SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE FOR A SUSTAINED FUTURE

Written By

H.J.R.K.Jayasinghe

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SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE FOR A SUSTAINED FUTURE
Written By H.J.R.K.Jayasinghe (17 June 17, 2010)

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Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.helpmydegree.info

The sustainable city is developed to respect and make the most of natural environmental aspects, to conserve resource use and to minimize impacts on the local and wider natural environment. The sustainable city is a regional and global city: no matter how small or how large, its responsibilities stretch beyond the city boundaries. The sustainable city involves a broadly based, participatory program of radical change, where individuals are

encouraged to take on more responsibility for the ways in which their cities are run. The sustainable city requires that environmental assets and impacts are distributed more equitably than at present. The sustainable city is a learning city, a sharing city, an internationally networked city. The sustainable city is not rooted in an idealized version of past settlements, nor is it one given to a radical casting-off from its own particular cultural, economic and physical identity in the name of the latest passing fad for wholesale urban change. The sustainable city will seek to conserve, enhance and promote its assets in terms of natural, built and cultural environments. The sustainable city presents tremendous opportunities for enhancing environmental quality at local, regional and global scales. (Haughton and Hunter, 1994)
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Will buildings be expanded into protected natural areas? Is an Environmental Impact Assessment needed and has it been prepared? What steps have been taken to protect natural spaces. However this is most sought after topic to discuss. And this report is being discussed more on the selected areas and practical usage. blasting also can be taken a place when it is necessary.helpmydegree. using a report like this. therefore it is difficult to discuss all the subject matters and their practice in the field. therefore it has been selected few major areas where sustainable architecture is necessary to use. In earlier days when it is being needed to prepare a site for a house or any kind of building it was doing with the help of the labors and they didn’t do a considerable change to the site and they just construct their buildings in respect to the site that means they construct their building according to the site conditions there for the stability.info . however today this site preparation procedure is doing with heavy machinery and drilling . aesthetic and contextual response was great for those buildings.Executive summery Sustainable architecture is a profound subject and use of this subject in the field is also cover very large area. this procedure may loose the stability. aesthetic and contextual response of the building Respect for site means to respect for the nature therefore it is need to concentrate on following factors before constrictions is taking a place Will any natural spaces or wilderness be developed?. habitats or species? What restorative or rehabilitative measures will be taken? Will any habitat or species be harmed or eliminated so that it cannot be remedied? Will any significant cultural site be affected? What steps have been taken to protect such cultural site(s)? Have energy and water conservation 4 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. today what the people doing is they are preparing the site according to their need.

fans.helpmydegree. ceilings. weather sealing Energy-efficient appliances and fixtures such as compact fluorescent light bulbs. etc. floors and foundations. appropriate amount of glass. temperature. insulation. insulated hot water lines. size of roof overhang. waste management measures and energy-efficient principles and building technology guided the design process in a meaningful way? Under the sustainable architecture it is being discussed a need of constructing a house which need least possible power specially through (fossil fuels) to heat or cool the interior. window shades. air-to-air exchangers. window placement.info . energy-efficient heating systems. but it is a fact 5 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. insulated doors. The climatic characteristics in terms of solar radiation. insulated homes: insulated walls. And proper use of these things is the way of energy conservation Some techniques of using alternative energy are very simple and those are wellproven solutions. humidity and wind Thermal comfort of the occupants Architectural guidelines for effective solar design The building envelope: Mass. Use correct building orientation. most of which are totally simple to implement. including whole-house fans. day lighting.technologies. glazing. insulated window coverings. ventilation and systems. User control mechanisms The incorporation of renewable fuels into building design Good design can greatly reduce our energy problems. proper hot water heaters. energy-efficient windows. When designing energy conserving house the following fact must be considered The use and cost of energy in buildings on a long-term basis.

because actually if a domestic user select this system sometimes this may not cheep system to gain electricity for him. Roofs are often angled toward the sun to allow photovoltaic panels to collect at maximum efficiency. advantages and disadvantages are common to this system also and under any circumstances the user cant operate a system like this This report is providing the information about what are the eligible places to operate a system like this and. if the building site situated in a area where it is normally having good wind conditions we can use this system. under the sustainable architecture here it will be discussed how this is been operate cheaply. Sun is being a place where it generates power without diminutive and most of the places in the world having direct sun light which is enough to generate power by using photovoltaic panels this must be the best way of generating power. this is actually good way of generating power for specially countries which is situated near the Pacific Ocean. it will be discussed the advantages and disadvantages This is also another good way for alternating power. because it has found that those areas are the most efficient for geothermal energy 6 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. water heating is one of the major power consume procedure in the house.info .to be really surprised because no country has been given a substantial consideration about this Solar heating is a good and reliable way of providing sustainable electricity for any use. electricity gain through the photovoltaic panels can be used for any usage.helpmydegree. this solar heating can be used to water heating for zero cost therefore it will be a good practice if people can use solar heating to at least to heat water Wind is another kind of power generating source we can use free of charge.

sand. limestone are some of them actually if someone need to build a house these things are enough for it. like wise as much as possible building should be maintain and used. there are building elements like windows. 7 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. most commonly found resources are.info .helpmydegree. it is need a very little processing effort to convert them into materials that we want. wooden material etc. clay. it is minimize the resource consumption.Later part of this report has been discussed Sustainable architecture and construction it has been discussed about creating a healthy built environment using resource efficient Conservation supports the principles of sustainability. and a house which is being made with local materials. which is potential for reuse therefore it should be careful to remove those elements safely before being demolished In any where of this world we can find natural resources that can be used for our purposes. resent past years it has been used materials without any conservation usually for reasons of short-term economic advantage and to day it has led to a panic situation of shortage of material in the world and some countries have to import necessary materials from other countries for constructions hence under this ground the cost of the materials is sky rocketing therefore it is need to manage the resource consumption Another side of sustainability is avoid and reduce wastage whenever it is possible to reuse a building it should be considered and if the building can not be reused then it should go to refurbishment. hence before going to artificial or imported material it is wise to consider about local material which is cheap economically. if the refurbishment doesn’t safe and it is not eligible to reuse then only it should go to demolition. trees. will give a good natural and interesting look. rock. tile.

etc. labor. 8 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. transport. they need food.helpmydegree. an equal amount of carbon dioxide is released into the air. not only that producing a material means not a simple process which sometimes use heavy machinery. natural materials are much less likely to adversely affect your health Using renewable material or recyclable material will reduced the necessity of reproducing and also keeping them out of the landfill. and increasing population means that the increasing of the need of the people. buildings. fuel etc. And then there is the matter of health.info . Population is increasing day by day.A building. reusing a product means we reserve those things to future. Also choosing natural materials will reduce the pollution often associated with their manufacture process for every ton of portland cement that is manufactured. is better to live with. as an example a floor which is being made by using wood is very comfortable compared with cement or tile floor and just because of the resilient characteristic of the wood it would not give hurt when someone fall down on it. which is being made with naturally made materials. Increasing these needs means that it is increasing the people’s involvement with the nature therefore we should follow a sustainable procedure to protect the natural environment.

info . And also I would like to extend my gratitude to my friends those who help and encourage me to complete this report 9 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.Acknowledgement This report has being prepared as the final individual project for the higher national diploma in quantity surveying at the International College of Business and Technology Campus. The knowledge that I gained from the lectures was a great help for me to think within the construction industry and write this report successfully. therefore I acknowledge all our lecturers kind dedication to teach us the relevant subjects. therefore I would like to thanks those wise persons who wrote those books and published those articles on the internet. Kandy. I read few books and few articles which had published on the internet and that led me to choose this topic.Sri Lanka At the beginning of the project I had not a good idea about selecting a proper topic for the project.helpmydegree.

........................................... 12 SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE FOR A SUSTAINED FUTURE ....1........ Geothermal energy .....1.... 42 2..............5... 20 1..5......1.............................................2........ 43 2.... WIND POWER..............................................................2....TIDAL BARRAGES ....1...... SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE WITH SITE........... Maximize resource reuse ....................................................5....2...............5....... 38 2........ 32 2...............conserve and reduce use of resources46 3........ 51 3.........3..........................................................1......................................5..... 23 2........ 14 WHY NEED OF SUSTAINABILITY? ... Alternative energy and their use ......SOLAR WATER HEATING ................2................................ 44 3........... 15 1...........................4................3. 46 3..............................3..................... Use renewable or recyclable resources............... 40 2.................................................1............................................... Tidal Power ....................... Respect for site ................................. .......F LOATING WIND FARMS ............................ Passive solar building design ....................... 35 2............ 35 2.................avoid and reduce waste......2............................Minimize resource consumption ................ 25 2............................................ ENERGY CONSERVATION AND USE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES ................................................................1............... 49 3......... ......................................................... 30 2.......................... 56 3... Size of the buildings and sustainability .......................1.................. Use Natural material ............... 56 10 ............3.............. 17 1................ Protect the natural environment....................6....2. SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE AND CONSTRUCTION ................. Working with the climate............................................. ............... Heating............................. 54 3......................................................... Use local material ............. 43 2....................1........4............3..................................3.........TIDAL REEF ........................ CLIMATE AND SIZE OF THE BUILDING .......... 30 2...... 17 1..........OFFSHORE TURBINES........1......................... Ventilation and Cooling System Efficiency ...3..............................Contents INTRODUCTION ...

.......................................................................................................................................................................................info 11 ................... Place ......... 74 REFERENCE ................... 62 Walls................................ 74 VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE .......................helpmydegree................................... 61 1....................................................................................................................................... 68 CASE STUDY 2 ....................................................................... 57 CASE STUDY 1 ....................................................................................... 67 Finishes ...................................... 5. 63 Roofs ......................... 61 2.......................... Foundation ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 61 CONSTRUCTING A HOUSE AND USE OF SUSTAINABILITY..... 70 DESIGN A LIGHT SYSTEM FOR A SELECTED AREA ........................................ 76 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www............. 3............................................................ 4......................................................................... 70 APPENDIX .......................CONCLUSION ................................................. 75 REFERENCE OF FIGURES .....................................................................................................................................

health and safety. resources management. proper use of materials.Introduction Sustainable architecture is simply means that environmentally friendly design techniques in the field of architecture. operate wisely to achieve environmental goals ( Please note that in this report it has been concentrate mostly about use of the sustainable architecture in Sri Lanka. in early days constructions were link with nature and most of the time materials. vapor-permeable ceilings. Sustainable Architecture shows systems approach to design and construction in which the various components such as alternative power recourses (passive solar techniques. resources and development space 12 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Sustainable architecture seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by enhancing efficiency and moderation in the use of materials. proper use of site. safety. buildings are being disappearing.helpmydegree. In the present day early situation has been drastically changed and terms like cost management. geothermal energy etc). at that time there were not any environmental problem or any material problem owing to those buildings (domestic houses ) were tally with the environment and the material also was renewable however with the time this has been changed and in present situation cultural oriented and environmentally friendly houses. and construction of residencies) Different countries have different cultures and way of designing buildings are in relevance with their cultures. that used for constructions. aesthetic appearance. are arising and it has create a negative impact on the survival of people and the industry. environmental impact etc. wind power. optimum use of energy. energy.info . were selections of the nature. contextual responsiveness etc. and cellulose insulation. earth air conditioning.

We need to live more lightly on the earth. The way of people are living. Now is the time to take responsibility for the consequences of our life styles.info . but the survival of other living beings on the planet. We can not ignore the impact we have on the earth's ecosystems. because the degeneration of our environment is affecting not only our survival. will have an enormous influence on the quality of life of every living being.helpmydegree. we are the people who are representing the construction industry. the choices of them providing for their needs. therefore it is our responsibility to show the correct path to people 13 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.

architectures and responsible persons of the construction industry must take an early action to stop this depletion of environmental and other assets and they must proceed with these in mind. Sustainable architecture is looking for identify the needs of the people and execute these needs without affecting the future. As an example 14 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. this situation has led the world for many a difficulties. Implementation of sustainability would necessitate establishing goals of protection of the resources. Who responsible for those problems is the question. because in most of the times there is a responsible person who know the sustainability. Population growth and increasing consumption are reasons in the depletion of some environmental assets as example deforestation. Earlier it was giving priority to economic optimization (this is the way that most of the writers had introduced this but in my opinion this is expectation of narrow economic profits) therefore while introducing sustainability we have to face some problems which occur due to this expectation of narrow economics profits. However this is most sought after topic to discuss. every people are responsible but lions share must own for the people who involving in the construction industry. therefore it has been selected few major areas where sustainable architecture is necessary to use. People has being used to fulfilling their needs with narrow economical advantages and has forget the word sustainability.helpmydegree. using a report like this. and consumption of the resources while conserving is important.Sustainable Architecture For A Sustained Future Sustainable architecture is a profound subject and use of this subject in the field is also cover very large area. but in the past time they have forgotten about sustainability for narrow economics profits.info . therefore it is difficult to discuss all the subject matters and there practice in the field.

It is being considered to supply electric power for a selected area of the country. future generations will have to face some problems like following 15 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. etc ) or they can go for a generate power using coal. but in these procedures value of the effect of environment and people may greater than the value of introducing solar power because introducing solar power will never effect on the environment or people.info . solar power is one of the best alternative power source that we can use it as Sri Lankans because Sri Lanka is a country which gains sunlight through out the almost 365 days of the year. sure they will go for a Hydroelectric (Hydro electric also a alternative power that we can use but constructing a hydroelectric water tank will considerably effect on the natural resources and it is reduced the lands of the country that can be used for many a needs of people. but what are the other options Sri Lanka can go. Why need of sustainability? ‘Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Brundtland Report of the World Commission on the Environment and Development in 1987) Narrow economic clouds have lead the world in to a danger situation. if we fail to convert our self-destroying economy into one that is environmentally sustainable.helpmydegree. someone’s opinion may be this is not economically good choice. Therefore the time has come to think something more than narrow economics profits.

including biotechnology Material depletion Fuel depletion Depletion of lands that can be used for agriculture Therefore we need to think in sustainable way to eschew future generations from those problems 16 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. greater weather instability. rise in sea levels Air. desertification and deforestation Changes in global and regional climate.info . obliterating scarce fertile agricultural land Harmful side effects of modern technology.Threatens biodiversity. water. deprivation of indigenous people of their homes and means of living. land pollution Inappropriate aid for developing countries.helpmydegree.

blasting also can be taken a place when it is necessary. however today this site preparation procedure is doing with heavy machinery and drilling .1.helpmydegree. aesthetic and contextual response was great for those buildings. Sustainable Architecture with Site. Climate and Size of the building 1. habitats or species? What restorative or rehabilitative measures will be taken? Will any habitat or species be harmed or eliminated so that it cannot be remedied? Will any significant cultural site be affected? What steps have been taken to protect such cultural site(s)? 17 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. today what the people are doing is they are preparing the site according to their need. this procedure may loose the stability.1. aesthetic and contextual response of the building Respect for site means to respect for the nature therefore it is need to concentrate on following factors before constrictions is taking a place Will any natural spaces or wilderness be destroyed? Will buildings be expanded into protected natural areas? Is an Environmental Impact Assessment needed and has it been prepared? What steps have been taken to protect natural spaces. Respect for site In earlier days when it is being needed to prepare a site for a house or any kind of building it was doing with the help of the labors and they didn’t do a considerable change to the site and they just construct their buildings in respect to the site that means they construct their building according to the site conditions there for the stability.info .

steps have to be taken to protect natural spaces. a stream. at the moment in this world we have remaining few environmental resources that is striving to hold the equilibrium of this world. and if we lost them means that we have to face some deadly consequences. therefore protecting those places means protecting one’s own culture and it is our obligation to protect them And also it is very important aspect to used to avoiding in constructions in the places where we can cultivate because now it has reduced the space considerably the places where we can cultivate due to the constructions in any place. historical places. If the site is situated near to any kind of natural resources we must consider area of the land is sufficient for a future need of extensions of buildings. hilly areas etc ( see picture 1) 18 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. lake etc) or wild life in danger due to the construction we must take an early action to avoid from that site. rock. we must prepare an environmental impact assessment and if that shows the impact of the environment is considerable indeed we have to go for an another site it is because. etc those should not be destroyed or any kind of constructions is going near a culturally valuable site precautions must be taken to protect them.Have energy and water conservation technologies. because cultural heritage is an invaluable a country owned assets. habitats or species. these cultural sites can be any religion places. If it is an unavoidable occasion and a construction is going on near an any kind of natural resources.helpmydegree. therefore we should used to avoiding such sites and select places for constructions where we cannot cultivate like.info . forest. if any natural spaces( sanctuary. this early consideration will be help to go for an another site without effect later on the relevant natural resources. waste management measures and energy-efficient principles and building technology guided the design process in a meaningful way? Above are the some factors that we must consider before start a construction on a site. Ay kind of cultural site should be avoided.

Figure 1 (The village of Caramany. in one hand protect the environment and biodiversity and cultural values. Rousillon district. on the other hand build the buildings in relevant to the shape of the site and building should show respect for the architectural character of the context and for the preservation of important archaeological and natural imprints.Most of the time respect for the site means. thereby leaving the best soils to cultivation) (Derek Thomas2002.helpmydegree. Architecture and the urban environment. a vision for the new age) 19 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.info . France: Occupying In rocky site.

1 (Temple of Isurumunia. most of the temples have build up adjacent to rocks and had used face of the rock as a wall to cover the building as an example world famous temples like Isurumnniya and Dambulla temples have build up using the natural caves of the rock Anuradapura age Figure1 . Working with Climate (geophysical.helpmydegree. ecological) is an important thing our ancient ancestors also had recognized the importance of the regional climatic adaptation as an essential principle in the creation of architecture therefore we could have seen different characteristics of different ages buildings. as an example they had used the natural shapes (caves) of the rocks to find a building.2. ecological response if it is not so the contextual response are great. those buildings and shapes materials which had used are greatly match with those climates Ancient architectures used geological shapes for building houses. it has used the natural cave to build the temple) 20 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.info . our country also we can clearly identify this by looking at a building of Anuradapura age and Polonaruwa age and also when we comes to Nuwara age we can see the differences and their geological.1. Working with the climate.

info .Anuradapura and the plonnaruwa are normally areas where there are hot climatic conditions through out the year. it has used brick for thick layers walls) 21 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.3 (Temple in Polonnaruwa. secret of using these thick brick layers for wall is control the temperature within the buildings ( see figure 1. 1.helpmydegree.2. so the ancient architectures had made their buildings with thick brick walls or they have used rocks.3) Figure 1.2 (Ancient temple in Anuradapura) Figure 1.

22 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.info . hope of the climatically responsive building is actually to be close with the environment and take advantage of the climate. What we can learn from these things is we don’t need to go for the higher price building materials to construct buildings and installing heating ventilation and air conditioning systems in building is not the one and only way of regulating the heating.In addition to these thick brick layers and rock to construct buildings they have used to construct buildings using clay walls and thatches using straws or coconut leaves. ventilations and air conditions of a buildings. the shape of the land does not need to change and sometimes it can be an added advantage to give a good aesthetic appearance to the building and not only that comfort of the occupants can be preserved with good designing this means a climatically responsive building can enhance the occupants’ well-being.helpmydegree. Using the climatic conditions of the site a designer can design a building with great contextual response. these ancient architects show us using the locally available materials and constructing buildings in keeping with the climatic conditions of the area we can achieve the level of comfort that we need. while enabling them to experience the external climate of the place .

Algeria: Desert Durable and suitable constructions to desert climate where it is often affected by the sand storms (Derek Thomas2002. 23 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. three people and this trend is really a waste of money.3. And such a small house can be manage very easily and construction cost may reduced and economically will be cheap for people. Architecture and the urban environment. Size of the buildings and sustainability Resent time most of the people have used to build the large houses more than they need.helpmydegree.Figure 1.info . material etc. near El Oued.4 Nakhla. A home should be just the right size for its occupants and their activities. a vision for the new age) 1. Large houses generally use a tremendous amount of energy to heat and cool and the maintenance cost may be very high. therefore people should understand that it is unnecessary to build bulky houses actually a small house can be beautiful and cozy. sometimes there are around ten numbers of rooms but may be there are living only two .

sometimes they haven’t any ample space at least to play a badminton game.helpmydegree. All those things emphasize that our need of the building size should be very convenient for us and of course if we can left a place from our land it is just not only helping as a play ground but we can grow vegetable for our consumption and we can have fresh vegetables 24 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. this situation have been lead them to bad health conditions such as obesity. and when people are constructing houses they are used to filed with the land by their houses.info . it is of course the extravagant and unnecessary needs of the people have blind their eyes and they are in the mind of filling lands with unnecessary buildings as a good example there are buildings. desertification and depletion of lands for cultivation etc.Today world is facing for sever struggle of lacking suitable lands facilities therefore people are used to deforesting for their land needs and also they have been used carried out constructions on lands which can be used to cultivation therefore now world is facing many problems such as bad repercussions of deforesting like exhausting water springs. have left without any use. which constructed by the government for various purposes.

window placement. insulated homes: insulated walls. glazing. User control mechanisms The incorporation of renewable fuels into building design Good design can greatly reduce our energy problems.2. but houses can be heated through sunlight. Use correct building orientation. The climatic characteristics in terms of solar radiation. etc. Energy conservation and use of renewable energy resources Sustainably architecture is something we need to talk more in the field of energy conservation. Under the sustainable architecture it is being discussed a need of constructing a house which need least possible power specially through (fossil fuels) to heat or cool the interior. can make the most of natural daylight and natural ventilation. day lighting. appropriate amount of glass. window shades. floors and foundations. insulated window coverings. temperature. size of roof overhang.helpmydegree.info . ceilings. they just need to be adopted as soon as possible. insulated hot water lines. ventilation and systems. When designing energy conserving house the following fact must be considered The use and cost of energy in buildings on a long-term basis. How can we design our buildings to use less energy? Solar power is one thing and most of the people in Sri Lanka can used to using the optimum advantage of solar power ( not only in our country but also most of the other countries can use solar power) . energy-efficient windows. humidity and wind Thermal comfort of the occupants Architectural guidelines for effective solar design The building envelope: Mass. The techniques already exist. insulation. weather sealing 25 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. insulated doors.

By storing excess daytime heat and using it to warm the building during the night.info . and major energy consumer is buildings those use energy for running of buildings – lights.1 (This shows normal energy usage of USA. including whole-house fans. this situation can be turned in to an advantage.Energy-efficient appliances and fixtures such as compact fluorescent light bulbs. ) The problem with buildings is that they don’t change. heating and cooling. If we can use a system to store that heat and use it at night that will be a significant cost saving way. such as the heat from people or the building mass. air-to-air exchangers. Not so with buildings. In some developed countries such as the USA where consumption of energy is a major national (in fact global) issue and the most use of energy is served for domestic purposes Figure 2. energy-efficient heating systems. proper hot water heaters. hot water systems and so on. fans.helpmydegree. And proper use of these things is the way of energy conservation Heat in large buildings accumulates mainly from internal sources. They’re built for the long haul. hybrids and electric cars may have largely replaced the ones we have now. It is estimated that the transport industry in the US replaces itself every 12 years – so in 12 years time. 26 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. This is as an example and this situation is not only prevailing in the USA but most of the other countries.

2.). insulated hot water lines. Day lighting can reduce lighting bills by up to 15 % in commercial buildings. cool pantries. floors and foundations. appropriate amount of glass. size of roof overhang. window placement. etc. built-in benches). 3.helpmydegree. energy-efficient heating systems.info . including whole-house fans. Provide efficient insulation of the interior from the exterior. on-demand hot water heaters. Provide smaller double glazed fenestration. 5. photovoltaic panels. Install automated lighting and thermostatic controls. Passive solar design for day lighting and space heating (use correct building orientation. insulated window coverings.therefore the terms of energy conservation. thick plaster. therefore it should be considered such as more efficient building shapes . set-back (clock) thermostats. ceilings. Use of Energy-efficient house designs. Use of Energy-efficient appliances and fixtures such as compact fluorescent light bulbs. better site selection. night venting when 27 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Use super insulated homes means highly insulated walls. air-to-air exchangers 7. Energy-efficient fans. The procedures that we can follow to reduce the energy usage of buildings 1. when design a house as energy efficient is not an unreachable target today with the new technologies. Systems operated by photocells and controlled by microprocessors will activate dimmers in proportion to the amount of daylight present and provide even lighting throughout the building. Reduction in artificial lighting needs by supplementing with natural light. attached greenhouses. window shades. solar wall ovens. appropriate level of thermal mass inside the insulated envelope (mass floors and interior walls. energy efficient windows. insulated doors. solar hot water. weather sealing etc 6. and energy-efficient buildings have the value more than it is meaning. 4.

when we use lamps and HVAC systems close off in unused rooms. open layout to enhance air circulation. at night etc we can follow as conservations habits (In addition to these procedure in this report it has been discussed the procedures that can be followed to reduce the energy usage of buildings. privacy walls to block the wind. natural convention. lower ceilings in cold climates.appropriate.info . under the Passive solar building design) 28 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. light colored roofs in hot climates. planting trees and plants for shade and to block wind. roof vents. turn off computers. sleeping lofts in cold climates. efficient use of space. open layout and lightcolored interior walls and ceilings to enhance day lighting. outdoor living space etc can be used 8.helpmydegree. Lifestyle changes for conservation such as minimize the number of appliance use ( we can reduce the lamps that we use) use them only when it is necessary. cross ventilation.

1992: Menara Mesiniaga.Figure 2. a vision for the new age) 29 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.helpmydegree. energy-conscious design (Derek Thomas2002. Architecture and the urban environment.2 Kuala Lumpur.info . (IBM) Tower.

this situation economically affected to house holders. window shades. Ventilation and Cooling System Efficiency This area is one of the most important area where design considerations should have been followed carefully because the amount of energy use for the purpose of heating ventilation and cooling system is comparatively high rather than the energy use of other needs. floors and foundations. appropriate amount of glass. energy-efficient windows. window placement. Passive solar building design These buildings give users to use the optimum usage of the energy of the sun without using active solar mechanism such as photoelectric cells or water heating solar panels. Use correct building orientation. in these types of buildings the main target is retain the heat effectively within the building using high thermal mass and strong heat insulations to prevent the heat escape Figure 2. weather sealing 2.1.2. size of roof overhang. Good design can greatly reduce our energy problems. insulated hot water lines. ceilings. A well insulated building is the most effective an economical remedy for reduce this unnecessary energy consumption. insulated doors.3 (Passive solar building. insulated homes: insulated walls. etc. A building should have qualities of less heat generating and power consumption and require more ventilation capacity to expel polluted indoor air for the efficiency of heating ventilation and cooling systems. insulated window coverings. Heating. optimum use of sunlight) 30 .2.

Specially in the areas where there is a clear seasonal change the architectures use planting deciduous trees (trees those leaves are falling in winter but other seasons) near the windows.Use well designed shutters. designer should be able to catch those like wise if there is a water stream or any lake near to the buildings.helpmydegree. should be design to catch cool natural winds from them to be cool free of charge ( See figure 2.info . solar shadings to relieve the excessive heat while the periods of direct sunlight and reduce the use of artificial cooling mediums such as HVAC systems. in warm climatic conditions cooling is take place. using masonry building materials with high thermal mass are very valuable because they can retain the cool temperature of buildings and also main consideration should be given in designing buildings( placing windows). there are natural channels of flowing winds. to achieve this target we can grows trees around the building specially near windows but should be maintain properly to gain the enough sunlight through out the day.. placing windows in the relevant places where sunlight can be gain through out the day is impotent and also design the windows with good characteristics to prevent escaping the heat gain into the building through glasses is involving in designing passive solar buildings certain windows like double or triple glassed insulated windows with gas filled spaces will provide better insulation qualities than the single pane glass widows. thus those trees are blocked excessive sun light in summer with their leaves and in winter allow sunlight to come falling their leaves Heating systems of buildings are primarily focus on sustainable architecture because they are the largest energy consumers in the buildings specially in cold climates. blinds. Prevention of excessive sunlight gain in hot climatic conditions is also important because that will reduce the need of going for the artificial cooling systems.4) 31 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.

3. here in this report mainly it has been given the consideration about the alternative resources that it can be used in our country.Figure 2. most of which are totally simple to implement.info .4 Use natural water stream to cool the home 2. alternative energy resources means that the resources which can be used as energy generating resource alternative to fossil fuels. Alternative energy and their use Some techniques of using alternative energy are very simple and those are well-proven solutions. but here in this report it has not been considered about 32 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. hydro electric is of course a good method that can be used as a alternative energy resource. but it is a fact to be really surprised because no country has been given a substantial consideration about this.helpmydegree.

2. There are houses called zero-energy homes and they have cut power consumption by 50 to 70%.1.3.hydro-electric. because here in Sri Lanka this is being used as one of the main power generating method. It is an economical and environmentally-friendly way to bring power into the home. Many people use solar power to heat their homes and to run different appliances. Roofs are often angled toward the sun to allow photovoltaic panels to collect at maximum efficiency. Some homes in other countries like USA.helpmydegree. SOLAR HEATING Solar heating is a good and reliable way of providing sustainable electricity for any use.info . Therefore solar power is now becoming a very real prospect. Once implemented in the home. And not only we can achieve our power needs using solar power but also we added some extra value to our house. 33 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Sun is being a place where it generates power without diminutive and most of the places in the world having direct sun light which is enough to generate power by using photovoltaic panels this must be the best way of generating power. solar power can be used to heat the home especially for the people live in the areas where there are cold climates. There are a number of ways we can use solar power in our houses. they use solar power to achieve there almost every power needs. electricity gain through the photovoltaic panels can be used for any usage.

Except to this converting system other electricity conveying system is the same system that we used normally. When we use solar power in our homes. This is economically very advantage method for using power and the reducing costs is the main reason people use solar power in their 34 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. If there is a surplus of energy.info .helpmydegree. These panels can also be set into the roof. These panels are called as photovoltaic (PV) panels and that can be free standing rigid sheets used to gain the sun’s energy.Picture 2.5 (Roof mounted solar system) panel The most basic technology used in solar power is the solar electric panel. it can be used at a later time to our needs and it is no need to face to any miserable power cut situations normally we are facing. it is capable of storing energy. or any other convenient place to which sun light directly falling in most of the time through out the day using these photovoltaic panels the sun’s energy is converted to electricity through a system.

homes in other countries and they have succeeded on this and sometimes some residence in developed countries are not only using solar electricity but also they are used to sell there surplus power for central power system of the country.helpmydegree.3. 35 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. It is of course installation cost is some what high but it should understand that we are investing this money for another 10 to 15 years. and this will be economically advantage option.3. because actually if a domestic user select this system sometimes this may not cheep system to gain electricity for him.info . in our country most of the places through out the country is normally having good sun light through out the day and this will be enough to use a solar hot water heating system 2. SOLAR WATER HEATING Water heating is one of the major power consume procedure in the house. in developing counties like Sri Lanka people may not have enough money to this procedure but there should be a considerable government interference just because this a good investment 2. under the sustainable architecture here it will be discussed how this is been operate cheaply. it is because after installation it is no need to spend money for maintenance.1. if the building site situated in a area where it is normally having good wind conditions we can use this system.2. WIND POWER Wind is another kind of power generating source we can use free of charge.1. this solar water heating can be used to heat water for zero cost therefore it will be a good practice if people can use solar heating to heat water.

therefore there are high speed winds all ways around the country. not only here in Sri Lanka but also other counties where there is a costal area is suitable for use wind as alternative power generating resource and also highest places like top of mountains and such areas are suitable for generating wind power. is surrounded by the beautiful Indian ocean. hence costal areas of our country are suitable for generate power using winds.info . General speed of the winds are higher with the height.advantages and disadvantages are common to this system also and under any circumstances the user cant operate a system like this Here in Sri Lanka. therefore most of the time use a tall tower and mounted a propeller like in the following figure Figure 2. that is the pearl of the Indian ocean.6 (Typical wind power generating tower) 36 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.helpmydegree.

Winds impact with the blades of the propeller and it will rotate thus there is a generator inside the rotating house to generate electricity, and if it is not enough the power generating from one tower we can use number of towers, if there are use more towers to generate power it is called as a wind farm, and the costal areas are the most suitable places for wind farms therefore it will be worth to have several wind farms around the country and through them we can supply power to the people who are living in coastal areas

Figure 2.7 (Carland Cross Wind Farm, Cornwall )

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2.3.2.1. FLOATING WIND FARMS Floating wind farms are similar to a normal wind farm, but the difference is that they float in the middle of the ocean. wind farms can placed in water up to 40 meters, The advantage of having a floating wind farm is to be able to harness the winds from the open ocean. Without any obstructions such as hills, trees and buildings, winds from the open ocean can reach up to speeds twice as fast as coastal areas. This is also a good alternative way of power generating method for our country, individual people may not have the capacity of installing and operating a system like this, but government can concentrate about this.

Figure 2.8 (Floating Wind Farm)

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This power generating method can be used for any need of the domestic and industrial power needs.

Picture 2.9 ( Telecom electrification in Kenya with small wind turbine)

Picture 2.10 (Installation of a small wind turbine for water purification)

Using wind farm power generating method there are advantages and disadvantages we must consider Advantages of wind farms Wind is free, wind farms need no fuel. Produces no waste or greenhouse gases. The land beneath can usually still be used for farming. Wind farms can be tourist attractions. A good method of supplying energy to remote areas. Disadvantages of wind farms  The wind is not always predictable - some days have no wind.
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Geothermal power plants are generally built where geothermal reservoirs are located within a mile or two of the surface.. 3. Geothermal is the heat of the earth.Direct Use and District Heating Systems -which use hot water from springs or reservoirs near the surface. Therefore such places are specially important.g. Geothermal heat pumps. Trincomaly District.info . 2. Here in Sri Lanka also we can see some places where we can find hot springs.helpmydegree.4. there are places where this heat is coming out of the ground also such as volcanoes. because it has found that those areas are the most efficient for geothermal energy. Suitable areas for wind farms are often near the coast.use stable ground or water temperatures near the earth's surface to control building temperatures above 40 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.Electricity generation. Geothermal energy This is also another good way for alternating power. it is wise to have a research to find whether it is possible to use geo thermal energy in areas like this Trincomaly District There are ways of using geothermal energy 1. And other countries like our country if we want to use geothermal energy we can first arrange a research to find the suitable places.in a power plant requires water or steam at very high temperature (300 to 700 degrees Fahrenheit). 2. this is actually good way of generating power for specially countries which is situated near the Pacific Ocean. hot springs and geysers. the core of the earth is consisted with enormous amount of heat and this heat are gradually coming to the surface of the earth. where land is expensive. e.

ground. geothermal heat pumps are becoming more popular. how ever here in Sri Lanka for the areas such as Nuwaraeliya.info . we can use ground temperature. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). etc can use this heat pump system) Geothermal heat pumps use the Earth's constant temperatures to heat and cool buildings. Bandarawela. Although.helpmydegree. They transfer heat from the ground (or water) into buildings in winter and reverse the process in the summer. According to the U.S. Temperatures of the above ground change a lot from day to day and season to season. this means that soil temperatures are usually warmer than the air in winter and cooler than the air in summer. in USA most homes still use traditional furnaces and air conditioners. (This conditions is an advantage for specially countries where there are clear seasonal change over. In country like Sri Lanka this procedure may be deserved. environmentally clean. and cost-effective systems for temperature control. because in this system. geothermal heat pumps are the most energy-efficient. temperatures in the upper 10 feet of the Earth's surface hold nearly constant between 50 and 60 degrees Fahrenheit. This is normal conditions for most areas around the earth. And this situation is clearly a pleasure for the people who are talking about sustainability 41 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.

42 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Tidal Power Sri Lanka is being surrounded by the sea.11 (Simply circulate water or an antifreeze solution through a closed loop network of pipe) 2.5. the tidal power can be considered as a god way for alternating power. the tide moves with a huge amount of water each day and the energy carried with these tides are huge and with the newest technologies it is possible to convert this energy into electrical power although it is not easy.info .helpmydegree.Figure 2.

The ebb and flow of the tides can be used to turn a turbine.helpmydegree. the water flows through tunnels in the dam. so it wouldn't affect the tides as severely therefore the environmental consequences are less. so power could start being generated sooner. this also very similar procedure for tidal barrage but this design does not block the water movement as much like in the barrage method. (See figure 2.1.2.3) 2. which then turns a turbine.info 43 .2. This procedure is used in Britain and this systems provide around 20% of their energy needs.12 (Tidal Barrages. or it can be used to push air through a pipe.5.1. TIDAL BARRAGES A huge dam is built across a river estuary (in wide tidal river mouth).5. Rance estuary in northern France) Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.12) Figure 2. And this could be built in sections. This dam is called as a "barrage" When the tide goes in and out.1. TIDAL REEF This procedure also can be used to convert energy of the tides into electricity. (See picture 3.

14) 44 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.helpmydegree.5) these method is better for the environment than any other tidal energy methods and also energy from waves do not emit any carbon or harmful greenhouse gases.13 (Tidal Reef.5. First identify the offshore areas where there normally have good wave conditions. OFFSHORE TURBINES These systems are like an underwater wind farms. example design) 2.1.info . (See figure 2.3.Figure 2. so that it is much better for the planet and every living thing on it. and install under water towers as in the (figure 3.

example for design) Advantages Tidal power is free It produces no greenhouse gases or other waste It needs no fuel It produces electricity reliably Not expensive to maintain.Figure 2. Disadvantages A barrage across an estuary is very expensive to build. and affects a very wide area . There are few suitable sites for tidal barrages 45 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.the environment is changed for many miles upstream and downstream.14 (Tidal Reef.info .helpmydegree.

Depletion of materials 2.info . Sustainable Architecture and Construction Considerable amount of money of the global economy is dedicated to constructing.3. And this is increasing day by day although the spaces are not enough people haven’t stopped their construction. Depletion of land for agriculture 4. sky scrapers which are tiring to catch the zenith of the sky they are constructing in a competitive way. Minimize resource consumption . etc any where they are constructing various kinds of buildings. resent past years it has been used materials without any conservation usually for reasons of short-term economic 46 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Land fillings from the materials that cannot be reuse Considering all those things people should understand the necessity of the sustainable construction that means ‘creating a healthy built environment using resource efficient.1. operating and equipping homes and offices. and ecologically based principles’ 3. lands etc are leading the world into some severe problems.helpmydegree. beach. Conservation supports the principles of sustainability. Destruction of natural places 5. as follow 1. Wastage of materials and other resources 7. devastating natural places like forests. Speed of the constructions and use of materials.conserve and reduce use of resources. it is minimize the resource consumption. Depletions of lands 3. Environment pollution 6. lakes.

however now this resources is becoming a shortage resource for every where in the world and main reason for this is consumption of this resource without any management for reservation. dual flushing toilet mechanisms 3. Rooftop rainwater harvesting for outdoor irrigation 2.advantage and to day it has led to a panic situation of shortage of material in the world and some countries have to import necessary materials from other countries for constructions hence under this ground the cost of the materials is sky rocketing therefore it is need to manage the resource consumption Water is one of the resource that we are using for our construction process and abundant resource that we can find in some areas and shortage resource for other areas. as an examples people have used water without categorized whether it is suitable for use of the daily routings of the people and animal ( this means they must identify the water as drinkable. 47 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. and also some factories.info . In external landscaping the use of indigenous. Water efficiency in buildings through the use of conserving fittings such as low-flow showerheads. good for constructions. etc have build up near the natural water resources without any sustainability and they used to contaminating the water by adding every unsuitable. dangerous chemicals etc and thus this resources had become unusable At least now people should understand this situation and they can limit the consumption of water through 1. tap aerators. hotels. low water dependent plant species.helpmydegree. and good for agriculture and other aspects.

Renewable and abundant. transportation and use. 6. Energy efficient. other resources also conserve by limiting resource consumption by raising issues as to whether the materials or resources intended for use are: 1. equal opportunity. unfortunately this will be a fact to reduce there life time.Figure 3.1 (Water pollution. emitting no harmful vapors. Please give your concentration on this you are jeopardizing not only your life but also your child ) Water is only a one resource that it had been considered. Equitable and produced via socially correct means.g. fair wages. People have used to adding various kind of pollutants to water. and be convincingly tested in their application.info . and 48 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. particles or toxins during either manufacture or use. Non-polluting. Durable. long-lived and easy to maintain and repair. 4. using low energy in production. 2. good working conditions. 5. 3. Low impact on the environment at source.helpmydegree. e.

sometimes 49 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.7. Low waste and capable of being reused and recycled. which is potential for reuse therefore it should be careful to remove those elements safely before being demolished Many of the countries are constructing a building to a specific period of time and after that they used to demolished those buildings. oak. there are types of woods that we can use while foresting as an examples. like wise as much as possible building should be maintain and used. there are building elements like windows.info . saves more than 70% of the energy used in manufacturing new steel from primary ore. Maximize resource reuse .helpmydegree. roof related materials. sealing can be used and Teak can be used for making doors.avoid and reduce waste. Recycled steel. thereby saving the vast amounts of energy spent on processing raw materials. windows. Another side of sustainability is avoid and reduce wastage whenever it is possible to reuse a building it should be considered and if the building can not be reused then it should go to refurbishment. wooden material etc. most often fresh timber is made from hard-pressed woods that gain from forests and that should be avoided 3. Oak related productions like sheet material for use on floors and walls. And composite boards are made from waste timber and vegetable matter and those are also optional. but due to the heavy demand. teak.2. for example. If the material is renewable and abundant there is no problem for using them for construction as an example wood related materials but when achieving the needs of woods should not target to terminate of forest. etc they can be used any kind of usages in constructions. tile. if the refurbishment doesn’t safe and it is not eligible to reuse then only it should go to demolition.

if there are is a building it should not be used and need to demolished it should do in that way but why they are designing them in such specific time period. if there is a designing that should be long lasting design and it will be the need of the world. ‘Recycled’ to become an exhibition gallery. With the above process wastage is high because if the building is not good for reuse there are some elements that can be used again. sometimes for very short period of time. Architecture and the urban environment. originally railway station.2 Maximize Resource use(Paris. this is not the way to day the world needed.info . a vision for the new age) 50 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. And also when using new material for any kind of work wastage should be considered Figure 3.)(Derek Thomas2002.helpmydegree. therefore if it is need to demolished a building it should be considered at least this wastage. France: The D ’Orsy Museum.using dynamites or any other explosives.

And the strong of the walls also enough to survive at least two three decades if any external force like flood. or make other decorative outdoor projects. floors can be formed using adobe. Another kind of locally available building material is wood.helpmydegree.3. However as it is mentioned in the above for the easiest and the 51 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Rock as one of the most found local material and after processing with little effort (sometimes for some tasks just breaking is enough) we can use them for various works such as to make retaining walls for landscaping. They can also be used with mortared together to make walls for a house. rock. Use local material In any where of this world we can find natural resources that can be used for our purposes.3. And such walls are best suited to special interior places where their thermal mass for heat storage can be taken advantage of. hence before going to artificial or imported material it is wise to consider about local material which is cheap economically. trees. most commonly found resources are. for walls. and a house which is being made with local materials. sand. hurricane. which is made out of the clay and just need the labors to made and no any other considerable cost are involve with the procedure of making adobe that can be made into blocks for building.info . etc wouldn’t take a place Another type of local material that we are using is adobe and in our country (Sri Lanka) we are still using these things. limestone are some of them actually if someone need to build a house these things are enough for it. it is need a very little processing effort to convert them into materials that we want. will give a good natural and interesting look. And also wood is clearly one of the most useful building materials on the world and the trees can be available any locality therefore wood also available in any where. clay.

purpose of narrow economic clouds it should not be incline to destroy natural forest tat has remain in the present world. By keeping them round. but still solid trees in many locations that can be used in many ways. Bangladesh. rather than sawn into boards. In addition to intorducing the thick brick layers to buildings that hey had used buildings which is made completely using clay and woods. India. Reforesting is the most suitable way to have trees.helpmydegree. Parts of trees can support tremendous weight in a decorative. Although wood can be use for many purpose of construction it should be used only for where it is necessary. there are many benefits. there are specials trees that we can grow easily and use full for our purpose and a special tree is not suitable for any localities but there are lot of trees which match with selected localities. When we are going to build up a house. When trees are utilized in their natural rounded. it can retain the inherent strength that the tree had in the first place. 52 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. and/or contorted shapes.info . So before go for an expensive artificial material first look around at the materials that nature provides nearby As I mentioned in the above early days of Sri Llankens( even in today). pleasing manner. office or any kind of buildings we can use these locally available material which is more cheep. ( not only in Sri Lanka some oter countries like. It is possible to find dead. etc ) present day also we can see those types of houses.

co. it is because the appearance of the house is not giving a comfortable look. but people may avoid to use a house like above.4 (Good appearance for a thatched house www.holidayrentals.helpmydegree. so instead of the appearance of the above house how about using appearance like bellow Figure 3.info . economically very cheap to build a house like this.Figure 3. That is only the reason.uk) 53 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.3 (Use locally available cheap materials to build) Hundred present locally available materials have used to build this house. therefore people should incline to find new ways of building houses using the same locally available and aesthetically valuable house.

Also choosing natural materials will reduce the pollution often associated with their manufacture process (for every ton of Portland cement that is manufactured. as an example a floor which is being made by using wood is very comfortable compared with cement or tile floor and just because of the resilient characteristic of the wood it would not give hurt when someone fall down on it. http://www. natural materials are much less likely to adversely affect your health A home or office means people are always (specially a home) circulate within it.5 (A typical Devonshire cob and thatch house.helpmydegree.Good appearance of houses that we can follow.devonh eritage. but present 54 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. therefore it should be a healthy place for people. Use Natural material A building. And then there is the matter of health. is better to live with. an equal amount of carbon dioxide is released into the air).4. which is being made with naturally made materials.org/Places/D evonCounty/images) 3. those houses also have used locally available materials to construct Figure 3.info .

The quality of the air is very importance. bamboo. Including plants in the living space can greatly enhance the natural plight of the spaces Plants giving a good appearance to spaces and also theyrelease oxygen into the air. adobe or rammed earth.info .). tiles. etc. stone. reeds.helpmydegree. Today most of the houses and the offices are achieving these artificial air circulations which lead people for many healthy and economic problems Figure 3. it is good practice to used building with natural materials and introducing products of natural related into house and offices Among the natural materials that can use. lime or mud plasters. glass. There is an increased risk of air pollution when we seal the interior space tightly against air infiltration from outside. while reducing the carbon dioxide content of the air. Cork. bricks. paper. canes and grasses. all natural fibers (linen. This is because any contaminants that are released into the interior air are more likely to stay there.6 (Here most of the parts of this building it has used. natural materials specially woods) From both an aesthetic and health point of view. Home or office should be a place we feel healthy to live. cotton. untreated wood . wool. 55 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.day all houses (or office spaces) are completely not providing a healthy back ground.

If we can reduce use of new materials creates a corresponding reduction in energy used in the production of materials.5. transport. When older buildings are demolished. it is also a sustainable construction method See Appendix for more about Vernacular Architecture 56 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. windows.info . reusing a product means we reserve those things to future. and hardware. Often sustainable architects incline to use old structures to serve new needs in order to avoid unnecessary construction that means the consumptions of new materials. thus reducing the consumption of new goods 3.helpmydegree. Population is increasing day by day. reusable elements should be carefully removed such as doors. not only that producing a material means not a simple process which sometimes use heavy machinery. fuel etc. Vernacular Architecture is also a good way of constructing building using locally available resources and traditions to address local needs. and increasing population means that the increasing of the need of the people. mantels. Using renewable material or recyclable material will reduced the necessity of reproducing and also keeping them out of the landfill. etc. Increasing these needs means that it is increasing the people’s involvement with the nature therefore we should follow a sustainable procedure to protect the natural environment. Some sustainable architecture incorporates the use of recycled or second hand materials. buildings. Use renewable or recyclable resources.3. such as reclaimed lumber. they need food.6. labor. Protect the natural environment.

Conclusion The areas where it has been discussed in this report can be present as a checklist as following Protect Natural resource. Avoid being disturb or any harm to the natural resource. Concentration on the Size of building A home should be just the right size for its occupants and their activities. Renovating existing buildings is the most sustainable construction. Concentrate on site wastage and advice all for minimize waste and recycling resources Renovate older buildings. vegetation. etc. important natural areas. Use buildings which can be manageable very easily and construction cost May reduced and economically cheap Evaluate site resources. wetlands. sanctuaries. Before commence constructions carry out a careful site evaluation: solar access. Minimize the impact with forests wildlife habitats.helpmydegree.info . soils. water resources 57 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. respect to the natural resources and culturally valued places Minimize site waste. Minimize environmental impact.

and natural cooling. dish washing. wind power. Avoid chemicals and other pollutants into the groundwater. and natural cooling can be incorporated costeffectively into most buildings. and tight construction. Reduce energy use by orienting buildings to make optimal use of passive solar heating. Water that has been used for bathing. Use well-designed high-efficiency air conditioners (and distribution systems) not only save the building occupants money. Minimize waste by designing for standard sizes. Use the trees around the buildings to avoid excessive sunlight Design an energy-efficient building. . Use high levels of insulation. Also consider solar water heating. In Southern climates. Passive solar heating. high-performance windows. Get benefit from existing vegetation.helpmydegree. 58 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. or clothes washing can be recycled for flushing toilets or irrigation.info . geothermal energy and tidal energy. day lighting. Rooftop water catchment for outdoor watering should be considered in many regions. Install high-efficiency heating and cooling equipment.Pay attention to solar orientation. but also produce less pollution during operation. Avoid waste from structural over-design (use optimum value-engineering/advanced framing). Conserve water. Protect water resource and avoid adding any kind of waste to water Optimize material use. day lighting. choose glazing with low solar heat gain Design buildings to use renewable energy.

Install water-efficient equipment. Reuse building materials when possible. Durable products also contribute less to our solid waste problems. when demolished buildings carefully remove reusable elements As it has been mentioned in the above these factors can be used as a check list for sustainable architecture and if it is needed a sustained future. Reducing hot water use also saves energy. cut energy consumption in manufacturing. they also reduce demand on septic systems or sewage treatment plants. Use energy efficiency appliances (lamps such as Fluorescent bulbs). Buy locally produced building materials. in this report it has been 59 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Water-conserving toilets. Manufacturing is very energy-intensive. a product that lasts longer or requires less maintenance usually saves energy.Install high-efficiency appliances. people have to follow these check list in verbatim.info . and faucet aerators not only reduce water use. Building products made from recycled materials reduce solid waste problems. Sustainable architecture which describe environmentally friendly design techniques and systems approach to design and construction.helpmydegree. Look for locally produced materials which is cheap and sometime it is no need excessive transport cost Use building products made from recycled materials. will be help for a sustained future. and save on natural resource use. Reduce landfill pressure and save natural resources by reusing. showerheads. High efficiency appliances offer both economic and environmental advantages over their conventional counterparts. Use durable products and materials.

and using renewable. using regional resources. We conserve natural resources through reducing waste.discussed problems which have taken a place. We optimize energy efficiency and exploit opportunities for passive solar and natural lighting. we create high performance buildings that are in harmony with their context and ones that protect.helpmydegree. and related remedies that we can follow under sustainable architecture By engaging in Sustainable architecture. Such as sustainable Architect can use to enhance human comfort and reduce or eliminate problems that have taken a place due to miss conduct of the people expecting narrow economic profits. 60 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. used and recycled materials. enhance and even restore the natural environment.info .

available material.Case study 1 Constructing a house and use of sustainability As a case study for the sustainable architecture here I am going to describe construction procedure and suitable low costing materials for constructing a house using local and natural materials. because in this case study mostly it has been concentrated conditions. Maximize resource reuse . Use local material 3.avoid and reduce waste 6. 5. 7. Protect the natural environment. however today this site preparation procedure is doing with heavy machinery and drilling. and other surrounding houses etc the aesthetic appearance is unwittingly deserved to that house this is called as contextual response of a house. should not be disturbed. 8. Energy conservation and use of renewable energy resources Please note that this constriction procedure is mostly suitable for constricting a house in Sri Lanka. today what the people 61 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. most of the time if the appearance of a house is tally with the environment. in this case aim is going for 1. and this case study for look specially for the local materials that we can use . back ground. Use Natural material 4.info . blasting also can be taken a place when it is necessary. Use renewable or recyclable resources. therefore natural place on which the house is being deemed to build.helpmydegree. Minimize resource consumption .conserve and reduce use of resources. climate and the lively hood etc of Sri Lanka 1. Respect for site 2. Place Aesthetic and contextual response was great for the buildings specially we like to have a good aesthetic appearance for our residence.

info .are doing is they are preparing the site according to their need. To minimize resource consumption you can go for salvation materials from your old house etc 62 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Foundation As it has been mentioned in the process of foundation construction.helpmydegree. excavation for foundations it should avoid using heavy machinery that will disturbed the steady of the earth (vibrations etc) and later it will lead to settle down the structure with cracks of walls. this procedure may loose the stability. foundations etc. as an example if the site is consisted with boulders. use of labors for excavation is the best way and it should appreciate in this country most of the time it is use labors Materials for foundation As a sustainable method (Use local material) always before going to by any thing for the use of constructions it should search what materials can be available near or is there any materials which can be reused. aesthetic and contextual response of the building In this country sun light is available most of the time in the day and the light from the sun rays is enough for the daily routings. therefore it should consider the orientation of the house to receive effective sunlight through the day time. Clay can be used as a bonding materials instead of cement 4. by means of a little processing it can be used for your foundations Locally available materials that can be used for foundations 1. in this country it might be having excessive sunlight and that can be lead to uncomfortable hot conditions within the house but this can be control growing plants around the house 2. Solid rock particles 3. Boulders 2.

Then it is an easy to estimate the percentage of the total amount of soil that the clay represents. Organic material will float on the water.helpmydegree. is good for adobe projects. to day this situation is converting and people have tend to use cement bricks which lead to increase the artificial appearance of a house while losing the neutrality. There for used to made adobe for wall construction is economically very cheap. with the rest mostly sand. Next. Such soil is found naturally in many areas of the country. Walls Most of the time in this country it is being used clay bricks which is good because of the clay bricks are locally available material. First of all heavier particles will sink. Any soil that is composed of between 20 and 30 percent clay. following this procedure you can test possible soil for making Place some soil in a glass which uses to drink water and then fill the glass with water. 63 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. silt and sand. and the finer clay will settle on the top.3. here in this country most of the places are suitable for making clay bricks and the process of making clay bricks also a easy procedure and adobe also a kind of brick which is some what large than the normal clay brick and it is also a very god material that can be used for constructing walls. There should be a clear line of demarcation between the clay.info . shake the glass until all of the soil is suspended in the water and then set it aside for several hours to settle out.

if the content of the sand is high it is not good to use because it is weaken the strength of walls. there is no any artificial or environmentally affective materials are being used.info . these are construct use of Using local and Natural material.helpmydegree. however any where of this country it can be find good soil for rammed earth walls. stems of trees and reepers (lath which made 64 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. just clay and water Today also in some village areas we can see rammed earth walls. that is also a fact for they have faced problems like need of cooling systems for their houses Construction of a rammed earth wall (house) In this case also it can be used a soil that is composed of between 20 and 30 percent clay. up to the late 1900 people have used this method but today we cannot see people use this ramped walls to build their houses. in this case rammed earth walls are acting as a thermal barrier and protect the comfortable conditions within the house.Making clay bricks.

helpmydegree. after that reepers which are parallel to each other are nailed or tied to these stems steadily to represent the either side f walls Stems Reepers Plan view of a wall Stems Reepers Elevation of a wall structure 65 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.info .out of the bamboo or areca nut trees can be used) are use to construct the structure of the wall. using number of stems it can increase the strength of the walls this stems should be planted very steadily. in the cleared placed where you want to construct the house first plant the tree stems in corners of walls and on the lines of walls are going.

helpmydegree.After complete the wall structure clay is being prepared mixing water and compacting by specially men treading on it.o rg/Places/DevonCounty/imag es/CobandThatch. in some countries they mixed straws with this clay in order to increase the strength of the walls and they called as those walls are cob web walls A house which has used cob web walls (http://www.devonheritage.info . compacted clay is prepared as globate in shape ( this shape is easy to handle and put into walls) after that this prepared globate shape clay put in to the holes of the walls and tamped by hands Stems Reepers Prepared globate shape clay put in to these holes Like wise rammed earth walls are being constructed.jpg</TITLE> ) 66 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.

here in this case we can use clay as a good finishing material and after that it can be white washed as seen in the picture above. Clay . reepers and purlins. example is thatched roofs. Rock particles 6. Straw thatches ( straw bales) 3. Coconut thatches 2. local stones 7. Leaves of Palmyra tree 4.Here also we can use cob web walls to made our houses. Bamboos 5. The following locally available natural materials can be used to construct walls 1. wall finishes should be considered greatly because aesthetic appearance of the house is depend on the finishing. after completing g the roof structure covering ( coconut thatches or straw thatches tied with the reepers specially in coconut thatched roofs The following locally available natural materials can be used as roof coverings 1. Bricks. clay mixed with straws 3. timbers witch is not planed or plane timber can be used as ribs .helpmydegree. Timbers 4.info . Tall grass ( mana) bales 67 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Roofs Roof element also can be made using 100% natural materials. Straw bales 4. adobe 2.

Industrially processed Granite also can be used but may be expensive 7. Hard wood timber. Wood 4.5. compacted hard woods etc As floor finishes it can be used a compacted soil surface which is secondary applied a good clay surface this the simple way that we can use as floor finishes in addition to that following materials also can be used as floor finishes 1.greenhomebuilding. Finishes As wall finishes it can be used clay and to keep a good appearance it can be white washed and also can be used timber which is prepared in many ways as swan timbers. Granite can be used after little process 6. Adobe and it can applied a thin clay layer on it and can be applied colored clay 3.helpmydegree. Brick 2.htm -->) 68 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Planks A stair case made out of timbers (http://www. boards. boards 5.co m/localmaterials.info .

info . therefore it should be careful to protect the natural environment.6.helpmydegree. this is in one hand protecting the natural environment the more you protect the natural environment the more you increase the aesthetic appearance of your land. such as if there are large trees you must avoid cutting them and when you want to plant trees and flowers always you must go for the plants which deserved to the prevailing climatic conditions of the area if not it must be want to spend lot of money to maintain them 69 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Landscaping Actually the landscaping is increase the aesthetic appearance of the land.

Case Study 2 Design a light system for a selected area This article is extracted from one of my assignment and the following is a my design (according to the Lumen method) which is suitable for the following conditions Design a light system for a factory the floor area measures 42m.4 = 0.4. Utilization factor (UF) is 0. 70 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.75 Numbers of lamp =39. required illumination level is 210 Lux. Maintenance factor (MF) is 0.75 Numbers of lamp = E* A F * UF *MF = 210 Lux*42m*20m 15000*0.75 How to decide number of lamps which suitable for the selected area 1.helpmydegree. Required illumination (E) The factory floor measures (A) Lighting design Lumen (LDU) Utilization factor (UF) Maintenance factor (MF) = 210 Lux = 42m*20m = 15000 lumens = 0.2 Therefore it is 40 bulbs need for this factory. 20m. Lighting design Lumen (LDU) is 15000 lumens.4*0.info .

125 =4.helpmydegree.8484 Therefore there should be 5 rows Then the spacing between lamps become 4m The 5 rows can be arrange as follow 42m Spacing between rows 4m 20m Half spacing 2m 71 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.75 The spacing to mounting height ratio is Then the spacing between lamps =3:2 =4.125 Numbers of rows =20/4.Arrangements of the lightings Ceiling area = 42m*20 The height from the ceiling to the working plane is = 2.info .

625m This layout should be as follow.Numbers of lamps in each row Total lamps Numbers of row = 40 =5 Numbers of lamps in each row = 40/5 =8// 8 lamps in an each row Therefore the longitudinal space between lamps in a row = 42/8 = 5.25meters Here will be half the spacing at both ends = 5.25/2 = 2.helpmydegree.25m 20m 2.62m 72 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. 42m 5.info .

25m 20m 2m 2.Then the lamps layout should be as follow 42m 4m 5. Absorptions of lights by the instrument in the area also will be a factor to deviate the required illumination level Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. 2.7m it is not same in the every where of the area there may have some differences there fore it will not give the same required illumination at everywhere. Although we measured the height from the ceiling to the working plane is 2.info 73 . 1.helpmydegree. Reflection of the light from the walls and furniture and other instruments in the area will be a factor to deviate the required illumination level 3.62m Practical problems come across when maintaining the above system.

It has often been dismissed as crude and unrefined. and hence will demonstrate significant similarities in structural forms. even neighbouring villages may have subtly different approaches to the construction and use of their dwellings. It can be contrasted against polite architecture which is characterised by stylistic elements of design intentionally incorporated for aesthetic purposes which go beyond a building's functional requirements.Appendix Vernacular architecture Vernacular architecture is a term used to categorise methods of construction which use locally available resources and traditions to address local needs. (Vernacular architecture.08.09. cultural and historical context in which it exists. Despite these variations. www. but also has proponents who highlight its importance in current design. leading to differing building forms for almost every different context. every building is subject to the same laws of physics. viewed on 22. wikipedia. Vernacular architecture tends to evolve over time to reflect the environmental.com) 74 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Vernacular architecture is influenced by a great range of different aspects of human behaviour and environment.info . even if they at first appear the same.helpmydegree.

2009 http://home.w3.energy from the sea.greenhomebuilding. A vision for the new age.2009 http://www.07.com/solar-power-home/&usg 10.07. Sustainable Architecture.org/TR/REC-html40" xml:lang="en"> 3.2009. Cowart Coleman group.htm --> 75 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.2009.net/darvill/altenerg/wind. http://www. viewed on 27.greenhomebuilding.helpmydegree.cowartgroup. Building today for tomorrow.clara. Sustainable architecture.htm --> 6.net/darvill/altenerg/tidal.info .org/2007/09/10/the-importance-ofsustainable-architecture/ --> 7. http://home. Gyula Sebestyen. Derek Thomas 2002.2009.2009.com/sustainable_architecture. Sustainable Architecture.07. Energy resource.com/sustainable.htm --> 12.07.07.2009 http://makewealthhistory. Why is there an Energy Crisis.07. http://www. Architecture and the urban environment 2. Building today for tomorrow. Sustainable architecture.com/sustainable_architecture. importance-of-sustainable-architecture.w3.08. viewed on 27.2009. http://www.greenhomebuilding. Civilengineerblog.clara. viewed on 27. viewed on 01.2009.Reference 1. 2003.com/articles/energycrisis.07.08. sustainable/ preservation viewed on 01.htm --> 4.08. viewed on 27. http://www. viewed on 27. viewed on 27.org/TR/REC-html40" xml:lang="en"> 5.htm --> 11. Tidal power .htm --> 8.2009. New Architecture and Technology 9. viewed on 27. http://civilengineerblog. viewed on 01. Wind Power. http://www.

clara.2009. How We Can Use Energy from Waves.08. viewed on 01. http://home.fortiswindenergy.2009 http://home. Architecture and the urban environment 4.2009. viewed on 01.com 6.htm --> 8. Energy resource.nziLrot1.com/img/molen_homepage.08.mywindpowersystem. Tides and Currents . viewed on 01.htm --> 5.info .friars.08.co.2009 http://www.freefoto.08. viewed on 01.Reference of figures 1. A vision for the new age.clara. Use natural water stream to cool the home. Wind Power.jpg 76 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.com/how-we-can-use-energy-fromwaves-tides-and-currents/ --> 7. Forties Wind Energy.net/darvill/altenerg/tidal.energy from the sea. Tidal power .net/darvill/altenerg/wind.helpmydegree. Derek Thomas 2002. httpwww.2009 http://www.08.com 3.png&imgrefurl 2. Floating wind farms. viewed on 01. www.bionomicfuel. www.

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