +∆y (τ xy) y ∂φ ∂φ

φx +∆x → φx + ∆x and φy +∆y → φy + ∆y

( ρVU)y ∂x ∂y

◮ Surface forces arise from the pressure and viscous stresses:

◮ Applying these to equation (8) the U-momentum balance becomes

Net surface force = [(P+τxx )x − (P+τxx )x +∆x ] ∆y + (τxy )y − (τxy )y +∆y ∆x

∂ (ρ U) ∂ (ρ UU) ∂ (ρ VU) ∂ P ∂ τxx ∂ τxy

=− − − − − + ρ Fx (9)

Body force = ρ Fx ∆x ∆y ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y

The Navier Stokes Equations 2008/9 5 / 22 The Navier Stokes Equations 2008/9 6 / 22

◮ Rearranging gives the usual form of the U-momentum equation:

∂ (ρ U) ∂ (ρ U 2 ) ∂ (ρ VU) ∂ P ∂ τxx ∂ τxy ◮ In a simple shear flow, Stoke’s law states that

+ + =− − − + ρ Fx (10) the viscous shear stress, τxy , is obtained from

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y

U

τxy

∂U τxy

τxy = −µ y

◮ As with the continuity equation, the U momentum equation is also a ∂y

differential equation.

◮ This equation can be obtained by considering how, in a simple case, the

◮ The corresponding V -momentum equation is rate at which a fluid element is deformed is opposed by the fluid viscosity.

∂ (ρ V ) ∂ (ρ UV ) ∂ (ρ V 2 ) ∂ P ∂ τxy ∂ τyy (∂ U/∂ y )∆y ∆t (dU/dy) ∆y ∆t

+ + =− − − + ρ Fy (11) tan(θx ) =

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂y ∆y ∆x

For small θx , tan(θx ) ≈ θx , so θx

◮ In their above forms, however, the U and V -momentum equations still ∆y

contain additional unknown variables, namely the viscous stresses, τxx , ∂ θx ∂U

≈

τyy and τxy . ∂t ∂y t+ ∆ t

t

◮ For many common fluids we have τ ∝ ∂ θx /∂ t.

The Navier Stokes Equations 2008/9 7 / 22 The Navier Stokes Equations 2008/9 8 / 22

◮ In the more general case, expressions for the viscous stresses can again The Navier Stokes Equations

be derived by considering the deformation caused by the flow field to an

initially rectangular fluid element. ◮ The above set of equations that describe a real fluid motion are

collectively known as the Navier Stokes equations. In 2-D they can be

◮ For Newtonian fluids these general stress-strain relations can be written as:

expressed as the viscous stresses being linearly related to the strain

rates, with the constant of proportionality being the viscosity µ . The continuity equation:

+ + =0 (13)

∂t ∂x ∂y

∂U ∂V ∂U ∂V

τxx = −2µ τyy = −2µ τxy = −µ +

∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x The U-momentum equation:

∂ (ρ U) ∂ (ρ U 2 ) ∂ (ρ VU) ∂P ∂ ∂U ∂ ∂U ∂V

◮ Substituting the expressions for τxx and τxy into the U momentum + + =− + 2µ + µ + + ρ Fx

equation gives: ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x

(14)

∂ (ρ U) ∂ (ρ U 2 ) ∂ (ρ VU) ∂P ∂ ∂U ∂ ∂U ∂V The V -momentum equation:

+ + =− + 2µ + µ + + ρ Fx

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x

∂ (ρ V ) ∂ (ρ UV ) ∂ (ρ V 2 ) ∂P ∂ ∂V ∂U ∂ ∂V

(12) + + =− + µ + + 2µ + ρ Fy

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂y

◮ A similar equation can be derived for the V momentum component.

(15)

The Navier Stokes Equations 2008/9 9 / 22 The Navier Stokes Equations 2008/9 10 / 22

◮ In three-dimensional flows the equations are expanded to: Convection and Diffusion Terms

Continuity: ∂ ρ ∂ (ρ U) ∂ (ρ V ) ∂ (ρ W )

+ + + =0 (16)

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ◮ The term

U-Momentum: ∂ (ρ U φ ) ∂ (ρ V φ ) ∂ (ρ W φ )

+ +

∂ (ρ U) ∂ (ρ UU) ∂ (ρ VU) ∂ (ρ WU) ∂P ∂x ∂y ∂z

+ + + =− + ρ Fx

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂ z ∂ x where φ stands for any of the velocity components (U, V or W )

∂ ∂U ∂ ∂U ∂V ∂ ∂U ∂W represents convection of φ by the fluid.

+2 µ + µ + + µ + (17)

∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂z ∂z ∂x ◮ The terms on the right hand sides of the equations involving the viscosity

V -Momentum: represent viscous diffusion.

∂ (ρ V ) ∂ (ρ UV ) ∂ (ρ VV ) ∂ (ρ WV ) ∂P

+ + + =− + ρ Fy ◮ The general form of the momentum transport equations is thus seen to be

∂t ∂x ∂

y ∂z ∂ y

∂ ∂V ∂U ∂ ∂V ∂ ∂V ∂W

Time derivative + Convection terms = Forcing terms + Diffusion terms

+ µ + +2 µ + µ + (18)

∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂y

◮ The combination of time derivative and convection terms represents the

W -Momentum:

total rate of change of a quantity following a fluid path line. It is often

∂ (ρ W ) ∂ (ρ UW ) ∂ (ρ VW ) ∂ (ρ WW ) ∂P written in shorthand notation as D φ /Dt:

+ + + =− + ρ Fz

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂z

∂

∂W ∂U

∂

∂W ∂V

∂

∂W

Dφ ∂ φ ∂ (U φ ) ∂ (V φ ) ∂ (W φ )

+ µ + + µ + +2 µ (19) ≡

∂t

+

∂x

+

∂y

+

∂z

(20)

∂x ∂x ∂z ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂z Dt

The Navier Stokes Equations 2008/9 11 / 22 The Navier Stokes Equations 2008/9 12 / 22

◮ The time derivative and convection terms are sometimes written as above

(with ρ , U, V , W inside the derivatives), and sometimes in the form ◮ If the viscosity is constant the diffusion terms can be simplified by taking

∂φ ∂φ ∂φ ∂φ µ outside the derivatives. In 2-D, for example:

ρ + ρU + ρV + ρW

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂

∂U

∂

∂U ∂V

2 µ + µ +

◮ These are, in fact, entirely equivalent, since differentiating by parts gives ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x

∂ ∂U ∂ ∂U ∂ ∂U ∂ ∂V

∂ ρφ ∂ ρ U φ ∂ ρ V φ ∂ ρ W φ =µ +µ +µ +µ

+ + + ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂x

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂ 2U ∂ 2U ∂ ∂U ∂V

∂φ ∂ρ ∂φ ∂ ρU ∂φ ∂ ρV ∂φ ∂ ρW =µ +µ +µ +

=ρ +φ + ρU +φ + ρV +φ + ρW +φ ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂x ∂x ∂y

∂t ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z

∂φ ∂φ ∂φ ∂φ ∂ ρ ∂ ρU ∂ ρV ∂ ρW ∂ 2U ∂ 2U

=ρ + ρU + ρV + ρW +φ + + + =µ +µ

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x2 ∂y2

and the term in brackets multiplied by φ is zero from the continuity

equation.

The Navier Stokes Equations 2008/9 13 / 22 The Navier Stokes Equations 2008/9 14 / 22

◮ In many flows that we will consider certain additional simplifications can ◮ The governing equations for other quantities transported by a flow often

be introduced. take the same general form of transport equation to the above

momentum equations.

◮ In steady flows the time derivatives become zero:

◮ For example, the transport equation for the evolution of temperature in a

∂ (ρ U)/∂ t = ∂ (ρ V )/∂ t = ∂ (ρ W )/∂ t = 0 fluid flow can often be written (in 2-D for simplicity) as

∂ T ∂ (UT ) ∂ (VT ) ∂ ∂T ∂ ∂T

◮ The body force terms, Fx , Fy , Fz , are, in many cases, negligible. + + = α + α

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y

◮ These simplifications lead to the momentum equations for a 2-D steady,

where α is the molecular thermal diffusivity.

incompressible, constant viscosity, flow without body forces being given

by ◮ Notice the general form of

∂ (U 2 ) ∂ (VU) ∂P ∂ 2U ∂ 2U Time derivative + Convection terms = Diffusion terms + Source terms

ρ +ρ =− +µ 2 +µ

∂x ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y2

(in this case, the source, or forcing, terms are zero).

∂ (UV ) ∂ (V 2 ) ∂P ∂ 2V ∂ 2V

ρ +ρ =− +µ +µ We will meet transport equations for other, turbulence-related, quantities

∂x ∂y ∂y

◮

∂x2 ∂y2

later in the course.

The Navier Stokes Equations 2008/9 15 / 22 The Navier Stokes Equations 2008/9 16 / 22

Solving the Navier Stokes Equations Tensor/Summation Notation

◮ The Navier Stokes equations form a system of differential equations: ◮ Although it is sometimes appropriate to write the Navier Stokes equations

out in their expanded Cartesian form as above, in general it becomes

◮ In two-dimensional flows there are three variables (U, V , P) and rather cumbersome.

three differential equations (Continuity, U and V -momentum).

◮ Tensor notation and, in particular, the Einstein summation convention is

◮ In three-dimensional flows there are four variables and four often used to write the equations in a more compact, shorthand, form.

differential equations.

◮ One can use subscripts to denote the elements of a vector or tensor.

◮ Although the equations have been presented for a Cartesian coordinate

◮ The summation convention means that if a subscript letter is repeated in

system (x , y , z), they can also be transformed mathematically to other

coordinate systems, (eg. cylindrical, or spherical, polars). an expression, there is an implied summation over it.

◮ So, for example,

In principle, therefore, the Navier Stokes ∂ Ui ∂ Ui ∂ U1 ∂ U2 ∂ U3

≡ ∑

◮ U=V=0 dP/dy=0

= + +

equations can be integrated over a flow U=U in dU/dx=0 ∂ xi i=1,3

∂ xi ∂ x1 ∂ x2 ∂ x3

domain of interest, with appropriate V=0 dV/dx=0

P=Pin dP/dx=Const ◮ The continuity equation for incompressible flow can then simply be

written as

velocity and pressure fields. U=V=0 dP/dy=0

∂ Ui / ∂ x i = 0 (21)

◮ Although analytical solutions can be obtained for a few cases, in practice ◮ Note that the “i” in the above expression could have been replaced by “j”

the equations must usually be solved using numerical methods. or “k ” (or anything else). It is purely a dummy index indicating summation.

The Navier Stokes Equations 2008/9 17 / 22 The Navier Stokes Equations 2008/9 18 / 22

◮ Using the same notation, the three momentum equations from the Navier Analytical Solutions of The Navier Stokes Equations

Stokes system can be written compactly as

∂ ρ Ui ∂ ρ Ui Uj ∂P ∂ ∂ Ui

+ =− + µ + ρ Fi (22) ◮ There are a few, very simple, laminar flows for which the Navier Stokes

∂t ∂ xj ∂ xi ∂ xj ∂ xj equations can be solved analytically.

◮ Here, the 2nd and 4th terms contain a repeated “j”, so one sums from j ◮ For example, for steady, incompressible, fully

y=h

equals 1 to 3 in them. For example, the convection term expands to developed flow in a plane channel as shown, we

y

x U(y)

∂ ρ Ui Uj ∂ ρ Ui U1 ∂ ρ Ui U2 ∂ ρ Ui U3 have V = 0 and U does not depend on x .

≡ + +

∂ xj ∂ x1 ∂ x2 ∂ x3

◮ Continuity (∂ U/∂ x + ∂ V /∂ y = 0) is satisfied.

y=−h

◮ The subscript i is not repeated, and is being used to denote a component

of the velocity vector (one gets the U1 momentum equations by setting ◮ The V momentum equation reduces to ∂ P/∂ y = 0, so P is constant

i = 1, the U2 one by setting i = 2, etc). across the channel.

◮ Equations (21) and (22) are far more compact and convenient than using ◮ The U momentum equation becomes

the expansions of equations (16) to (19) for the Navier Stokes system.

∂P ∂ ∂U

◮ For much of this course we can relatively easily write equations out in 0=− + µ (23)

terms of x , y components etc., and will not have to use summation ∂x ∂y ∂y

notation. It is widely used in textbooks and papers on fluid mechanics with boundary conditions U = 0 at y = ±h.

and turbulence, and we will use it in a few places, for convenience.

The Navier Stokes Equations 2008/9 19 / 22 The Navier Stokes Equations 2008/9 20 / 22

◮ Since P is not a function of y , we can easily integrate this:

∂U ∂P The pressure gradient can be related to the bulk (average) velocity, since

µ

◮

=y +A (24)

∂y ∂x

1 ∂P

Z h Z h

1

for some constant of integration A. Integrating a second time gives Ub = U(y )dy = − (h2 − y 2 )dy

2h −h 4h µ ∂ x −h

y2 ∂P

µU = + Ay + B (25) 1 ∂P h 2 ih h2 ∂ P

2 ∂x =− h y − y 3 /3 =−

4h µ ∂ x −h 3µ ∂ x

◮ To determine the constants A and B, we apply the boundary conditions

that U = 0 at y = ±h:

◮ Hence ∂ P/∂ x = −3µ Ub /h2 , and the velocity y=h

0= + Ah + B and 0= − Ah + B (26) U(y)

2 ∂x 2 ∂x

This gives U = (3/2)Ub (1 − y 2 /h2 ) (29)

y=−h

h2 ∂ P

A=0 and B=− (27)

2 ∂x

◮ A similar analysis can be applied to some other simple 1-D flows, such as

◮ The velocity profile is therefore given by the parabola

fully-developed pipe flow, flow between moving infinite flat plates, etc.

1 ∂P 2

U =− (h − y 2 ) (28)

2µ ∂ x

The Navier Stokes Equations 2008/9 21 / 22 The Navier Stokes Equations 2008/9 22 / 22

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