This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Gros Ventre Tribe By: Blake Goodman 112172628 05/05/06 Hist.1543 Sect.001 Despain
The Gros Ventre called themselves the white clay people or A’aninin. The Gros Ventre of Montana: Part I Social Life. They were around the Tongue River valley and in Montana where they would eventually spend the rest of their times on a reservation at Ft. 1953) This name basically stuck with them from their on. and food sources. Washington D.. The Catholic University of American Press. A French man was impressed by their seemingly large appetites and called them Gros Ventre or big bellies. ( The Catholic University of American Press.Goodman 2 The Gros Ventre Tribe began as a part of the Arapaho Indians. Regina Flannery. 1953. The Gros Ventre tribe began mingling with traders in the mid 1700’s and that is where their name came from. The Gros Ventre of Montana: Part I Social Life.000 acres but only about a fifth of that is tribally owned. The Gros Ventre tribe really had an up and down type history as did all tribes.) 2. . (Flannery. C. 1953. The Gros Ventre was made up of really two different groups and they are the Hidatsa and the Atsina. Their reservation has a total area of about 654. C. Regina Flannery. They battled many other tribes for power. They eventually left their kinsman and started to journey toward the northern part of the country. (Flannery. Washington D. 1953) 1. but they are a completely different tribe than the Atsina of the northern plains.. The Hidatsa are also considered Gros Ventre. The Gros Ventre stayed pretty stationary considering the movement of most tribes. land. The Gros Ventre language was part of the Algonkian language family and has a slight dialect of their friends the Arapaho. Eventually they would begin fighting for some of their rights and gain control from the government of parts of their reservation. Belknap.
1953. Washington D. Washington D. The Gros Ventre of Montana: Part I Social Life. The Gros Ventre of Montana: Part I Social Life. The Catholic University of American Press. Regina Flannery. The earliest known contact with whites was around 1754 by French and Canadian traders. The Blackfoot nation called them Atsina and the Cree called them “Rapids Indians”. but they had been apart 1. 1953) These Indians were the most northern part of the Arapaho tribe and remained for the most part north of the Missouri River. Regina Flannery. The Catholic University of American Press. Cocking was part of the Hudson Bay Company sent to develop trade relations with the Gros Ventre. between the time periods of 1754 up to the 1800’s the Gros Ventre got hit by the epidemic smallpox. C. He noted that the women had it easier when traveling because they used pack horses and other small animals which were easier than the other tribes like the Cree and the Assiniboine. Gros Ventre is a French word that means big bellies and was given to the Gros Ventre we believe by Canadian French traders. 2. The Gros Ventre of Montana: Part I Social Life. Regina Flannery. C. 1953.Goodman 3 History According to Flannery. It killed many of the Indians. .. Cocking observed the Gros Ventre Indians and found them to be fairly wealthy in horses compared to the surrounding tribes.. that the Gros Ventre may have been a descendent of the Arapaho tribe.. 3. Historians have come to call them the Gros Ventre of the Prairies or the Gros Ventre of Montana. (Flannery. There is no accurate number of how many Indians the Gros Ventre were made up of. The Catholic University of American Press. On December first to the sixteenth of 1772. According to Flannery. It was not until 1772 that we had our first noted interaction and description of the Gros Ventre tribe by a man named Cocking. You could easily tell though. C. 1953. Washington D. but compared to other tribes was not that devastating.
(The Catholic University of American Press. Ithaca and London. 1955. (Flannery. and this led to a number of Gros Ventre warriors getting killed. pg. a German explorer and naturalist. the Assiniboine on the east. (The University of ChicagoPress. but then there was a huge cry for beaver pelts.. pg. Chicago. Washington D. The Gros Ventre of Montana: Part I Social Life. (Fowler. Fred Eggan.Goodman 4 for probably more than two centuries. Washington D. Contested Meanings: Gros Ventre Culture and History 1778-1984. 1987 pg. 1955) The Gros Ventre had many problems with different tribes. accounted that the Gros Ventre were very well known by the traders as opposed to other tribes. 1953.( Cornell University Press. 1953. Somehow the Gros Ventre really managed to improve their situation when needed.) 2. Regina Flannery. (Eegan.17) Maxmilian noted that the Gros Ventre were pretty wealthy even though they had fought at Pierre’s Hole and been invaded by the Crow numerous times. They really had their difficulties with the Crow Indians on whose hunting grounds were whose and whose horses were whose. 1987. The Gros Ventre really traded a lot of buffalo coats and robes at the beginning.17) By 1833. . 34) In 1832 Maximilian. (The Catholic University of American Press.) 17. They had a couple of misunderstandings. C. The Gros Ventre of Montana: Part I Social Life. 1953. Regina Flannery. Trade relations helped the Gros Ventre way of life by helping them reach their quest for prominence and bravery. Loretta Fowler. 3.) 17.) 34.. With the Cree's and the Assiniboine Indians getting hit hard by war and smallpox the trade companies turned to the Gros Ventre. 4. With part of the tribe still lingering toward the Arapaho. but now they were being able to supply their wants with trade. He also stated that these Indians had been very poor at one time. (Flannery. Social Anthropology of Native American Tribes. and the Crow on the south. Shared Symbols.1953. the Gros Ventre and the 1. the others were really caught in a tough spot with the Blackfeet to the west. C.
1953. C.) 20-21. They attacked the Crow fiercely and killed about 40 warriors and months later they defeated the Crow in another battle.. . the Gros Ventre’s backs were against the wall and they began fighting back. (Flannery 1953 pg. The Gros Ventre of Montana: Part I Social Life.) 19. 19) Then again in 1837. (The Catholic University of American Press. 1953. Regina Flannery.. 3. Their long time nemesis the Crow were mad at these Cree Indians. 1953 pg. With all the epidemics and war that had been going on many of the Gros Ventre’s enemies had died out. but to satisfy themselves they took their anger out on the Gros Ventre killing about 30 warriors. the Cree were raiding deeper and deeper into Gros Ventre Territory and the Cree-Assiniboine cut off sixty lodges and killed all 400 people. Bradley stated that the Gros Ventre only lost about 200 men or less. Washington D. Even through all this and through time the Gros Ventre had managed to keep really good relations with the white. C. Regina Flannery. In 1835.Goodman 5 American traders really had a great relationship. 2. (The Catholic University of American Press. In 1833. 1953.. (The Catholic University of American Press. Piekan and later was renamed to Ft. Later this year a fort had been built that was called Ft. The Gros Ventre of Montana: Part I Social Life. (Flannery. Washington D.19) While all this was happening times were changing and the Gros Ventre were getting ready to take their downfall. Regina Flannery. pg. 20-21) 1. (Flannery. Washington D. The only real enemy they had now was the Crow. but this time the Gros Ventre were relatively untouched and once again the other tribes took major blows.) 19. 1953. C. By this time the Gros Ventre and white relations were extremely good considering the Gros Ventre’s dependency on liquor for trade. another smallpox epidemic struck the northern plains. McKenzie for better trade opportunities and relations. The Gros Ventre of Montana: Part I Social Life.
(Ewers. Washington D. 22) In 1862. . (The Catholic University of American Press. In 1874 the Gros Ventre and the Assiniboine. 1. John C. New York and London. 3. New York and London. (Ewers. 1888 congress passed an act forming the Fort Belknap Reservation in present day Montana. Blackfeet Indians: Ethnological Report on the Blackfeet and Gros Ventre Tribes of Indians.Goodman 6 Governor Stevens held a council at the Milk River with the Gros Ventre in August of 1855 guaranteeing the Gros Ventre a thousand dollars worth of goods from the American Fur Company. In 1855 the Gros Ventre signed a treaty at the Judith River where the United States agreed to spend 20.. Ewers.) 22.) 154-155. 1874 a battle broke out between the tribes and many were killed. When winter would come around they would stay stationary along the banks of the Milk River.000 dollars to teach them trades like agriculture. 1953. On January 20. C. (Flannery. 1974. The act forced these Indians to move farther south near the Little Rocky Mountains. (Garland Publishing Inc. (Garland Publishing Inc. 1974. Regina Flannery. The Gros Ventre were living in the Milk River area when this treaty was signed and they were living off of rations the government provided. Ewers.000 dollars a year for 10 years on provisions and another 15.. now allies.148-49) On May 1. 1974 pg. The Gros Ventre of Montana: Part I Social Life.) 148-149.. John C. This ended up hurting these Indians because they gave them foods they were not used to and many got sick. 1974. were caught between a rock and a hard place because they were in the middle of the Sioux and the Blackfeet. the Gros Ventre tribe ranged from the Milk River extending to the Cypress Mountains and from here to the Marias River. Blackfeet Indians: Ethnological Report on the Blackfeet and Gros Ventre Tribes of Indians. 2. 1953 pg.154-155) The Gros Ventre population had always been relatively small. They also at this time had to deal with Jesuits coming in and trying to change their religion to Catholicism. pg.
Fred Eggan.) 183-184. 1955. pg. The Gros Ventre of Montana: Part II Religion and Ritual.Goodman 7 but by this time there were only about 850 of them left. Orin Hatton. (Fowler.. (Hatton. (Canadian Museum of Civilization. The Sacrifice dance or as whites know it the Sun dance was the most important dance in the Tribe. Fred Eggan. (The University of Chicago Press. 1987 pg. Ithaca and London. 1990. Loretta Fowler. Cooper. Washington D.) 35. the ceremonial aspects of these dances were followed through by the elders. .) 38. (Eggan. 1955. Chicago.) 128. 3. Shared Symbols. 2. 35) The most important objects in the 1. and because of this their population went up a little. (Cooper. Chicago. Social Anthropology of Native American Tribes. This dance was used during hard times to help the Buffalo return or used for battle to help them succeed. Power and Performance in Gros Ventre War Expedition Songs. 1956.128) Social Life and Religion There is not a lot known of the Gros Ventre political organization and how it was made up.) 36. 1987. Social Anthropology of Native American Tribes. The Sun Dance and other types of ceremonies were very important in how the social structure was set up. 1955.(Cornell University Press.36) In 1922 when land started being allotted the Gros Ventres rolls were based on cultural definitions. pg. (The University of Chicago Press.183-184) According to Hatton. Contested Meanings: Gros Ventre Culture and History 1778-1984. pg. In many cases people that were half and half would be considered full blood. pg. 38) The religious part of the Gros Ventre tribe really guided the Gros Ventre way of life. (Eggan. They were the ones in control of how things went and they were the ones that took care of all the sacred objects. John M. 5. 1955. The Gros Ventre determined how you participated in the community and that determined how much Indian you were. C. (The Catholic University of American Press. They dealt with the permanence and the supernatural parts. 1990. 1956. 4.
When the pipes were put away the pipe keeper and his wife sang the same songs to wrap these pipes up and put them away. Power and Performance in Gros Ventre War Expedition Songs. even by the pipe keeper. Kit-Fox dance.Goodman 8 Gros Ventre society were the two Chief Medicine pipes. The turtle and hell-diver began bringing up parts of the earth and while earth maker created land he sang these songs very loudly. They were known as the Flat pipe and the Feathered pipe. 1956. John M..77) When they brought out these pipes they had sacred songs which a boy talked about in Coopers book. Cooper. Washington D. 1956. pg. The Ghost Dance and peyote cult never really took off in 1.) 77.79) The greatest rite in all Gros Ventre worship was the right to smoke the Flat pipe. 1990. Orin Hatton. C.) 45. 45) Other dances that they participated in were the Crazy dance. (Canadian Museum of Civilization. pg. The pipes are not for personal use. . The Flat pipe and its teachings represent the Gros Ventres survival and life existence. (Hatton.. The Flat pipe belongs on the ground or on earth and the Feathered pipe belongs in the air or above earth. 3. Fly Dance. the Drum Dance. While Earth maker was sitting he sent the animals to dive down to the bottom of the earth. The boy said these songs had been around since the time of origin when earth maker was riding around on the raft with the Flat pipe. The Gros Ventre of Montana: Part II Religion and Ritual. pg. (Cooper. The pipe bundle is so sacred that it is treated as if it were a child and taken with the up most care. 1990. (The Catholic University of American Press. When the pipe keepers time comes to pass it on it goes to the pipe keepers first son unless he has no sons. Dog dance. C. The Gros Ventre of Montana: Part II Religion and Ritual. John M. and the Ghost Dance.) 79. (The Catholic University of American Press. Cooper. The plant that they use to with the ground and water association is peppermint. (Cooper. 1956. 1955. 2. In the Feathered pipe they use different types of pines and things that come from the high altitudes. Washington D.
2.. Ithaca and London. 1956. pg. They were under so much pressure from Jesuits and Catholicism that they were scared to try these other ways. Cooper. (Cooper. (The Catholic University of American Press. Cooper.58) The household were often made up of many buffalo hides and the size was determined by how many hides you had to cover a place. 1953. drank blood. The Gros Ventre of Montana: Part I Social Life. The Gros Ventre of Montana: Part II Religion and Ritual. Men made the weapons 1. They ate the liver raw. The women would process the animal down completely and use every aspect of it. 1956. and even ate the food out of the stomach of the buffalo. was by being generous. (Flannery.. C. Washington D.) 58. Washington D. 1987.(Cornell University Press. The Gros Ventre of Montana: Part II Religion and Ritual. The Gros Ventre really counted and lived off of the horse. One of the practices they believed would help them live prominent healthy lives. John M.) 3.253) The Gros Ventre did believe in certain supernatural powers and they used certain types of curing practices for illnesses and such. (Cooper. 1956) The elders believed that religion was meant in respect for the old people and sometimes that would not teach the youth the practices. (The CatholicUniversity of American Press. Contested Meanings: Gros Ventre Culture and History 1778-1984. In order to maintain your position in life you gave things to people who needed it with no regard.) 253. C. C. . The horse helped them do everything from hunting to moving. Loretta Fowler. Shared Symbols. (The Catholic University of American Press. Bravery really measured your status as a man in the Gros Ventre society. 1987) The main way of life for the Gros Ventre people was hunting and especially the buffalo.. The Gros Ventre ate primarily a meat diet consisting of every part of the buffalo. Regina Flannery. Another reason is that the elders did not believe that the dead would rise or that the buffalo would return. The men’s purpose was to hunt and show how brave he was. 1956.) 4. John M. Washington D.Goodman 9 the Gros Ventre way of life because many of the Gros Ventre were scared of them. 1953. (Fowler. pg.
) 69. C. but if you did not have very many you were seen as poor. If you were fortunate enough to have many horses you would be considered very wealthy and it was prestigious. Regina Flannery. and things that made life easier. but they made all the household items and they processed the animals.) 3. Washington D. 1953. (The Catholic University of American Press. Regina Flannery. The average family income on the reservation is $4536. In 1934 under the Wheeler-Howard Act the Fort Belknap Indian Community Council was formed and by 1935 they had a constitution and bylaws. Washington D..579 acres that were allotted to people and 25. 1953) The kids’ jobs were to play and to take care of their property. C. The Gros Ventre of Montana: Part I Social Life. weapons.535 of those went to non Native Americans. The unemployment rate is out the roof with 62% of people not working.. 2. (Flannery. The total population of the Belknap reservation is 2. (Flannery. The Gros Ventre of Montana: Part I Social Life. (The Catholic University of American Press. The Gros Ventre of Montana: Part I Social Life. 1953. The tribal constitution had held up for many years. . The reservation has a total area of about 654. There was 427. 1953) 1. pg. C. 1953.Goodman 10 they used and hunted and took care of the animals and their families.485 and slowly growing. but they did do a lot with outside traders for horses. (Flannery. Washington D. but was changed in 1995.00.000 acres and only 162. (The Catholic University of American Press. The graduation rates are not that great at all with only 66% of people with a high school diploma and about 6% of them have a bachelors diploma. Women did little collecting. Since the Gros Ventre people were to be generous to one another they really did not so much trading within the tribe. Regina Flannery.932 acres are tribally owned. 1953.) 22.. Once they got so old they started learning the ways of their gender and began performing those. 69) Horses were the real way a person would determine their wealth.
. Fred.. C. Hatton. 1990. Fowler.. 1956. Social Anthropology of Native American Tribes.. The Gros Ventre of Montana: Part II Religion and Ritual.Goodman 11 Bibliography Cooper. 1955. Orin T. Cornell University Press. Blackfeet Indians: Ethnological Report on the Blackfeet and Gros Ventre Tribes of Indians. 1953. New York and London. Eggan. The Catholic University of American Press. Canadian Museum of Civilization. Shared Symbols. John M. Regina. John C. 1987. Chicago. Ewers. Contested Meanings: Gros Ventre Culture and History 1778-1984. C. Washington D. Power and Performance in Gros Ventre War Expedition Songs. Flannery. Washington D. The University of Chicago Press. The Gros Ventre of Montana: Part I Social Life. Ithaca and London. Garland Publishing Inc. Loretta. The Catholic University of American Press. 1974.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.