You are on page 1of 5

Define Ethics?

‘Do not lie is indeed a great virtue’ –


Comparing three ethical approaches based on the line.

Ethics:
Ethics, also known as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that involves
systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior.

‘Do not lie is indeed a great virtue’:


• A consequentialist may argue that lying is wrong because of the negative
consequences produced by lying—though a consequentialist may allow that
certain foreseeable consequences might make lying acceptable.
• A deontologist might argue that lying is always wrong, regardless of any
potential "good" that might come from lying.
• A virtue ethicist would focus less on lying in any particular instance and instead
consider what a decision to tell a lie or not tell a lie said about one's character
and moral behavior. Therefore, the decision to lie would be made in a case-by-
case basis that weigh personal benefit, group benefit, and intentions.

Md Saidur Rahman Kohinoor CSE498: Social and Professional Issues in Computing Short Guide for Mid 1
Theory of Warren and Brandeis about privacy.

Warren and Brandeis: The inviolate personality


 Warren and Brandeis criticized newspapers especially for the gossip columns.
 People have the right to prohibit publications of facts about themselves.
 Libel, slander and defamation laws protect us when someone spreads false and
damaging rumors about us. But they do not apply to true personal information.
 Privacy is distinct and needs its own protection.
Applying the theory:
▪ Many court decisions since Warren and Brandeis article, have taken their point
of view.
▪ A person may win a case if someone published his/her consumer profile.
▪ Warren and Brandeis (and court decisions) allow disclosure of personal
information to people who have an interest in it.

Md Saidur Rahman Kohinoor CSE498: Social and Professional Issues in Computing Short Guide for Mid 2
• Principles for Data Collection? Write down about Opt-in
and opt-out policies and Data Retention.

Principles for Data Collection and Use:


▪ Informed consent
▪ Opt-in and opt-out policies
▪ Fair Information Principles (or Practices)
▪ Data retention

Opt-in and opt-out policies


- To give people some control over secondary uses
- Under opt-out policy, the organization can use one’s information for other
purposes only if he explicitly informs the organization (ex. Signs a form)
permitting the use.
- Under opt-in policy, the collector of information may not use it for other
purposes unless the consumer explicitly permits the use.

Md Saidur Rahman Kohinoor CSE498: Social and Professional Issues in Computing Short Guide for Mid 3
Computer Matching and Computer Profiling

Computer Matching:
• Combining and comparing information from more than one database. Some
examples:
– Sharing of government agencies’ databases to detect fraud by recipients of
government programs.
– Creating consumer dossiers from various business databases.

Computer profiling
- Analyzing data in computer files to determine characteristics of people most
likely to engage in certain behavior
- Businesses find new consumers
- Government detects fraud and crime activities

Md Saidur Rahman Kohinoor CSE498: Social and Professional Issues in Computing Short Guide for Mid 4
Crime Fighting vs Civil Liberties?

Subject Crime fighting Civil liberties


Automated surveillance software to look No search warrant without proof
1. scams for suspicious web activity. of probable cause.

Exact match of biological characteristics Easy to build complete dossier on


2. Biometrics to unique person. people.

Needs to obtain evidence of a crime. Day to day business ceases non-


3. Search and seizure of computer criminal contact with other ends.

Md Saidur Rahman Kohinoor CSE498: Social and Professional Issues in Computing Short Guide for Mid 5