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In Jumanda K

injumanda@gmail.com

Toksikologi
Ilmu Pengetahuan yang mempelajari kerja antara suatu senyawa
kimia yang merugikan terhadap organisme hidup, cabang dari
farmakologi.

Penggolongan Toksikolgi :
Efek Toksik a kut : memiliki korelasi langsung dengan absorbsi zat toksik
Efek Toksik Kronis : a bsorbsi zat toksik dalam jumlah kecil dalam waktu
l a ma terakumulasi mencapai konsentrasi toksik gejala keracunan
Efek Toksik Ja ngka waktu Pa njang : efek toksik baru muncul setalh periode
wa ktu laten ya ng lama  Ka rsinogenik & Muta genik

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Toksikologi
Penggolongan berdasar Jenis zat & Keadaan :
 Toksikologi obat
 Toksikologi Zat yg. Menimbulkan ketergatungan
 Toksikologi bahan makanan
 Toksikologi Pestisida
 Toksikologi Industri
 Toksikologi lingkungan
 Toksikologi forensik
 Toksikologi Perang
 Toksikologi Sinar

Toxicity
• Substances can gain entry into the body by the
following routes:
1. Inhalation through the lungs (the most
common route of entry);
2. Ingestion through the mouth;
3. Absorption through the skin;
4. Injection or a wound (less commonly).

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 Biological Toxicants – bahan beracun yang berasal atau turunan dari
senyawaan biologis. Contoh : racun hewan berbisa dan rabies

 Bacterial Toxicants – bahan beracun yang dihasilkan oleh bakteri dan virus.
Contoh : bottulinun toxin (botox)

 Botanical Toxicants – bahan beracun yang berasal / turunan dari senyawaan


yang dihasilkan oleh tanaman. Contoh : alkooid belladona, opium, nikotin,
kolkhisin dsb.

 Chemical Toxicants – bahan beracun yang berasal atau turunan dari


senyawaan kimia. Contoh :
Organoklorin, Organoposfor, Karbamat
Gas : CO, HCN, SO2 , Cl2 , phosgene, Arsin
Metalloid : Pb, Hg, As, Cr, Cd, Ni
Pelarut Organik : Akrilamid, Aniline, Benzen, Toluen, Vinil klorida, CS2 ,
Fenol

Terga ntung Pada on:

 Wujud Fisik bahan : – ga s , uap, debu, kabut, asap a tau or partikulat

 Dos is / jumlah yang. terabsorbsi

 Ti ngkat paparan /Exposure

 Si fat kimia bahan :

– Bentuk dan ukuran molekul

– Kel a rutan

– Koros ivitas

 Route of Entry (Ja lan masuk ke dalam tubuh) : Inhalation (pernafasan), Absorbsi kulit,
i ngestion ( mulut/ s aluran pencernaan )

 Kondisi Penerima : us ia, kebiasaan , keturunan, nutrisi

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 Suatu zat disebut toxic bila mempunyai efek merugikan pada tubuh
manusia pada dosis tertentu.
 Klasifikasi ke-toxic-an ditentukan dengan nilai Lethal Dose – 50 (LD-50).
 Definisi: dosis zat beracun bila dimasukkan secara oral kepada tikus
atau kelinci akan mengakibatkan kematian 50% dari binatang tersebut.
 Enam Level Toxicity (mg/kg body weight)
 Level – 1 (s uper toxic) <5
 Level – 2 (extremely toxi c) 5 – 50
 Level - 3 (hi ghly toxic) 50 – 500
 Level – 4 (moderately toxic) 500 – 5000
 Level - 5 (s lightly toxic) 5000 – 15000
 Level – 6 (pra ctically toxic) > 15000

 80% of chemical used in commercial products and processes have no


toxicity data
 Fatal incident frequency rate (defined as fatalities per 10 8 working hours)
 Coal carbonizing Cancer bronchitis 140
 Asbestos worker Cancer of lung (paru-paru) 105
 Rubber mill worker Cancer kandung kemih 325
 Nickel worker Cancer of nasal sinus 330
 Cadmium worker Cancer of prostate 700
 β-Naphthylamine Cancer kandung kemih 1200

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 Carcinogenic
Substansi yang bila terhirup atau masuk melalui kulit dapat
menyebabkan kanker atau meningkatkan kemungkinan terjadi kanker.

 Teratogenic
Substansi yang bila terhirup atau masuk melalui kulit dapat beresiko
gangguan bayi saat dilahirkan
 Mutagenic
Substansi yang bila terhirup atau masuk melalui kulit dapat berisiko
gangguan genetik pada keturunan.

 Untuk menyebabkan efek berbahaya dari s uatu zat maka zat tersebut a kan
mengenai bagian luar dari tubuh kemudian masuk ke dalam tubuh melalui
beberapa ca ra sebelum menyerang organ i nternal.
 Once a toxic s ubstance has entered the blood stream i t is transported to
mos t i nternal organs, one or more of which may be attacked.
 Four route of ENTRY
 Externa l Attack – Skin damage
 Ski n Absorption
 Ingestion
 Inhalation

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 Beberapa cairan dan padatan korosif berupa asam, basa maupun
zat oksidator kuat akan menyerang kulit secara langsung,
menyebabkan inflammation dan kadang-kadang menghancurkan
kehidupan sel.

 Inflammation merupakan respon biologis pada jaringan yang luka


dimana aliran darah meningkat. Ini merupakan mekanisme
pertahanan kita untuk memperbaiki jaringan yang rusak.

 Mata merupakan bagian yang lebih sensitif untuk cedera terhadap


substansi daripada kulit, dan lebih mudah iritasi seperti dalam debu
halus, ammonia, sulfur dioxide.

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 Several toxic liquids and their vapors readily pass through the skin
into the bloodstream, e.g. TEL, CS, HCN, benzene, toluene,
nitrobenzene, TNT, trichloroethylene, insecticides, and herbicides.

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 Dari 4 metode zat masuk ke tubuh, swallowing (tertelan)
merupakan yang paling mudah dikendalikan, karena makan
dan minum tentunya terlarang di tempat kerja.

 Masuknya substansi racun melalui ingestion merupakan paling


tidak berbahaya, bila toxicity oral lebih rendah dibanding
toxicity dari inhalation atau absorption kulit – akibat dari
reaksi dan dilution.

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 The main route taken by toxic substance into human body is through
inhalation.

 Hunan respiratory system divides into 2 parts


Upper part: Nose, Mouth, larynx
Lower part: Trachea, bronchus, bronchioles
and alveoli

 Bronchioles and alveoli are the gas exchange component of the lung,
and have a light, porous and spongy structure.

 The alveoli are blind cup-like pouches (kantong) with thin elastic
walls through which gases and vapor can pass readily into and out
the bloodstream with a capacity of 5-50L/min

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Orga ns frequently a ffected a re:

Res piratory s ystem (s istem pernafasan)


Bl ood (darah)
bone marrow (sumsum tulang belakang)
Lever (ha ti)
Ki dneys (ginjal)
Bra i n a nd central nervous system

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Na tural Protection of Respiratory Sys tem

 A wet fi l ter formed by the fine hairs of the nose and trachea
(mucus )

 Kontra ksi dari bronchioles s pontan.

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• Most gases and vapors reach alveoli, but water soluble substances such
as ammonia, SO2, and HCl are absorbed before they get so far, causing
swelling effect Particles
• How far they are likely to penetrate depends largely on their size.
 Particle > 50 micron – cannot enter
 Particle 10 – 50 microns – deposited on upper respiratory tract
 Particle 2 – 10 microns – deposited on trachea, bronchi and
bronchioles
 Particle <2 microns – reach alveoli

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 Mos t mi neral dusts e.g. Iron oxide block nasal passage. Some contaminants e.g.
bl ue a sbestos, chromium, a nd a rsenic ca uses malignant tumors in the
res piratory system.

 As phyxiant gases
– CO – reta rd hemoglobin to bind oxygen, result in oxygen deficiency i n blood
– Ni trogen – expel oxygen a nd reduce oxygen content.

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• CO, lead compounds, benzene, TNT attack bone marrow
which produces red and white blood cells.

• Kidneys maintain the required water, salt and pH in the


Body
• Hg, Cd, Pb and CCl4 attack kidney

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 Liver is the mean detoxifying organ in the body.


 Most chemical entering the body reach it and are converted to other
less toxic compound and are remove in the urine or faeces.
 Insecticides, vinyl chloride cause a malignant (jahat) liver tumor –
Angiosarcoma

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Metalloid TEL Nervous system, kidneys
Hg, Ethyl Hg Nervous system, kidneys
Cr, As Cancer
Cd Liver, Kidneys, blood
Solvent Chlorinated solvents Liver, Kidneys
Alcohols Nervous system
Aromatic hydrocarbons Nervous system,
leukemia
Toxic gases N2 , Ar, He, CO Reduction of Oxygen
HCN Death
Carcinogen Benzene Leukemia
Asbestos Cancer of lung
Naphthylamine Cancer of lung
Organochlorine Nervous system

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 Periodic emissions: which arise from the need to open or enter the
system’ occasionally, e.g. during sampling, cleaning, batch addition.

 Fugitive emissions: small but continuous escapes from normally closed


sources. 10% - 20% emissions are fugitive.

 Periodic emission – acute effects

 Fugitive emission – chronic effects

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Res ult from s pillage, leakage, unintended venting, over pressure.

Ca us ed of s pillage
Overflow, air-lock, excessive pressure, vessel damages, over stirred, overloading.
Flange uncovered
Vandalism
Ca us es of Leakage
Broken or damage pipe, gaskets, seal gland
Internal leaks, overpressure pipe or vessel
Ca us ed of unintended venting
Safety relief valve breaking
Evaporation through open pipe
Ca us es of failure due to excessive pressure
Overfilling, overpressure, overheating

Peri odic emission ca n be minimized through ca reful design and operation.

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Hazard And Risk Of Chemicals

Pump shaft shall Emission Rate (mg/s)


Regular packing 140
Single mechanical seal 14
Double mechanical seal 0.006
Pressure relief valve
Rating < 300 lb 1.7
Rating > 300 lb 0.03
Compressor
Reciprocating (single road packing) 45
Reciprocating (double road packing) 3.6
Rotary (labyrinth seal) 45
Rotary (liquid film seal) 0.006
Piping
Open end pipe 0.63
Flange and gasket 0.056

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Sumber Data Toksikologi Bahan Kimia

• Untuk identifikasi tingkat Bahaya dan


Toksisitas terhadap suatu bahan  Data
keselamatan Bahan / Material safety data
sheet
• Sumber material safety data sheet :
– MSDS
– Emergency Response Guide Book (ERG-OSHA)

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Hazard And Risk Of Chemicals

Behavior of pollutant in the


environment are affected by :

Physical and chemical properties e.g. Solubility, Ph,


concentration, oxidation states, molecular forms
Migration media in environment e.g. water, air, vapor,
soil/sediment
Transformation
Chemical - ion exchange
Physical – absorption and fixation
And biological transformation – organic metallic formation
e.g. Hg, Pb

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Hazard And Risk Of Chemicals

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ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARTMENT AND ITS
MIGRATION PROCESS

Air Meteorological migration results in diffusion,


dispersion and precipitation
Process: Photocatalysis, Oxidation
Water Absorption, evaporation, biological take-up
Process: Photocatalysis, Hydrolysis, Redox, Bio-degradation

Soil Absorption, fixation, dispersion, evaporation, biological


take-up
Process: Hydrolysis, Redox, Bio-degradation

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BEHAVIOR OF POLLUTANTS IN AIR


 Vapor pressure is the parameter to determine the extent of
migration.

 Vapor pressure is the ‘solubility’ of substance in air

 Transformation in atmosphere is normally induced by sun-light.

 Photocatalysis: Responsible for degradation of many pollutant


due to visible ultraviolet absorption.

 Reaction with radical OH and ozon

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BEHAVIOR OF POLLUTANT IN SOIL

 Soil and sediment plays important roles in migration and


dispersion of pollutants through
 Providing surface area
 Supporting system e.g. pH, moisture, organic materials

 Absorption process
 Molecular structure
 Organic content
 pH
 Particle size
 Ion exchange capacity

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BEHAVIOR OF POLLUTANT IN SOIL

 Temperature
 2 types of Absorption process: Isotherm Freundlich and
Isotherm Langmuir
 Langmuir : Straight line at low concentration, and absorption
is limited at low concentration
 Freundlich: Unlimited absorption capacity
 Absorption Mechanisms: Vander Waal bond, hydrogen bond,
ligand exchange, ion exchange and chemical absorption
 Dispersion through soil
 Affected by 2 basic mechanisms: 1. Diffusion coefficient 2. Mass
Migration
 Mass migration – is affected by the degree of interaction with
water as a migrating media.
 Polar species prone to migrate easily, e.g. Hydrocarbon < ether < ter-
amine < nitro compounds < ketone < alcohol < acids and bases.
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