SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE FOR A SUSTAINED FUTURE

Written By

H.J.R.K.Jayasinghe

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SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE FOR A SUSTAINED FUTURE
Written By H.J.R.K.Jayasinghe (17 June 17, 2010)

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The sustainable city is developed to respect and make the most of natural environmental aspects, to conserve resource use and to minimize impacts on the local and wider natural environment. The sustainable city is a regional and global city: no matter how small or how large, its responsibilities stretch beyond the city boundaries. The sustainable city involves a broadly based, participatory program of radical change, where individuals are

encouraged to take on more responsibility for the ways in which their cities are run. The sustainable city requires that environmental assets and impacts are distributed more equitably than at present. The sustainable city is a learning city, a sharing city, an internationally networked city. The sustainable city is not rooted in an idealized version of past settlements, nor is it one given to a radical casting-off from its own particular cultural, economic and physical identity in the name of the latest passing fad for wholesale urban change. The sustainable city will seek to conserve, enhance and promote its assets in terms of natural, built and cultural environments. The sustainable city presents tremendous opportunities for enhancing environmental quality at local, regional and global scales. (Haughton and Hunter, 1994)
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aesthetic and contextual response was great for those buildings.info . blasting also can be taken a place when it is necessary. habitats or species? What restorative or rehabilitative measures will be taken? Will any habitat or species be harmed or eliminated so that it cannot be remedied? Will any significant cultural site be affected? What steps have been taken to protect such cultural site(s)? Have energy and water conservation 4 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. however today this site preparation procedure is doing with heavy machinery and drilling . In earlier days when it is being needed to prepare a site for a house or any kind of building it was doing with the help of the labors and they didn’t do a considerable change to the site and they just construct their buildings in respect to the site that means they construct their building according to the site conditions there for the stability.Executive summery Sustainable architecture is a profound subject and use of this subject in the field is also cover very large area. And this report is being discussed more on the selected areas and practical usage. using a report like this.helpmydegree. aesthetic and contextual response of the building Respect for site means to respect for the nature therefore it is need to concentrate on following factors before constrictions is taking a place Will any natural spaces or wilderness be developed?. therefore it has been selected few major areas where sustainable architecture is necessary to use. this procedure may loose the stability. therefore it is difficult to discuss all the subject matters and their practice in the field. today what the people doing is they are preparing the site according to their need. Will buildings be expanded into protected natural areas? Is an Environmental Impact Assessment needed and has it been prepared? What steps have been taken to protect natural spaces. However this is most sought after topic to discuss.

insulation. air-to-air exchangers. floors and foundations. energy-efficient heating systems. ceilings. day lighting. Use correct building orientation. ventilation and systems. including whole-house fans. proper hot water heaters. insulated hot water lines.helpmydegree. insulated homes: insulated walls. most of which are totally simple to implement. temperature. When designing energy conserving house the following fact must be considered The use and cost of energy in buildings on a long-term basis. window shades. humidity and wind Thermal comfort of the occupants Architectural guidelines for effective solar design The building envelope: Mass. energy-efficient windows. The climatic characteristics in terms of solar radiation. size of roof overhang.info . User control mechanisms The incorporation of renewable fuels into building design Good design can greatly reduce our energy problems.technologies. etc. appropriate amount of glass. And proper use of these things is the way of energy conservation Some techniques of using alternative energy are very simple and those are wellproven solutions. glazing. weather sealing Energy-efficient appliances and fixtures such as compact fluorescent light bulbs. insulated window coverings. insulated doors. window placement. waste management measures and energy-efficient principles and building technology guided the design process in a meaningful way? Under the sustainable architecture it is being discussed a need of constructing a house which need least possible power specially through (fossil fuels) to heat or cool the interior. fans. but it is a fact 5 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.

because actually if a domestic user select this system sometimes this may not cheep system to gain electricity for him. this is actually good way of generating power for specially countries which is situated near the Pacific Ocean. advantages and disadvantages are common to this system also and under any circumstances the user cant operate a system like this This report is providing the information about what are the eligible places to operate a system like this and.to be really surprised because no country has been given a substantial consideration about this Solar heating is a good and reliable way of providing sustainable electricity for any use.helpmydegree. because it has found that those areas are the most efficient for geothermal energy 6 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. under the sustainable architecture here it will be discussed how this is been operate cheaply. Roofs are often angled toward the sun to allow photovoltaic panels to collect at maximum efficiency. this solar heating can be used to water heating for zero cost therefore it will be a good practice if people can use solar heating to at least to heat water Wind is another kind of power generating source we can use free of charge. Sun is being a place where it generates power without diminutive and most of the places in the world having direct sun light which is enough to generate power by using photovoltaic panels this must be the best way of generating power. it will be discussed the advantages and disadvantages This is also another good way for alternating power. electricity gain through the photovoltaic panels can be used for any usage. if the building site situated in a area where it is normally having good wind conditions we can use this system. water heating is one of the major power consume procedure in the house.info .

it is minimize the resource consumption. hence before going to artificial or imported material it is wise to consider about local material which is cheap economically.helpmydegree. trees. like wise as much as possible building should be maintain and used. and a house which is being made with local materials. sand. which is potential for reuse therefore it should be careful to remove those elements safely before being demolished In any where of this world we can find natural resources that can be used for our purposes. most commonly found resources are. resent past years it has been used materials without any conservation usually for reasons of short-term economic advantage and to day it has led to a panic situation of shortage of material in the world and some countries have to import necessary materials from other countries for constructions hence under this ground the cost of the materials is sky rocketing therefore it is need to manage the resource consumption Another side of sustainability is avoid and reduce wastage whenever it is possible to reuse a building it should be considered and if the building can not be reused then it should go to refurbishment.info .Later part of this report has been discussed Sustainable architecture and construction it has been discussed about creating a healthy built environment using resource efficient Conservation supports the principles of sustainability. if the refurbishment doesn’t safe and it is not eligible to reuse then only it should go to demolition. limestone are some of them actually if someone need to build a house these things are enough for it. there are building elements like windows. 7 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. it is need a very little processing effort to convert them into materials that we want. rock. tile. will give a good natural and interesting look. clay. wooden material etc.

reusing a product means we reserve those things to future. not only that producing a material means not a simple process which sometimes use heavy machinery. Increasing these needs means that it is increasing the people’s involvement with the nature therefore we should follow a sustainable procedure to protect the natural environment. which is being made with naturally made materials. they need food. is better to live with. buildings. Also choosing natural materials will reduce the pollution often associated with their manufacture process for every ton of portland cement that is manufactured. an equal amount of carbon dioxide is released into the air. 8 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.helpmydegree. fuel etc. Population is increasing day by day. as an example a floor which is being made by using wood is very comfortable compared with cement or tile floor and just because of the resilient characteristic of the wood it would not give hurt when someone fall down on it. transport. and increasing population means that the increasing of the need of the people. etc. natural materials are much less likely to adversely affect your health Using renewable material or recyclable material will reduced the necessity of reproducing and also keeping them out of the landfill.info . And then there is the matter of health.A building. labor.

therefore I acknowledge all our lecturers kind dedication to teach us the relevant subjects. The knowledge that I gained from the lectures was a great help for me to think within the construction industry and write this report successfully.Sri Lanka At the beginning of the project I had not a good idea about selecting a proper topic for the project.helpmydegree. And also I would like to extend my gratitude to my friends those who help and encourage me to complete this report 9 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. I read few books and few articles which had published on the internet and that led me to choose this topic.info . therefore I would like to thanks those wise persons who wrote those books and published those articles on the internet.Acknowledgement This report has being prepared as the final individual project for the higher national diploma in quantity surveying at the International College of Business and Technology Campus. Kandy.

................ Maximize resource reuse ..........2....................... 49 3.3........................................ 30 2........................................... 14 WHY NEED OF SUSTAINABILITY? ....................5.........................2................ 54 3.....5...5................... 46 3...... 35 2....1..............2.............. ENERGY CONSERVATION AND USE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES .............3........ .......... 15 1............... 43 2..............................5. WIND POWER........................1...........................................3............ Size of the buildings and sustainability ....................... 20 1...... 30 2....................................................1............ Use Natural material ............................................... SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE AND CONSTRUCTION ... SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE WITH SITE... ....................................... 42 2....... Use local material ...........................3....................Minimize resource consumption .. 43 2........ 56 10 .................conserve and reduce use of resources46 3........Contents INTRODUCTION .............................2............................3............................1..TIDAL REEF .avoid and reduce waste.1............................ 32 2......................................................................................5..... Use renewable or recyclable resources....... 40 2.. 25 2..F LOATING WIND FARMS . 44 3.. 56 3................................................................................. 12 SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE FOR A SUSTAINED FUTURE ....... Geothermal energy ..........................................TIDAL BARRAGES ............................. Passive solar building design ............ 35 2.......................... 51 3.................................. Respect for site .................1..............1..............1.................................................. 17 1..OFFSHORE TURBINES......................................... Heating........1....... Tidal Power ..................4.. 17 1................2........................... 23 2......... Working with the climate.4............ Ventilation and Cooling System Efficiency .....6...................................................................................................... Alternative energy and their use ............ Protect the natural environment........ CLIMATE AND SIZE OF THE BUILDING ..................................................1......2...................... 38 2......................3........SOLAR WATER HEATING .. .......................3......

70 APPENDIX ................................................. Place .................................. 74 REFERENCE ..................................................... 61 2............................................................................... 61 1.................................................................. 3..........................................................CONCLUSION .............................................................................................................................. 62 Walls................................................... 4....................................................................................helpmydegree................................................................................................................................................................. 67 Finishes .............................................................. 70 DESIGN A LIGHT SYSTEM FOR A SELECTED AREA ....... 57 CASE STUDY 1 .......................................................................................... 68 CASE STUDY 2 ............................. 74 VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE ......................................... Foundation ............................... 76 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www........................................................ 75 REFERENCE OF FIGURES ....................................... 61 CONSTRUCTING A HOUSE AND USE OF SUSTAINABILITY........................................................................................................... 63 Roofs ....................................................... 5...info 11 .........

info . and cellulose insulation. resources management. are arising and it has create a negative impact on the survival of people and the industry. were selections of the nature. at that time there were not any environmental problem or any material problem owing to those buildings (domestic houses ) were tally with the environment and the material also was renewable however with the time this has been changed and in present situation cultural oriented and environmentally friendly houses. energy. that used for constructions. earth air conditioning. and construction of residencies) Different countries have different cultures and way of designing buildings are in relevance with their cultures.helpmydegree. wind power. geothermal energy etc). optimum use of energy. contextual responsiveness etc. operate wisely to achieve environmental goals ( Please note that in this report it has been concentrate mostly about use of the sustainable architecture in Sri Lanka. buildings are being disappearing. Sustainable architecture seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by enhancing efficiency and moderation in the use of materials. safety. proper use of site. in early days constructions were link with nature and most of the time materials. Sustainable Architecture shows systems approach to design and construction in which the various components such as alternative power recourses (passive solar techniques. In the present day early situation has been drastically changed and terms like cost management. aesthetic appearance. proper use of materials.Introduction Sustainable architecture is simply means that environmentally friendly design techniques in the field of architecture. environmental impact etc. health and safety. resources and development space 12 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. vapor-permeable ceilings.

helpmydegree.info . The way of people are living. but the survival of other living beings on the planet. we are the people who are representing the construction industry. because the degeneration of our environment is affecting not only our survival. Now is the time to take responsibility for the consequences of our life styles.We need to live more lightly on the earth. the choices of them providing for their needs. We can not ignore the impact we have on the earth's ecosystems. will have an enormous influence on the quality of life of every living being. therefore it is our responsibility to show the correct path to people 13 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.

this situation has led the world for many a difficulties. Who responsible for those problems is the question. architectures and responsible persons of the construction industry must take an early action to stop this depletion of environmental and other assets and they must proceed with these in mind. However this is most sought after topic to discuss. therefore it has been selected few major areas where sustainable architecture is necessary to use. Sustainable architecture is looking for identify the needs of the people and execute these needs without affecting the future. Earlier it was giving priority to economic optimization (this is the way that most of the writers had introduced this but in my opinion this is expectation of narrow economic profits) therefore while introducing sustainability we have to face some problems which occur due to this expectation of narrow economics profits. and consumption of the resources while conserving is important. As an example 14 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. every people are responsible but lions share must own for the people who involving in the construction industry.info .helpmydegree. using a report like this. but in the past time they have forgotten about sustainability for narrow economics profits. People has being used to fulfilling their needs with narrow economical advantages and has forget the word sustainability. Implementation of sustainability would necessitate establishing goals of protection of the resources.Sustainable Architecture For A Sustained Future Sustainable architecture is a profound subject and use of this subject in the field is also cover very large area. Population growth and increasing consumption are reasons in the depletion of some environmental assets as example deforestation. because in most of the times there is a responsible person who know the sustainability. therefore it is difficult to discuss all the subject matters and there practice in the field.

solar power is one of the best alternative power source that we can use it as Sri Lankans because Sri Lanka is a country which gains sunlight through out the almost 365 days of the year. Therefore the time has come to think something more than narrow economics profits. but in these procedures value of the effect of environment and people may greater than the value of introducing solar power because introducing solar power will never effect on the environment or people. someone’s opinion may be this is not economically good choice. etc ) or they can go for a generate power using coal. but what are the other options Sri Lanka can go.helpmydegree.info . sure they will go for a Hydroelectric (Hydro electric also a alternative power that we can use but constructing a hydroelectric water tank will considerably effect on the natural resources and it is reduced the lands of the country that can be used for many a needs of people.It is being considered to supply electric power for a selected area of the country. Why need of sustainability? ‘Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Brundtland Report of the World Commission on the Environment and Development in 1987) Narrow economic clouds have lead the world in to a danger situation. future generations will have to face some problems like following 15 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. if we fail to convert our self-destroying economy into one that is environmentally sustainable.

rise in sea levels Air.helpmydegree.Threatens biodiversity. deprivation of indigenous people of their homes and means of living. including biotechnology Material depletion Fuel depletion Depletion of lands that can be used for agriculture Therefore we need to think in sustainable way to eschew future generations from those problems 16 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. greater weather instability.info . desertification and deforestation Changes in global and regional climate. water. land pollution Inappropriate aid for developing countries. obliterating scarce fertile agricultural land Harmful side effects of modern technology.

helpmydegree. Respect for site In earlier days when it is being needed to prepare a site for a house or any kind of building it was doing with the help of the labors and they didn’t do a considerable change to the site and they just construct their buildings in respect to the site that means they construct their building according to the site conditions there for the stability. today what the people are doing is they are preparing the site according to their need. however today this site preparation procedure is doing with heavy machinery and drilling .1. aesthetic and contextual response was great for those buildings. Sustainable Architecture with Site. habitats or species? What restorative or rehabilitative measures will be taken? Will any habitat or species be harmed or eliminated so that it cannot be remedied? Will any significant cultural site be affected? What steps have been taken to protect such cultural site(s)? 17 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.1.info . blasting also can be taken a place when it is necessary. this procedure may loose the stability. aesthetic and contextual response of the building Respect for site means to respect for the nature therefore it is need to concentrate on following factors before constrictions is taking a place Will any natural spaces or wilderness be destroyed? Will buildings be expanded into protected natural areas? Is an Environmental Impact Assessment needed and has it been prepared? What steps have been taken to protect natural spaces. Climate and Size of the building 1.

etc those should not be destroyed or any kind of constructions is going near a culturally valuable site precautions must be taken to protect them.helpmydegree. a stream. historical places. and if we lost them means that we have to face some deadly consequences. we must prepare an environmental impact assessment and if that shows the impact of the environment is considerable indeed we have to go for an another site it is because.Have energy and water conservation technologies. rock. these cultural sites can be any religion places. at the moment in this world we have remaining few environmental resources that is striving to hold the equilibrium of this world. therefore we should used to avoiding such sites and select places for constructions where we cannot cultivate like. this early consideration will be help to go for an another site without effect later on the relevant natural resources. therefore protecting those places means protecting one’s own culture and it is our obligation to protect them And also it is very important aspect to used to avoiding in constructions in the places where we can cultivate because now it has reduced the space considerably the places where we can cultivate due to the constructions in any place. If it is an unavoidable occasion and a construction is going on near an any kind of natural resources. if any natural spaces( sanctuary. Ay kind of cultural site should be avoided. lake etc) or wild life in danger due to the construction we must take an early action to avoid from that site. If the site is situated near to any kind of natural resources we must consider area of the land is sufficient for a future need of extensions of buildings. because cultural heritage is an invaluable a country owned assets. steps have to be taken to protect natural spaces. hilly areas etc ( see picture 1) 18 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.info . forest. habitats or species. waste management measures and energy-efficient principles and building technology guided the design process in a meaningful way? Above are the some factors that we must consider before start a construction on a site.

thereby leaving the best soils to cultivation) (Derek Thomas2002. on the other hand build the buildings in relevant to the shape of the site and building should show respect for the architectural character of the context and for the preservation of important archaeological and natural imprints. Architecture and the urban environment.helpmydegree. Rousillon district. a vision for the new age) 19 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. France: Occupying In rocky site.Most of the time respect for the site means. in one hand protect the environment and biodiversity and cultural values.info . Figure 1 (The village of Caramany.

1. Working with Climate (geophysical. ecological response if it is not so the contextual response are great.info . it has used the natural cave to build the temple) 20 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. as an example they had used the natural shapes (caves) of the rocks to find a building. Working with the climate. those buildings and shapes materials which had used are greatly match with those climates Ancient architectures used geological shapes for building houses.2.1 (Temple of Isurumunia. our country also we can clearly identify this by looking at a building of Anuradapura age and Polonaruwa age and also when we comes to Nuwara age we can see the differences and their geological.helpmydegree. ecological) is an important thing our ancient ancestors also had recognized the importance of the regional climatic adaptation as an essential principle in the creation of architecture therefore we could have seen different characteristics of different ages buildings. most of the temples have build up adjacent to rocks and had used face of the rock as a wall to cover the building as an example world famous temples like Isurumnniya and Dambulla temples have build up using the natural caves of the rock Anuradapura age Figure1 .

it has used brick for thick layers walls) 21 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.3 (Temple in Polonnaruwa.2 (Ancient temple in Anuradapura) Figure 1.info .2. secret of using these thick brick layers for wall is control the temperature within the buildings ( see figure 1.helpmydegree. 1.3) Figure 1. so the ancient architectures had made their buildings with thick brick walls or they have used rocks.Anuradapura and the plonnaruwa are normally areas where there are hot climatic conditions through out the year.

ventilations and air conditions of a buildings. the shape of the land does not need to change and sometimes it can be an added advantage to give a good aesthetic appearance to the building and not only that comfort of the occupants can be preserved with good designing this means a climatically responsive building can enhance the occupants’ well-being. 22 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. these ancient architects show us using the locally available materials and constructing buildings in keeping with the climatic conditions of the area we can achieve the level of comfort that we need. What we can learn from these things is we don’t need to go for the higher price building materials to construct buildings and installing heating ventilation and air conditioning systems in building is not the one and only way of regulating the heating. Using the climatic conditions of the site a designer can design a building with great contextual response. while enabling them to experience the external climate of the place .helpmydegree.info .In addition to these thick brick layers and rock to construct buildings they have used to construct buildings using clay walls and thatches using straws or coconut leaves. hope of the climatically responsive building is actually to be close with the environment and take advantage of the climate.

sometimes there are around ten numbers of rooms but may be there are living only two . Large houses generally use a tremendous amount of energy to heat and cool and the maintenance cost may be very high. near El Oued. three people and this trend is really a waste of money. a vision for the new age) 1. material etc. A home should be just the right size for its occupants and their activities. Architecture and the urban environment.info . therefore people should understand that it is unnecessary to build bulky houses actually a small house can be beautiful and cozy. 23 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.Figure 1.helpmydegree.4 Nakhla.3. Algeria: Desert Durable and suitable constructions to desert climate where it is often affected by the sand storms (Derek Thomas2002. And such a small house can be manage very easily and construction cost may reduced and economically will be cheap for people. Size of the buildings and sustainability Resent time most of the people have used to build the large houses more than they need.

and when people are constructing houses they are used to filed with the land by their houses. have left without any use. desertification and depletion of lands for cultivation etc. it is of course the extravagant and unnecessary needs of the people have blind their eyes and they are in the mind of filling lands with unnecessary buildings as a good example there are buildings.helpmydegree. which constructed by the government for various purposes. this situation have been lead them to bad health conditions such as obesity. sometimes they haven’t any ample space at least to play a badminton game.info . All those things emphasize that our need of the building size should be very convenient for us and of course if we can left a place from our land it is just not only helping as a play ground but we can grow vegetable for our consumption and we can have fresh vegetables 24 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.Today world is facing for sever struggle of lacking suitable lands facilities therefore people are used to deforesting for their land needs and also they have been used carried out constructions on lands which can be used to cultivation therefore now world is facing many problems such as bad repercussions of deforesting like exhausting water springs.

appropriate amount of glass. temperature. insulated homes: insulated walls. When designing energy conserving house the following fact must be considered The use and cost of energy in buildings on a long-term basis. floors and foundations. User control mechanisms The incorporation of renewable fuels into building design Good design can greatly reduce our energy problems. insulated doors. glazing. humidity and wind Thermal comfort of the occupants Architectural guidelines for effective solar design The building envelope: Mass. can make the most of natural daylight and natural ventilation. ceilings. insulation. Energy conservation and use of renewable energy resources Sustainably architecture is something we need to talk more in the field of energy conservation. they just need to be adopted as soon as possible.helpmydegree.info . weather sealing 25 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. How can we design our buildings to use less energy? Solar power is one thing and most of the people in Sri Lanka can used to using the optimum advantage of solar power ( not only in our country but also most of the other countries can use solar power) . The techniques already exist. etc. insulated hot water lines.2. but houses can be heated through sunlight. window shades. ventilation and systems. Use correct building orientation. size of roof overhang. energy-efficient windows. The climatic characteristics in terms of solar radiation. day lighting. insulated window coverings. window placement. Under the sustainable architecture it is being discussed a need of constructing a house which need least possible power specially through (fossil fuels) to heat or cool the interior.

This is as an example and this situation is not only prevailing in the USA but most of the other countries. By storing excess daytime heat and using it to warm the building during the night.helpmydegree. and major energy consumer is buildings those use energy for running of buildings – lights. ) The problem with buildings is that they don’t change.info . energy-efficient heating systems. this situation can be turned in to an advantage. such as the heat from people or the building mass. In some developed countries such as the USA where consumption of energy is a major national (in fact global) issue and the most use of energy is served for domestic purposes Figure 2. fans. Not so with buildings. And proper use of these things is the way of energy conservation Heat in large buildings accumulates mainly from internal sources. air-to-air exchangers. They’re built for the long haul. proper hot water heaters. 26 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.1 (This shows normal energy usage of USA. including whole-house fans. It is estimated that the transport industry in the US replaces itself every 12 years – so in 12 years time. hot water systems and so on. If we can use a system to store that heat and use it at night that will be a significant cost saving way. heating and cooling.Energy-efficient appliances and fixtures such as compact fluorescent light bulbs. hybrids and electric cars may have largely replaced the ones we have now.

energy-efficient heating systems.helpmydegree. solar hot water.). Use super insulated homes means highly insulated walls. and energy-efficient buildings have the value more than it is meaning. window placement. air-to-air exchangers 7. ceilings.info . Install automated lighting and thermostatic controls. attached greenhouses. insulated doors. etc. insulated hot water lines. including whole-house fans. energy efficient windows. solar wall ovens. photovoltaic panels. better site selection. Passive solar design for day lighting and space heating (use correct building orientation. appropriate level of thermal mass inside the insulated envelope (mass floors and interior walls.therefore the terms of energy conservation. 4. appropriate amount of glass. 5. when design a house as energy efficient is not an unreachable target today with the new technologies. 2. Use of Energy-efficient appliances and fixtures such as compact fluorescent light bulbs. Energy-efficient fans. on-demand hot water heaters. built-in benches). weather sealing etc 6. window shades. set-back (clock) thermostats. cool pantries. The procedures that we can follow to reduce the energy usage of buildings 1. insulated window coverings. floors and foundations. Reduction in artificial lighting needs by supplementing with natural light. thick plaster. therefore it should be considered such as more efficient building shapes . Provide smaller double glazed fenestration. Provide efficient insulation of the interior from the exterior. Use of Energy-efficient house designs. 3. night venting when 27 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Systems operated by photocells and controlled by microprocessors will activate dimmers in proportion to the amount of daylight present and provide even lighting throughout the building. Day lighting can reduce lighting bills by up to 15 % in commercial buildings. size of roof overhang.

lower ceilings in cold climates. efficient use of space. at night etc we can follow as conservations habits (In addition to these procedure in this report it has been discussed the procedures that can be followed to reduce the energy usage of buildings. cross ventilation. open layout to enhance air circulation. roof vents. light colored roofs in hot climates. when we use lamps and HVAC systems close off in unused rooms. open layout and lightcolored interior walls and ceilings to enhance day lighting. natural convention. planting trees and plants for shade and to block wind. turn off computers.helpmydegree. sleeping lofts in cold climates. outdoor living space etc can be used 8.info . Lifestyle changes for conservation such as minimize the number of appliance use ( we can reduce the lamps that we use) use them only when it is necessary.appropriate. privacy walls to block the wind. under the Passive solar building design) 28 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.

helpmydegree.Figure 2. (IBM) Tower. Architecture and the urban environment. a vision for the new age) 29 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. 1992: Menara Mesiniaga.info .2 Kuala Lumpur. energy-conscious design (Derek Thomas2002.

insulated doors. A building should have qualities of less heat generating and power consumption and require more ventilation capacity to expel polluted indoor air for the efficiency of heating ventilation and cooling systems.1. Heating. floors and foundations. insulated window coverings. Use correct building orientation. ceilings. size of roof overhang.2. appropriate amount of glass. this situation economically affected to house holders. energy-efficient windows. optimum use of sunlight) 30 .2. insulated hot water lines. etc. window placement.3 (Passive solar building. weather sealing 2. insulated homes: insulated walls. in these types of buildings the main target is retain the heat effectively within the building using high thermal mass and strong heat insulations to prevent the heat escape Figure 2. Ventilation and Cooling System Efficiency This area is one of the most important area where design considerations should have been followed carefully because the amount of energy use for the purpose of heating ventilation and cooling system is comparatively high rather than the energy use of other needs. window shades. Passive solar building design These buildings give users to use the optimum usage of the energy of the sun without using active solar mechanism such as photoelectric cells or water heating solar panels. A well insulated building is the most effective an economical remedy for reduce this unnecessary energy consumption. Good design can greatly reduce our energy problems.

helpmydegree. Prevention of excessive sunlight gain in hot climatic conditions is also important because that will reduce the need of going for the artificial cooling systems. placing windows in the relevant places where sunlight can be gain through out the day is impotent and also design the windows with good characteristics to prevent escaping the heat gain into the building through glasses is involving in designing passive solar buildings certain windows like double or triple glassed insulated windows with gas filled spaces will provide better insulation qualities than the single pane glass widows. designer should be able to catch those like wise if there is a water stream or any lake near to the buildings. using masonry building materials with high thermal mass are very valuable because they can retain the cool temperature of buildings and also main consideration should be given in designing buildings( placing windows). thus those trees are blocked excessive sun light in summer with their leaves and in winter allow sunlight to come falling their leaves Heating systems of buildings are primarily focus on sustainable architecture because they are the largest energy consumers in the buildings specially in cold climates. to achieve this target we can grows trees around the building specially near windows but should be maintain properly to gain the enough sunlight through out the day.Use well designed shutters. blinds.. solar shadings to relieve the excessive heat while the periods of direct sunlight and reduce the use of artificial cooling mediums such as HVAC systems. Specially in the areas where there is a clear seasonal change the architectures use planting deciduous trees (trees those leaves are falling in winter but other seasons) near the windows. in warm climatic conditions cooling is take place.4) 31 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.info . should be design to catch cool natural winds from them to be cool free of charge ( See figure 2. there are natural channels of flowing winds.

most of which are totally simple to implement.Figure 2.helpmydegree.4 Use natural water stream to cool the home 2.3. Alternative energy and their use Some techniques of using alternative energy are very simple and those are well-proven solutions. but it is a fact to be really surprised because no country has been given a substantial consideration about this. here in this report mainly it has been given the consideration about the alternative resources that it can be used in our country. hydro electric is of course a good method that can be used as a alternative energy resource. but here in this report it has not been considered about 32 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. alternative energy resources means that the resources which can be used as energy generating resource alternative to fossil fuels.info .

And not only we can achieve our power needs using solar power but also we added some extra value to our house. There are houses called zero-energy homes and they have cut power consumption by 50 to 70%. because here in Sri Lanka this is being used as one of the main power generating method. 2.1. electricity gain through the photovoltaic panels can be used for any usage.info . It is an economical and environmentally-friendly way to bring power into the home. Therefore solar power is now becoming a very real prospect. 33 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Many people use solar power to heat their homes and to run different appliances. Once implemented in the home. Sun is being a place where it generates power without diminutive and most of the places in the world having direct sun light which is enough to generate power by using photovoltaic panels this must be the best way of generating power.helpmydegree. SOLAR HEATING Solar heating is a good and reliable way of providing sustainable electricity for any use. solar power can be used to heat the home especially for the people live in the areas where there are cold climates. There are a number of ways we can use solar power in our houses.3. Some homes in other countries like USA. Roofs are often angled toward the sun to allow photovoltaic panels to collect at maximum efficiency. they use solar power to achieve there almost every power needs.hydro-electric.

5 (Roof mounted solar system) panel The most basic technology used in solar power is the solar electric panel. These panels can also be set into the roof.info . it can be used at a later time to our needs and it is no need to face to any miserable power cut situations normally we are facing. If there is a surplus of energy. This is economically very advantage method for using power and the reducing costs is the main reason people use solar power in their 34 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. it is capable of storing energy. or any other convenient place to which sun light directly falling in most of the time through out the day using these photovoltaic panels the sun’s energy is converted to electricity through a system. When we use solar power in our homes. These panels are called as photovoltaic (PV) panels and that can be free standing rigid sheets used to gain the sun’s energy. Except to this converting system other electricity conveying system is the same system that we used normally.Picture 2.helpmydegree.

3.homes in other countries and they have succeeded on this and sometimes some residence in developed countries are not only using solar electricity but also they are used to sell there surplus power for central power system of the country. this solar water heating can be used to heat water for zero cost therefore it will be a good practice if people can use solar heating to heat water. because actually if a domestic user select this system sometimes this may not cheep system to gain electricity for him. if the building site situated in a area where it is normally having good wind conditions we can use this system. 35 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.3. It is of course installation cost is some what high but it should understand that we are investing this money for another 10 to 15 years. SOLAR WATER HEATING Water heating is one of the major power consume procedure in the house. WIND POWER Wind is another kind of power generating source we can use free of charge.info . in our country most of the places through out the country is normally having good sun light through out the day and this will be enough to use a solar hot water heating system 2. and this will be economically advantage option.1.2. in developing counties like Sri Lanka people may not have enough money to this procedure but there should be a considerable government interference just because this a good investment 2. under the sustainable architecture here it will be discussed how this is been operate cheaply.1. it is because after installation it is no need to spend money for maintenance.helpmydegree.

is surrounded by the beautiful Indian ocean.6 (Typical wind power generating tower) 36 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. General speed of the winds are higher with the height. therefore there are high speed winds all ways around the country. that is the pearl of the Indian ocean.info .advantages and disadvantages are common to this system also and under any circumstances the user cant operate a system like this Here in Sri Lanka. hence costal areas of our country are suitable for generate power using winds. therefore most of the time use a tall tower and mounted a propeller like in the following figure Figure 2.helpmydegree. not only here in Sri Lanka but also other counties where there is a costal area is suitable for use wind as alternative power generating resource and also highest places like top of mountains and such areas are suitable for generating wind power.

Winds impact with the blades of the propeller and it will rotate thus there is a generator inside the rotating house to generate electricity, and if it is not enough the power generating from one tower we can use number of towers, if there are use more towers to generate power it is called as a wind farm, and the costal areas are the most suitable places for wind farms therefore it will be worth to have several wind farms around the country and through them we can supply power to the people who are living in coastal areas

Figure 2.7 (Carland Cross Wind Farm, Cornwall )

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2.3.2.1. FLOATING WIND FARMS Floating wind farms are similar to a normal wind farm, but the difference is that they float in the middle of the ocean. wind farms can placed in water up to 40 meters, The advantage of having a floating wind farm is to be able to harness the winds from the open ocean. Without any obstructions such as hills, trees and buildings, winds from the open ocean can reach up to speeds twice as fast as coastal areas. This is also a good alternative way of power generating method for our country, individual people may not have the capacity of installing and operating a system like this, but government can concentrate about this.

Figure 2.8 (Floating Wind Farm)

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This power generating method can be used for any need of the domestic and industrial power needs.

Picture 2.9 ( Telecom electrification in Kenya with small wind turbine)

Picture 2.10 (Installation of a small wind turbine for water purification)

Using wind farm power generating method there are advantages and disadvantages we must consider Advantages of wind farms Wind is free, wind farms need no fuel. Produces no waste or greenhouse gases. The land beneath can usually still be used for farming. Wind farms can be tourist attractions. A good method of supplying energy to remote areas. Disadvantages of wind farms  The wind is not always predictable - some days have no wind.
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it is wise to have a research to find whether it is possible to use geo thermal energy in areas like this Trincomaly District There are ways of using geothermal energy 1. the core of the earth is consisted with enormous amount of heat and this heat are gradually coming to the surface of the earth.4.Direct Use and District Heating Systems -which use hot water from springs or reservoirs near the surface. there are places where this heat is coming out of the ground also such as volcanoes.Electricity generation. And other countries like our country if we want to use geothermal energy we can first arrange a research to find the suitable places. 3. Geothermal energy This is also another good way for alternating power. Suitable areas for wind farms are often near the coast. Here in Sri Lanka also we can see some places where we can find hot springs. 2. hot springs and geysers.info .in a power plant requires water or steam at very high temperature (300 to 700 degrees Fahrenheit).. where land is expensive. Trincomaly District.helpmydegree. this is actually good way of generating power for specially countries which is situated near the Pacific Ocean.g. 2. Therefore such places are specially important. Geothermal power plants are generally built where geothermal reservoirs are located within a mile or two of the surface. e. Geothermal heat pumps.use stable ground or water temperatures near the earth's surface to control building temperatures above 40 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Geothermal is the heat of the earth. because it has found that those areas are the most efficient for geothermal energy.

because in this system.S.info . They transfer heat from the ground (or water) into buildings in winter and reverse the process in the summer. we can use ground temperature.helpmydegree. Although. environmentally clean. Bandarawela. geothermal heat pumps are becoming more popular. geothermal heat pumps are the most energy-efficient. temperatures in the upper 10 feet of the Earth's surface hold nearly constant between 50 and 60 degrees Fahrenheit. how ever here in Sri Lanka for the areas such as Nuwaraeliya. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (This conditions is an advantage for specially countries where there are clear seasonal change over. This is normal conditions for most areas around the earth. and cost-effective systems for temperature control. In country like Sri Lanka this procedure may be deserved. this means that soil temperatures are usually warmer than the air in winter and cooler than the air in summer. And this situation is clearly a pleasure for the people who are talking about sustainability 41 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.ground. According to the U. in USA most homes still use traditional furnaces and air conditioners. etc can use this heat pump system) Geothermal heat pumps use the Earth's constant temperatures to heat and cool buildings. Temperatures of the above ground change a lot from day to day and season to season.

helpmydegree.Figure 2. Tidal Power Sri Lanka is being surrounded by the sea. the tide moves with a huge amount of water each day and the energy carried with these tides are huge and with the newest technologies it is possible to convert this energy into electrical power although it is not easy. the tidal power can be considered as a god way for alternating power.5.info .11 (Simply circulate water or an antifreeze solution through a closed loop network of pipe) 2. 42 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.

which then turns a turbine. TIDAL BARRAGES A huge dam is built across a river estuary (in wide tidal river mouth).2. This dam is called as a "barrage" When the tide goes in and out. the water flows through tunnels in the dam. (See picture 3. so it wouldn't affect the tides as severely therefore the environmental consequences are less. This procedure is used in Britain and this systems provide around 20% of their energy needs.5.12) Figure 2.1. TIDAL REEF This procedure also can be used to convert energy of the tides into electricity. or it can be used to push air through a pipe.3) 2.1. so power could start being generated sooner.helpmydegree.info 43 . this also very similar procedure for tidal barrage but this design does not block the water movement as much like in the barrage method.2. Rance estuary in northern France) Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. The ebb and flow of the tides can be used to turn a turbine. And this could be built in sections.5.1. (See figure 2.12 (Tidal Barrages.

First identify the offshore areas where there normally have good wave conditions. example design) 2.13 (Tidal Reef. so that it is much better for the planet and every living thing on it.5.Figure 2. (See figure 2.3.info .helpmydegree.5) these method is better for the environment than any other tidal energy methods and also energy from waves do not emit any carbon or harmful greenhouse gases. and install under water towers as in the (figure 3.14) 44 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. OFFSHORE TURBINES These systems are like an underwater wind farms.1.

Figure 2.helpmydegree.14 (Tidal Reef. and affects a very wide area .the environment is changed for many miles upstream and downstream. There are few suitable sites for tidal barrages 45 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. example for design) Advantages Tidal power is free It produces no greenhouse gases or other waste It needs no fuel It produces electricity reliably Not expensive to maintain.info . Disadvantages A barrage across an estuary is very expensive to build.

operating and equipping homes and offices. sky scrapers which are tiring to catch the zenith of the sky they are constructing in a competitive way. Depletion of land for agriculture 4. etc any where they are constructing various kinds of buildings.info . Sustainable Architecture and Construction Considerable amount of money of the global economy is dedicated to constructing. Depletions of lands 3. Environment pollution 6.3. devastating natural places like forests.helpmydegree. Conservation supports the principles of sustainability. Wastage of materials and other resources 7. lakes. Minimize resource consumption . Speed of the constructions and use of materials. Depletion of materials 2. Destruction of natural places 5. as follow 1. it is minimize the resource consumption. beach. Land fillings from the materials that cannot be reuse Considering all those things people should understand the necessity of the sustainable construction that means ‘creating a healthy built environment using resource efficient.conserve and reduce use of resources. and ecologically based principles’ 3. And this is increasing day by day although the spaces are not enough people haven’t stopped their construction. resent past years it has been used materials without any conservation usually for reasons of short-term economic 46 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. lands etc are leading the world into some severe problems.1.

and also some factories. good for constructions. as an examples people have used water without categorized whether it is suitable for use of the daily routings of the people and animal ( this means they must identify the water as drinkable.helpmydegree. dangerous chemicals etc and thus this resources had become unusable At least now people should understand this situation and they can limit the consumption of water through 1. etc have build up near the natural water resources without any sustainability and they used to contaminating the water by adding every unsuitable. tap aerators.info . hotels. low water dependent plant species. Rooftop rainwater harvesting for outdoor irrigation 2. Water efficiency in buildings through the use of conserving fittings such as low-flow showerheads. In external landscaping the use of indigenous. and good for agriculture and other aspects. however now this resources is becoming a shortage resource for every where in the world and main reason for this is consumption of this resource without any management for reservation. 47 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.advantage and to day it has led to a panic situation of shortage of material in the world and some countries have to import necessary materials from other countries for constructions hence under this ground the cost of the materials is sky rocketing therefore it is need to manage the resource consumption Water is one of the resource that we are using for our construction process and abundant resource that we can find in some areas and shortage resource for other areas. dual flushing toilet mechanisms 3.

Durable. 2. good working conditions.g. equal opportunity. particles or toxins during either manufacture or use. 3. 6. Non-polluting. Please give your concentration on this you are jeopardizing not only your life but also your child ) Water is only a one resource that it had been considered. and 48 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.1 (Water pollution. long-lived and easy to maintain and repair.helpmydegree. fair wages.Figure 3. other resources also conserve by limiting resource consumption by raising issues as to whether the materials or resources intended for use are: 1. using low energy in production. emitting no harmful vapors. Renewable and abundant. Equitable and produced via socially correct means.info . People have used to adding various kind of pollutants to water. transportation and use. Low impact on the environment at source. 5. 4. unfortunately this will be a fact to reduce there life time. e. Energy efficient. and be convincingly tested in their application.

Recycled steel. most often fresh timber is made from hard-pressed woods that gain from forests and that should be avoided 3. for example. saves more than 70% of the energy used in manufacturing new steel from primary ore. If the material is renewable and abundant there is no problem for using them for construction as an example wood related materials but when achieving the needs of woods should not target to terminate of forest. And composite boards are made from waste timber and vegetable matter and those are also optional. windows.7. wooden material etc. there are building elements like windows. Oak related productions like sheet material for use on floors and walls. thereby saving the vast amounts of energy spent on processing raw materials. there are types of woods that we can use while foresting as an examples. which is potential for reuse therefore it should be careful to remove those elements safely before being demolished Many of the countries are constructing a building to a specific period of time and after that they used to demolished those buildings.avoid and reduce waste. tile. sealing can be used and Teak can be used for making doors. Maximize resource reuse . like wise as much as possible building should be maintain and used.2. Another side of sustainability is avoid and reduce wastage whenever it is possible to reuse a building it should be considered and if the building can not be reused then it should go to refurbishment. Low waste and capable of being reused and recycled. oak. teak. sometimes 49 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. etc they can be used any kind of usages in constructions.helpmydegree. but due to the heavy demand.info . roof related materials. if the refurbishment doesn’t safe and it is not eligible to reuse then only it should go to demolition.

Architecture and the urban environment. France: The D ’Orsy Museum. With the above process wastage is high because if the building is not good for reuse there are some elements that can be used again. sometimes for very short period of time. if there is a designing that should be long lasting design and it will be the need of the world. ‘Recycled’ to become an exhibition gallery.using dynamites or any other explosives. if there are is a building it should not be used and need to demolished it should do in that way but why they are designing them in such specific time period. originally railway station. And also when using new material for any kind of work wastage should be considered Figure 3. therefore if it is need to demolished a building it should be considered at least this wastage. a vision for the new age) 50 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.helpmydegree. this is not the way to day the world needed.2 Maximize Resource use(Paris.info .)(Derek Thomas2002.

and a house which is being made with local materials. limestone are some of them actually if someone need to build a house these things are enough for it. trees. or make other decorative outdoor projects. for walls. They can also be used with mortared together to make walls for a house.3. most commonly found resources are. rock. hence before going to artificial or imported material it is wise to consider about local material which is cheap economically. Another kind of locally available building material is wood.helpmydegree. which is made out of the clay and just need the labors to made and no any other considerable cost are involve with the procedure of making adobe that can be made into blocks for building. clay.info . However as it is mentioned in the above for the easiest and the 51 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. hurricane. etc wouldn’t take a place Another type of local material that we are using is adobe and in our country (Sri Lanka) we are still using these things. floors can be formed using adobe. will give a good natural and interesting look. Rock as one of the most found local material and after processing with little effort (sometimes for some tasks just breaking is enough) we can use them for various works such as to make retaining walls for landscaping. it is need a very little processing effort to convert them into materials that we want. And the strong of the walls also enough to survive at least two three decades if any external force like flood.3. And also wood is clearly one of the most useful building materials on the world and the trees can be available any locality therefore wood also available in any where. Use local material In any where of this world we can find natural resources that can be used for our purposes. sand. And such walls are best suited to special interior places where their thermal mass for heat storage can be taken advantage of.

office or any kind of buildings we can use these locally available material which is more cheep. By keeping them round.purpose of narrow economic clouds it should not be incline to destroy natural forest tat has remain in the present world. ( not only in Sri Lanka some oter countries like. but still solid trees in many locations that can be used in many ways. When we are going to build up a house. pleasing manner. rather than sawn into boards. it can retain the inherent strength that the tree had in the first place. India. and/or contorted shapes.helpmydegree. Although wood can be use for many purpose of construction it should be used only for where it is necessary. In addition to intorducing the thick brick layers to buildings that hey had used buildings which is made completely using clay and woods. etc ) present day also we can see those types of houses. Bangladesh. So before go for an expensive artificial material first look around at the materials that nature provides nearby As I mentioned in the above early days of Sri Llankens( even in today).info . 52 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. It is possible to find dead. there are many benefits. Reforesting is the most suitable way to have trees. there are specials trees that we can grow easily and use full for our purpose and a special tree is not suitable for any localities but there are lot of trees which match with selected localities. Parts of trees can support tremendous weight in a decorative. When trees are utilized in their natural rounded.

co.4 (Good appearance for a thatched house www. so instead of the appearance of the above house how about using appearance like bellow Figure 3.3 (Use locally available cheap materials to build) Hundred present locally available materials have used to build this house.helpmydegree. economically very cheap to build a house like this. That is only the reason. it is because the appearance of the house is not giving a comfortable look. therefore people should incline to find new ways of building houses using the same locally available and aesthetically valuable house.info .holidayrentals. but people may avoid to use a house like above.Figure 3.uk) 53 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.

4. an equal amount of carbon dioxide is released into the air). http://www. Also choosing natural materials will reduce the pollution often associated with their manufacture process (for every ton of Portland cement that is manufactured. therefore it should be a healthy place for people. but present 54 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. which is being made with naturally made materials.info . Use Natural material A building. those houses also have used locally available materials to construct Figure 3.devonh eritage.helpmydegree.5 (A typical Devonshire cob and thatch house. natural materials are much less likely to adversely affect your health A home or office means people are always (specially a home) circulate within it. And then there is the matter of health.Good appearance of houses that we can follow.org/Places/D evonCounty/images) 3. is better to live with. as an example a floor which is being made by using wood is very comfortable compared with cement or tile floor and just because of the resilient characteristic of the wood it would not give hurt when someone fall down on it.

55 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.6 (Here most of the parts of this building it has used. tiles. natural materials specially woods) From both an aesthetic and health point of view. Cork. stone. The quality of the air is very importance. Including plants in the living space can greatly enhance the natural plight of the spaces Plants giving a good appearance to spaces and also theyrelease oxygen into the air. cotton. This is because any contaminants that are released into the interior air are more likely to stay there. Home or office should be a place we feel healthy to live.day all houses (or office spaces) are completely not providing a healthy back ground. glass. while reducing the carbon dioxide content of the air. wool. lime or mud plasters. paper. adobe or rammed earth. bamboo. canes and grasses. Today most of the houses and the offices are achieving these artificial air circulations which lead people for many healthy and economic problems Figure 3. untreated wood . reeds. bricks.info . etc.). There is an increased risk of air pollution when we seal the interior space tightly against air infiltration from outside. all natural fibers (linen.helpmydegree. it is good practice to used building with natural materials and introducing products of natural related into house and offices Among the natural materials that can use.

Protect the natural environment. Vernacular Architecture is also a good way of constructing building using locally available resources and traditions to address local needs. not only that producing a material means not a simple process which sometimes use heavy machinery. and increasing population means that the increasing of the need of the people. buildings. Often sustainable architects incline to use old structures to serve new needs in order to avoid unnecessary construction that means the consumptions of new materials. thus reducing the consumption of new goods 3. reusable elements should be carefully removed such as doors. etc. fuel etc. Some sustainable architecture incorporates the use of recycled or second hand materials. When older buildings are demolished. Increasing these needs means that it is increasing the people’s involvement with the nature therefore we should follow a sustainable procedure to protect the natural environment. they need food.helpmydegree. it is also a sustainable construction method See Appendix for more about Vernacular Architecture 56 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. If we can reduce use of new materials creates a corresponding reduction in energy used in the production of materials. Use renewable or recyclable resources.info . Population is increasing day by day.5. reusing a product means we reserve those things to future. mantels. and hardware. Using renewable material or recyclable material will reduced the necessity of reproducing and also keeping them out of the landfill. such as reclaimed lumber.6.3. windows. transport. labor.

Before commence constructions carry out a careful site evaluation: solar access. Minimize the impact with forests wildlife habitats. vegetation.info . respect to the natural resources and culturally valued places Minimize site waste. Renovating existing buildings is the most sustainable construction. Concentrate on site wastage and advice all for minimize waste and recycling resources Renovate older buildings. etc. Avoid being disturb or any harm to the natural resource. important natural areas. Concentration on the Size of building A home should be just the right size for its occupants and their activities. wetlands.Conclusion The areas where it has been discussed in this report can be present as a checklist as following Protect Natural resource.helpmydegree. water resources 57 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Minimize environmental impact. Use buildings which can be manageable very easily and construction cost May reduced and economically cheap Evaluate site resources. soils. sanctuaries.

day lighting. Passive solar heating. . Avoid waste from structural over-design (use optimum value-engineering/advanced framing). day lighting. Protect water resource and avoid adding any kind of waste to water Optimize material use. Reduce energy use by orienting buildings to make optimal use of passive solar heating. Get benefit from existing vegetation.helpmydegree. high-performance windows. Avoid chemicals and other pollutants into the groundwater. Use high levels of insulation. In Southern climates.info . geothermal energy and tidal energy. or clothes washing can be recycled for flushing toilets or irrigation. Use well-designed high-efficiency air conditioners (and distribution systems) not only save the building occupants money. 58 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Conserve water. and natural cooling.Pay attention to solar orientation. Minimize waste by designing for standard sizes. choose glazing with low solar heat gain Design buildings to use renewable energy. Also consider solar water heating. but also produce less pollution during operation. Install high-efficiency heating and cooling equipment. and tight construction. Rooftop water catchment for outdoor watering should be considered in many regions. Use the trees around the buildings to avoid excessive sunlight Design an energy-efficient building. and natural cooling can be incorporated costeffectively into most buildings. dish washing. Water that has been used for bathing. wind power.

Install high-efficiency appliances. Use energy efficiency appliances (lamps such as Fluorescent bulbs).info . Manufacturing is very energy-intensive. High efficiency appliances offer both economic and environmental advantages over their conventional counterparts. Install water-efficient equipment. Reduce landfill pressure and save natural resources by reusing. Reducing hot water use also saves energy. Use durable products and materials. Durable products also contribute less to our solid waste problems. showerheads. Building products made from recycled materials reduce solid waste problems. Reuse building materials when possible. Buy locally produced building materials. they also reduce demand on septic systems or sewage treatment plants. cut energy consumption in manufacturing. a product that lasts longer or requires less maintenance usually saves energy. people have to follow these check list in verbatim. in this report it has been 59 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. will be help for a sustained future. and faucet aerators not only reduce water use. and save on natural resource use.helpmydegree. Look for locally produced materials which is cheap and sometime it is no need excessive transport cost Use building products made from recycled materials. Sustainable architecture which describe environmentally friendly design techniques and systems approach to design and construction. Water-conserving toilets. when demolished buildings carefully remove reusable elements As it has been mentioned in the above these factors can be used as a check list for sustainable architecture and if it is needed a sustained future.

and using renewable. using regional resources. we create high performance buildings that are in harmony with their context and ones that protect. enhance and even restore the natural environment. used and recycled materials.info .discussed problems which have taken a place. We conserve natural resources through reducing waste. Such as sustainable Architect can use to enhance human comfort and reduce or eliminate problems that have taken a place due to miss conduct of the people expecting narrow economic profits.helpmydegree. 60 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. and related remedies that we can follow under sustainable architecture By engaging in Sustainable architecture. We optimize energy efficiency and exploit opportunities for passive solar and natural lighting.

however today this site preparation procedure is doing with heavy machinery and drilling.conserve and reduce use of resources. Energy conservation and use of renewable energy resources Please note that this constriction procedure is mostly suitable for constricting a house in Sri Lanka. therefore natural place on which the house is being deemed to build. Protect the natural environment. should not be disturbed. in this case aim is going for 1. most of the time if the appearance of a house is tally with the environment. Use renewable or recyclable resources. 8. and other surrounding houses etc the aesthetic appearance is unwittingly deserved to that house this is called as contextual response of a house.Case study 1 Constructing a house and use of sustainability As a case study for the sustainable architecture here I am going to describe construction procedure and suitable low costing materials for constructing a house using local and natural materials. Use Natural material 4. and this case study for look specially for the local materials that we can use . Use local material 3. Maximize resource reuse . 5. available material. blasting also can be taken a place when it is necessary.helpmydegree. Minimize resource consumption . back ground. because in this case study mostly it has been concentrated conditions. 7. Place Aesthetic and contextual response was great for the buildings specially we like to have a good aesthetic appearance for our residence. climate and the lively hood etc of Sri Lanka 1. today what the people 61 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.info .avoid and reduce waste 6. Respect for site 2.

by means of a little processing it can be used for your foundations Locally available materials that can be used for foundations 1. excavation for foundations it should avoid using heavy machinery that will disturbed the steady of the earth (vibrations etc) and later it will lead to settle down the structure with cracks of walls. Boulders 2. To minimize resource consumption you can go for salvation materials from your old house etc 62 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. in this country it might be having excessive sunlight and that can be lead to uncomfortable hot conditions within the house but this can be control growing plants around the house 2. this procedure may loose the stability. use of labors for excavation is the best way and it should appreciate in this country most of the time it is use labors Materials for foundation As a sustainable method (Use local material) always before going to by any thing for the use of constructions it should search what materials can be available near or is there any materials which can be reused.helpmydegree. aesthetic and contextual response of the building In this country sun light is available most of the time in the day and the light from the sun rays is enough for the daily routings. therefore it should consider the orientation of the house to receive effective sunlight through the day time.are doing is they are preparing the site according to their need. Clay can be used as a bonding materials instead of cement 4. as an example if the site is consisted with boulders.info . Foundation As it has been mentioned in the process of foundation construction. foundations etc. Solid rock particles 3.

shake the glass until all of the soil is suspended in the water and then set it aside for several hours to settle out.info . Such soil is found naturally in many areas of the country.3. and the finer clay will settle on the top. There should be a clear line of demarcation between the clay. First of all heavier particles will sink. There for used to made adobe for wall construction is economically very cheap.helpmydegree. following this procedure you can test possible soil for making Place some soil in a glass which uses to drink water and then fill the glass with water. silt and sand. Any soil that is composed of between 20 and 30 percent clay. Then it is an easy to estimate the percentage of the total amount of soil that the clay represents. is good for adobe projects. Organic material will float on the water. Walls Most of the time in this country it is being used clay bricks which is good because of the clay bricks are locally available material. here in this country most of the places are suitable for making clay bricks and the process of making clay bricks also a easy procedure and adobe also a kind of brick which is some what large than the normal clay brick and it is also a very god material that can be used for constructing walls. with the rest mostly sand. to day this situation is converting and people have tend to use cement bricks which lead to increase the artificial appearance of a house while losing the neutrality. Next. 63 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.

there is no any artificial or environmentally affective materials are being used. if the content of the sand is high it is not good to use because it is weaken the strength of walls. in this case rammed earth walls are acting as a thermal barrier and protect the comfortable conditions within the house. up to the late 1900 people have used this method but today we cannot see people use this ramped walls to build their houses.info . stems of trees and reepers (lath which made 64 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. that is also a fact for they have faced problems like need of cooling systems for their houses Construction of a rammed earth wall (house) In this case also it can be used a soil that is composed of between 20 and 30 percent clay. just clay and water Today also in some village areas we can see rammed earth walls.Making clay bricks. these are construct use of Using local and Natural material.helpmydegree. however any where of this country it can be find good soil for rammed earth walls.

helpmydegree. after that reepers which are parallel to each other are nailed or tied to these stems steadily to represent the either side f walls Stems Reepers Plan view of a wall Stems Reepers Elevation of a wall structure 65 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. in the cleared placed where you want to construct the house first plant the tree stems in corners of walls and on the lines of walls are going.info .out of the bamboo or areca nut trees can be used) are use to construct the structure of the wall. using number of stems it can increase the strength of the walls this stems should be planted very steadily.

info . in some countries they mixed straws with this clay in order to increase the strength of the walls and they called as those walls are cob web walls A house which has used cob web walls (http://www.jpg</TITLE> ) 66 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.o rg/Places/DevonCounty/imag es/CobandThatch.devonheritage.helpmydegree.After complete the wall structure clay is being prepared mixing water and compacting by specially men treading on it. compacted clay is prepared as globate in shape ( this shape is easy to handle and put into walls) after that this prepared globate shape clay put in to the holes of the walls and tamped by hands Stems Reepers Prepared globate shape clay put in to these holes Like wise rammed earth walls are being constructed.

local stones 7. clay mixed with straws 3. after completing g the roof structure covering ( coconut thatches or straw thatches tied with the reepers specially in coconut thatched roofs The following locally available natural materials can be used as roof coverings 1. Straw thatches ( straw bales) 3. timbers witch is not planed or plane timber can be used as ribs .Here also we can use cob web walls to made our houses. Straw bales 4. Bricks.info . wall finishes should be considered greatly because aesthetic appearance of the house is depend on the finishing. Leaves of Palmyra tree 4. Timbers 4. Roofs Roof element also can be made using 100% natural materials. Clay . here in this case we can use clay as a good finishing material and after that it can be white washed as seen in the picture above. Rock particles 6.helpmydegree. The following locally available natural materials can be used to construct walls 1. example is thatched roofs. Bamboos 5. Coconut thatches 2. reepers and purlins. adobe 2. Tall grass ( mana) bales 67 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.

boards 5.info . Hard wood timber.co m/localmaterials.5.htm -->) 68 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Wood 4. Adobe and it can applied a thin clay layer on it and can be applied colored clay 3. Granite can be used after little process 6.helpmydegree. Industrially processed Granite also can be used but may be expensive 7. Planks A stair case made out of timbers (http://www. Brick 2. Finishes As wall finishes it can be used clay and to keep a good appearance it can be white washed and also can be used timber which is prepared in many ways as swan timbers.greenhomebuilding. boards. compacted hard woods etc As floor finishes it can be used a compacted soil surface which is secondary applied a good clay surface this the simple way that we can use as floor finishes in addition to that following materials also can be used as floor finishes 1.

info .helpmydegree.6. such as if there are large trees you must avoid cutting them and when you want to plant trees and flowers always you must go for the plants which deserved to the prevailing climatic conditions of the area if not it must be want to spend lot of money to maintain them 69 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. this is in one hand protecting the natural environment the more you protect the natural environment the more you increase the aesthetic appearance of your land. therefore it should be careful to protect the natural environment. Landscaping Actually the landscaping is increase the aesthetic appearance of the land.

helpmydegree. Utilization factor (UF) is 0. required illumination level is 210 Lux.4.4 = 0. 20m. Lighting design Lumen (LDU) is 15000 lumens.75 Numbers of lamp = E* A F * UF *MF = 210 Lux*42m*20m 15000*0.Case Study 2 Design a light system for a selected area This article is extracted from one of my assignment and the following is a my design (according to the Lumen method) which is suitable for the following conditions Design a light system for a factory the floor area measures 42m.75 How to decide number of lamps which suitable for the selected area 1. Required illumination (E) The factory floor measures (A) Lighting design Lumen (LDU) Utilization factor (UF) Maintenance factor (MF) = 210 Lux = 42m*20m = 15000 lumens = 0.4*0.info . Maintenance factor (MF) is 0. 70 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.75 Numbers of lamp =39.2 Therefore it is 40 bulbs need for this factory.

helpmydegree.info .125 =4.75 The spacing to mounting height ratio is Then the spacing between lamps =3:2 =4.8484 Therefore there should be 5 rows Then the spacing between lamps become 4m The 5 rows can be arrange as follow 42m Spacing between rows 4m 20m Half spacing 2m 71 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.125 Numbers of rows =20/4.Arrangements of the lightings Ceiling area = 42m*20 The height from the ceiling to the working plane is = 2.

62m 72 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.625m This layout should be as follow.25meters Here will be half the spacing at both ends = 5.25m 20m 2.helpmydegree.info . 42m 5.Numbers of lamps in each row Total lamps Numbers of row = 40 =5 Numbers of lamps in each row = 40/5 =8// 8 lamps in an each row Therefore the longitudinal space between lamps in a row = 42/8 = 5.25/2 = 2.

helpmydegree.info 73 . Absorptions of lights by the instrument in the area also will be a factor to deviate the required illumination level Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Although we measured the height from the ceiling to the working plane is 2.7m it is not same in the every where of the area there may have some differences there fore it will not give the same required illumination at everywhere.62m Practical problems come across when maintaining the above system. Reflection of the light from the walls and furniture and other instruments in the area will be a factor to deviate the required illumination level 3. 2. 1.Then the lamps layout should be as follow 42m 4m 5.25m 20m 2m 2.

cultural and historical context in which it exists. wikipedia. Despite these variations.com) 74 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.08. (Vernacular architecture. viewed on 22. www.helpmydegree. Vernacular architecture is influenced by a great range of different aspects of human behaviour and environment.info . Vernacular architecture tends to evolve over time to reflect the environmental. It has often been dismissed as crude and unrefined. but also has proponents who highlight its importance in current design. even neighbouring villages may have subtly different approaches to the construction and use of their dwellings. every building is subject to the same laws of physics.09. even if they at first appear the same. leading to differing building forms for almost every different context. and hence will demonstrate significant similarities in structural forms.Appendix Vernacular architecture Vernacular architecture is a term used to categorise methods of construction which use locally available resources and traditions to address local needs. It can be contrasted against polite architecture which is characterised by stylistic elements of design intentionally incorporated for aesthetic purposes which go beyond a building's functional requirements.

08.07.org/TR/REC-html40" xml:lang="en"> 5.com/sustainable.org/2007/09/10/the-importance-ofsustainable-architecture/ --> 7. Gyula Sebestyen.2009 http://www.htm --> 12. http://www.htm --> 11. viewed on 27. Sustainable Architecture.info .com/solar-power-home/&usg 10.helpmydegree. importance-of-sustainable-architecture. viewed on 27. http://www. Sustainable architecture. Tidal power .greenhomebuilding.Reference 1.07.2009 http://makewealthhistory. Why is there an Energy Crisis.07. Architecture and the urban environment 2. viewed on 01.07.2009 http://home. Building today for tomorrow. viewed on 27.08.htm --> 4.07.2009. A vision for the new age.2009.htm --> 6.clara.greenhomebuilding.07. http://www. Cowart Coleman group.2009. Energy resource.htm --> 8. Sustainable architecture. http://www.net/darvill/altenerg/wind.2009.org/TR/REC-html40" xml:lang="en"> 3. viewed on 01. viewed on 27. Wind Power.greenhomebuilding.energy from the sea.2009.net/darvill/altenerg/tidal. New Architecture and Technology 9. Derek Thomas 2002.com/sustainable_architecture. http://civilengineerblog. http://www.htm --> 75 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Building today for tomorrow.08.2009. http://home.2009.w3.cowartgroup. viewed on 27. 2003. Sustainable Architecture. viewed on 27.com/articles/energycrisis.com/sustainable_architecture.clara.07. viewed on 27.w3. Civilengineerblog. sustainable/ preservation viewed on 01.

png&imgrefurl 2. Wind Power.com 3.2009.2009 http://www.freefoto. Use natural water stream to cool the home.08.nziLrot1.net/darvill/altenerg/wind. Architecture and the urban environment 4. viewed on 01. A vision for the new age.2009. Forties Wind Energy.clara.mywindpowersystem.net/darvill/altenerg/tidal. http://home. viewed on 01. viewed on 01.friars.info . How We Can Use Energy from Waves.clara. Tidal power .2009 http://home. Energy resource.htm --> 5.08.08. httpwww.bionomicfuel. viewed on 01.Reference of figures 1. viewed on 01.fortiswindenergy.htm --> 8.08.08.helpmydegree.2009 http://www. Derek Thomas 2002.jpg 76 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.energy from the sea.co. Floating wind farms.com 6.com/img/molen_homepage. www. www. Tides and Currents .com/how-we-can-use-energy-fromwaves-tides-and-currents/ --> 7.

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