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International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)

Volume 1 Issue 7, August 2014, ISSN 2348 – 8050

Structural Performance of Concrete by Partial Replacement of

Cement with Hypo Sludge (paper waste)
Abdullah shahbaz khan1, Ram panth2, Gagan Krishna R.R3, Suresh G. Patil4
PG student, 2Assistant professor, 3Associate professor, 4Professor,
Srinivas School of Engineering, Suratkal Mangalore, 2Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College Bidar, 3Srinivas School of Engineering,
Suratkal Mangalore, 4PDAC Gulbarga

ABSTRACT the materials used in construction industry. Concrete is

The rapid increase in construction activities basically made of cementitious materials which have to
leads to active shortage of conventional construction properly bind themselves together, as well as with other
materials such as cement, fine aggregate and coarse materials to form a solid mass. Concrete or mortar is
aggregate. Researches were searching for cheaper made up of cement, water and aggregates (Coarse and
materials that can be used as substitute for these Fine Aggregate) and sometimes with necessary
materials. In the world of concrete many artificial admixtures. Concrete has attained the status of a major
pozzolans are found by research such as fly ash, blast building material in all the branches of modern
furnace slag, silica fume, rice husk ash, etc other than construction. It is difficult to point out another material
this the recent studies has show that the waste from of construction which is as variable as concrete.
paper industries has pazzolanic property termed as hypo Concrete is the best material of choice where strength,
sludge hypo sludge contains low calcium and minimum durability, impermeability, fire resistance and absorption
amount of silica. Hypo sludge behaves like cement resistance are required. Compressive strength is
because of silica and magnesium properties. The silica considered as an index to assess the overall quality of
and magnesium improve the setting of concrete. By concrete and it is generally assumed that an
utilizing hypo sludge the strength will be increased and improvement in the compressive strength results in
also cost reduction in the concrete is achieved. The improvement of all other properties. Hence strength
present dissertation work is directed towards developing investigations are generally centered on compressive
low cost concrete from paper industry waste. strength. Even though concrete mixes are proportioned
Dissertation work is carried out with M20 & M30 grade on the basis of achieving the desired compressive
concrete with W/c ratio of 0.55 & 0.45 respectively as a strength at the specified age, flexural strength often play
control specimen and hypo sludge is replaced in a vital role in concrete making. Hypo sludge (paper
different percentages such as 10%, 20%, and 30% by industry waste) has a tremendous potential in this
weight of cement. Cubes of 150mm x 150mm size, context and it is well documented that the use of hypo
Cylinders of 100 mm dia and 200mm height, and prisms sludge in concrete results in a significant improvement is
of 100 mm x 100mm x 500mm are casted for the rheological prosperities.
conventional concrete and RPH (Replacement of hypo Hypo sludge is a recent arrival among
sludge by weight of cement) test specimen respectively. cementitions materials. It was originally introduced as
Test was conducted to study the mechanical properties artificial pozzolana while producing paper the various
of concrete, such as compressive strength, split tensile wastes are comes out from the various processes in
strength and flexural strength. The curing period should paper industries. From the preliminary waste named as
be 3, 7 and 28 days. hypo sludge due to its low calcium is taken out for our
project to replace the cement utilization in concrete.
Key words : Hypo Sludge, M20 and M30 grade concrete, Paper making industries generally produces a
cubes, cylinders, prisms. large amount of solid waste. Paper fibers can be
recycled only a limited number of time before they
I. INTRODUCTION become too short or weak to make high quality paper.
Concrete, is most widely used man made From paper manufacturing process three types of sludge
construction material and is the largest production of all are obtained namely lime sludge (Hypo sludge), ETP

International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)
Volume 1 Issue 7, August 2014, ISSN 2348 – 8050

sludge and De-Inking sludge. In our project we have and strength with the conventional concrete(10). Over 300
utilized lime sludge as a replacement for cement. Lime million tones of industrial wastes are being produced per
sludge (Hypo sludge is a material obtained from the annum by chemical and agricultural process in India.
chemical recovery process of paper production. Hypo These materials pose problems of disposal and health
sludge is available abundantly worldwide, but its usage hazards. The waste like phosphogypsum, flurogypsum
to date is very limited. Each Indian mill produces an and red mud contain obnoxious impurities which
average 40 over-dry tones of sludge per day. The adversely affect the strength and other properties of
specific gravity hypo sludge is generally 2.82 but it is building material based on them. Out of several wastes
very slightly higher when the silica content is lower. being produced at present, the use of phosphor gypsum,
This value can be compared with the specific gravity of flurogypsum, lime sludge, hypo sludge, red mud and
Portland cement which is 3.15. mine tailing is of paramount significance to protect the
The particles of hypo sludge are extremely fine, environment(10).
most of them having a diameter ranging between 0.04 Paper fibers can be recycled only a limited
and 0.3 m, the median diameter is typically below number of times before they become too short or weak
0.1m. such a fine material as hypo sludge has a very to make high quality paper. It means that the broken low
low bulk density 200 to 350 kg/m3 handling this light quality paper fibers are separated out to become waste
powder is difficult. sludge. All the inks, dyes, coatings, pigments, stapes
and “Stickies” (tape, plastic films etc) are also washed
Chemical reactions involved in partially replaced off the recycled fibers to join the waste solids(02).This
concrete paper mill sludge consumes a large percentage of local
1. Primary Hydration land fill space for each and every year. Worse yet, some
Cement + Water  C-S-H (gel) + Ca (OH)2 of the wastes are land spread on crop land as a disposal
2. Secondary Hydration technique raising concerns about trace contaminants
Here hypo sludge acts as a pozzolana building up in soil or running off into area lakes and
Ca (OH)2+ Pozzolana  C-S-H (gel) streams.
Increase in amount of C-S-H gel increase the Some companies turn their sludge in incinerators
compressive strength but only up to a certain extent. contributing to our serious air pollution problems. To
reduce disposal and pollution problems emanating from
Benefits of Hypo Sludge these industrial wastes. It is most essential to develop
 Hypo sludge improves the properties of fresh profitable building materials from them. Keeping this in
and harden concrete. view investigations were under taken to produce low
 Hypo sludge reduces degradation and bleeding. cost concrete by blending various ratios of cement with
 Hypo sludge improves the durability of concrete. hypo sludge(03). In Trondheim, the source factory
produces 800 tons each year, with much more for the
 Hypo sludge improves the setting of concrete
entire(04). Waste paper sludge obtained from a paper
due to presence of silica and magnesium.
factory in Trondheim, Norway, It has bulk density
 Environmental friendly. 460kg/m3 specific gravity 2.6, ash content of 94% and a
 Light weight compare to conventional concrete. pH value of 11.4. The material is essentially composed
 Hypo sludge is the cheaper substitute to OPC. of amorphous silicates and aluminates, mainly gehlenite
Limitations of Hypo Sludge (2CaO.Al2O3SiO2) and melilite
 Availability (8CaO3Al2O3MgO5SiO2); which are responsible for a
 Handling problem pozzolanic reaction(08).


The use of paper-mill pulp in concrete The materials used in research are:
formulations was investigated as an alternative to 1. Portland cement (53 grade)
landfill disposal. The cement has been replaced by waste 2. Fine aggregate (4.75 mm down)
paper sludge accordingly in the range of 10%, 20%, 30% 3. Coarse aggregate (20 mm down)
by weight for M20 and M30 mix. By using adequate 4. Hypo Sludge
amount of the waste paper pulp and water, concrete 5. Water
mixtures were produced and compared in terms of slump
International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)
Volume 1 Issue 7, August 2014, ISSN 2348 – 8050

Cement: impurities such as oil, alkali, acid, etc, in general, the

Cement is a fine, grey powder. It is mixed with water, which is fit for drinking should be used for
water and materials such as sand, pozzolanas to make making concrete.
mortar and concrete. The cement and water forms a
paste that binds the other materials together. In this work IV. MIX DESIGN
ordinary Portland cement of 53 grade conforming to IS: A mix M20 and M30 grade was designed as per IS
12269-1987 has been used and tested for physical and 10262:2009 and the same was used to prepare the test
chemical properties. samples. The design mix proportion is shown in blow
Fine Aggregate
In the investigation fine aggregate is natural Table 4.1: Concrete Mix Design Proportion for 1 m3 of
sand from local market is used, confirming grading zone concrete
II as per IS: 383-1997. The physical properties of fine
aggregate like specific gravity, gradation and fineness Sl Typ w/c Fine Corse Hypo
modulus are tested in accordance with IS :2386. n e of rati aggrega aggrega Sludg
o mix o te te e
Coarse Aggregate
Coarse aggregate crushed granite of 20 mm 0.5
1. C- 1.0 1.96 2.85 -
down size has been used as coarse aggregate. The 0
physical properties of coarse aggregate like specific
S1- 0.5
gravity, gradation and fineness modulus are tested in 2. 0.9 1.96 2.85 0.10
M20 0
accordance with IS: 2386.
S2- 0.5
3. 0.8 1.96 2.85 0.20
Hypo Sludge M20 0
Hypo sludge is also known as paper industry S3- 0.5
4. 0.7 1.96 2.85 0.30
waste. It is the byproduct of the paper waste. This hypo M20 0
sludge contains low calcium and minimum amount of CV
silica. Hypo sludge behaves like cement because of silica 5. C- 1.0 1.29 2.43 -
and magnesium properties. M30
Hypo sludge may be used as part replacement of K1- 0.4
6. 0.9 1.29 2.43 0.10
cement. It is usually used in proportion of percent of M30 0
cement content of the mix. Hypo sludge obtained from K2- 0.4
7. 0.8 1.29 2.43 0.20
Gemini Graphics (P) Ltd., Sikenpur village district M30 0
Bidar. K3- 0.4
8. 0.7 1.29 2.43 0.30
M30 0
Table 3.1: Chemical Properties of Hypo Sludge
Percent in CVC-conventional concrete,
Sl.No. Constituent Hypo Sludge S1, S2, S3 for M20 grade concrete with different Hypo
(%) Sludge percentage 10%, 20%, 30% respectively.
1. Moisture 2.97 K1, K2, K3 for M30 grade concrete with different Hypo
Magnesium Sludge percentage 10%, 20%, 30% respectively.
2. 4.64
Oxide (MgO)
3. 15.12 The quantity of cement, fine and coarse
4. R2O3 9.31 aggregates, hypo sludge and water each batch of
5. Silica (SiO2) 3.09 proportion is prepared as mentioned in mix design. Then
6. Acid Insoluble 13.88 the mixing process is carried out.
Tests for Fresh Properties of concrete
Water Workability tests included the determination of
The water, which is used for making concrete slump cone test.
and for curing, should be clean and free from harmful
International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)
Volume 1 Issue 7, August 2014, ISSN 2348 – 8050

Casting of Moulds Table:6.2 Results of Slump Cone Test M20 and M30
Once the workability tests are over, concrete is Mix M20 Slump M30 Slump
filled into the moulds (cubes, cylinders and beams) and designation cone (mm) cone (mm)
compaction process has to be carried out. Then casted
CVC 50 50
moulds are de-moulded and the specimens are kept
inside the water for curing till test day (3, 7 and 28 M1 48 46
M2 45 42
Mechanical Properties Tests
To determine the hardened properties of M3 41 38
concrete standard tests were carried out at standard ages
(3,7days and 28 days of curing) i.e., compression test on
cubes for compressive strength (three cubes of
150x150x150mm size), split tensile test on cylinders for SLUMP VALUES
tensile strength (three cylinders of 100mm dia with 60

200mm height) and flexural test on beams for flexural 50
strength (three beams 500x100x100mm) of concrete for 40
each grade with different mix proportions of hypo 30
sludge. 20 M20
Setting time for cement and hypo sludge cvc M1 M2 M3
Table:6.1 Setting Time for Cement and Hypo sludge
Sl. Initial Final time
Ingredients Fig.6.1 Slump values for various mixes (M20, M30)
No. time (min) (min)
Table:6.3 Mechanical Properties of Concrete with
Cement + 0% Different mix Proportions
1 30 600
Hypo sludge Mix’s Compressive strength Split Flexural
(N/mm2) tensile strength
Cement + 10% strength (N/mm2)
2 33 596 (N/mm2)
Hypo sludge
3 days 7 28 28 days 28 days
Cement + 20% days days
3 35 598 CVC1 11.93 19.59 27.1 2.80 1.92
Hypo sludge

Cement + 30% S1 16.49 28.74 34.79 3.8 2.43

4 37 595
Hypo sludge
S2 14.38 23.29 29.18 2.93 1.93
Cement + 40% S3 10.37 18.17 23.7 2.55 1.54
5 39 593
Hypo sludge
CVC2 17.79 24.98 39.40 4.02 2.62
Cement + 50%
6 40 590 K1 21.74 33.47 45.17 5.51 3.06
Hypo sludge
K2 18.17 27.94 40.17 3.79 2.57
Slump Cone Test results
Workability tests, slump cone tests conducted on K3 13.37 20.43 31.43 3.26 2.33
fresh concrete and the results are shown in table .
International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)
Volume 1 Issue 7, August 2014, ISSN 2348 – 8050

 Here CVC1, CVC2 Conventional Concrete for M20, 4

M30 Grade concrete Respectively
 S1, S2 and S3 are 10%, 20% and 30% RPH for M20,
Grade concrete Respectively 3
 K1, K2 and K3 are 10%, 20% and 30% RPH for 2.5
M30, Grade concrete Respectively 2
1.5 28 days
40 1
35 0.5
CVC1 S1 S2 S3
3 days Fig.6.4 Split tensile strength results for 28 days of curing
20 for M20 Grade Concrete
7 days
15 6
28 days
10 5

5 4
0 3
CVC1 S1 S2 S3 28 days
Fig.6.2 Compressive strength results for different curing
period for M20 Grade Concrete 1

CVC2 K1 K2 K3
40 Fig.6.5 Split tensile strength results for 28 days of curing
for M30 Grade Concrete
3 days 3
7 days 2.5
15 28 days
28 days
0 1
CVC2 K1 K2 K3
Fig.6.3 Compressive strength results for different curing
period for M30 Grade Concrete 0
CVC1 S1 S2 S3

Fig.6.6 Flexural strength results for 28 days of curing for

M30 Grade Concrete

International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)
Volume 1 Issue 7, August 2014, ISSN 2348 – 8050

3.5 replacement it is slightly more or we can say it as

equivalent but with 30% its start decreasing in strength.
3 The prisms which contains 30% of RPH breaks
2.5 earlier with the influence of two point loading condition
where as 10%, 20%, shows more deflection and carries
2 higher load but CVC prisms break earlier without
1.5 28 days showing mutch cracks.
1) Jayeshkumar Pitroda, Dr. L. B. Zala, Dr F. S.
Umrigar, “Hypo Sludge Management :
CVC2 K1 K2 K3 Opportunities for Developing Low Cost Concrete
with Glass Fibers”, International Global Research
Fig.6.7 Flexural strength results for 28 days of curing for Analysis, Dec 2012 Volume-1, Issue-7, ISSN: 2277-
M30 Grade Concrete 8160.
2) Jayeshkumar Pitroda, L.B.Zala, F S Umrigar,
By this table and graphs results shows that there “Durability of concrete with Partial Replacement of
is an increase in compressive strength, split tensile Cement by Paper Industry Waste (Hypo Sludge)”
strength and flexural strength with 10%, 20% International Journal of Innovative Technology and
replacement of cement with hypo sludge and it decreases Exploring Engineering (IJITEE) Feb 2013, ISSN:
with 30% replacement. 2278-3075, Volume-2, Issue-3.
3) Jayraj Vinodsinh Solanki1, Jayeshkumar Pitroda,
VII. CONCLUSION “Investigation of Low Cost Concrete Using
Industrial Waste as Supplementary Cementitious
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Compressive strength of concrete with various Science and Innovative Technology (IJESIT),
mixes with different curing periods which are 3, 7, 28 January 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, ISSN: 2319-5967.
days by partial replacement of cement with hypo sludge 4) Mamta B. Rajgor, Jayeshkumar Pitroda, “A Study
that is 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% which are noted as CVC1, on Paper Industry Waste: Opportunities for
S1, S2, S3 and CVC2, K1,K2,K3. Development of Low Cost Concrete in Indian
The compressive strength increases as the curing Context” International Journal of Scientific
period increasing for M20, M30 grade concrete, Research, Feb 2013 Volume-2, Issue-2, ISSN: 2277-
compressive strength of CVC and 20% are 8179.
approximately same but it increase with 10% 5) Mohammad Alizadeh Kharaazia and Eshmaiel
replacement and finally it starts decreasing in strength Ganjianb, “Use of Iranian Industrial Waste for
with 30% replacement. Cement Replacement in Low Strength Concrete and
CLSM”, Sharif University of Technology, June
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cement as compare to conventional concrete and with Conference on Intelligent Science and Technology
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International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Engineering (IJETE)
Volume 1 Issue 7, August 2014, ISSN 2348 – 8050

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