1.1 OVERVIEW OF THE STUDENT INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME SIWES which stands for Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme was initiated by the Industrial Training Fund (ITF) in 1973 so as to complement the theoretical knowledge acquired in higher institutions with practical experience. The goal of SIWES is to promote industrialization in Nigeria, and an avenue between the world of teaching, learning, industry and work with reference to a field of study. The scheme is therefore a skill training oriented program so as to expose the students on work they would meet after graduation.


The Industrial Training Fund (ITF) was established by the decree 47 of 1971 constitution and charged with the responsibility of promoting and encouraging the acquisition of industrial skills, with the view of generating a collection of indigenous trained manpower, sufficient enough to enhance and meet the needs of the economy so as to promote development. Supervision of students, organizing orientation programs, and disbursing allowances to students are some of the roles played by the industrial training fund in the implementation of SIWES.

1.3 THE SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE OF SIWES The scheme covers all science and technological based students in monotechnics, polytechnics and universities in Nigeria, resulting in a high population of students which is easily managed because of the public and private industries that partake in the scheme.


SIWES enables students acquire industrial know-how in their field of study particularly in technological based courses. It also enables students experience the application of theoretical knowledge in solving real life problems.

The role of the student is to partake in the program in such a way that he/she will achieve maximum benefit from the program. The student is advised to ask questions, be submissive, and adhere to all the rules and regulations of the organization where he is attached. Identification of placement opportunities, funding of SIWES supervisors and assessment of the student are some of the roles played by the institutions to ensure smooth running of the program.



2.1 UNIVERSAL SERVICE PROVISION FUND The Universal Service Provision Fund (USPF) is a department under the Nigerian Communication Commission (NCC). It was established by the Communications Act of 2003, as a political response by the government to address the ICT needs of Nigerians wherever they may be, especially those in unserved and underserved areas.

2.2 MISSION OF THE UNIVERSAL SERVICE PROVISION FUND To achieve universal access, universal coverage and universal service through a public private partnership framework that stimulates economic and social development, private sector investment and marker-based provision of basic affordable and quality ICT infrastructure and service to unserved and underserved areas, communities and populations.

2.3 FUNCTIONS OF THE USPF SECTRETARIAT The Nigerian Communication Act of 2003 listed the following functions for the USPF Secretariat:  as  Receiving applications for loans and grants from eligible persons such Community based communications operators; Enforcing standards for quality of service in rural and underserved

areas set by the USP Board;  Evaluation of project performance and effecting such action as may be

necessary to ensure that loans recipients and grantees meet objectives for network expansion and provision of service;


Facilitating collaboration between activities that are funded by the USP

Fund and other infrastructure and development efforts;  Providing loan recipients and grantees with technical and managerial

assistances, such as resolution of equipment vendor issues and setting up of billing systems;  Preparing and recommending to the standing order to establish and

regulate the structure and activities of the USP secretariat and revisions to such standing order from time to time;  Evaluating the effectiveness of the USP in meeting policy goals as set

by the government and the USP Board;  Preparing and recommending to the USP Board the Operating plans,

which shall include one or more USP programs and USP project and a budget for all operations and expenses of the USP Board, USP Secretariat, Fund managers and all other matters to be financed by the USP Fund during the period of the Operating plans;  Reviewing the applications and Marketing recommendations to the

USP Board as to which applications should be funded;  Liaising with other departments of the NCC in processing licenses for

funded applications.


With the universality of technology being the primary concern and the ordinary unreached folks being the fulcrum of attention USPF has quickly come up with broad areas of concentration in order to reach the unreached, those not so favoured even with the most welfares’ of intentions in distribution of amenities. They include:  School Access Programme (SAP) Project


  

Community Communication Centres (CCC) Project Accelerated Mobile Phone Expansion (AMPE) Project Rural Broadband Internet (RUBI) Project


School Access Programme (SAP) Project

It is a connectivity programmed focused at facilitating connectivity to Broadband Internet with a minimum speed of 1mbps to government school, libraries and Institution in unserved, underserved and rural areas. The aim is to facilitate digital lifestyles in target beneficiary institutions. Each qualified school, libraries or institution will receive equipment and facilities that link them to high speed internet. The target beneficiaries are encouraged to share the facilities with their surrounding communities, on a commercial basis. The implementation idea is that the program will provide a given number of desktop computers, accessories and Internet connection to each select beneficiary institution for the use of the student and a given number of laptops to the teachers. A wireless mesh will connect all the computers and the teacher’s laptop will serve as the server. The economic and social benefit of the School Access Programme includes:   Technology enhanced learning in eligible school. Enhanced and improved teaching capability of teachers in the

participating school.  Exposed student to international and global standards in academic

courses content.  Generate jobs in the rural areas by improving the skills of rural

dwellers.  Alleviate poverty and generate wealth.


Target Communities Primary and secondary institutions in unserved, underserved and rural areas will be the primary targets of the project. They are considered the localities in which the project will give the greatest benefits.

Eligibility Conditions    Minimum of 750pupils Availability of chairs and desks Availability of certain infrastructures school building with good roofs,

secured doors and windows    Preferably with electricity Availability of trainable teachers Nearness to a community, to encourage increased usage for

sustainability  Secured storage for the equipment.


Community Communication Centres (CCC) Project

The community communication centre’s (CCCs) are design to extend voice, Internet, ICT training and other services to unserved communities. Each CCC will provide a public calling centre, cybercafé and ICT training courses, as well serve as a platform for extending wireless Internet access to the neighboring communities. The CCC will enable the private operator / implementing counterpart to install and run a wireless broadband Internet point, Voice over IP (VOIP) and Remittances services in the target community. Also, using WiMAX and Wi-Fi wireless technologies the CCC will also provide broadband connectivity to the communities within 5km to 15km radius of the target Community.

The service will enable access to the Internet for individual, businesses, government offices, school, hospitals, police, rescue services providers and other community-based organizations. The economic and social benefit of a community communication centre includes:

Stimulating social and economic development of the unserved,

underserved and rural areas
    

Promoting the communicative right of Nigerians Creation of a knowledge-based information society Promoting education empowerment Promoting political, social, and economic participation Increasing availability of quality services at just, reasonable and

affordable rates

Facilitating the provision of ICT infrastructural development in unserved

or underserved location, in non-discriminatory manner

Reduction in rural to urban population drift by bridging the urban-rural

access gap
 

Increasing online access to essential services Generating employment in the unserved and underserviced areas

Target Communities Unserved or underserved Local Government Areas and unserved or underserved communities will be the Primary target of the CCC.


Image 1: Community Communication Network Layout


Accelerated Mobile Phone Expansion (AMPE) Project

The Accelerated Mobile Phone Expansion (AMPE) Project is the precursor to the Based Transceiver Station Site (BTSS) project. The AMPE project is a vehicle for facilitating the roll-out of mobile phone expansion in at least 5 unserved town/village in each of the 774 Local Government Area (LGAs) in Nigeria. The AMPE will accelerate the rapid expansion of mobile service to unserved areas in Nigeria through the provision of smart subsidy, loans and incentives to existing mobile phone companies. It will also enable communities, NGOs, and private entrepreneurs to

build and

operate mobile telephone

infrastructures (Based Transceiver Station,

communication Towers etc) and provide modern mobile communication services to end users in unserved areas using an existing mobile telephone operator’s network (Transmission, Switching and Billing Platform). The economic and social benefits of the accelerated mobile phone expansion project are as follows:  Accelerate the socio-economic development of unserved, underserved

and rural areas.   Bridge the digital divide between the urban and rural areas. Create employment opportunities, help alleviate poverty and generate

wealth (More particularly with the existing microfinance schemes).   Lower the cost of doing business in rural communities. Facilitate commerce and trade in unserved, underserved and rural

communities.  Leverage private sector investments in unserved, underserved and

rural areas.

Target Communities Unserved LGAs in each State of the Federation. The initial project will be sited in the LGAs that are more likely to succeed rather than the poorest or the most challenging.


Image 2: Topology diagram for AMPE Project


Rural Broadband Internet (RUBI) Project

The Rural broadband internet (RUBI) project will facilitate broadband network roll-out in unserved, underserved and rural areas in line with the USP Secretariat’s five years Strategic Management Plan, which is as follows:  Extend Broadband Internet access to at least 109 Local Government

Area Headquarters, at least one in each senatorial district, which will enable end users within 10km radius have access to the Internet.  Provide Broadband connections to Internet with at least 100mbps

capacity to one town in each senatorial district with a minimum population of 20,000 people.

The RUBI is characterized by and will provide wholesale internet

bandwidth service to community communication centre’s (CCC), Cybercafé,

rural internet service provider (RISE), and institutions in unserved, underserved and rural communities in Nigeria. The benefits of the rural broadband internet project are:  Level the playing field for rural business; giving them access to wide

range of services and allowing them cut coast and improved efficiency.   Promote rural-urban socio-economic integration. Accelerate the socio-economic development of unserved, underserved

and rural communities.  areas.  Build and develop the non-oil economy in the rural areas. Foster efficiency in universal access to the unserved and underserved

Target Communities RUBI will target unserved and underserved Local Government Area Headquarters and towns with population greater than 20,000 people. The RUBI project will be located in LGA headquarters and priority will be given to LGAs with existing transmission infrastructure.


Image 3: Topology diagram of RUBI Project



3.1 OVERVIEW OF A TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM The process of sharing ideas, messages and information with others in a particular time and place is of great importance. Without communication business, personal life, and education would be impossible. Communication maybe achieved by several means, but the form of communication that involves a sender of information and one or more recipients linked by a technology that transmit electronic or optical signals across long distances is referred to as TELECOMMUNICATION. In telecommunications messages can be sent in a variety of ways such as point-topoint transmission (i.e. a message is sent from one sender to a single receiver like in a phone call) or point-to-multipoint transmission which involves one sender and several receivers like a radio broadcast. Devices are used to convert different types of information, such as sound and pictures, into electronic or optical signals, a process called known as

while the devices are

The resulting signals are then transmitted through a medium. Glass

fiber (or fiber optic cable) is the medium used for propagating optical signals. Whereas, the electronic signals are propagated through copper wire or radio waves. During the course of transmission, the signals are regenerated at regular intervals by devices called back into understandable information, a process termed DEMODULATION. Telecommunications provides the key medium for delivering news, data, information, and entertainment.

so as to prevent loss of information. On reaching its destination, the signal is converted

Types of Communication Based on the medium used for the transmission of signals, telecommunications may be classified as wired and wireless communication.


Communication that involves the use of wires or electrical conductors as a medium of propagation is the oldest form of telecommunication. Such telecommunication systems, such as telephone and telegram, are uneconomical when large coverage area is required. But for short distances they have the advantage of low procurement and maintenance cost. Wireless communication involves the transfer of signals without the use of electrical conductors. Depending on the type of electromagnetic wave used to transfer the signal, the distances involved may be short for infrared (IR) and Infrared Data Association (IrDA) or long for microwave and radio frequency (RF). For communicating over long distances wireless communication is most suitable in terms of installation and maintenance. Applications of wireless communication involve broadcasting, cellular networks, global positioning system, two-way radios, cordless computer peripherals, and wireless networking of computers, but to mention a few.

3.2 THE STRUCTURE OF THE INTERNET The internet which is a global computer network that links computer networks all over the world by satellite and telephone is an example of a telecommunication system. Computer networks are created by connecting individual computers to each other. LAN (local area network), MAN (metropolitan area network), and WAN (wide area network) are all types of computer networks, which are differentiated based on the geographical area over which the network covers. The main difference between wide area and local area networks is that the former cover very large distances and has limited bandwidth and substantial propagation delay. Local area networks on the other hand cover distances up to a few kilometers such as in a home or office network, and have relatively high bandwidths and low propagation delays. Although WANs and LANs can be categorized separately, it is worth noting that many LANs have gateways to WANs, so that global communication (internet) often makes use of combinations of both type of network. An internet connection consists of several devices such as computer system, modem, satellite, telephone wire, and router; and this devices may use either wired or wireless communication or both to interact with another.

3.3.1 Means of Internet Access Internet access is provided by ISP’s (Internet service providers). An ISP network is used to access the internet by customers that subscribes to the ISP service for a monthly fee, in exchange the company agrees to relay data between the subscriber’s computer and the internet. Accessing an ISP network may be achieved through any of the following internet access technologies such as dedicated, satellite, dial-up, and wireless.

Dedicated Internet Access In this type of internet access, a subscriber’s computer remains directly connected to the internet at all times through a permanent physical connection, such as digital subscriber line (DSL) or cable modems. DSL uses telephone wires, and cable modems uses television cables to send data across. In both cases, data is sent through separate frequencies or channels that do not interfere with other signals on the wires, thus while data is being sent phone calls or television signals may be received simultaneously. This form of internet access is common in developed countries with existing telephone or television cable networks.

Satellite Internet Access It involves the use of an outdoor satellite dish to grab internet signals from orbiting satellites, after which the signals are transmitted to a computer. Satellite internet access is very popular is this country, due to the fact that wired telephone networks hardly exist.


Dial-up Internet Access This type of internet access technology is the least expensive and least convenient. It involves the use of a telephone modem (a device that is capable of converting digital data into tones and tones back into data), to connect the computer to the telephone system. To access the internet, the user uses a software which causes the dial-up modem to place a telephone call to the ISP. A modem at the ISP answers the call, and the two modems uses audible tones to send data in both directions. The major setback in using dial-up modem is that the telephone line cannot be used for regular telephone calls, at the same time the dial-up modem is sending data.

Wireless Internet Access This technology involves the use of cell phones and handheld computers to access the internet through wireless cellular telephone networks. In the past such means of accessing the internet was the slowest means. But with the recent development of 3G (third generation) cellular networks, the internet can be accessed on the go, and at DSL-like speeds.

3.3.2 Means of Data Transfer over the Internet Information is transmitted across the internet in small units of data called


packet is a block of data transmitted from a source to a destination. On the sending computer, software split a file into many packets and on the receiving computer, software merges incoming packets to create the original file. Packets consist of two parts; a body containing the data being sent, and a header which specifies the computer to which the packet should be delivered and how the data in the packet should be combined with subsequent data on reception.


The Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is a set of rules that specify how packet headers are formed and how packets are processed. TCP protocols also enable the internet to detect and correct transmission problems. A computer connected to the internet is assigned a unique number, known as its IP (Internet Protocol) address. Each packet sent over the internet contains the IP address of the computer to which it is being sent. IP protocols are followed by IP routers, which are hardware devices that connect networks in the internet. A router use the IP address contained in a packet to determine, either to deliver the packet to the destination computer across a local area network or to forward the packet to another router that is closer to the final destination. Hence, a packet may travel from router to router as it passes through the internet.


In Nigeria, satellite internet access is the most common means of accessing the internet at reasonable speed. The satellite uses wireless communication (in this case radio frequency is the transmission medium) to communicate with an orbiting satellite, the resulting data is transferred to the gateway Indoor Unit (IDU) and from the gateway IDU to the router using high grade coaxial cables. Finally, the router communicates with the computer system via Ethernet cables (RJ45).

Fig 1: Satellite Internet Access System Architecture

The tools and equipment required to setup an internet connection via satellite depends on the manufacturers of the equipment. The common brand of internet satellite includes Shiron, Linkstar, Mweb, and Galileo. The equipments required for Galileo being as follows:

Satellite / Antenna Gateway Indoor Unit (IDU) Router Installer Laptop Coaxial Cable Ethernet Cable Global Positioning System (GPS) Device

     

3.3.1 The Satellite / Antenna

The satellite consists of a 1.2m elliptical reflector and a radio unit which is mounted outside. The elliptical reflector is made up of a wire mesh covered by white plastic surface. It acts to reflect outbound signals from the transmitter in the radio unit, and focus and redirect inbound signals towards the low noise block in the radio unit. The radio unit consists of several components: the feed horn which is cone-shaped cuts down ambient signals, the 2 watt transmitter sends signals to the orbiting satellite, and the Low Noise Block (LNB) receives the very low level microwave signal from the satellite, amplifies and changes the signals to a lower frequency band and sends it to the indoor



Image 4: Outdoor Unit

3.3.2 Gateway Indoor Unit The gateway IDU as the name implies is a device that serves as the satellite modem i.e. it converts data into RF signal and RF signals into data. It also serves as a link between the dish, the router, and the installer laptop. As shown in the diagram, the gateway IDU consists of two coaxial cable ports, used to communicate with the satellite and an ethernet port for communicating with both the installer laptop and the IP router.


Image 5: The Gateway Indoor Unit (IDU)

3.3.3 IP Router The IP router or client router is a device that uses the IP address contained in a packet header to determine, either to deliver the packet to the destination computer across a local area network or to send the packet to the gateway IDU for subsequent modulation and then transmission. The router consists of an input ethernet port that will be connected to the gateway IDU and several output ports (depending on the make) that will be connected to users computer system or hubs (a hub is a network adapter that offers multiple output ports, and is used in LAN with large number of computers).

Image 6: The Linksys 100Mbps Router

3.3.4 Installer Laptop On the laptop that will be used in the configuration of the satellite and the gateway IDU the following application software are required:

 

CPE Installation Wizard; used to activate the Galileo System. Any Web Browser Application; used to verify the satellite is online

The laptop is connected to the gateway IDU using a crossover ethernet cable.

Image 7: Installer Laptop and Crossover Ethernet Cable

3.3.5 Coaxial Cable Coaxial cables are used to connect the outdoor unit (satellite and radio unit) to the indoor unit (gateway IDU). The RG 6 type coaxial cable may be used if the cable length will not exceed 30m, while for longer distance the RG 11 type coaxial cable is preferred. Two coaxial cables are used to connect the outdoor unit to the indoor unit; one carries the outbound signal from the output (TX) terminal of the IDU to the transmitter. While the other carries the inbound signal and the 24VDC for the LNB.

Image 8: RG 11 Type Coaxial Cable

3.3.6 Ethernet Cable


In setting up a local area network, ethernet cables is the link between the computers in the network. Ethernet cables may be classified into two types; the standard straight through cables and the crossover ethernet cables. Straight through cables are made in such a way that both connectors at each end are identical. While in crossover cables as the name implies is made by crossing over some of the wires (for further information refer to section 3.X.X) which will enable one machine to communicate directly with another, without a hub or switch.

Fig 2: A chart that shows the arrangement of wires at each end of a cross over ethernet cable.

Image 9: An Ethernet Cable

3.3.7 Global Positioning System (GPS) Device This is a handheld wireless device that enables one to determine his exact geographical location (i.e. in terms of longitude and latitude) on the earth.

3.4 INSTALLATION OF AN INTERNET ACCESS SATELLITE For the purpose of this paper, the process of installing an internet access satellite may be divided into two stages; the site preparatory stage, and the connection stage.

3.4.1 Site Survey Prior to installation, a field operations engineer should visit the site that the satellite is to be installed. During such visit the engineer performs the following activities:  Ensure the absence of high-rise buildings, trees etc, which may block the signal path.

     

Ensure the absence of interference by using a gun and a field meter. Check for the existence of AC power. Acquire the longitude and latitude using GPS. Check for the existence of a LAN network near the IDU. Estimate of the maximum cable length. Determine if there is free access to the roof of the building.

3.4.2 Connection Stage

This involves the mounting and physical connection of all the components required for accessing the internet via satellite. The antenna (elliptical reflector) is mounted on the roof if penetrating the roof is allowed, and secured in place with large bolts and concrete. In cases where penetrating the roof is not allowed, a non-penetrating mount (the dish is held by pouring concrete on an angle iron frame) would be used. After the antenna has been set to the appropriate elevation angle, the LNB and transmitter are assembled to form the outdoor unit (ODU) which is attached on the antenna support arm with the aid of nuts. The IDU may be placed on top of a bench or on a shelf in a rack. The IDU should be placed in a well ventilated and easily accessible location, to allow proper airflow and easy access by a technician during maintenance. After the above components have been set in place, the ODU is connected to the IDU using two coaxial cables. The first cable is connected from the transmitter to the RF OUT port of the IDU, the second cable goes from the RF IN port of the IDU to the LNB. Finally the installer laptop will be connected to the ethernet port of the IDU using an RJ45 ethernet cable. After which the system is now ready for configuration.



Ethernet cables are the medium with which data is transmitted from the IDU through the router to the computer system, thus, to prevent disrupting the data flow process cables should be properly attached to the connected. In general, ethernet cables are made by attaching RJ45 connectors to the each end of a cable with an ethernet crimper. Making proper fittings on the ends of ethernet cables require a bit of training, and the steps involved are described below:





Image 10: Ethernet Cables

Image 12: RJ45 and Ethernet Crimper

Firstly, the ½ inch of the insulation covering the back of cable is peeled off as shown in figure 1 above. Secondly, similar colours are unwind, arranged and cut straight across as shown in figures 2 and 3 respectively. Thirdly, the wires are pushed into the RJ45 connector until they reach the end of the connector, and the blue plastic shielding reaches a position as shown in figure 4 above. Finally, the connector is placed into the ethernet crimper. Copper splicing tabs enters into each of the cables when the handles of the crimper is pressed down. On removal of the cable from the crimper it will be ready for use.

3.6 MAINTENANCE OF AN ICT SYSTEM Like any other system an ICT system requires regular maintenance (the act of restoring failed items into working conditions) which will improve overall reliability, availability, and cost of operation. For the purpose of this paper, the major maintenance actions carried out on an ICT system (using satellite internet access system as a case study) have been grouped as shown below:


Protection of a Satellite Internet Access System

This consists of all the safety precautions taken during the process of installing the satellite, and they include:  Ensure that all cables are connected to the correct terminal and are firmly tightened.   Leave Extra cable at the antenna. Ensure that all outdoor connections are weatherproofed after all necessary testing have been completed.   Place the Indoor Unit away from electromagnetic field emitting devices. Ensure that the IDU is not in an unventilated environment.


Maintenance of a Computer System

In view of the fact that computer system is the interface that users will use to communicate on the internet, it is of optimum importance that it should be in good working condition. And this may be achieved by carrying out planned and unplanned maintenance actions.

Planned Maintenance

Planned maintenance actions consist of the activities that are conducted to ensure that the computer system is readily available for use. Below is a list of such maintenance actions.

Maintenance Actions Disk Backup Disk Cleanup Virus Scanning Disk Defragmenting Operating System Reinstallation

Daily ••

Weekly •• ••



•• ••

Unplanned Maintenance This involves maintenance actions that are carried to repair a faulty system. It includes:    Replacement of faulty accessories Repair of corrupted operating system software Replacement of faulty ethernet cables



4.1 INTRODUCTION In order to reduce the growing gap between the information rich (people with easy access to information) and the information poor (people with less access to information), reduce rural-urban drift, and enhance commerce, the USPF has embarked on the implementation of CCC (Community Communication Centres). These centres will serve as a platform through which surrounding communities will have access to wireless connectivity, and presently there are 218 of such centres across the country at various level of completion.

4.2 LOCATION OF THE COMMUNITY COMMUNICATION CENTRE The community communication centre in question is located in Potiskum local government area of Yobe state. Potiskum is classified as an underserved area due to the fact that service is almost unavailable and the existence of low level of competition in the area.

4.3 REASON FOR THE CHOICE OF THE BENEFITING COMMUNITY The USPF has a rule of choosing communities that are more likely to succeed rather than the poorest and most challenging communities. Potiskum was chosen as one of the beneficiaries of the community communication centres project, because it has access roads, power supply and a more learned population when compared to other unserved and underserved communities in the north-eastern part of the country. Thus, it is most likely that the project will be successful there.



The inspection of the community communication centre in Potiskum local government area of Yobe state was aimed at determining whether or not the equipment installed meets the minimum standard set by the USPF.

4.4.1 Inventory of Equipment Installed Detailed information of the infrastructure and equipment inspected are shown below.

S/N Item A Building

Description 20.02m2 Total Floor Area

Quantity 1

Remarks The space provided is adequate to accommodate the twelve (12) computers and LAN access (data access) terminals provided.


Computer Systems

Pentium (4) 2.80 GHz 12 Chip 512 MB RAM 40 GB Hard Disk Drive 15” Flat LCD VDU CD ROM Drive Windows XP SP2 OS

C 1

Internet Access Satellite System Satellite 3.2m dish (C-Band 2w 1 BUC, Model NJT5667F) Input 3.4 – 4.2 GHz Lo Freq 5.15GHz Stability +/-500KHz Gain 600dB Temp 20K (i.e. 293oC)

The satellite was installed using a non-penetrating mount, whereby its base was held firmly in place with contrete.

Output 5.850 – 6.425GHz 2 Gateway IDU DC Input +15v to 30v i-Direct 3000 series 1 satellite modem The IDU / modem was placed on a wall mounted iron 3 Structured Access Points 4. Structured cabling with 12 Access Point was rack, in a well ventilated location. Cabling and trunking were in place and data access point terminated appropriately. 16 Port switch translate to 16 data access points for connection of 16 computers. But only 12 was 5 Cisco Ethernet 4 port IP Router used. The Cisco Router has ports (FXO & FXS) that support and can be used for VOIP calls. D 1 Power Supply System Primary Source of National Grid provided Power by PHCN 240V nominal Electricity supply service cable was connected from the service pole to the building 2 Back-up Source Power 200KVA Cummins 1 and terminated appropriately. The generator output power is adequate to power the equipment including the two A.C window units. Moreover, the generator is brand new; manufacturing 3 E Lighting Furniture and Ventilation

Cabling / Data PVC trunking and Data provided 3 Com Switch / 16 port Hub

Basic Gen-set

date is may, 2007. Adequate lighting and was provided.



U-shaped tables with 3 15 partitions.

One partition was used for each computer, and three were extras.

2 3


Conditioning 1.5 HP National Air 1 wall 1 The dimension of the Rack mounted is adequate to support and house the hub, gateway IDU, and router.

System conditioning unit Rack and Cooling 60cmx80cm Fan Unit.

mounted metal rack

F 1 2

Other Equipment Bandwidth IP Phones 256/128 Kbps Analogue phones were (Shared ) Analogue Phones

used to interface with (FXS) ports begin provided on the router , it was tested for dial tone and also tested to connect to PSTN and GSM Networks with relatively good voice quality.

4.4.2 Report Presentation On completion of the verification exercise in Potiskum a report on was written and presented in the following Wednesday’s departmental meeting, which is headed by the Secretary of the USPF Mr. Funso Fayomi. The report contained the technical details of all the equipment inspected, which were able to measure up to the USPF minimum standards. The only setback experienced by the community communication centre in Potiskum, was the inability to successfully connect to the internet, and this was as a result of technical hitches.



5.1 CONCLUSION During the course of the six months period of SIWES (Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme) at the USPF (Universal Service Provision Fund) Secretariat in the NCC building, on the 7th Floor, Plot 423 Aguyi Ironsi Street Maitama District Abuja, I have acquired technical skills in the field of telecommunications, non-technical skills such as managerial and secretarial skills, and have had the opportunity to experience the application of theoretical knowledge acquired in the classroom to solve real problems. Thus, SIWES has been a success, because I have gained knowledge that ordinarily would not be obtained in the lecture hall.

5.2 RECOMMENDATION As a result of difficulties experienced during the six months SIWES program, I would like to recommend the following changes:

The duration of SIWES should be extended so as to enable students be more experienced.

o The ITF should make monthly allowance available for students, so as to put an end to financial difficulties that may arise as a result of transport problems. o The Institutions and ITF should help students to get a place of attachment so that the program may commence as planned.


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