SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE FOR A SUSTAINED FUTURE

Written By

H.J.R.K.Jayasinghe

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SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE FOR A SUSTAINED FUTURE
Written By H.J.R.K.Jayasinghe (17 June 17, 2010)

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Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.helpmydegree.info

The sustainable city is developed to respect and make the most of natural environmental aspects, to conserve resource use and to minimize impacts on the local and wider natural environment. The sustainable city is a regional and global city: no matter how small or how large, its responsibilities stretch beyond the city boundaries. The sustainable city involves a broadly based, participatory program of radical change, where individuals are

encouraged to take on more responsibility for the ways in which their cities are run. The sustainable city requires that environmental assets and impacts are distributed more equitably than at present. The sustainable city is a learning city, a sharing city, an internationally networked city. The sustainable city is not rooted in an idealized version of past settlements, nor is it one given to a radical casting-off from its own particular cultural, economic and physical identity in the name of the latest passing fad for wholesale urban change. The sustainable city will seek to conserve, enhance and promote its assets in terms of natural, built and cultural environments. The sustainable city presents tremendous opportunities for enhancing environmental quality at local, regional and global scales. (Haughton and Hunter, 1994)
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today what the people doing is they are preparing the site according to their need. aesthetic and contextual response was great for those buildings. And this report is being discussed more on the selected areas and practical usage.helpmydegree.Executive summery Sustainable architecture is a profound subject and use of this subject in the field is also cover very large area. this procedure may loose the stability. using a report like this. blasting also can be taken a place when it is necessary. however today this site preparation procedure is doing with heavy machinery and drilling . habitats or species? What restorative or rehabilitative measures will be taken? Will any habitat or species be harmed or eliminated so that it cannot be remedied? Will any significant cultural site be affected? What steps have been taken to protect such cultural site(s)? Have energy and water conservation 4 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. In earlier days when it is being needed to prepare a site for a house or any kind of building it was doing with the help of the labors and they didn’t do a considerable change to the site and they just construct their buildings in respect to the site that means they construct their building according to the site conditions there for the stability. therefore it has been selected few major areas where sustainable architecture is necessary to use. However this is most sought after topic to discuss. aesthetic and contextual response of the building Respect for site means to respect for the nature therefore it is need to concentrate on following factors before constrictions is taking a place Will any natural spaces or wilderness be developed?.info . therefore it is difficult to discuss all the subject matters and their practice in the field. Will buildings be expanded into protected natural areas? Is an Environmental Impact Assessment needed and has it been prepared? What steps have been taken to protect natural spaces.

insulated homes: insulated walls. but it is a fact 5 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. etc. ventilation and systems.technologies. glazing. energy-efficient windows. window shades. humidity and wind Thermal comfort of the occupants Architectural guidelines for effective solar design The building envelope: Mass. When designing energy conserving house the following fact must be considered The use and cost of energy in buildings on a long-term basis. ceilings. floors and foundations. The climatic characteristics in terms of solar radiation. insulated hot water lines. Use correct building orientation. insulated doors. size of roof overhang. User control mechanisms The incorporation of renewable fuels into building design Good design can greatly reduce our energy problems. air-to-air exchangers. insulated window coverings.info . most of which are totally simple to implement. including whole-house fans. appropriate amount of glass. fans. waste management measures and energy-efficient principles and building technology guided the design process in a meaningful way? Under the sustainable architecture it is being discussed a need of constructing a house which need least possible power specially through (fossil fuels) to heat or cool the interior. energy-efficient heating systems. And proper use of these things is the way of energy conservation Some techniques of using alternative energy are very simple and those are wellproven solutions. proper hot water heaters. insulation. day lighting. weather sealing Energy-efficient appliances and fixtures such as compact fluorescent light bulbs. temperature.helpmydegree. window placement.

water heating is one of the major power consume procedure in the house.helpmydegree. electricity gain through the photovoltaic panels can be used for any usage. because it has found that those areas are the most efficient for geothermal energy 6 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Sun is being a place where it generates power without diminutive and most of the places in the world having direct sun light which is enough to generate power by using photovoltaic panels this must be the best way of generating power. it will be discussed the advantages and disadvantages This is also another good way for alternating power. Roofs are often angled toward the sun to allow photovoltaic panels to collect at maximum efficiency.info . under the sustainable architecture here it will be discussed how this is been operate cheaply.to be really surprised because no country has been given a substantial consideration about this Solar heating is a good and reliable way of providing sustainable electricity for any use. this is actually good way of generating power for specially countries which is situated near the Pacific Ocean. because actually if a domestic user select this system sometimes this may not cheep system to gain electricity for him. this solar heating can be used to water heating for zero cost therefore it will be a good practice if people can use solar heating to at least to heat water Wind is another kind of power generating source we can use free of charge. if the building site situated in a area where it is normally having good wind conditions we can use this system. advantages and disadvantages are common to this system also and under any circumstances the user cant operate a system like this This report is providing the information about what are the eligible places to operate a system like this and.

which is potential for reuse therefore it should be careful to remove those elements safely before being demolished In any where of this world we can find natural resources that can be used for our purposes. it is need a very little processing effort to convert them into materials that we want.info . resent past years it has been used materials without any conservation usually for reasons of short-term economic advantage and to day it has led to a panic situation of shortage of material in the world and some countries have to import necessary materials from other countries for constructions hence under this ground the cost of the materials is sky rocketing therefore it is need to manage the resource consumption Another side of sustainability is avoid and reduce wastage whenever it is possible to reuse a building it should be considered and if the building can not be reused then it should go to refurbishment. tile. clay. most commonly found resources are. there are building elements like windows. and a house which is being made with local materials.Later part of this report has been discussed Sustainable architecture and construction it has been discussed about creating a healthy built environment using resource efficient Conservation supports the principles of sustainability. sand. limestone are some of them actually if someone need to build a house these things are enough for it. wooden material etc. 7 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. will give a good natural and interesting look. hence before going to artificial or imported material it is wise to consider about local material which is cheap economically. rock. if the refurbishment doesn’t safe and it is not eligible to reuse then only it should go to demolition. like wise as much as possible building should be maintain and used.helpmydegree. it is minimize the resource consumption. trees.

is better to live with. natural materials are much less likely to adversely affect your health Using renewable material or recyclable material will reduced the necessity of reproducing and also keeping them out of the landfill. etc. 8 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.helpmydegree. which is being made with naturally made materials. And then there is the matter of health. as an example a floor which is being made by using wood is very comfortable compared with cement or tile floor and just because of the resilient characteristic of the wood it would not give hurt when someone fall down on it. buildings. labor. an equal amount of carbon dioxide is released into the air. Also choosing natural materials will reduce the pollution often associated with their manufacture process for every ton of portland cement that is manufactured. Population is increasing day by day. fuel etc. reusing a product means we reserve those things to future.info . Increasing these needs means that it is increasing the people’s involvement with the nature therefore we should follow a sustainable procedure to protect the natural environment. they need food.A building. not only that producing a material means not a simple process which sometimes use heavy machinery. transport. and increasing population means that the increasing of the need of the people.

therefore I acknowledge all our lecturers kind dedication to teach us the relevant subjects. Kandy.Sri Lanka At the beginning of the project I had not a good idea about selecting a proper topic for the project.Acknowledgement This report has being prepared as the final individual project for the higher national diploma in quantity surveying at the International College of Business and Technology Campus. therefore I would like to thanks those wise persons who wrote those books and published those articles on the internet. I read few books and few articles which had published on the internet and that led me to choose this topic.info .helpmydegree. The knowledge that I gained from the lectures was a great help for me to think within the construction industry and write this report successfully. And also I would like to extend my gratitude to my friends those who help and encourage me to complete this report 9 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.

................ 30 2..........2.TIDAL REEF ..1.............. 56 10 ................................... Working with the climate......5......1............. Tidal Power .............................................F LOATING WIND FARMS ................................................3................................ 46 3................................... 15 1................... 43 2....................... 43 2.................. Heating......................................................... 42 2............. 44 3... Ventilation and Cooling System Efficiency ..........................................avoid and reduce waste.................1...............2. Respect for site .................... 32 2.............. 17 1..Minimize resource consumption ......... 30 2.TIDAL BARRAGES ........................................ Maximize resource reuse ...... 23 2.............3........ SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE AND CONSTRUCTION ....1.............. Use renewable or recyclable resources. 49 3..........................2...............2...............Contents INTRODUCTION ..... 40 2................. Use Natural material . Alternative energy and their use ................................................................................................... 35 2......................................conserve and reduce use of resources46 3............... .....................5......................................................................2..............1........1.... 17 1........................1.... Geothermal energy ...................2..............3......................................... Passive solar building design ..............4....... ENERGY CONSERVATION AND USE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES ......... 54 3................. SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE WITH SITE........ WIND POWER........................6......... 25 2..1.........................................................3............................................................. 51 3....... CLIMATE AND SIZE OF THE BUILDING ..............4................................ .................. .............................................. 38 2.................OFFSHORE TURBINES.................. Size of the buildings and sustainability ....5...........5......... 56 3...... Use local material .... 20 1.3......SOLAR WATER HEATING .......3......... 14 WHY NEED OF SUSTAINABILITY? ................. 35 2....1.......................5..............1.........3................................................................................................. Protect the natural environment... 12 SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE FOR A SUSTAINED FUTURE .........

......................... Place ................................................................................................................................................................. 75 REFERENCE OF FIGURES ................................................................................................... 5........info 11 ............................................................ 74 REFERENCE .. 3............. 61 2............................................................................................... 61 1......................... 62 Walls........................................................... 63 Roofs .................CONCLUSION .... 61 CONSTRUCTING A HOUSE AND USE OF SUSTAINABILITY................................................................................................................... 74 VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE ....................................................... 68 CASE STUDY 2 ............................................... 67 Finishes ....................................... 70 DESIGN A LIGHT SYSTEM FOR A SELECTED AREA ........... 70 APPENDIX ................................................. Foundation ................................................................................................................ 76 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www............................................................................................helpmydegree................................................................ 4...................... 57 CASE STUDY 1 ....................................................................................................................

contextual responsiveness etc. resources and development space 12 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.info . energy. aesthetic appearance. environmental impact etc. resources management. safety. health and safety. In the present day early situation has been drastically changed and terms like cost management. earth air conditioning. proper use of materials.helpmydegree.Introduction Sustainable architecture is simply means that environmentally friendly design techniques in the field of architecture. and construction of residencies) Different countries have different cultures and way of designing buildings are in relevance with their cultures. operate wisely to achieve environmental goals ( Please note that in this report it has been concentrate mostly about use of the sustainable architecture in Sri Lanka. and cellulose insulation. are arising and it has create a negative impact on the survival of people and the industry. proper use of site. geothermal energy etc). at that time there were not any environmental problem or any material problem owing to those buildings (domestic houses ) were tally with the environment and the material also was renewable however with the time this has been changed and in present situation cultural oriented and environmentally friendly houses. in early days constructions were link with nature and most of the time materials. Sustainable architecture seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by enhancing efficiency and moderation in the use of materials. wind power. optimum use of energy. buildings are being disappearing. were selections of the nature. that used for constructions. vapor-permeable ceilings. Sustainable Architecture shows systems approach to design and construction in which the various components such as alternative power recourses (passive solar techniques.

We can not ignore the impact we have on the earth's ecosystems. Now is the time to take responsibility for the consequences of our life styles. therefore it is our responsibility to show the correct path to people 13 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.helpmydegree.info . the choices of them providing for their needs. we are the people who are representing the construction industry.We need to live more lightly on the earth. The way of people are living. but the survival of other living beings on the planet. will have an enormous influence on the quality of life of every living being. because the degeneration of our environment is affecting not only our survival.

As an example 14 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. therefore it is difficult to discuss all the subject matters and there practice in the field. this situation has led the world for many a difficulties. every people are responsible but lions share must own for the people who involving in the construction industry. Implementation of sustainability would necessitate establishing goals of protection of the resources. therefore it has been selected few major areas where sustainable architecture is necessary to use. Who responsible for those problems is the question. Sustainable architecture is looking for identify the needs of the people and execute these needs without affecting the future. However this is most sought after topic to discuss. and consumption of the resources while conserving is important.Sustainable Architecture For A Sustained Future Sustainable architecture is a profound subject and use of this subject in the field is also cover very large area.helpmydegree. but in the past time they have forgotten about sustainability for narrow economics profits. Population growth and increasing consumption are reasons in the depletion of some environmental assets as example deforestation. architectures and responsible persons of the construction industry must take an early action to stop this depletion of environmental and other assets and they must proceed with these in mind. People has being used to fulfilling their needs with narrow economical advantages and has forget the word sustainability. because in most of the times there is a responsible person who know the sustainability. using a report like this.info . Earlier it was giving priority to economic optimization (this is the way that most of the writers had introduced this but in my opinion this is expectation of narrow economic profits) therefore while introducing sustainability we have to face some problems which occur due to this expectation of narrow economics profits.

future generations will have to face some problems like following 15 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.It is being considered to supply electric power for a selected area of the country. etc ) or they can go for a generate power using coal. if we fail to convert our self-destroying economy into one that is environmentally sustainable. solar power is one of the best alternative power source that we can use it as Sri Lankans because Sri Lanka is a country which gains sunlight through out the almost 365 days of the year. sure they will go for a Hydroelectric (Hydro electric also a alternative power that we can use but constructing a hydroelectric water tank will considerably effect on the natural resources and it is reduced the lands of the country that can be used for many a needs of people. Therefore the time has come to think something more than narrow economics profits. Why need of sustainability? ‘Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Brundtland Report of the World Commission on the Environment and Development in 1987) Narrow economic clouds have lead the world in to a danger situation. someone’s opinion may be this is not economically good choice.helpmydegree.info . but in these procedures value of the effect of environment and people may greater than the value of introducing solar power because introducing solar power will never effect on the environment or people. but what are the other options Sri Lanka can go.

Threatens biodiversity. obliterating scarce fertile agricultural land Harmful side effects of modern technology. water. including biotechnology Material depletion Fuel depletion Depletion of lands that can be used for agriculture Therefore we need to think in sustainable way to eschew future generations from those problems 16 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. desertification and deforestation Changes in global and regional climate. land pollution Inappropriate aid for developing countries. greater weather instability.info .helpmydegree. deprivation of indigenous people of their homes and means of living. rise in sea levels Air.

today what the people are doing is they are preparing the site according to their need.helpmydegree. this procedure may loose the stability. Climate and Size of the building 1.info . habitats or species? What restorative or rehabilitative measures will be taken? Will any habitat or species be harmed or eliminated so that it cannot be remedied? Will any significant cultural site be affected? What steps have been taken to protect such cultural site(s)? 17 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.1. aesthetic and contextual response of the building Respect for site means to respect for the nature therefore it is need to concentrate on following factors before constrictions is taking a place Will any natural spaces or wilderness be destroyed? Will buildings be expanded into protected natural areas? Is an Environmental Impact Assessment needed and has it been prepared? What steps have been taken to protect natural spaces. blasting also can be taken a place when it is necessary. Sustainable Architecture with Site. aesthetic and contextual response was great for those buildings. Respect for site In earlier days when it is being needed to prepare a site for a house or any kind of building it was doing with the help of the labors and they didn’t do a considerable change to the site and they just construct their buildings in respect to the site that means they construct their building according to the site conditions there for the stability.1. however today this site preparation procedure is doing with heavy machinery and drilling .

steps have to be taken to protect natural spaces. historical places. we must prepare an environmental impact assessment and if that shows the impact of the environment is considerable indeed we have to go for an another site it is because. this early consideration will be help to go for an another site without effect later on the relevant natural resources. lake etc) or wild life in danger due to the construction we must take an early action to avoid from that site. If it is an unavoidable occasion and a construction is going on near an any kind of natural resources. etc those should not be destroyed or any kind of constructions is going near a culturally valuable site precautions must be taken to protect them. therefore we should used to avoiding such sites and select places for constructions where we cannot cultivate like. a stream. rock. habitats or species. therefore protecting those places means protecting one’s own culture and it is our obligation to protect them And also it is very important aspect to used to avoiding in constructions in the places where we can cultivate because now it has reduced the space considerably the places where we can cultivate due to the constructions in any place. forest.Have energy and water conservation technologies. at the moment in this world we have remaining few environmental resources that is striving to hold the equilibrium of this world. hilly areas etc ( see picture 1) 18 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.info . because cultural heritage is an invaluable a country owned assets. and if we lost them means that we have to face some deadly consequences. Ay kind of cultural site should be avoided. waste management measures and energy-efficient principles and building technology guided the design process in a meaningful way? Above are the some factors that we must consider before start a construction on a site.helpmydegree. these cultural sites can be any religion places. If the site is situated near to any kind of natural resources we must consider area of the land is sufficient for a future need of extensions of buildings. if any natural spaces( sanctuary.

helpmydegree. a vision for the new age) 19 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Rousillon district.Most of the time respect for the site means. in one hand protect the environment and biodiversity and cultural values. on the other hand build the buildings in relevant to the shape of the site and building should show respect for the architectural character of the context and for the preservation of important archaeological and natural imprints. Architecture and the urban environment. thereby leaving the best soils to cultivation) (Derek Thomas2002. Figure 1 (The village of Caramany.info . France: Occupying In rocky site.

it has used the natural cave to build the temple) 20 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.1.1 (Temple of Isurumunia. our country also we can clearly identify this by looking at a building of Anuradapura age and Polonaruwa age and also when we comes to Nuwara age we can see the differences and their geological. those buildings and shapes materials which had used are greatly match with those climates Ancient architectures used geological shapes for building houses.info . Working with Climate (geophysical. ecological) is an important thing our ancient ancestors also had recognized the importance of the regional climatic adaptation as an essential principle in the creation of architecture therefore we could have seen different characteristics of different ages buildings.helpmydegree. as an example they had used the natural shapes (caves) of the rocks to find a building. Working with the climate.2. ecological response if it is not so the contextual response are great. most of the temples have build up adjacent to rocks and had used face of the rock as a wall to cover the building as an example world famous temples like Isurumnniya and Dambulla temples have build up using the natural caves of the rock Anuradapura age Figure1 .

it has used brick for thick layers walls) 21 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.helpmydegree.2 (Ancient temple in Anuradapura) Figure 1. 1.2. secret of using these thick brick layers for wall is control the temperature within the buildings ( see figure 1.3) Figure 1.info .3 (Temple in Polonnaruwa. so the ancient architectures had made their buildings with thick brick walls or they have used rocks.Anuradapura and the plonnaruwa are normally areas where there are hot climatic conditions through out the year.

these ancient architects show us using the locally available materials and constructing buildings in keeping with the climatic conditions of the area we can achieve the level of comfort that we need. the shape of the land does not need to change and sometimes it can be an added advantage to give a good aesthetic appearance to the building and not only that comfort of the occupants can be preserved with good designing this means a climatically responsive building can enhance the occupants’ well-being.info . hope of the climatically responsive building is actually to be close with the environment and take advantage of the climate. What we can learn from these things is we don’t need to go for the higher price building materials to construct buildings and installing heating ventilation and air conditioning systems in building is not the one and only way of regulating the heating. ventilations and air conditions of a buildings. Using the climatic conditions of the site a designer can design a building with great contextual response. 22 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.In addition to these thick brick layers and rock to construct buildings they have used to construct buildings using clay walls and thatches using straws or coconut leaves.helpmydegree. while enabling them to experience the external climate of the place .

Algeria: Desert Durable and suitable constructions to desert climate where it is often affected by the sand storms (Derek Thomas2002. A home should be just the right size for its occupants and their activities. sometimes there are around ten numbers of rooms but may be there are living only two . Architecture and the urban environment.Figure 1.info .3. material etc. therefore people should understand that it is unnecessary to build bulky houses actually a small house can be beautiful and cozy. Large houses generally use a tremendous amount of energy to heat and cool and the maintenance cost may be very high.4 Nakhla. 23 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. a vision for the new age) 1.helpmydegree. Size of the buildings and sustainability Resent time most of the people have used to build the large houses more than they need. near El Oued. And such a small house can be manage very easily and construction cost may reduced and economically will be cheap for people. three people and this trend is really a waste of money.

All those things emphasize that our need of the building size should be very convenient for us and of course if we can left a place from our land it is just not only helping as a play ground but we can grow vegetable for our consumption and we can have fresh vegetables 24 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.info . sometimes they haven’t any ample space at least to play a badminton game.helpmydegree. this situation have been lead them to bad health conditions such as obesity. it is of course the extravagant and unnecessary needs of the people have blind their eyes and they are in the mind of filling lands with unnecessary buildings as a good example there are buildings. and when people are constructing houses they are used to filed with the land by their houses.Today world is facing for sever struggle of lacking suitable lands facilities therefore people are used to deforesting for their land needs and also they have been used carried out constructions on lands which can be used to cultivation therefore now world is facing many problems such as bad repercussions of deforesting like exhausting water springs. desertification and depletion of lands for cultivation etc. which constructed by the government for various purposes. have left without any use.

helpmydegree. humidity and wind Thermal comfort of the occupants Architectural guidelines for effective solar design The building envelope: Mass. weather sealing 25 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. insulated window coverings. they just need to be adopted as soon as possible. can make the most of natural daylight and natural ventilation. Use correct building orientation. etc. The climatic characteristics in terms of solar radiation. size of roof overhang. Under the sustainable architecture it is being discussed a need of constructing a house which need least possible power specially through (fossil fuels) to heat or cool the interior.info . day lighting. energy-efficient windows. insulation. appropriate amount of glass. User control mechanisms The incorporation of renewable fuels into building design Good design can greatly reduce our energy problems. insulated homes: insulated walls. ventilation and systems. The techniques already exist. glazing. but houses can be heated through sunlight. Energy conservation and use of renewable energy resources Sustainably architecture is something we need to talk more in the field of energy conservation. temperature. floors and foundations. insulated hot water lines. ceilings. insulated doors. window placement.2. When designing energy conserving house the following fact must be considered The use and cost of energy in buildings on a long-term basis. window shades. How can we design our buildings to use less energy? Solar power is one thing and most of the people in Sri Lanka can used to using the optimum advantage of solar power ( not only in our country but also most of the other countries can use solar power) .

heating and cooling. and major energy consumer is buildings those use energy for running of buildings – lights. ) The problem with buildings is that they don’t change.helpmydegree. It is estimated that the transport industry in the US replaces itself every 12 years – so in 12 years time. proper hot water heaters.1 (This shows normal energy usage of USA. such as the heat from people or the building mass. In some developed countries such as the USA where consumption of energy is a major national (in fact global) issue and the most use of energy is served for domestic purposes Figure 2. air-to-air exchangers. By storing excess daytime heat and using it to warm the building during the night. And proper use of these things is the way of energy conservation Heat in large buildings accumulates mainly from internal sources. They’re built for the long haul. hybrids and electric cars may have largely replaced the ones we have now.info . this situation can be turned in to an advantage. If we can use a system to store that heat and use it at night that will be a significant cost saving way.Energy-efficient appliances and fixtures such as compact fluorescent light bulbs. 26 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Not so with buildings. energy-efficient heating systems. hot water systems and so on. fans. including whole-house fans. This is as an example and this situation is not only prevailing in the USA but most of the other countries.

etc. air-to-air exchangers 7. window placement. Day lighting can reduce lighting bills by up to 15 % in commercial buildings. including whole-house fans.helpmydegree. night venting when 27 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. appropriate level of thermal mass inside the insulated envelope (mass floors and interior walls. Provide smaller double glazed fenestration. Energy-efficient fans. set-back (clock) thermostats. Provide efficient insulation of the interior from the exterior. 3. Install automated lighting and thermostatic controls.). Reduction in artificial lighting needs by supplementing with natural light. better site selection. Systems operated by photocells and controlled by microprocessors will activate dimmers in proportion to the amount of daylight present and provide even lighting throughout the building. and energy-efficient buildings have the value more than it is meaning. thick plaster.info . cool pantries. attached greenhouses. solar hot water. 2. energy efficient windows. The procedures that we can follow to reduce the energy usage of buildings 1. appropriate amount of glass. 5. when design a house as energy efficient is not an unreachable target today with the new technologies. Use of Energy-efficient appliances and fixtures such as compact fluorescent light bulbs. size of roof overhang. window shades. Use of Energy-efficient house designs. insulated hot water lines. insulated window coverings. floors and foundations. photovoltaic panels. ceilings. built-in benches). therefore it should be considered such as more efficient building shapes . energy-efficient heating systems. 4.therefore the terms of energy conservation. insulated doors. on-demand hot water heaters. solar wall ovens. Passive solar design for day lighting and space heating (use correct building orientation. weather sealing etc 6. Use super insulated homes means highly insulated walls.

privacy walls to block the wind. roof vents. efficient use of space. planting trees and plants for shade and to block wind. open layout and lightcolored interior walls and ceilings to enhance day lighting. lower ceilings in cold climates. cross ventilation. sleeping lofts in cold climates.info . open layout to enhance air circulation. Lifestyle changes for conservation such as minimize the number of appliance use ( we can reduce the lamps that we use) use them only when it is necessary. light colored roofs in hot climates.helpmydegree. under the Passive solar building design) 28 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. at night etc we can follow as conservations habits (In addition to these procedure in this report it has been discussed the procedures that can be followed to reduce the energy usage of buildings. outdoor living space etc can be used 8. when we use lamps and HVAC systems close off in unused rooms.appropriate. natural convention. turn off computers.

(IBM) Tower.helpmydegree.Figure 2. a vision for the new age) 29 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.info . Architecture and the urban environment. energy-conscious design (Derek Thomas2002.2 Kuala Lumpur. 1992: Menara Mesiniaga.

insulated homes: insulated walls. appropriate amount of glass. energy-efficient windows. window placement. insulated window coverings. Passive solar building design These buildings give users to use the optimum usage of the energy of the sun without using active solar mechanism such as photoelectric cells or water heating solar panels. insulated hot water lines.2.2. Use correct building orientation. Heating. ceilings.1. Ventilation and Cooling System Efficiency This area is one of the most important area where design considerations should have been followed carefully because the amount of energy use for the purpose of heating ventilation and cooling system is comparatively high rather than the energy use of other needs. etc. A well insulated building is the most effective an economical remedy for reduce this unnecessary energy consumption. Good design can greatly reduce our energy problems. in these types of buildings the main target is retain the heat effectively within the building using high thermal mass and strong heat insulations to prevent the heat escape Figure 2. window shades. A building should have qualities of less heat generating and power consumption and require more ventilation capacity to expel polluted indoor air for the efficiency of heating ventilation and cooling systems. weather sealing 2. floors and foundations. this situation economically affected to house holders.3 (Passive solar building. size of roof overhang. optimum use of sunlight) 30 . insulated doors.

there are natural channels of flowing winds.4) 31 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. blinds. placing windows in the relevant places where sunlight can be gain through out the day is impotent and also design the windows with good characteristics to prevent escaping the heat gain into the building through glasses is involving in designing passive solar buildings certain windows like double or triple glassed insulated windows with gas filled spaces will provide better insulation qualities than the single pane glass widows. in warm climatic conditions cooling is take place. designer should be able to catch those like wise if there is a water stream or any lake near to the buildings. using masonry building materials with high thermal mass are very valuable because they can retain the cool temperature of buildings and also main consideration should be given in designing buildings( placing windows). solar shadings to relieve the excessive heat while the periods of direct sunlight and reduce the use of artificial cooling mediums such as HVAC systems.helpmydegree. should be design to catch cool natural winds from them to be cool free of charge ( See figure 2.info .Use well designed shutters. to achieve this target we can grows trees around the building specially near windows but should be maintain properly to gain the enough sunlight through out the day. Specially in the areas where there is a clear seasonal change the architectures use planting deciduous trees (trees those leaves are falling in winter but other seasons) near the windows.. thus those trees are blocked excessive sun light in summer with their leaves and in winter allow sunlight to come falling their leaves Heating systems of buildings are primarily focus on sustainable architecture because they are the largest energy consumers in the buildings specially in cold climates. Prevention of excessive sunlight gain in hot climatic conditions is also important because that will reduce the need of going for the artificial cooling systems.

but it is a fact to be really surprised because no country has been given a substantial consideration about this.Figure 2.4 Use natural water stream to cool the home 2. most of which are totally simple to implement. hydro electric is of course a good method that can be used as a alternative energy resource. alternative energy resources means that the resources which can be used as energy generating resource alternative to fossil fuels. here in this report mainly it has been given the consideration about the alternative resources that it can be used in our country. but here in this report it has not been considered about 32 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.helpmydegree.info .3. Alternative energy and their use Some techniques of using alternative energy are very simple and those are well-proven solutions.

Therefore solar power is now becoming a very real prospect. 2. Roofs are often angled toward the sun to allow photovoltaic panels to collect at maximum efficiency. There are houses called zero-energy homes and they have cut power consumption by 50 to 70%. they use solar power to achieve there almost every power needs.info .hydro-electric. electricity gain through the photovoltaic panels can be used for any usage. Once implemented in the home. SOLAR HEATING Solar heating is a good and reliable way of providing sustainable electricity for any use.3. And not only we can achieve our power needs using solar power but also we added some extra value to our house. There are a number of ways we can use solar power in our houses. 33 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.1. It is an economical and environmentally-friendly way to bring power into the home. solar power can be used to heat the home especially for the people live in the areas where there are cold climates. Some homes in other countries like USA. Many people use solar power to heat their homes and to run different appliances. because here in Sri Lanka this is being used as one of the main power generating method. Sun is being a place where it generates power without diminutive and most of the places in the world having direct sun light which is enough to generate power by using photovoltaic panels this must be the best way of generating power.helpmydegree.

it can be used at a later time to our needs and it is no need to face to any miserable power cut situations normally we are facing. If there is a surplus of energy. These panels are called as photovoltaic (PV) panels and that can be free standing rigid sheets used to gain the sun’s energy. This is economically very advantage method for using power and the reducing costs is the main reason people use solar power in their 34 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.info . Except to this converting system other electricity conveying system is the same system that we used normally. These panels can also be set into the roof. it is capable of storing energy.5 (Roof mounted solar system) panel The most basic technology used in solar power is the solar electric panel.Picture 2. or any other convenient place to which sun light directly falling in most of the time through out the day using these photovoltaic panels the sun’s energy is converted to electricity through a system. When we use solar power in our homes.helpmydegree.

in our country most of the places through out the country is normally having good sun light through out the day and this will be enough to use a solar hot water heating system 2.3. because actually if a domestic user select this system sometimes this may not cheep system to gain electricity for him.1. this solar water heating can be used to heat water for zero cost therefore it will be a good practice if people can use solar heating to heat water.homes in other countries and they have succeeded on this and sometimes some residence in developed countries are not only using solar electricity but also they are used to sell there surplus power for central power system of the country.2. if the building site situated in a area where it is normally having good wind conditions we can use this system.info . in developing counties like Sri Lanka people may not have enough money to this procedure but there should be a considerable government interference just because this a good investment 2. WIND POWER Wind is another kind of power generating source we can use free of charge. 35 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. it is because after installation it is no need to spend money for maintenance. It is of course installation cost is some what high but it should understand that we are investing this money for another 10 to 15 years. SOLAR WATER HEATING Water heating is one of the major power consume procedure in the house. under the sustainable architecture here it will be discussed how this is been operate cheaply.3.1. and this will be economically advantage option.helpmydegree.

6 (Typical wind power generating tower) 36 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. hence costal areas of our country are suitable for generate power using winds. is surrounded by the beautiful Indian ocean. General speed of the winds are higher with the height.info . therefore most of the time use a tall tower and mounted a propeller like in the following figure Figure 2.helpmydegree. that is the pearl of the Indian ocean. therefore there are high speed winds all ways around the country.advantages and disadvantages are common to this system also and under any circumstances the user cant operate a system like this Here in Sri Lanka. not only here in Sri Lanka but also other counties where there is a costal area is suitable for use wind as alternative power generating resource and also highest places like top of mountains and such areas are suitable for generating wind power.

Winds impact with the blades of the propeller and it will rotate thus there is a generator inside the rotating house to generate electricity, and if it is not enough the power generating from one tower we can use number of towers, if there are use more towers to generate power it is called as a wind farm, and the costal areas are the most suitable places for wind farms therefore it will be worth to have several wind farms around the country and through them we can supply power to the people who are living in coastal areas

Figure 2.7 (Carland Cross Wind Farm, Cornwall )

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2.3.2.1. FLOATING WIND FARMS Floating wind farms are similar to a normal wind farm, but the difference is that they float in the middle of the ocean. wind farms can placed in water up to 40 meters, The advantage of having a floating wind farm is to be able to harness the winds from the open ocean. Without any obstructions such as hills, trees and buildings, winds from the open ocean can reach up to speeds twice as fast as coastal areas. This is also a good alternative way of power generating method for our country, individual people may not have the capacity of installing and operating a system like this, but government can concentrate about this.

Figure 2.8 (Floating Wind Farm)

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This power generating method can be used for any need of the domestic and industrial power needs.

Picture 2.9 ( Telecom electrification in Kenya with small wind turbine)

Picture 2.10 (Installation of a small wind turbine for water purification)

Using wind farm power generating method there are advantages and disadvantages we must consider Advantages of wind farms Wind is free, wind farms need no fuel. Produces no waste or greenhouse gases. The land beneath can usually still be used for farming. Wind farms can be tourist attractions. A good method of supplying energy to remote areas. Disadvantages of wind farms  The wind is not always predictable - some days have no wind.
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Direct Use and District Heating Systems -which use hot water from springs or reservoirs near the surface. it is wise to have a research to find whether it is possible to use geo thermal energy in areas like this Trincomaly District There are ways of using geothermal energy 1. this is actually good way of generating power for specially countries which is situated near the Pacific Ocean.Electricity generation..g. Therefore such places are specially important. the core of the earth is consisted with enormous amount of heat and this heat are gradually coming to the surface of the earth. Geothermal is the heat of the earth. 2.helpmydegree.use stable ground or water temperatures near the earth's surface to control building temperatures above 40 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Trincomaly District. 3. there are places where this heat is coming out of the ground also such as volcanoes. Geothermal heat pumps. hot springs and geysers. Geothermal power plants are generally built where geothermal reservoirs are located within a mile or two of the surface. Here in Sri Lanka also we can see some places where we can find hot springs. where land is expensive.4.info . Geothermal energy This is also another good way for alternating power.in a power plant requires water or steam at very high temperature (300 to 700 degrees Fahrenheit). e. because it has found that those areas are the most efficient for geothermal energy. Suitable areas for wind farms are often near the coast. And other countries like our country if we want to use geothermal energy we can first arrange a research to find the suitable places. 2.

According to the U.info . Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).helpmydegree. geothermal heat pumps are the most energy-efficient. Temperatures of the above ground change a lot from day to day and season to season. This is normal conditions for most areas around the earth. Although. Bandarawela. environmentally clean. this means that soil temperatures are usually warmer than the air in winter and cooler than the air in summer. (This conditions is an advantage for specially countries where there are clear seasonal change over. in USA most homes still use traditional furnaces and air conditioners. temperatures in the upper 10 feet of the Earth's surface hold nearly constant between 50 and 60 degrees Fahrenheit. geothermal heat pumps are becoming more popular.ground. etc can use this heat pump system) Geothermal heat pumps use the Earth's constant temperatures to heat and cool buildings. And this situation is clearly a pleasure for the people who are talking about sustainability 41 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. we can use ground temperature. They transfer heat from the ground (or water) into buildings in winter and reverse the process in the summer.S. how ever here in Sri Lanka for the areas such as Nuwaraeliya. because in this system. and cost-effective systems for temperature control. In country like Sri Lanka this procedure may be deserved.

the tide moves with a huge amount of water each day and the energy carried with these tides are huge and with the newest technologies it is possible to convert this energy into electrical power although it is not easy. 42 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. the tidal power can be considered as a god way for alternating power.5. Tidal Power Sri Lanka is being surrounded by the sea.info .helpmydegree.11 (Simply circulate water or an antifreeze solution through a closed loop network of pipe) 2.Figure 2.

1. And this could be built in sections.1. so power could start being generated sooner.5.helpmydegree. This procedure is used in Britain and this systems provide around 20% of their energy needs.12 (Tidal Barrages. TIDAL REEF This procedure also can be used to convert energy of the tides into electricity. which then turns a turbine. (See figure 2. This dam is called as a "barrage" When the tide goes in and out.12) Figure 2.3) 2. so it wouldn't affect the tides as severely therefore the environmental consequences are less. this also very similar procedure for tidal barrage but this design does not block the water movement as much like in the barrage method.2. or it can be used to push air through a pipe.5. (See picture 3. The ebb and flow of the tides can be used to turn a turbine. the water flows through tunnels in the dam.info 43 . TIDAL BARRAGES A huge dam is built across a river estuary (in wide tidal river mouth).2. Rance estuary in northern France) Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.1.

example design) 2.13 (Tidal Reef. OFFSHORE TURBINES These systems are like an underwater wind farms.5.5) these method is better for the environment than any other tidal energy methods and also energy from waves do not emit any carbon or harmful greenhouse gases.info . so that it is much better for the planet and every living thing on it. (See figure 2. and install under water towers as in the (figure 3.14) 44 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.helpmydegree.3. First identify the offshore areas where there normally have good wave conditions.Figure 2.1.

helpmydegree. and affects a very wide area . example for design) Advantages Tidal power is free It produces no greenhouse gases or other waste It needs no fuel It produces electricity reliably Not expensive to maintain.Figure 2.14 (Tidal Reef.the environment is changed for many miles upstream and downstream. Disadvantages A barrage across an estuary is very expensive to build. There are few suitable sites for tidal barrages 45 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.info .

lakes. And this is increasing day by day although the spaces are not enough people haven’t stopped their construction. operating and equipping homes and offices. resent past years it has been used materials without any conservation usually for reasons of short-term economic 46 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Environment pollution 6. etc any where they are constructing various kinds of buildings.info .1. beach. Depletion of materials 2. Conservation supports the principles of sustainability. sky scrapers which are tiring to catch the zenith of the sky they are constructing in a competitive way. and ecologically based principles’ 3. Sustainable Architecture and Construction Considerable amount of money of the global economy is dedicated to constructing.helpmydegree. Wastage of materials and other resources 7. Destruction of natural places 5. devastating natural places like forests. Minimize resource consumption . Speed of the constructions and use of materials. it is minimize the resource consumption. Land fillings from the materials that cannot be reuse Considering all those things people should understand the necessity of the sustainable construction that means ‘creating a healthy built environment using resource efficient. Depletions of lands 3. as follow 1. Depletion of land for agriculture 4.3. lands etc are leading the world into some severe problems.conserve and reduce use of resources.

47 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. low water dependent plant species. Rooftop rainwater harvesting for outdoor irrigation 2. and good for agriculture and other aspects. and also some factories. dual flushing toilet mechanisms 3. hotels. etc have build up near the natural water resources without any sustainability and they used to contaminating the water by adding every unsuitable.advantage and to day it has led to a panic situation of shortage of material in the world and some countries have to import necessary materials from other countries for constructions hence under this ground the cost of the materials is sky rocketing therefore it is need to manage the resource consumption Water is one of the resource that we are using for our construction process and abundant resource that we can find in some areas and shortage resource for other areas. tap aerators.helpmydegree. good for constructions. Water efficiency in buildings through the use of conserving fittings such as low-flow showerheads. In external landscaping the use of indigenous. as an examples people have used water without categorized whether it is suitable for use of the daily routings of the people and animal ( this means they must identify the water as drinkable. however now this resources is becoming a shortage resource for every where in the world and main reason for this is consumption of this resource without any management for reservation.info . dangerous chemicals etc and thus this resources had become unusable At least now people should understand this situation and they can limit the consumption of water through 1.

e. and be convincingly tested in their application.helpmydegree. Equitable and produced via socially correct means. using low energy in production. emitting no harmful vapors. unfortunately this will be a fact to reduce there life time. Energy efficient. Durable. 2. Low impact on the environment at source. particles or toxins during either manufacture or use. 4. good working conditions. Please give your concentration on this you are jeopardizing not only your life but also your child ) Water is only a one resource that it had been considered. equal opportunity. and 48 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. 6. long-lived and easy to maintain and repair. People have used to adding various kind of pollutants to water. Renewable and abundant. 3.1 (Water pollution. 5.info .g.Figure 3. Non-polluting. fair wages. other resources also conserve by limiting resource consumption by raising issues as to whether the materials or resources intended for use are: 1. transportation and use.

most often fresh timber is made from hard-pressed woods that gain from forests and that should be avoided 3. for example. windows. And composite boards are made from waste timber and vegetable matter and those are also optional. Oak related productions like sheet material for use on floors and walls. Low waste and capable of being reused and recycled. Maximize resource reuse . teak.7. there are types of woods that we can use while foresting as an examples. thereby saving the vast amounts of energy spent on processing raw materials. which is potential for reuse therefore it should be careful to remove those elements safely before being demolished Many of the countries are constructing a building to a specific period of time and after that they used to demolished those buildings. wooden material etc. saves more than 70% of the energy used in manufacturing new steel from primary ore. but due to the heavy demand. roof related materials. Another side of sustainability is avoid and reduce wastage whenever it is possible to reuse a building it should be considered and if the building can not be reused then it should go to refurbishment. sealing can be used and Teak can be used for making doors.info . like wise as much as possible building should be maintain and used. If the material is renewable and abundant there is no problem for using them for construction as an example wood related materials but when achieving the needs of woods should not target to terminate of forest.helpmydegree. oak. tile. Recycled steel.avoid and reduce waste. sometimes 49 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.2. etc they can be used any kind of usages in constructions. there are building elements like windows. if the refurbishment doesn’t safe and it is not eligible to reuse then only it should go to demolition.

)(Derek Thomas2002. Architecture and the urban environment. originally railway station. sometimes for very short period of time.using dynamites or any other explosives. a vision for the new age) 50 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. And also when using new material for any kind of work wastage should be considered Figure 3. this is not the way to day the world needed.helpmydegree. if there is a designing that should be long lasting design and it will be the need of the world. ‘Recycled’ to become an exhibition gallery. France: The D ’Orsy Museum. With the above process wastage is high because if the building is not good for reuse there are some elements that can be used again. therefore if it is need to demolished a building it should be considered at least this wastage.info . if there are is a building it should not be used and need to demolished it should do in that way but why they are designing them in such specific time period.2 Maximize Resource use(Paris.

sand. floors can be formed using adobe. it is need a very little processing effort to convert them into materials that we want. And the strong of the walls also enough to survive at least two three decades if any external force like flood. Another kind of locally available building material is wood.info . However as it is mentioned in the above for the easiest and the 51 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. clay. hence before going to artificial or imported material it is wise to consider about local material which is cheap economically. which is made out of the clay and just need the labors to made and no any other considerable cost are involve with the procedure of making adobe that can be made into blocks for building. hurricane. or make other decorative outdoor projects. rock. most commonly found resources are. And also wood is clearly one of the most useful building materials on the world and the trees can be available any locality therefore wood also available in any where. Rock as one of the most found local material and after processing with little effort (sometimes for some tasks just breaking is enough) we can use them for various works such as to make retaining walls for landscaping. and a house which is being made with local materials. And such walls are best suited to special interior places where their thermal mass for heat storage can be taken advantage of. Use local material In any where of this world we can find natural resources that can be used for our purposes.helpmydegree.3.3. will give a good natural and interesting look. for walls. trees. limestone are some of them actually if someone need to build a house these things are enough for it. etc wouldn’t take a place Another type of local material that we are using is adobe and in our country (Sri Lanka) we are still using these things. They can also be used with mortared together to make walls for a house.

By keeping them round. office or any kind of buildings we can use these locally available material which is more cheep. Reforesting is the most suitable way to have trees. there are specials trees that we can grow easily and use full for our purpose and a special tree is not suitable for any localities but there are lot of trees which match with selected localities. Bangladesh.info . ( not only in Sri Lanka some oter countries like.helpmydegree. When trees are utilized in their natural rounded. pleasing manner. In addition to intorducing the thick brick layers to buildings that hey had used buildings which is made completely using clay and woods. Parts of trees can support tremendous weight in a decorative. but still solid trees in many locations that can be used in many ways.purpose of narrow economic clouds it should not be incline to destroy natural forest tat has remain in the present world. and/or contorted shapes. it can retain the inherent strength that the tree had in the first place. etc ) present day also we can see those types of houses. India. So before go for an expensive artificial material first look around at the materials that nature provides nearby As I mentioned in the above early days of Sri Llankens( even in today). It is possible to find dead. there are many benefits. When we are going to build up a house. 52 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Although wood can be use for many purpose of construction it should be used only for where it is necessary. rather than sawn into boards.

it is because the appearance of the house is not giving a comfortable look.helpmydegree. economically very cheap to build a house like this. so instead of the appearance of the above house how about using appearance like bellow Figure 3.3 (Use locally available cheap materials to build) Hundred present locally available materials have used to build this house.Figure 3.holidayrentals.info .co.uk) 53 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. therefore people should incline to find new ways of building houses using the same locally available and aesthetically valuable house.4 (Good appearance for a thatched house www. but people may avoid to use a house like above. That is only the reason.

therefore it should be a healthy place for people.Good appearance of houses that we can follow. which is being made with naturally made materials. an equal amount of carbon dioxide is released into the air).org/Places/D evonCounty/images) 3. is better to live with. but present 54 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.devonh eritage. And then there is the matter of health. as an example a floor which is being made by using wood is very comfortable compared with cement or tile floor and just because of the resilient characteristic of the wood it would not give hurt when someone fall down on it. natural materials are much less likely to adversely affect your health A home or office means people are always (specially a home) circulate within it.info .5 (A typical Devonshire cob and thatch house. Use Natural material A building. http://www.4.helpmydegree. those houses also have used locally available materials to construct Figure 3. Also choosing natural materials will reduce the pollution often associated with their manufacture process (for every ton of Portland cement that is manufactured.

etc. Including plants in the living space can greatly enhance the natural plight of the spaces Plants giving a good appearance to spaces and also theyrelease oxygen into the air. it is good practice to used building with natural materials and introducing products of natural related into house and offices Among the natural materials that can use. bamboo. glass. while reducing the carbon dioxide content of the air. wool. lime or mud plasters. all natural fibers (linen. stone.day all houses (or office spaces) are completely not providing a healthy back ground. reeds. The quality of the air is very importance. tiles.).6 (Here most of the parts of this building it has used. adobe or rammed earth. There is an increased risk of air pollution when we seal the interior space tightly against air infiltration from outside.info . This is because any contaminants that are released into the interior air are more likely to stay there.helpmydegree. cotton. Cork. bricks. paper. Today most of the houses and the offices are achieving these artificial air circulations which lead people for many healthy and economic problems Figure 3. canes and grasses. 55 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. natural materials specially woods) From both an aesthetic and health point of view. untreated wood . Home or office should be a place we feel healthy to live.

etc. transport. Increasing these needs means that it is increasing the people’s involvement with the nature therefore we should follow a sustainable procedure to protect the natural environment.6. Use renewable or recyclable resources. mantels.3. Some sustainable architecture incorporates the use of recycled or second hand materials. such as reclaimed lumber. and hardware. thus reducing the consumption of new goods 3. Population is increasing day by day. they need food. If we can reduce use of new materials creates a corresponding reduction in energy used in the production of materials.helpmydegree. and increasing population means that the increasing of the need of the people. not only that producing a material means not a simple process which sometimes use heavy machinery. Vernacular Architecture is also a good way of constructing building using locally available resources and traditions to address local needs. it is also a sustainable construction method See Appendix for more about Vernacular Architecture 56 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. windows. fuel etc. When older buildings are demolished. buildings.info .5. Often sustainable architects incline to use old structures to serve new needs in order to avoid unnecessary construction that means the consumptions of new materials. reusable elements should be carefully removed such as doors. Using renewable material or recyclable material will reduced the necessity of reproducing and also keeping them out of the landfill. reusing a product means we reserve those things to future. labor. Protect the natural environment.

info . Concentrate on site wastage and advice all for minimize waste and recycling resources Renovate older buildings. Before commence constructions carry out a careful site evaluation: solar access. Renovating existing buildings is the most sustainable construction.helpmydegree. soils. water resources 57 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. important natural areas. etc. vegetation. Avoid being disturb or any harm to the natural resource.Conclusion The areas where it has been discussed in this report can be present as a checklist as following Protect Natural resource. Concentration on the Size of building A home should be just the right size for its occupants and their activities. sanctuaries. Minimize the impact with forests wildlife habitats. respect to the natural resources and culturally valued places Minimize site waste. Minimize environmental impact. wetlands. Use buildings which can be manageable very easily and construction cost May reduced and economically cheap Evaluate site resources.

wind power. and natural cooling can be incorporated costeffectively into most buildings. Use the trees around the buildings to avoid excessive sunlight Design an energy-efficient building. 58 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. day lighting.info . Use high levels of insulation. and natural cooling. day lighting. dish washing. Water that has been used for bathing. Minimize waste by designing for standard sizes. Install high-efficiency heating and cooling equipment.Pay attention to solar orientation. geothermal energy and tidal energy. choose glazing with low solar heat gain Design buildings to use renewable energy. Use well-designed high-efficiency air conditioners (and distribution systems) not only save the building occupants money. Passive solar heating. Conserve water. Protect water resource and avoid adding any kind of waste to water Optimize material use. high-performance windows. and tight construction. . Avoid chemicals and other pollutants into the groundwater. Also consider solar water heating. or clothes washing can be recycled for flushing toilets or irrigation.helpmydegree. Rooftop water catchment for outdoor watering should be considered in many regions. In Southern climates. Avoid waste from structural over-design (use optimum value-engineering/advanced framing). but also produce less pollution during operation. Get benefit from existing vegetation. Reduce energy use by orienting buildings to make optimal use of passive solar heating.

a product that lasts longer or requires less maintenance usually saves energy. Reuse building materials when possible. Reducing hot water use also saves energy. Sustainable architecture which describe environmentally friendly design techniques and systems approach to design and construction. showerheads. and faucet aerators not only reduce water use. Use durable products and materials.Install high-efficiency appliances. cut energy consumption in manufacturing. when demolished buildings carefully remove reusable elements As it has been mentioned in the above these factors can be used as a check list for sustainable architecture and if it is needed a sustained future. Water-conserving toilets. Install water-efficient equipment. will be help for a sustained future. and save on natural resource use. Manufacturing is very energy-intensive. High efficiency appliances offer both economic and environmental advantages over their conventional counterparts.helpmydegree. people have to follow these check list in verbatim. Buy locally produced building materials. Use energy efficiency appliances (lamps such as Fluorescent bulbs).info . Building products made from recycled materials reduce solid waste problems. Reduce landfill pressure and save natural resources by reusing. Durable products also contribute less to our solid waste problems. Look for locally produced materials which is cheap and sometime it is no need excessive transport cost Use building products made from recycled materials. they also reduce demand on septic systems or sewage treatment plants. in this report it has been 59 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.

and related remedies that we can follow under sustainable architecture By engaging in Sustainable architecture. We optimize energy efficiency and exploit opportunities for passive solar and natural lighting.helpmydegree.info . and using renewable. we create high performance buildings that are in harmony with their context and ones that protect. Such as sustainable Architect can use to enhance human comfort and reduce or eliminate problems that have taken a place due to miss conduct of the people expecting narrow economic profits. 60 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. using regional resources. used and recycled materials. enhance and even restore the natural environment. We conserve natural resources through reducing waste.discussed problems which have taken a place.

Use local material 3.conserve and reduce use of resources. therefore natural place on which the house is being deemed to build. 5. most of the time if the appearance of a house is tally with the environment. 7. Place Aesthetic and contextual response was great for the buildings specially we like to have a good aesthetic appearance for our residence. and other surrounding houses etc the aesthetic appearance is unwittingly deserved to that house this is called as contextual response of a house.avoid and reduce waste 6. Respect for site 2. in this case aim is going for 1.helpmydegree. back ground. and this case study for look specially for the local materials that we can use . Use renewable or recyclable resources. 8. should not be disturbed. climate and the lively hood etc of Sri Lanka 1. blasting also can be taken a place when it is necessary. Use Natural material 4. available material. Protect the natural environment.info . Minimize resource consumption . because in this case study mostly it has been concentrated conditions. Maximize resource reuse . however today this site preparation procedure is doing with heavy machinery and drilling. today what the people 61 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.Case study 1 Constructing a house and use of sustainability As a case study for the sustainable architecture here I am going to describe construction procedure and suitable low costing materials for constructing a house using local and natural materials. Energy conservation and use of renewable energy resources Please note that this constriction procedure is mostly suitable for constricting a house in Sri Lanka.

foundations etc. To minimize resource consumption you can go for salvation materials from your old house etc 62 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Clay can be used as a bonding materials instead of cement 4. by means of a little processing it can be used for your foundations Locally available materials that can be used for foundations 1. Foundation As it has been mentioned in the process of foundation construction.info . in this country it might be having excessive sunlight and that can be lead to uncomfortable hot conditions within the house but this can be control growing plants around the house 2.are doing is they are preparing the site according to their need. therefore it should consider the orientation of the house to receive effective sunlight through the day time. aesthetic and contextual response of the building In this country sun light is available most of the time in the day and the light from the sun rays is enough for the daily routings. Solid rock particles 3. Boulders 2. excavation for foundations it should avoid using heavy machinery that will disturbed the steady of the earth (vibrations etc) and later it will lead to settle down the structure with cracks of walls. as an example if the site is consisted with boulders.helpmydegree. use of labors for excavation is the best way and it should appreciate in this country most of the time it is use labors Materials for foundation As a sustainable method (Use local material) always before going to by any thing for the use of constructions it should search what materials can be available near or is there any materials which can be reused. this procedure may loose the stability.

3. Such soil is found naturally in many areas of the country.helpmydegree. Any soil that is composed of between 20 and 30 percent clay. is good for adobe projects. There should be a clear line of demarcation between the clay. First of all heavier particles will sink. 63 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. here in this country most of the places are suitable for making clay bricks and the process of making clay bricks also a easy procedure and adobe also a kind of brick which is some what large than the normal clay brick and it is also a very god material that can be used for constructing walls. Organic material will float on the water. silt and sand.info . to day this situation is converting and people have tend to use cement bricks which lead to increase the artificial appearance of a house while losing the neutrality. and the finer clay will settle on the top. shake the glass until all of the soil is suspended in the water and then set it aside for several hours to settle out. Then it is an easy to estimate the percentage of the total amount of soil that the clay represents. Next. There for used to made adobe for wall construction is economically very cheap. following this procedure you can test possible soil for making Place some soil in a glass which uses to drink water and then fill the glass with water. with the rest mostly sand. Walls Most of the time in this country it is being used clay bricks which is good because of the clay bricks are locally available material.

just clay and water Today also in some village areas we can see rammed earth walls. stems of trees and reepers (lath which made 64 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. in this case rammed earth walls are acting as a thermal barrier and protect the comfortable conditions within the house. there is no any artificial or environmentally affective materials are being used. that is also a fact for they have faced problems like need of cooling systems for their houses Construction of a rammed earth wall (house) In this case also it can be used a soil that is composed of between 20 and 30 percent clay. however any where of this country it can be find good soil for rammed earth walls. these are construct use of Using local and Natural material.Making clay bricks.info . if the content of the sand is high it is not good to use because it is weaken the strength of walls. up to the late 1900 people have used this method but today we cannot see people use this ramped walls to build their houses.helpmydegree.

in the cleared placed where you want to construct the house first plant the tree stems in corners of walls and on the lines of walls are going.out of the bamboo or areca nut trees can be used) are use to construct the structure of the wall.helpmydegree. after that reepers which are parallel to each other are nailed or tied to these stems steadily to represent the either side f walls Stems Reepers Plan view of a wall Stems Reepers Elevation of a wall structure 65 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. using number of stems it can increase the strength of the walls this stems should be planted very steadily.info .

devonheritage.info . in some countries they mixed straws with this clay in order to increase the strength of the walls and they called as those walls are cob web walls A house which has used cob web walls (http://www.helpmydegree.jpg</TITLE> ) 66 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.o rg/Places/DevonCounty/imag es/CobandThatch.After complete the wall structure clay is being prepared mixing water and compacting by specially men treading on it. compacted clay is prepared as globate in shape ( this shape is easy to handle and put into walls) after that this prepared globate shape clay put in to the holes of the walls and tamped by hands Stems Reepers Prepared globate shape clay put in to these holes Like wise rammed earth walls are being constructed.

Roofs Roof element also can be made using 100% natural materials. The following locally available natural materials can be used to construct walls 1. wall finishes should be considered greatly because aesthetic appearance of the house is depend on the finishing. Leaves of Palmyra tree 4. adobe 2. Straw thatches ( straw bales) 3. Coconut thatches 2. example is thatched roofs. here in this case we can use clay as a good finishing material and after that it can be white washed as seen in the picture above. Straw bales 4.helpmydegree. after completing g the roof structure covering ( coconut thatches or straw thatches tied with the reepers specially in coconut thatched roofs The following locally available natural materials can be used as roof coverings 1.info . Timbers 4.Here also we can use cob web walls to made our houses. Clay . Tall grass ( mana) bales 67 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. clay mixed with straws 3. Rock particles 6. Bricks. Bamboos 5. local stones 7. timbers witch is not planed or plane timber can be used as ribs . reepers and purlins.

Hard wood timber.greenhomebuilding. Wood 4.5. Adobe and it can applied a thin clay layer on it and can be applied colored clay 3.htm -->) 68 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. Finishes As wall finishes it can be used clay and to keep a good appearance it can be white washed and also can be used timber which is prepared in many ways as swan timbers.helpmydegree. compacted hard woods etc As floor finishes it can be used a compacted soil surface which is secondary applied a good clay surface this the simple way that we can use as floor finishes in addition to that following materials also can be used as floor finishes 1. Granite can be used after little process 6. boards 5.co m/localmaterials. boards. Planks A stair case made out of timbers (http://www. Brick 2. Industrially processed Granite also can be used but may be expensive 7.info .

info .helpmydegree. such as if there are large trees you must avoid cutting them and when you want to plant trees and flowers always you must go for the plants which deserved to the prevailing climatic conditions of the area if not it must be want to spend lot of money to maintain them 69 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. therefore it should be careful to protect the natural environment. this is in one hand protecting the natural environment the more you protect the natural environment the more you increase the aesthetic appearance of your land.6. Landscaping Actually the landscaping is increase the aesthetic appearance of the land.

Case Study 2 Design a light system for a selected area This article is extracted from one of my assignment and the following is a my design (according to the Lumen method) which is suitable for the following conditions Design a light system for a factory the floor area measures 42m. Required illumination (E) The factory floor measures (A) Lighting design Lumen (LDU) Utilization factor (UF) Maintenance factor (MF) = 210 Lux = 42m*20m = 15000 lumens = 0.75 Numbers of lamp =39. required illumination level is 210 Lux.75 Numbers of lamp = E* A F * UF *MF = 210 Lux*42m*20m 15000*0.2 Therefore it is 40 bulbs need for this factory.4*0. Utilization factor (UF) is 0.helpmydegree. Lighting design Lumen (LDU) is 15000 lumens.info . 70 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.75 How to decide number of lamps which suitable for the selected area 1.4. 20m. Maintenance factor (MF) is 0.4 = 0.

125 =4.Arrangements of the lightings Ceiling area = 42m*20 The height from the ceiling to the working plane is = 2.helpmydegree.info .125 Numbers of rows =20/4.75 The spacing to mounting height ratio is Then the spacing between lamps =3:2 =4.8484 Therefore there should be 5 rows Then the spacing between lamps become 4m The 5 rows can be arrange as follow 42m Spacing between rows 4m 20m Half spacing 2m 71 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.

Numbers of lamps in each row Total lamps Numbers of row = 40 =5 Numbers of lamps in each row = 40/5 =8// 8 lamps in an each row Therefore the longitudinal space between lamps in a row = 42/8 = 5.25meters Here will be half the spacing at both ends = 5.helpmydegree.625m This layout should be as follow.62m 72 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www. 42m 5.25m 20m 2.info .25/2 = 2.

info 73 .helpmydegree.25m 20m 2m 2.7m it is not same in the every where of the area there may have some differences there fore it will not give the same required illumination at everywhere. 1. Absorptions of lights by the instrument in the area also will be a factor to deviate the required illumination level Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.Then the lamps layout should be as follow 42m 4m 5.62m Practical problems come across when maintaining the above system. Although we measured the height from the ceiling to the working plane is 2. 2. Reflection of the light from the walls and furniture and other instruments in the area will be a factor to deviate the required illumination level 3.

(Vernacular architecture. and hence will demonstrate significant similarities in structural forms. cultural and historical context in which it exists. every building is subject to the same laws of physics. Despite these variations. leading to differing building forms for almost every different context. viewed on 22. but also has proponents who highlight its importance in current design. www.Appendix Vernacular architecture Vernacular architecture is a term used to categorise methods of construction which use locally available resources and traditions to address local needs.09. Vernacular architecture tends to evolve over time to reflect the environmental. wikipedia. even neighbouring villages may have subtly different approaches to the construction and use of their dwellings. even if they at first appear the same. It has often been dismissed as crude and unrefined. It can be contrasted against polite architecture which is characterised by stylistic elements of design intentionally incorporated for aesthetic purposes which go beyond a building's functional requirements. Vernacular architecture is influenced by a great range of different aspects of human behaviour and environment.08.helpmydegree.com) 74 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.info .

2009. Why is there an Energy Crisis.com/sustainable_architecture.info .07.com/solar-power-home/&usg 10.08. Building today for tomorrow. viewed on 27. viewed on 27.08. 2003.com/sustainable_architecture. Building today for tomorrow. Derek Thomas 2002. Energy resource.htm --> 8. Civilengineerblog. Sustainable architecture.net/darvill/altenerg/wind.com/articles/energycrisis.07.org/TR/REC-html40" xml:lang="en"> 3.w3.07.htm --> 75 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.2009. viewed on 01.greenhomebuilding.2009 http://makewealthhistory.07. Wind Power.w3. Cowart Coleman group.07.helpmydegree.2009 http://www. importance-of-sustainable-architecture. http://www.2009. http://www. http://www.htm --> 11. Sustainable Architecture. Architecture and the urban environment 2.2009.clara.2009.htm --> 12. http://home. A vision for the new age. sustainable/ preservation viewed on 01. http://civilengineerblog.clara.2009.greenhomebuilding.htm --> 4.07.energy from the sea. Gyula Sebestyen.2009 http://home. Tidal power . http://www.htm --> 6.cowartgroup. viewed on 27. viewed on 27. Sustainable Architecture.org/2007/09/10/the-importance-ofsustainable-architecture/ --> 7. viewed on 01.net/darvill/altenerg/tidal.2009.com/sustainable.Reference 1. http://www. viewed on 27. viewed on 27. Sustainable architecture.org/TR/REC-html40" xml:lang="en"> 5.greenhomebuilding.07. New Architecture and Technology 9. viewed on 27.08.

www.mywindpowersystem. Tidal power .bionomicfuel.08.clara.2009.2009 http://www.helpmydegree.clara.info .net/darvill/altenerg/wind.fortiswindenergy.com/how-we-can-use-energy-fromwaves-tides-and-currents/ --> 7.htm --> 8.08.friars. viewed on 01. A vision for the new age. Architecture and the urban environment 4. Derek Thomas 2002.08. viewed on 01.png&imgrefurl 2. How We Can Use Energy from Waves. Use natural water stream to cool the home.08.energy from the sea.com 3.nziLrot1. Floating wind farms.2009 http://www. http://home.08.net/darvill/altenerg/tidal. www. viewed on 01.com 6. Energy resource.freefoto.co.2009 http://home. Forties Wind Energy. Wind Power.Reference of figures 1. viewed on 01.htm --> 5.2009. viewed on 01. Tides and Currents .com/img/molen_homepage. httpwww.jpg 76 Learn more about building constructions visit http://www.

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