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Contoh Soal TOEFL Structure

1. _____ the demands of aerospace, medicine, and agriculture, aengineers, are creating
exotic new metallic substances.
(A) Meet
(B) Being met are
(C) To meet
(D) They are meeting

2. _______ James A. Bland, “Carry Me Back to Old Virginny” was adopted is the state song of
Virginia in 1940.
(A) Was written b
(B) His writing was
(C) He wrote the
(D) Written by

3. Mary Garden, ______ the early 1900’s was considered one of the best singing actresses of
her time.
(A) a soprano was popular
(B) in a popular soprano
(C) was a popular soprano
(D) a popular soprano in

4. In the realm of psychological theory Margaret F. Washburn was a dualist _____ that
motor phenomena have an essential role in psychology.
(A) who she believed
(B) who believed
(C) believed
(D) who did she believe

A. Contoh Soal TOEFL Written Expression


16. On Ellesmere Island in the Arctic one fossil forest consist of a nearly hundred
A B
large stumps scattered on an exposed coal bed.
C D

17. The surface conditions on the planet Mars are the more like the Earth’s than are
A B C
those of any other planet in the solar system.
D

18. The midnight sun is a phenomenon in which the Sun visible remains in the sky
A B C
for twenty-four hours or longer.
D
19. The Humber River and its valley form a major salmon-fishing, lumbering, hunting,
A B C
and farmer region in western Newfoundland, Canada.
D

Pembahasan Soal dan Jawaban


A. Structure
1. Jawab : (C) To meet
Keyword : the demands of aerospace
Pembahasan : Pola infinitive phrase: to infinitive + object of to infinitive
Kalimat tersebut menyatakan tujuan atau maksud. Maka dibutuhkan to
infinitive phrase.
Sehingg pilihan phrase yang tepat untuk mengisi rumpang tersebut adalah
to meet.
2. Jawab : (D) Written by
Keyword : James A. Bland
Pembahasan : Kalimat di atas membutuhkan Adjective Phrase untuk menerangkan kata
benda “Carry Me Back to Old Virginny”.
Frasa ajektif yang paling tepat adalah Written by. Mengapa disebut frasa
ajektif, karea past participle (v3) yang
tidak ditemani bentuk be atau have adalah sebuah ajektif.
3. Jawab : (D) a popular soprano in
Keyword : Mary Garden
Pembahasan : Kalimat pada soal membutuhkan Appositive Phrase. Mary Garden dan
appositive phrase (a popular soprano)
memiliki makna yang sama. Maka jawaban yang tepat adalah a popular
soprano in.
4. Jawab : (B) Who believed
Keyword : a dualist
Pembahasan : Pola adjective clause : (Conj. + S + V).
Untuk menerangkan kata benda a dualist maka klausa yang tepat adalah
who believed.

B. Written Expression.
16. Jawab : (B) a nearly
Keyword : hundred large stumps
Pembahasan : a nearly -> nearly
Kata “a nearly” tidak memerlukan indefinite article/determiner “a”, karena
kata benda stumps adalah plural.
17. Jawab : (B) The more
Keyword : the planet Mars
Pembahasan : the more -> more
Pola comparative: more ___ than ___
Maka seharusnya tidak perlu definite article “the” tapi cukup “more” saja.
18. Jawab : (B) visible remains
Keyword : the sun
Pembahasan : visible remains -> remains visible
Kata the sun dalam anak kalimat di atas memerlukan predicate bukan
noun phrase (visible remains).
Yang tepat seharusnya remains visible.
19. Jawab : (D) farmer
Keyword : and
Pembahasan : farmer -> farming
Konjungsi and digunakan untuk menghubungkan kelas kata yang sederajat.
Karena sebelum “and” bentuk
katanya adalah gerund maka kata farmer seharusnya diubah dalam bentuk
gerund juga yaitu farming.

Contoh Soal Tes TOEFL Bagian Reading Comprehension


Reading Comprehension

Time: Approximately 55 Minutes


50 Questions
DIRECTIONS
In this section you will read several passages. Each one is followed by several questions
about it. For questions 1-50, you are to choose the one best answer, (A), (B), (C), or (D), to
each question. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and fill in the
space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen. Answer all questions
following a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage.
READ THE FOLLOWING PASSAGE:
The railroad was not the first institution to impose regularity on society, or to draw
attention to the importance of precise timekeeping. For as long as merchants have set out
their wares at daybreak and communal festivities have been celebrated, people have been
in rough agreement with their neighbors as to the time of day. The value of this tradition is
today more apparent than ever. Were it not for public acceptance of a single yardstick of
time, social life would be unbearably chaotic: the massive daily transfers of goods, services,
and information would proceed in fits and starts; the very fabric of modem society would
begin to unravel.

Example I
What is the main idea of the passage?
(A) In modem society we must make more time for our neighbors.
(B) The traditions of society are timeless.
(C) An accepted way of measuring time is essential for the smooth functioning of society.
(D) Society judges people by the times at which they conduct certain activities.
The main idea of the passage is that societies need to agree about how time is to be
measured in order to function smoothly. Therefore, you should choose (C).

Example II
In line 4, the phrase “this tradition” refers to....
(A) the practice of starting the business day at dawn
(B) friendly relations between neighbors
(C) the railroad’s reliance on time schedules
(D) people’s agreement on the measurement of time
The phrase “this tradition” refers to the preceding clause, “people have been in rough
agreement with their neighbors as to the time of day.” Therefore, you should choose (D).

Now begin work on the questions.


Questions 1-5
A distinctively American architecture began with Frank Lloyd Wright, who had taken to
heart the admonition that form should follow function and who thought of buildings not as
separate architectural entities but as parts of an organic whole that included the land, the
community, and the society. In a very real way the houses of colonial New England and
some of the southern plantations had been functional, but Wright was the first architect to
make functionalism the authoritative principle for public as well as for domestic buildings.
As early as 1906 he built the Unity Temple in Oak Park, Illinois, the first of those churches
that did so much to revolutionize ecclesiastical architecture in the United States. Thereafter
he turned his genius to such miscellaneous structures as houses, schools, office buildings,
and factories, among them the famous Larkin Building in Buffalo, New York, and the
Johnson Wax Company building in Racine, Wisconsin.
1. The phrase “taken to heart” in line 1 is closest in meaning to which of the following?
(A) Taken seriously
(B) Criticized
(C) Memorized
(D) Taken offence
2. In what way did Wright’s public buildings differ from most of those built by earlier
architects?
(A) They were built on a larger scale.
(B) Their materials came from the southern United States.
(C) They looked more like private homes.
(D) Their designs were based on how they would be used.
3. The author mentions the Unity Temple because, it
(A) was Wright’s first building
(B) influenced the architecture of subsequent churches
(C) demonstrated traditional ecclesiastical architecture
(D) was the largest church Wright ever designed
4. The passage mentions that all of the following structures were built by Wright EXCEPT
(A) factories
(B) public buildings
(C) offices
(D) southern plantations
5. Which of the following statements best reflects one of Frank Lloyd Wright’s architectural
principles?
(A) Beautiful design is more important than utility.
(B) Ecclesiastical architecture should be derived from traditional designs.
(C) A building should fit into its surroundings.
(D) The architecture of public buildings does not need to be revolutionary

Questions 6-16
There are two basic types of glaciers, those that flow outward in all directions with little
regard for any underlying terrain and those that are confined by terrain to a particular path.
The first category of glaciers includes those massive blankets that cover whole continents,
appropriately called ice sheets. There must be over 50,000 square kilometers of land
covered with ice for the glacier to qualify as an ice sheet. When portions of an ice sheet
spread out over the ocean, they form ice shelves.
About 20,000 years ago the Cordilleran Ice Sheet covered nearly all the mountains in
southern Alaska, western Canada, and the western United States. It was about 3 kilometers
deep at its thickest point in northern Alberta. Now there are only two sheets left on Earth,
those covering Greenland and Antarctica.
Any domelike body of ice that also flows out in all directions but covers less than 50,000
square kilometers is called an ice cap. Although ice caps are rare nowadays, there are a
number in northeastern Canada, on Baffin Island, and on the Queen Elizabeth Islands.
The second category of glaciers includes those of a variety of shapes and sizes generally
called mountain or alpine glaciers. Mountain glaciers are typically identified by the landform
that controls their flow. One form of mountain glacier that resembles an ice cap in that it
flows outward in several directions is called an ice field. The difference between an ice field
and an ice cap is subtle. Essentially, the flow of an ice field is somewhat controlled by
surrounding terrain and thus does not have the domelike shape of a cap. There are several
ice fields in the Wrangell. St. Elias, and Chugach mountains of Alaska and northern British
Columbia.
Less spectacular than large ice fields are the most common types of mountain glaciers: the
cirque and valley glaciers. Cirque glaciers are found in depressions in the surface of the land
and have a characteristic circular shape. The ice of valley glaciers, bound by terrain, flows
down valleys, curves around their corners, and falls over cliffs.
6. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) Where major glaciers are located
(B) How glaciers shape the land
(C) How glaciers are formed
(D) The different kinds of glaciers
7. The word “massive” in line 3 is closest in meaning to
(A) huge
(B) strange
(C) cold
(D) recent
8. It can be inferred that ice sheets are so named for which of the following reasons?
(A) They are confined to mountain valleys.
(B) They cover large areas of land.
(C) They are thicker in some areas than in others.
(D) They have a characteristic circular shape.
9. According to the passage, ice shelves can be found
(A) covering an entire continent
(B) buried within the mountains
(C) spreading into the ocean
(D) filling deep valleys
10. According to the passage, where was the Cordilleran Ice Sheet thickest?
(A) Alaska
(B) Greenland
(C) Alberta
(D) Antarctica
11. The word “rare” in line 12 is closest in meaning to
(A) small
(B) unusual
(C) valuable
(D) widespread
12. According to the passage (paragraph 5), ice fields resemble ice caps in which of the
following ways?
(A) Their shape
(B) Their flow
(C) Their texture
(D) Their location
13. The word “it” in line 16 refers to
(A) glacier
(B) cap
(C) difference
(D) terrain
14. The word “subtle” in line 17 is closest in meaning to
(A) slight
(B) common
(C) important
(D) measurable
15. All of the following are alpine glaciers EXCEPT
(A) cirque glaciers
(B) ice caps
(C) valley glaciers
(D) ice fields
16. Which of the following types of glaciers does the author use to illustrate the two basic
types of glaciers mentioned in line 1?
(A) Ice fields and cirques
(B) Cirques and alpine glaciers
(C) Ice sheets and ice shelves
(D) Ice sheets and mountain glaciers

Questions 17-26
Tools and hand bones excavated from the Swartkrans cave complex in South Africa suggest
that a close relative of early humans known as Australopithecus robustus may have made
and used primitive tools long before the species became extinct I million Line years ago. It
may even have made and used primitive tools long before humanity’s direct ancestor, Homo
habilis, or “handy man,” began doing so. Homo habilis and its successor, Homo erectus,
coexisted with Australopithecus robustus on the plains of South Africa for more than a
million years.
The Swartkrans cave in South Africa has been under excavation since the 1940’s. The
earliest fossil-containing layers of sedimentary rock in the cave date from about 1.9 million
years ago and contain extensive remains of animals, primitive tools, and two or more
species of apelike hominids. The key recent discovery involved bones from the hand of
Australopithecus robustus, the first time such bones have been found.
The most important feature of the Australopithecus robustus hand was the pollical distal
thumb tip, the last bone in the thumb. The bone had an attachment point for a “uniquely
human” muscle, the flexor pollicis longus, that had previously been found only in more
recent ancestors. That muscle gave Australopithecus robustutJ an opposable thumb, a
feature that would allow them to grip objects, including tools. The researchers also found
primitive bone and stone implements, especially digging tools, in the same layers of
sediments.
Australopithecus robustus were more heavily built- more “robust” in anthropological terms-
than their successors. They had broad faces, heavy jaws, and massive crushing and grinding
teeth that were used for eating hard fruits, seeds, and fibrous underground plant parts.
They walked upright, which would have allowed them to carry and use tools. Most experts
had previously believed that Homo habilis were able to supplant Australopithecus robustus
because the former’s ability to use tools gave them an innate superiority. The discovery that
Australopithecus robustus also used tools means that researchers will have to seek other
explanations for their extinction. Perhaps their reliance on naturally occurring plants led to
their downfall as the climate became drier and cooler, or perhaps Homo habilis, with their
bigger brains, were simply able tomake more sophisticated tools.
17. It can be inferred from the first paragraph that all of the following may have made and
used tools EXCEPT.
(A) Australopithecus robustus
(B) Homo erectus
(C) Homo habilis
(D) Australopithecus robustus’ ancestors
18. The word “extensive” in line 9 is closest in meaning to
(A) numerous
(B) exposed
(C) ancient
(D) valuable
19. Which of the following does the author mention as the most important recent discovery
made in the Swartkrans cave?
(A) Tools
(B) Teeth
(C) Plant fossils
(D) Hand bones
20. What does the third paragraph ‘mainly discuss?
(A) Features of Australopithecus robustus’ hand
(B) Purposes for which hominids used tools
(C) Methods used to determine the age of fossils
(D) Significant plant fossils found in layers of sediment
21. It can be inferred from the description in the last paragraph that Australopithecus
robustus was so named because of the species’
(A) ancestors
(B) thumb
(C) build
(D) diet
22. The word “supplant” in line 22 is closest in meaning to
(A) exploit
(B) displace
(C) understand
(D) imitate
23. The word “them” in line 23 refers to
(A) tools
(B) Homo habilis
(C) Australopithecus robustus
(D) experts
24. What does the author suggest is unclear about Australopithecus robustus?
(A) Whether they used tools
(B) What they most likely ate
(C) Whether they are closely related to humans
(D) Why they became extinct
25. The phrase “reliance on” in line 24 is closest in meaning to
(A) impact on
(B) dependence on
(C) tolerance of
(D) discovery of
26. Where in the passage does the author mention the materials from which tools were
made?
(A) Lines 7-9
(B) Lines 12-13
(C) Lines 15-17
(D) Lines 21-23

Questions 27-38
The first two decades of this century were dominated by the microbe hunters. These
hunters had tracked down one after another of the microbes responsible for the most
dreaded scourges of many centuries: tuberculosis, cholera, diphtheria. But there, remained
some terrible diseases for which no microbe could be incriminated: scurvy, pellagra, rickets,
beriberi. Then it was discovered that these diseases were caused by the lack of vitamins, a
trace substance in the diet. The diseases could be prevented or cured by consuming foods
that contained the vitamins. And so in the decades of the 1920’s and 1930’s, nutrition
became a science and the vitamin hunters replaced the microbe hunters.
In the 1940’s and 1950’s, biochemists strived to learn why each of the vitamins was
essential for health. They discovered that key enzymes in metabolism depend on one or
another of the vitamins as coenzymes to perform the chemistry that provides cells with
energy for growth and function. Now, these enzyme hunters occupied center stage.
You are aware that the enzyme hunters have been replaced by a new breed of hunters who
are tracking genes-the blueprints for each of the enzymes-and are discovering the defective
genes that cause inherited diseases-diabetes, cystic fibrosis. These gene hunters, or genetic
engineers, use recombinant DNA technology to identify and clone genes and introduce
them into bacterial cells and plants to create factories for the massive production of
hormones and vaccines for medicine and for better crops for agriculture. Biotechnology has
become a multibillion-dollar industry.
In view of the inexorable progress in science, we can expect that the gene hunters will be
replaced in the spotlight. When and by whom? Which kind of hunter will dominate the
scene in the last decade of our waning century and in the early decades of the next? I
wonder whether the hunters who will occupy the spotlight will be neurobiologists who
apply the techniques of the enzyme and gene hunters to the functions of the brain: What to
call them? The head hunters. I will return to them later.
27. What is the main topic of the passage?
(A) The microbe hunters
(B) The potential of genetic engineering
(C) The progress of modem medical research
(D) The discovery of enzymes
28. The word “which” in line 4 refers to
(A) diseases
(B) microbe
(C) cholera
(D) diphtheria
29. The word “incriminated” in line 4 is closest in meaning to
(A) investigated
(B) blamed
(C) eliminated
(D) produced
30. Which of the following can be cured by a change in diet?
(A) Tuberculosis
(B) Cholera
(C) Cystic fibrosis
(D) Pellagra
31. The word “strived” in line 9 is closest in meaning to
(A) failed
(B) tried
(C) experimented
(D) studied
32. How do vitamins influence health?
(A) They are necessary for some enzymes to function.
(B) They protect the body from microbes.
(C) They keep food from spoiling.
(D) They are broken down by cells to produce energy.
33. In the third paragraph, the author compares cells that have been genetically altered by
biotechnicians to
(A) gardens
(B) factories
(C) hunters
(D) spotlights
34. The word “them” in line 16 refers to
(A) cells and plants
(B) hormones
(C) genes
(D) gene hunters or genetic engineers
35. The phrase “occupy the spotlight” in line 22 is closest in meaning to
(A) receive the most attention
(B) go the furthest
(C) conquer territory
(D) lighten the load
36. The author implies that the most important medical research topic of the future will be
(A) the functions of the brain
(B) inherited diseases
(C) the operation of vitamins
(D) the structure of genes
37. Which of the following best describes the author’stone in the last paragraph of the
passage?
(A) Critical
(B) Speculative
(C) Appreciative
(D) Emotional
38. With which of the following statements would the author be most likely to agree?
(A) The focus of medical research will change in the next two decades.
(B) Medical breakthroughs often depend on luck.
(C) Medical research throughout the twentieth century has been dominated by microbe
hunters.
(D) Most diseases are caused by defective genes.

Questions 39-50
In the mid-nineteenth century, the United States had tremendous natural resources that
could be exploited in order to develop heavy industry. Most of the raw materials that are
valuable in the manufacture of machinery, transportation facilities, and consumer goods lay
ready to be worked into wealth. Iron, coal, and oil-the basic ingredients of industrial growth-
were plentiful and needed only the application of technical expertise, organizational skill,
and labor.
One crucial development in this movement toward industrialization was the growth of the
railroads. The railway network expanded rapidly until the railroad map of the United States
looked like a spider’s web, with the steel filaments connecting all important sources of raw
materials, their places of manufacture, and their centers of distribution. The railroads
contributed to the industrial growth not only by connecting these major centers, but also by
themselves consuming enormous amounts of fuel, iron, and coal.
Many factors influenced emerging modes of production. For example, machine tools, the
tools used to make goods, were steadily improved in the latter part of the nineteenth
century-always with an eye to speedier production and lower unit costs. The products of the
factories were rapidly absorbed by the growing cities that sheltered the workers and the
distributors. The increased urban population was nourished by the increased farm
production that, in turn, was made more productive by the use of the new farm machinery.
American agricultural production kept up with the urban demand and still had surpluses for
sale to the industrial centers of Europe.
The labor that ran the factories and built the railways was recruited in part from American
farm areas where people were being displaced by farm machinery, in part from Asia, and in
part from Europe. Europe now began to send tides of immigrants from eastern and
southern Europe-most of whom were originally poor farmers but who settled in American
industrial cities. The money to finance this tremendous expansion of the American economy
still came from European financiers for the most part, but the Americans were approaching
the day when their expansion could be financed in their own “money market.”
39. What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The history of railroads in the United States
(B) The major United States industrial centers
(C) Factors that affected industrialization in the United States
(D) The role of agriculture in the nineteenth century
40. The word “ingredients” in line 4 is closest in meaning to
(A) minerals
(B) products
(C) methods
(D) components
41.Why does the author mention “a spider’s web” in line 8?
(A) To emphasize the railroad’s consumption of oil and coal
(B) To describe the complex structure of the railway system
(C) To explain the problems brought on by railway expansion
(D) To describe the difficulties involved in the distribution of raw materials
42. The word “themselves” in line 10 refers to
(A) sources
(B) centers
(C) railroads
(D) places
43. According to the passage, all of the following were true of railroads in the United States
in the nineteenth century EXCEPT that
(A) they connected important industrial cities
(B) they were necessary to the industrialization process
(C) they were expanded in a short time
(D) they used relatively small quantities of natural resources
44. According to the passage, what was one effect of the improvement of machine tools?
(A) Lower manufacturing costs
(B) Better distribution of goods
(C) More efficient transportation of natural resources
(D) A reduction in industrial jobs
45. According to the passage, who were the biggest consumers of manufactured products?
(A) Railway workers
(B) Farmers
(C) City dwellers
(D) Europeans
46. The word “nourished” in line 16 is closest in meaning to
(A) protected
(B) fed
(C) housed
(D) paid
47. Which of the following is NOT true of United States farmers in the nineteenth century?
(A) They lost some jobs because of mechanization.
(B) They were unable to produce sufficient food for urban areas.
(C) They raised their productivity by using new machinery.
(D) They sold food to European countries.
48. According to the passage, what did the United States supply to European cities?
(A) Machine tools
(B) Money
(C) Raw materials
(D) Agricultural produce
49. The word “ran” in line 19 is closest in meaning to
(A) operated
(B) hurried
(C) constructed
(D) owned
50. Where in the passage does the author mention the financial aspect of industrial
expansion?
(A) Lines 1-2
(B) Lines 9-11
(C) Lines 17-18
(D) Lines 22-25

Pembahasan Soal Jawaban Reading Comprehension


Questions 1-5
A distinctively American architecture began with Frank Lloyd Wright, who had taken to
heart the admonition that form should follow function and who thought of buildings not as
separate architectural entities but as parts of an organic whole that included the land, the
community, and the society. In a very real way the houses of colonial New England and
some of the southern plantations had been functional, but Wright was the first architect to
make functionalism the authoritative principle for public as well as for domestic buildings.
As early as 1906 he built the Unity Temple in Oak Park, Illinois, the first of those churches
that did so much to revolutionize ecclesiastical architecture in the United States. Thereafter
he turned his genius to such miscellaneous structures as houses, schools, office buildings,
and factories, among them the famous Larkin Building in Buffalo, New York, and the
Johnson Wax Company building in Racine, Wisconsin.
Terjemahan
Arsitektur khas Amerika dimulai oleh Frank Lloyd Wright, yang telah dikenal bahwa bentuk
harus mengikuti fungsi dan siapa yang berpikir bangunan tidak dipisahkan oleh arsitektur
tetapi sebagai bagian keseluruhan organik yang termasuk tanah, masyarakat, dan kumpulan
masyarakat. Dalam cara yang sangat nyata ,rumah-rumah kolonial New England dan
beberapa perkebunan Selatan telah berfungsi, tetapi Wright adalah arsitek pertama yang
membuat fungsionalisme prinsip otoritatif untuk umum juga domestik. Sejak 1906, ia
membangun Persatuan Candi di Oak Park, Illinois, gereja-Gereja yang pertama dari yang
melakukan begitu banyak merevolusi arsitektur gereja di Amerika Serikat. Kemudian
menggunakan kejeniusannya untuk struktur yang berbeda-bedaseperti rumah, sekolah,
bangunan perkantoran dan pabrik-pabrik, di antaranya Gedung Larkin terkenal di Buffalo,
New York, dan perusahaan bangunan Johnson Wax di Racine, Wisconsin.
1. The phrase “taken to heart” in line 1 is closest in meaning to which of the following?
Jawab : A → Taken seriously
Pembahasan : Frasa taken to heart adalah bentuk ungkapan idiomatik dan memiliki arti
“melakukan dengan sepenuh hati/serius”.
2. In what way did Wright’s public buildings differ from most of those built by earlier
architects?
Jawab : D → Their designs were based on how they would be used.
Pembahasan : Pada kalimat “…that form should follow function…” menunjukkan bahwa
desain seharusnya berdasarkan pada fungsinya, untuk apa nantinya bangunan itu digunakan
dan jawaban yang demikian ditemukan di pilihan D.
3. The author mentions the Unity Temple because, it
Jawab : B → influenced the architecture of subsequent churches
Pembahasan : Pada kalimat “…the first of those churches that did so much to revolutionize
ecclesiastical architecture in the United States” menyatakan bahwa bangunan itu sangat
mempengaruhi desain bangunan-bangunan selanjutnya. Jawaban yang mengandung ide
serupa ada pada pilihan B.
4. The passage mentions that all of the following structures were built by Wright EXCEPT
Jawab : D → southern plantations
Pembahasan : Pada kalimat terakhir jelas bahwa offices, factories dan public building,
termasuk churches adalah karyanya. Sedangkan South Plantations bukanlah hasil karyanya
karena sudah didesain oleh orang terdahulu seperti yang disebutkan dalam bacaan.
5. Which of the following statements best reflects one of Frank Lloyd Wright’s architectural
principles?
Jawab : C → A building should fit into its surroundings.
Pembahasan : Kalimat “…as parts of an organic whole that included the land, the
community, and the society” menyatakan bahwa bangunan seharusnya dianggap sebagai
bagian dari keseluruhan lingkungan dan masyarakat sekitarnya sehingga dengan kata lain
bangunan tersebut harus sesuai dengan lingkungannya.
Questions 6-16
There are two basic types of glaciers, those that flow outward in all directions with little
regard for any underlying terrain and those that are confined by terrain to a particular path.
The first category of glaciers includes those massive blankets that cover whole continents,
appropriately called ice sheets. There must be over 50,000 square kilometers of land
covered with ice for the glacier to qualify as an ice sheet. When portions of an ice sheet
spread out over the ocean, they form ice shelves.
About 20,000 years ago the Cordilleran Ice Sheet covered nearly all the mountains in
southern Alaska, western Canada, and the western United States. It was about 3 kilometers
deep at its thickest point in northern Alberta. Now there are only two sheets left on Earth,
those covering Greenland and Antarctica.
Any domelike body of ice that also flows out in all directions but covers less than 50,000
square kilometers is called an ice cap. Although ice caps are rare nowadays, there are a
number in northeastern Canada, on Baffin Island, and on the Queen Elizabeth Islands.
The second category of glaciers includes those of a variety of shapes and sizes generally
called mountain or alpine glaciers. Mountain glaciers are typically identified by the landform
that controls their flow. One form of mountain glacier that resembles an ice cap in that it
flows outward in several directions is called an ice field. The difference between an ice field
and an ice cap is subtle. Essentially, the flow of an ice field is somewhat controlled by
surrounding terrain and thus does not have the domelike shape of a cap. There are several
ice fields in the Wrangell. St. Elias, and Chugach mountains of Alaska and northern British
Columbia.
Less spectacular than large ice fields are the most common types of mountain glaciers: the
cirque and valley glaciers. Cirque glaciers are found in depressions in the surface of the land
and have a characteristic circular shape. The ice of valley glaciers, bound by terrain, flows
down valleys, curves around their corners, and falls over cliffs.
Terjemahan
Ada dua jenis dasar gletser, yang mengalir ke luar dalam semua arah dengan kurang
memperhatikan setiap daerah yang mendasari dan orang-orang yang dibatasi oleh medan
untuk suatu jalan tertentu.
Kategori pertama gletser mencakup selimut yang besar yang mencakup seluruh benua,
tepat disebut lembaran es. Harus ada lebih dari 50.000 kilometer persegi tanah yang
ditutupi dengan es untuk gletser untuk memenuhi syarat sebagai lembar es.
Ketika bagian dari lembaran es menyebar samudera, mereka membentuk es rak. Sekitar
20.000 tahun yang lalu Cordilleran es lembar meliputi hampir semua pegunungan di Alaska
Selatan, Kanada Barat dan barat Amerika Serikat. Itu adalah sekitar 3 kilometer yang
mendalam pada titik tertebal di northern Alberta. Sekarang yang ada hanya dua lembar
yang tersisa di dunia, orang-orang yang meliputi Greenland dan Antartika.
Badan domelike es yang juga mengalir keluar di segala penjuru tetapi mencakup kurang dari
50.000 kilometer persegi yang disebut topi es. Meskipun ice caps langka saat ini, ada
beberapa di timur laut Kanada, Baffin Island, dan di Kepulauan Ratu Elizabeth.
Kategori kedua gletser termasuk orang-orang dari berbagai bentuk dan ukuran yang
umumnya disebut gunung atau alpine gletser. Gunung gletser biasanya diidentifikasi dengan
bentang alam yang mengendalikan aliran mereka. Salah satu bentuk gunung gletser yang
menyerupai topi es yang mengalir ke luar dalam beberapa arah disebut medan es.
Perbedaan antara medan es dan topi es halus. Pada dasarnya, arus medan es agak
dikendalikan oleh daerah sekitarnya dan dengan demikian tidak memiliki bentuk seperti
topi. Ada beberapa bidang es di Wrangell. St Elias, dan pegunungan Chugach di Alaska dan
British Columbia Utara.
Kurang spektakuler daripada besar es bidang yang paling umum jenis gunung gletser: cirque
dan lembah gletser. Cirque gletser ditemukan dalam depresi di permukaan tanah dan
memiliki bentuk melingkar yang khas. Es lembah gletser, terikat oleh daerah, mengalir ke
lembah, kurva yang disudut-sudut mereka dan jatuh diatas tebing.
6. What does the passage mainly discuss?
Jawab : D → The different kinds of glaciers
Pembahasan : Ide pokok teks di atas dapat ditemukan pada paragraf pertama kalimat
pertama yang menjelaskan dua jenis gletser yang berbeda dan selanjutnya masing-masing
dijelaskan lebih lanjut pada paragraf berikutnya.
7. The word “massive” in line 3 is closest in meaning to
Jawab : A → huge
Pembahasan : Padanan kata massive adalah huge (sangat besar).
8. It can be inferred that ice sheets are so named for which of the following reasons?
Jawab : B → They cover large areas of land.
Pembahasan : Frasa whole continents pada kalimat those massive blankets that cover
whole continents appropriately called ice sheet menunjukkan bahwa daratan yang tertutup
gletser mencakup wilayah yang sangat luas, hampir keseluruhan daratan.
9. According to the passage, ice shelves can be found
Jawab : C → spreading into the ocean
Pembahasan : Jawaban dapat ditemukan pada kalimat terakhir paragraf kedua bahwa jika
ice sheet tersebar (spread out) di lautan akan terbentuk ice shelves.
10. According to the passage, where was the Cordilleran Ice Sheet thickest?
Jawab : C → Alberta
Pembahasan : Jawaban dapat ditemukan pada baris ke-8: it was about 3 kilometers deep at
its thickest point in northern Alberta.
11. The word “rare” in line 11 is closest in meaning to
Jawab : B → unusual
Pembahasan : Rare berarti jarang atau tidak biasa ditemukan sehingga jawaban yang paling
mendekati arti dari rare adalah unusual.
12. According to the passage (paragraph 5), ice fields resemble ice caps in which of the
following ways?
Jawab : B → Their flow
Pembahasan : Kalimat Mountain glaciers are typically identified by the landform that
controls their flow dan dijelaskan lebih lanjut pada kalimat One form of mountain glacier
that resembles an ice cap in that it flows outward in several directions is called an ice field
menunjukkan bahwa pembentukan ice caps dipengaruhi oleh alirannya (their flow).
13. The word “it” in line 15 refers to
Jawab : A → glacier
Pembahasan : It pada kalimat di atas merujuk pada mountain glacier atau gletser.
14. The word ”subtle” in line 16 is closest in meaning to
Jawab : A → slight
Pembahasan : Padanan kata subtle adalah slight yang keduanya memiliki arti “tipis, halus,
atau sedikit”.
15. All of the following are alpine glaciers EXCEPT
Jawab : B → ice caps
Pembahasan : Jenis alpine/mountain glacier adalah ice fields, cirque glaciers dan valley
glaciers yang semuanya dipengaruhi oleh aliran dan tidak memiliki domelike cap seperti ice
caps.
16. Which of the following types of glaciers does the author use to illustrate the two basic
types of glaciers mentioned in line 1?
Jawab : D → Ice sheets and mountain glaciers
Pembahasan : Ada dua jenis gletser yaitu ice sheet yang mengalir keluar ke segala arah dan
mountain glacier yang arah alirannya terbatas hanya di aliran tertentu.
Questions 17-26
Tools and hand bones excavated from the Swartkrans cave complex in South Africa suggest
that a close relative of early humans known as Australopithecus robustus may have made
and used primitive tools long before the species became extinct 1 million Line years ago. It
may even have made and used primitive tools long before humanity’s direct ancestor, Homo
habilis, or “handy man,” began doing so. Homo habilis and its successor, Homo erectus,
coexisted with Australopithecus robustus on the plains of South Africa for more than a
million years.
The Swartkrans cave in South Africa has been under excavation since the 1940’s. The
earliest fossil-containing layers of sedimentary rock in the cave date from about 1.9 million
years ago and contain extensive remains of animals, primitive tools, and two or more
species of apelike hominids. The key recent discovery involved bones from the hand of
Australopithecus robustus, the first time such bones have been found.
The most important feature of the Australopithecus robustus hand was the pollical distal
thumb tip, the last bone in the thumb. The bone had an attachment point for a “uniquely
human” muscle, the flexor pollicis longus, that had previously been found only in more
recent ancestors. That muscle gave Australopithecus robustutJ an opposable thumb, a
feature that would allow them to grip objects, including tools. The researchers also found
primitive bone and stone implements, especially digging tools, in the same layers of
sediments.
Australopithecus robustus were more heavily built- more “robust” in anthropological terms-
than their successors. They had broad faces, heavy jaws, and massive crushing and grinding
teeth that were used for eating hard fruits, seeds, and fibrous underground plant parts.
They walked upright, which would have allowed them to carry and use tools. Most experts
had previously believed that Homo habilis were able to supplant Australopithecus robustus
because the former’s ability to use tools gave them an innate superiority. The discovery that
Australopithecus robustus also used tools means that researchers will have to seek other
explanations for their extinction. Perhaps their reliance on naturally occurring plants led to
their downfall as the climate became drier and cooler, or perhaps Homo habilis, with their
bigger brains, were simply able tomake more sophisticated tools.
Terjemahan
Alat dan tulang tangan yang digali dari kompleks gua Swartkrans di Afrika Selatan telah
menjadi informasi bahwa kerabat dekat awal manusia yang dikenal sebagai
Australopithecus robustus telah dibuat dan alat primitif telah digunakan jauh sebelum
spesies punah 1 juta tahun lalu. Bahkan mungkin alat primitif telah dibuat dan digunakan
jauh sebelum leluhur manusia langsung, Homo habilis atau ‘manusia pembantu’ mulai
melakukannya. Homo habilis dan penerusnya, Homo erectus berdampingan dengan
Australopithecus robustus di dataran Afrika Selatan selama lebih dari satu juta tahun.
Gua Swartkrans di Afrika Selatan telah di bawah penggalian sejak tahun 1940-an. Fosil
pertama yang mengandung lapisan batuan sedimen di gua berasal dari sekitar 1,9 juta tahun
yang lalu dan berisi bangkai binatang, alat-alat primitif, dan dua atau lebih spesies hominid
yang seprti kera. Penemuan baru-baru ini menemukan tulang dari tangan Australopithecus
robustus, pertama kalinya seperti tulang telah ditemukan sebelumnya.
Fitur yang paling penting dari tangan Australopithecus robustus adalah ujung jari distal
pollical, tulang di jempol. Tulang itu memiliki titik lanjutan untuk otot ’manusia unik ’, otot
flexor pollicis longus, yang sebelumnya telah ditemukan hanya di jaman nenek-moyang yang
terdahulu. Otot yang memberikan Australopithecus robustut jempol, bengkak fitur yang
akan memungkinkan mereka untuk mencengkeram objek, termasuk alat. Para peneliti juga
menemukan tulang primitif dan alat-alat batu, terutama menggali alat-alat, pada lapisan
sedimen yang sama.
Australopithecus robustus yang lebih berat dibangun-lebih ’kuat’ dalam antropologi-
daripada penerus mereka. Mereka memiliki wajah yang lebar, jaws berat, dan dapat
penghancur besar dan penggilingan gigi yang digunakan untuk makan buah-buahan yang
keras, benih, dan bagian berserat bawah tanah tanaman. Mereka berjalan tegak, yang akan
memungkinkan mereka untuk membawa dan menggunakan alat-alat. Kebanyakan ahli
sebelumnya telah percaya bahwa Homo habilis mampu menggantikan Australopithecus
robustus karena lebih dahulu mampu untuk menggunakan alat-alat memberi mereka
keunggulan bawaan. Penemuan bahwa Australopithecus robustus juga menggunakan alat
berarti bahwa para peneliti harus mencari penjelasan lain untuk kepunahan mereka.
Mungkin mereka ketergantungan pada tanaman alami yang menyebabkan kejatuhan
mereka sebagai iklim menjadi pengering dan pendingin, atau mungkin Homo habilis, dengan
otak mereka yang lebih besar, yang hanya dapat membuat alat-alat yang lebih canggih.
17. It can be inferred from the first paragraph that all of the following may have made and
used tools EXCEPT
Jawab : D → Australopithecus robustus’ ancestors
Pembahasan : Paragraf di atas menjelaskan bahwa alat-alat primitif itu mulai digunakan
oleh Australophitecus robustus bersama-sama dengan Homo Habilis dan penerusnya, Homo
erectus. Berarti yang bukan adalah nenek moyang Australophitecus robustus.
18. The word “extensive” in line 9 is
Jawab : A → numerous
Pembahasan : Extensive memiliki arti luas atau dalam jumlah besar sehingga kata yang
paling dekat artinya dengan kata tersebut adalah numerous.
19. Which of the following does the author mention as the most important recent discovery
made in the Swartkrans cave?
Jawab : D → Hand bones
Pembahasan : Jawaban tersebut bisa dilihat pada paragraf 2 kalimat The key recent
discovery involved bones from the hand of Australopithecus robustus, the first time such
bones have been found yang menyatakan bahwa penemuan yang paling penting adalah
hand bones.
20. What does the third paragraph ‘mainly discuss?
Jawab : A → Features of Australopithecus robustus’ hand
Pembahasan : Jawaban sangat jelas ditemukan pada kalimat pertama paragraf tersebut
yaitu membahas tentang ciri (feature) dari Australopithecus robustus.
21. It can be inferred from the description in the last paragraph that Australopithecus
robustus was so named because of the species’
Jawab : C → build
Pembahasan : Paragraf 4 kalimat pertama, Australopithecus robustus were more heavily
built-more “robust” in anthropological terms-than their successors menjelaskan bahwa kata
robustus berasal dari robust, istilah antropologi yang merujuk pada perawakan atau bentuk
fisik (build) dengan ciri-ciri yang dijelaskan pada kalimat selanjutnya.
22. The word “supplant” in line 22 is closest in meaning to
Jawab : B → displace
Pembahasan : Kata supplant memiliki arti “menggantikan” sehingga kata yang paling dekat
artinya dengan kata tersebut pada pilihan yang tersedia adalah displace (menggantikan).
23. The word “them” in line 23 refers to
Jawab : B → Homo habilis
Pembahasan : Them pada kalimat tersebut merujuk pada subjek yang disebutkan
sebelumnya yaitu Homo habilis.
24. What does the author suggest is unclear about Australopithecus robustus?
Jawab : D → Why they became extinct
Pembahasan : Jawaban tersebut bisa ditemukan pada paragraf terakhir kalimat The
discovery that Australopithecus robustus also used tools means that researchers will have to
seek other explanations for their extinction yang menyarankan kepada para peneliti untuk
mencari sebab-sebab lain kepunahan jenis manusia primitif tersebut.
25. The phrase “reliance on” in line 24 is closest in meaning to
Jawab : B → dependence on
Pembahasan : Reliance on memiliki arti kebergantungan yang bersesuaian dengan kata
dependence on (ketergantungan).
26. Where in the passage does the author mention the materials from which tools were
made?
Jawab : C → Lines 15-17
Pembahasan : Penulis menyebutkan beberapa alat serta asal bahannya pada baris 15-17:
“…an opposable thumb, a feature that would allow them to grip objects, including tools. The
researchers also found primitive bone and stone implements, especially digging tools, in the
same layers of sediments.” Yaitu bentuk tulang yang memungkinkan mereka
mencengkeram alat dan alat dari batu untuk peralatan menggali.
Questions 27-38
The first two decades of this century were dominated by the microbe hunters. These
hunters had tracked down one after another of the microbes responsible for the most
dreaded scourges of many centuries: tuberculosis, cholera, diphtheria. But there, remained
some terrible diseases for which no microbe could be incriminated: scurvy, pellagra, rickets,
beriberi. Then it was discovered that these diseases were caused by the lack of vitamins, a
trace substance in the diet. The diseases could be prevented or cured by consuming foods
that contained the vitamins. And so in the decades of the 1920’s and 1930’s, nutrition
became a science and the vitamin hunters replaced the microbe hunters.
In the 1940’s and 1950’s, biochemists strived to learn why each of the vitamins was
essential for health. They discovered that key enzymes in metabolism depend on one or
another of the vitamins as coenzymes to perform the chemistry that provides cells with
energy for growth and function. Now, these enzyme hunters occupied center stage.
You are aware that the enzyme hunters have been replaced by a new breed of hunters who
are tracking genes-the blueprints for each of the enzymes-and are discovering the defective
genes that cause inherited diseases-diabetes, cystic fibrosis. These gene hunters, or genetic
engineers, use recombinant DNA technology to identify and clone genes and introduce
them into bacterial cells and plants to create factories for the massive production of
hormones and vaccines for medicine and for better crops for agriculture. Biotechnology has
become a multibillion-dollar industry.
In view of the inexorable progress in science, we can expect that the gene hunters will be
replaced in the spotlight. When and by whom? Which kind of hunter will dominate the
scene in the last decade of our waning century and in the early decades of the next? I
wonder whether the hunters who will occupy the spotlight will be neurobiologists who
apply the techniques of the enzyme and gene hunters to the functions of the brain: What to
call them? The head hunters. I will return to them later.
Terjemahan
Dua dekade pertama di abad ini didominasi oleh pemburu mikroba. Pemburu ini telah
melacak satu demi satu mikroba yang bertanggung jawab untuk penyakit paling ditakuti
selama berabad-abad: tuberkulosis, kolera, difteri. Tapi masih ada beberapa penyakit
mengerikan yang mikroba tidak bisa menyerang: penyakit kudis, pellagra, rickets, beri-beri.
Kemudian ditemukan bahwa penyakit ini disebabkan oleh kekurangan vitamin, bahan
makanan untuk diet. Penyakit ini dapat dicegah atau disembuhkan dengan mengkonsumsi
makanan yang mengandung vitamin. Jadi pada dekade tahun 1920-an dan tahun 1930-an,
gizi menjadi sebuah ilmu dan pemburu vitamin digantikan pemburu mikroba.
Di tahun 1940-an dan 1950-an, ilmuwan berusaha untuk mempelajari mengapa setiap
vitamin sangat penting untuk kesehatan. Mereka menemukan bahwa kunci enzim dalam
metabolisme tergantung pada satu sama lain dari vitamin sebagai koenzim untuk
menghasilkan kimia yang menyediakan sel dengan energi untuk pertumbuhan dan
fungsinya. Sekarang, pemburu enzim ini menduduki peringkat atas.
Kalian menyadari bahwa pemburu enzim digantikan oleh generasi baru para pemburu yang
melacak gen- biru untuk masing-masing enzim- dan menemukan kecacatan gen penyebab
penyakit-diabetes, cystic fibrosis. Pemburu gen ini, atau genetik insinyur, menggunakan
teknologi kombinasi DNA untuk mengidentifikasi dan mengkloning gen dalam sel bakteri
dan tanaman untuk membuat pabrik-pabrik untuk produksi besar-besaran hormon dan
vaksin untuk obat dan untuk tanaman yang lebih baik untuk pertanian. Bioteknologi telah
menjadi multibillion-dolar industri.
Dari pandangan yang tak terelakkan tentang kemajuan di bidang ilmu pengetahuan ini, kita
berharap gen pemburu akan diganti secepatnya. Kapan dan oleh siapa? Jenis hunter yang
mana yang akan mendominasi dalam dekade terakhir abad ini dan pada awal dekade
berikutnya? Aku bertanya-tanya apakah para pemburu yang akan menempati sorotan akan
neurobiologists yang menerapkan teknik enzim dan gen pemburu fungsi otak: Disebut apa
mereka itu? Kepala pemburu. Aku akan kembali kepada mereka nanti.
27. What is the main topic of the passage?
Jawab : C → The progress of modem medical research
Pembahasan : Ide pokok bacaan di atas adalah perkembangan penelitian medis modern,
mulai dari microbe hunters, enzyme hunters hingga gene hunters yang masing-masing
selanjutnya dijelaskan dengan lebih detil.
28. The word “which” in line 3 refers to
Jawab : A → diseases
Pembahasan : Which pada kalimat tersebut merujuk pada penyakit-penyakit serius (terrible
diseases) yang tidak bisa dilawan oleh mikroba.
29. The word “incriminated” in line 4 is closest in meaning to
Jawab : B → blamed
Pembahasan : Incriminate memiliki arti “menyalahkan” sehingga yang paling tepat di antara
pilihan tersebut adalah blamed yang memiliki makna yang sama.
30. Which of the following can be cured by a change in diet?
Jawab : D → Pellagra
Pembahasan : Berdasarkan paragraf pertama baris 4, beberapa penyakit yang dapat
disembuhkan melalui perubahan pola makan yang lebih sehat, yaitu makanan yang banyak
mengandung vitamin seperti scurvy, pellagra, rickets dan beriberi.
31. The word “strived” in line 8 is closest in meaning to
Jawab : B → tried
Pembahasan : Strived memiliki kesamaan arti dengan attempt, try, dan make effort yang
semuanya berarti berusaha atau berjuang.
32. How do vitamins influence health?
Jawab : A → They are necessary for some enzymes to function.
Pembahasan : Fungsi vitamin terhadap kesehatan tubuh adalah untuk membantu enzim
(sebagai coenzyme) untuk menghasilkan kimia yang meyediakan sel dengan energi untuk
pertumbuhan dan fungsinya. Penjelasan ini dapat dilihat pada baris ke 9-11.
33. In the third paragraph, the author compares cells that have been genetically altered by
biotechnicians to
Jawab : B → factories
Pembahasan : Jawaban bisa ditemukan pada baris 14-17 yang membandingkan sel-sel yang
dihasilkan oleh ahli biologi melalui recombinant DNA dengan sel-sel bakteri dan tanaman
yang menciptakan pabrik-pabrik untuk memproduksi hormon dan vaksin.
34. The word “them” in line 15 refers to
Jawab : C → genes
Pembahasan : Them pada kalimat tersebut mengacu pada gen yang diidentifikasi dan
dikloning melalui rekombinan DNA.
35. The phrase “occupy the spotlight” in line 21 is closest in meaning to
Jawab : A → receive the most attention
Pembahasan : Occupy the spotlight memiliki arti “mendapatkan tempat yang dapat
menarik perhatian banyak orang” sehingga ungkapan yang paling dekat untuk
menggantikan frasa tersebut adalah receive the most attention.
36. The author implies that the most important medical research topic of the future will be
Jawab : A → the functions of the brain
Pembahasan : Jawaban dapat ditemukan pada paragraf terkahir yang menyatakan bahwa
penulis berasumsi pada masa yang akan datang, yang menjadi sorotan utama adalah
mereka yang menerapkan teknik pemburu-pemburu sebelumnya dengan fungsi otak
sehingga fungsi otak diramalkan mejadi isu utama nantinya.
37. Which of the following best describes the author’stone in the last paragraph of the
passage?
Jawab : B → Speculative
Pembahasan : Nada yang tersirat dari pernyataan-pernyataannya adalah spekulatif. Ini jelas
terlihat dari pernyataannya pada paragraf terakhir di empat baris terakhir bahwa ia pun
ingin tahu mana nantinya yang akan menguasai isu penelitian medis. Di sini ia memprediksi
bahwa mereka yang mampu menggabungkan temuan yang sudah ada dan mengaitkannya
dengan otak manusia. Namun ia belum bisa mengambil kesimpulan dengan pasti karena
belum terjadi.
38.With which of the following statements would the author be most likely to agree?
Jawab : A → The focus of medical research will change in the next two decades.
Pembahasan : Pernyataan penulis pada kalimat Which kind of hunter will dominate the
scene in the last decade of our waning century and in the early decades of the next?
menyiratkan bahwa ia berpendapat bahwa akan terjadi perubahan fokus penelitian medis
pada dua dekade mendatang yang akan mendominasi ranah penelitian.
Questions 39-50
In the mid-nineteenth century, the United States had tremendous natural resources that
could be exploited in order to develop heavy industry. Most of the raw materials that are
valuable in the manufacture of machinery, transportation facilities, and consumer goods lay
ready to be worked into wealth. Iron, coal, and oil-the basic ingredients of industrial growth-
were plentiful and needed only the application of technical expertise, organizational skill,
and labor.
One crucial development in this movement toward industrialization was the growth of the
railroads. The railway network expanded rapidly until the railroad map of the United States
looked like a spider’s web, with the steel filaments connecting all important sources of raw
materials, their places of manufacture, and their centers of distribution. The railroads
contributed to the industrial growth not only by connecting these major centers, but also by
themselves consuming enormous amounts of fuel, iron, and coal.
Many factors influenced emerging modes of production. For example, machine tools, the
tools used to make goods, were steadily improved in the latter part of the nineteenth
century-always with an eye to speedier production and lower unit costs. The products of the
factories were rapidly absorbed by the growing cities that sheltered the workers and the
distributors. The increased urban population was nourished by the increased farm
production that, in turn, was made more productive by the use of the new farm machinery.
American agricultural production kept up with the urban demand and still had surpluses for
sale to the industrial centers of Europe.
The labor that ran the factories and built the railways was recruited in part from American
farm areas where people were being displaced by farm machinery, in part from Asia, and in
part from Europe. Europe now began to send tides of immigrants from eastern and
southern Europe-most of whom were originally poor farmers but who settled in American
industrial cities. The money to finance this tremendous expansion of the American economy
still came from European financiers for the most part, but the Americans were approaching
the day when their expansion could be financed in their own “money market.”
Terjemahan
Pada pertengahan abad kesembilan belas, Amerika Serikat memiliki sumber daya alam
besar yang dapat dieksploitasi untuk mengembangkan industri berat. Sebagian besar bahan
baku yang berharga dalam pembuatan mesin, fasilitas transportasi, dan barang-barang
konsumen siap untuk bekerja. Besi, batubara dan minyak- bahan dasar pertumbuhan
industri-yang berlimpah dan diperlukan hanya oleh keahlian teknis, keterampilan organisasi
dan tenaga kerja.
Salah satu perkembangan penting dalam gerakan menuju industrialisasi adalah pembuatan
rel kereta api. Jaringan kereta api berkembang pesat sampai peta kereta api Amerika Serikat
tampak seperti seekor jaring laba-laba, dengan filamen baja yang menghubungkan semua
sumber bahan baku penting, tempat pembuatan dan pusat-pusat distribusi. Rel kereta api
memberikan kontribusi terhadap pertumbuhan industri yang tidak hanya dengan
menghubungkan pusat-pusat utama ini, tetapi juga dengan mengkonsumsi jumlah besar
bahan bakar, besi, dan batu bara.
Banyak faktor yang mempengaruhi munculnya modus produksi. Sebagai contoh, mesin
perkakas, alat-alat yang digunakan untuk membuat barang-barang, terus ditingkatkan di
bagian terakhir abad ke-19 dengan pandangan untuk memproduksi yang lebih cepat dan
biaya unit yang lebih rendah. Produk-produk dari pabrik dengan cepat diserap oleh kota-
kota berkembang yang lebih banyak pekerja dan distributor. Peningkatan populasi urban
dipelihara oleh peningkatan produksi pertanian yang, pada gilirannya, dibuat lebih produktif
dengan menggunakan mesin pertanian baru. Produksi pertanian Amerika terus
meningkatkan permintaan perkotaan dan masih memiliki surplus dijual ke pusat-pusat
industri Eropa.
Tenaga kerja yang mengendalikan pabrik dan membangun jalur kereta api direkrut sebagian
dari daerah pertanian Amerika di mana orang-orang yang digantikan oleh mesin pertanian,
sebagian dari Asia, dan sebagian dari Eropa. Eropa sekarang dimulai untuk mengirim
gelombang imigran dari Timur dan Eropa Selatan -sebagian besar adalah petani yang
awalnya miskin tapi yang menetap di kota-kota industri Amerika. Uang untuk membiayai
ekspansi ini luar biasa, ekonomi Amerika masih berasal dari dana Eropa untuk sebagian
besar, tapi Amerika yang mendekati hari ketika perluasan bisa dibiayai dengan ‘uang pasar
sendiri.
39. What does the passage mainly discuss?
Jawab : C → Factors that affected industrialization in the United States
Pembahasan : Bacaan tersebut terutama membahas faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi
industrialisasi di AS yang antara lain mencakup perkemabangan rel kereta api, peralatan
mesin dan tenaga kerja.
40. The word “ingredients” in line 4 is closest in meaning to
Jawab : D → components
Pembahasan : Kata ingredients mempunyai arti bahan, unsur, komponen, atau elemen yang
membentuk sesuatu. Maka jawaban yang paling tepat adalah components.
41. Why does the author mention “a spider’s web” in line 8?
Jawab : B → To describe the complex structure of the railway system
Pembahasan : Istilah spider’s web menggambarkan rumitnya susunan sistem rel kereta api
pada waktu itu seperti jaring laba-laba.
42. The word “themselves” in line 10 refers to
Jawab : C → railroads
Pembahasan : Them pada kalimat tersebut mengacu pada jalan kereta api itu sendiri yang
berkontribusi tidak hanya dalam menghubungkan kota-kota penting tetapi juga karena
kereta itu sendiri mengonsumsi bahan bakar.
43. According to the passage, all of the following were true of railroads in the United States
in the nineteenth century EXCEPT that
Jawab : D → they used relatively small quantities of natural resources.
Pembahasan : Berdasarkan informasi pada paragraf 2, jalur kereta api berkembang sangat
cepat hingga menyerupai jaring laba-laba, menghubungkan pusat-pusat kota industri di
negara itu serta berkontribusi besar dalam pertumbuhan industri. Oleh karena itu jawaban
yang tidak benar adalah pilihan D karena berlawanan dengan fakta yang ada.
44. According to the passage, what was one effect of the improvement of machine tools?
Jawab : A → Lower manufacturing costs
Pembahasan : Karena perkembangan peralatan mesin yang mulai menggantikan tenaga
manusia menjadikan biaya produksi mejadi lebih rendah.
45. According to the passage, who were the biggest consumers of manufactured products?
Jawab : C → City dwellers
Pembahasan : Kalimat The increased urban population was nourished by the increased
farm production that, in turn, was made more productive by the use of the new farm
machinery menunjukkan adanya hubungan antara pesatnya pertumbuhan penduduk
perkotaan dan produksi peralatan yang dibutuhkan oleh penduduk tersebut. Dengan kata
lain permintaan terbesar berasal dari penduduk kota yang terus berkembang.
46. The word “nourished” in line 16 is closest in meaning to
Jawab : B → fed
Pembahasan : Kata nourished memiliki kesamaan arti dengan fed yang bermakna disuplai,
disediakan atau dipenuhi.
47. Which of the following is NOT true of United States farmers in the nineteenth century?
Jawab : B → They were unable to produce sufficient food for urban areas
Pembahasan : Pengaruh dari industrialisasi adalah peningkatan produksi karena
perkembangan peralatan yang ada hingga bisa menjualnya ke daratan Eropa. Namun hal ini
juga berdampak pada pengurangan tenaga kerja yang telah digantikan oleh mesin dengan
perbandingan biaya produksi yang jauh lebih rendah. Oleh karena itu jawaban yang tidak
sesuai dengan kenyataan di atas adalah jawaban B.
48. According to the passage, what did the United States supply to European cities?
Jawab : D → Agricultural produce
Pembahasan : Jawaban dapat ditemukan di kalimat terakhir paragraf 3 bahwa American
agricultural production kept up with the urban demand and still had surpluses for sale to the
industrial centers of Europe.
49. The word “ran” in line 19 is closest in meaning to
Jawab : A → operated
Pembahasan : Run mempunyai arti menjalankan atau mengoperasikan sehingga jawaban
yang paling tepat adalah operated.
50. Where in the passage does the author mention the financial aspect of industrial
expansion?
Jawab : D → Lines 22-25
Pembahasan : Pada baris 22-25 dijelaskan bahwa perkembangan industri telah merambah
sampai daratan Eropa dengan adanya arus migrasi di daratan itu dan berkontribusi besar
dalam menyokong pembiayaan perkembangan industri di Amerika karena sebagai
konsumen mayoritas bagi negara itu.

Listening
I. Short Conversation (Part A).
Pada Part A, Anda akan mendengar sekitar 30 percakapan pendek antara dua orang dan
setiap satu percakapan akan diikuti oleh satu pertanyaan. Rata-rata satu pembicara hanya
berbicara satu kali. Ketika Anda mendengarkan percakapan harus memerhatikan dengan
cermat ungkapan yang diucapkan oleh pembicara kedua, karena biasanya kata kunci untuk
menjawab berada pada kalimat yang diucapkan oleh pembicara kedua. Untuk menjawab
soal-soal di bagian ini, Anda dapat membaca tips dan triknya secara spesifik dalam Trik dan
Cara Menjawab Soal Listening Part A.
Pada Bagian A (Part A) terdapat petunjuk dalam lembar soal yang harus Anda baca dengan
cermat.
Berikut ini contoh petunjuk atau perintah tersebut dalam contoh soal TOEFL listening Part A.
Directions
In Part A, you will hear short conversation between two speakers. At the end of each
conversation a third voice will ask a question about waht was said. The question will be
spoken just one time. After you hear a conversation and the question about it, read the four
possible answers and decide which one would be the best answer to the question you have
heard. The on your answer sheet find the number of the problem and mark your answer.
Petunjuk
Pada Bagian A, Anda akan mendengarkan percakapan-percakapan pendek antara dua
pembicara. Di akhir setiap percakapan, ada suara ketiga yang menanyakan tentang apa yang
diungkapkan dalam percakapan. Pertanyaan hanya akan diucapkan sekali. Setelah Anda
mendengarkan sebuah percakapan dan pertanyaan tentang percakapan tersebut, bacalah
keempat pilihan jawaban dan tentukan mana yang merupakan jawaban terbaik dari
pertanyaan yang telah Anda dengar. Kemudian, pada lembar jawaban Anda, lihatlah nomor
soal dan hitamkan pilihan jawabannya.
Setelah membaca petunjuk di atas, Anda akan mendengar sebuah percakapan pendek
sebagai berikut.

(Man) : I am trying to find a book by author Sterling Watson. Do you know where I should
look?
(Woman) : He's a fiction writer, isn't he? Log on to this computer. Click on fiction, and then
search by author name. See? Oh, he has written quite a few books, although I've never
heard of him.
(Man) : His books were never in the top ten, but I like his style. I took a class from him at
the University of Florida.
Narrator : What does the man say about Sterling Watson?
Tulisan dalam buku test Anda:
A. He is required to read one of his books but does not like his writing.
B. He has never read any of his works previously.
C. He appreciates his writing style.
D. He learned about his books from a computer.
Jawaban : (C) He appreciates his writing style.
Keyword : I like his style
Pembahasan : "His books were never in the top ten, but I like his style" yang dinyatakan oleh
laki-laki tersebut jelas bahwa buku-buku pengarang tersebut tidak pernah pada urutan
sepuluh terbaik tetapi dia menyukainya yang berarti bahwa laki-laki tersebut menghargai
tulisan sang penulis.

II. Long Conversation (Part B)


Pada Part B, Anda akan mendengar sebuah percakapan panjang (a long
conversation/dialogue) antara dua orang dan setiap satu percakapan panjang akan diikuti
oleh beberapa pertanyaan.
Teks lisan setiap percakapan panjang terdiri atas 140 s.d. 290 kata dan berlangsung sekitar
40 sampai 80 detik. Topiknya bersifat lebih akademis bila dibandingkan dengan Part A dan
materinya berbicara seputar sejarah, ilmu pengetahuan, atau organisasi universitas, dan
kadang-kadang Anda perlu memerhatikan informasi yang berkaitan dengan angka-angka
yang terdapat dalam percakapan ini. Di sini, Anda memiliki waktu kira-kira 12 detik untuk
menjawab beberapa pertanyaan dalam satu percakapan panjang.
Setelah percakapan panjang selesai, Anda akan mendengar beberapa pertanyaan yang
diucapkan sekali. Untuk menjawab soal-soal di bagian ini, Anda dapat membaca tips dan
triknya secara spesifik dalam Trik dan Cara Menjawab Soal Listening Part B.
Berikut ini adalah contoh soal TOEFL listening Part B, dan tapescript percakapan panjang.
Directions
In Part B, you will hear longer conversations. After each conversation, you will be asked
some questions. The conversations and questions will be spoken just one time. They will not
be written out for you, so you will have to listen carefully in order to understand and
remember what the speaker says.
When you hear a question, read the four possible answers in your test book and decide
which one would be the best answer to the question you have heard. Then, on your answer
sheet, find the number of the problem and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of
the answer you have chosen.
Petunjuk
Di Bagian B, Anda akan mendengar percakapan-percakapan yang lebih panjang. Setelah satu
percakapan panjang diperdengarkan, Anda akan diberi beberapa pertanyaan. Percakapan
dan pertanyaan-pertanyaan hanya akan diucapkan sekali. Pertanyaan-pertanyaan itu tidak
akan dijumpai di lembar soal, sehingga Anda harus mendengarkan dengan cerrmat supaya
bisa memahami dan mengingat apa yang dibicarakan oleh pembicara.
Ketika Anda mendengarkan satu pertanyaan, bacalah pilihan-pilihan jawaban yang ada di
buku soal dan tentukan satu yang merupakan jawaban terbaik dari pertanyaan yang telah
Anda dengar. Kemudian pada lembar jawab, temukan nomor soal dan hitamkan bundaran
yang sesuai dengan pilihan Anda.
Setelah membaca petunjuk dengan jelas, Anda akan mendengar sebuah percakapan
panjang yang diikuti oleh beberapa pertanyaan.

(Man) : I can't believe we have to read this entire book by Monday.


(Woman) : Some teachers think you have nothing else to do besides prepare for their class.
(Man) : Well, my boss thinks the same thing about my job — that it's the only thing I have to
do.
(Woman) : Oh, I didn't know you were working. What do you do?
(Man) : I do bookkeeping work for a small company on Saturdays. This weekend, I have to
prepare end of the quarter reports to give to the accountant on Monday.
(Woman) : You'd better start reading soon.
Narrator : 1. What does the man imply about the assignment?
2. What does the man imply about some teachers?
3. What does the woman suggest that the man do?
4. What does the man say about his work?

Tulisan dalam buku test Anda:


1. A. It is too much to read in such a short time.
B. He has already read the material.
C. He can read at work.
D. The teacher knows that he has a job.
2. A. They are understanding.
B. They give thought-provoking assignments.
C. They act like taking their class is the only thing a student has to do.
D. They are unprepared.
3. A. Skip work
B. Begin work on the assignment as soon as possible
C. Quit the class
D. Stay up all night
4. A. He does manual labor.
B. He dislikes his job.
C. His employer is very understanding.
D. He works with figures.
Pembahasan untuk soal-soal di atas adalah:
1. Jawab : (A) It is too much to read in such a short time
Keyword : can't believe
Pembahasan : Ungkapan "can't believe" mengindikasikan bahwa yang diungkapkan
tersebut suatu hal yang luar biasa/ memberatkan.
2. Jawab : (C) They act like taking their class is the only thing a student has to do
Key word : Some teachers think you have nothing else to do besides prepare for their
class
Pembahasan : Kalimat pada kata kunci mengimplikasikan bahwa para guru tidak terlalu
peduli pada kesibukan para siswa, dan para guru berfikir bahwa para siswa tersebut hanya
mengikuti kelas mereka.
3. Jawab : (B) Begin work on the assignment as soon as possible
Key word : You'd better start reading soon.
Pembahasan : Kalimat pada kata kunci mengindikasikan bahwa sebaiknya sang laki-laki
segera memulai pekerjaannya secepat mungkin.
4. Jawab : (D) He works with figures
Keyword : my boss thinks the same thing about my job
Pembahasan : Dari yang diucapkan laki-laki tersebut bisa disimpulkan bahwa dia bekerja
pada orang lain.

III. Talk (Part C)


Pada Part C, Anda akan mendengarkan ceramah pendek (a short lecture/talk) dan setiap
satu ceramah pendek akan diikuti oleh beberapa pertanyaan. Pada Part C, Anda akan
mendengar teks lisan, yakni kuliah/ceramah pendek (a short lecture). Biasanya setelah
kuliah atau ceramah pendek, Anda akan mendengar 3 (tiga) sampai 7 (tujuh) pertanyaan.
Teks lisan setiap ceramah terdiri atas 140 sampai 290 kata dan berlangsung sekitar 40
sampai 80 detik. Topiknya bersifat lebih akademis bila dibandingkan dengan Part A dan
materinya berbicara seputar sejarah, ilmu pengetahuan, atau organisasi universitas dan
kadang-kadang Anda perlu memerhatikan informasi yang berkaitan dengan angka-angka
yang terdapat dalam percakapan, kuliah ini. Di sini, Anda memiliki waktu kira-kira 12 detik
untuk menjawab beberapa pertanyaan dalam satu ceramah.
Setelah ceramah selesai, Anda akan mendengar beberapa pertanyaan yang diucapkan
sekali.
Berikut ini adalah sebuah contoh soal serta script salah satu ceramah.
Directions
In Part C, you will hear several talks. After each talk, you will be asked some questions. The
talks and questions will be spoken just one time. They will not be written out for you, so you
will have to listen carefully in order to understand and remember what the speaker says.
When you hear a question, read the four possible answers in your test book and decide
which one would be the best answer to the question you have heard. Then, on your answer
sheet, find the number of the problem and fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of
the answer you have chosen.
Petunjuk
Pada Bagian C, Anda akan mendengar beberapa pembicaraan/ceramah. Setelah ceramah,
Anda akan diberi beberapa pertanyaan. Teks ceramah dan pertanyaan- pertanyaan akan
diucapkan sekali saja. Teks ceramah dan pertanyaan-pertanyaan tersebut tidak akan
ditunjukkan secara tertulis kepada Anda, karena itu Anda harus mendengarkan secara
cermat agar bisa memahami dan mengingat apa yang diucapkan oleh pembicara. Ketika
Anda mendengar sebuah pertanyaan, bacalah keempat pilihan jawaban di buku soal Anda
dan tentukan satu jawaban terbaik untuk pertanyaan yang telah Anda dengar. Kemudian
pada lembar jawab, temukan nomor soal dan hitamkan huruf yang cocok dengan pilihan
jawabannya.

Setelah membaca petunjuk di atas, bacalah soal yang mengikutinya. Berikut ini adalah
contoh soal TOEFL listening untuk Part C. Untuk menjawab soal-soal di bagian ini, Anda
dapat membaca tips dan triknya secara spesifik dalam Trik dan Cara Menjawab Soal
Listening Part C.
Script Suara Ceramah pada Part C
The reason we're meeting today is to introduce the plan for our new office layout. Starting
next month, instead of cubicles, we will have an open office. There will be no cubicle walls
or partitions. Instead, desks will be arranged in clusters for each department. The desks in
each department will be facing each other in clusters of four or six. We feel this will
facilitate better communication between workers in each departments. It will also create a
more welcoming environment for clients.
The department managers will still have their own offices, but each will have large windows
and glass doors, to make employees and clients feel welcome to come inside. We're also
going to paint the walls and put in new carpeting. The project will start on the first of next
month and should take about three weeks to complete. We will be moving to the third floor
during that period.
Script Suara Pertanyaan Narrator
1. What is the speaker mainly discussing ?
2. What does the speaker say about the new layout?
3. What is NOT true about plans for the office?
Tulisan dalam buku tes Anda:
1. A. An office renovation
B. Building construction
C. A marketing campaign
D. New carpeting
2. A. The desks will be facing away from each other.
B. Department managers will sit in cubicles.
C. It will increase the number of sales to clients.
D. It will improve employee communication.
3. A. The walls will be painted.
B. New carpeting will be installed.
C. Work will begin next year.
D. The work will take three weeks.
Jawaban yang tepat untuk soal-soal di atas adalah:
1. Jawab : (A) An office renovation
Keyword : our new office layout
Pembahasan : Dari kata kunci bisa diketahui bahwa kantor tersebut akan direnovasi.
2. Jawab : (D) It will improve employee communication.
Key word : will facilitate better communication
Pembahasan : Frase "better communication" bermakna sama dengan "improve
communication"
3. Jawab : (C) Work will begin next year
Keyword : not true; start on the first of next month
Pembahasan : Karena permulaannya bulan berikutnya dan membutuhkan waktu kira-kira
tiga minggu, jadi pernyataan yang tidak benar adalah bahwa pekerjaan akan dimulai tahun
depan.