Extrusion

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Extruded aluminium with several hollow cavities; slots allow bars to be joined with special connectors. Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile. A material is pushed or drawn through a die of the desired cross-section. The two main advantages of this process over other manufacturing processes are its ability to create very complex cross-sections and work materials that are brittle, because the material only encounters compressive and shear stresses. It also forms finished parts with an excellent surface finish.[1] Extrusion may be continuous (theoretically producing indefinitely long material) or semicontinuous (producing many pieces). The extrusion process can be done with the material hot or cold. Commonly extruded materials include metals, polymers, ceramics, concrete and foodstuffs. Hollow cavities within extruded material cannot be produced using a simple flat extrusion die, because there would be no way to support the center barrier of the die. Instead, the die assumes the shape of a block with depth, beginning first with a shape profile that supports the center section. The die shape then internally morphs along its length into the final shape, with the suspended center pieces supported from the back of the die.

Contents
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1 History 2 Process
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2.1 Hot extrusion 2.2 Cold extrusion 2.3 Warm extrusion 2.4 Equipment
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2.4.1 Forming internal cavities 2.4.2 Direct extrusion 2.4.3 Indirect extrusion

2 Plastic 3.3 Ceramic 3.4 Hydrostatic extrusion 2.1 Notes 6.  ○ • ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • • • 2. It involved preheating the metal and then forcing it through a die via a hand driven plunger.2 Bibliography • 7 External links [edit] History In 1797.4. At this time the process was called squirting. In 1894.[2] [edit] Process .5 Extrusion defects 3. The process wasn't developed until 1820 when Thomas Burr constructed the first hydraulic powered press.1 Metal 3. Alexander Dick expanded the extrusion process to copper and brass alloys.5 Drives 2.4 Food 3.5 Drug carriers 3 Materials 4 Design 5 See also 6 References ○ ○ 6.4. Joseph Bramah patented the first extrusion process for making lead pipe.

000 psi). Most hot extrusions are done on horizontal hydraulic presses that range from 230 to 11. A dummy block is placed behind it where the ram then presses on the material to push it out of the die. It is then loaded into the container in the press. which means it is done above the material's recrystallization temperature to keep the material from work hardening and to make it easier to push the material through the die.[1] Hot extrusion temperature for various metals[1] Material Temperature [°C (°F)] Magnesium 350-450 (650-850) Aluminium 350-500 (650-900) Copper 600-1100 (1200-2000) Steel 1200-1300 (2200-2400) Titanium 700-1200 (1300-2100) Nickel 1000-1200 (1900-2200) . Afterward the extrusion is stretched in order to straighten it.000 metric tons (250 to 12. or glass powder for higher temperature extrusions.[2] The extrusion ratio is defined as the starting cross-sectional area divided by the cross-sectional area of the final extrusion. Pressures range from 30 to 700 MPa (4.Extrusion of a round blank through a die. One of the main advantages of the extrusion process is that this ratio can be very large while still producing quality parts. which can be oil or graphite for lower temperature extrusions.000 short tons). [edit] Hot extrusion Hot extrusion is a hot working process. The process begins by heating the stock material. The biggest disadvantage of this process is its cost for machinery and its upkeep. If better properties are required then it may be heat treated or cold worked.400 to 100. therefore lubrication is required.

depending on the material being extruded. and steel. It is usually used to achieve the proper balance of required forces. some steels become more economical to roll if producing more than 20. 228 mm (9.[3] [edit] Equipment . higher strength due to cold working. titanium. For instance. Notice that the walls are drafted Front side of a four family die. but below the recrystallization temperature of the material the temperatures ranges from 800 to 1800 °F (424 to 975 °C). the die is thickness of the extrusion is varies. automotive pistons. ductility and final extrusion properties. and fast extrusion speeds if the material is subject to hot shortness. [edit] Cold extrusion Cold extrusion is done at room temperature or near room temperature.[1] Materials that are commonly cold extruded include: lead. Examples of products produced by this process are: collapsible tubes. 3 mm (0. shock absorber cylinders.0 in) in diameter. closer tolerances. The wall For reference. beryllium. tin. copper. There is a crossover point where roll forming becomes more economical. vanadium. niobium. good surface finish.000 lb). and gear blanks. The advantages of this over hot extrusion are the lack of oxidation. zirconium.Refractory alloys up to 2000 (4000) The extrusion process is generally economical when producing between several kilograms (pounds) and many tons.[2] Aluminium hot extrusion die Close up of the shape cut into the die. [edit] Warm extrusion Warm extrusion is done above room temperature.000 kg (50. molybdenum. and that the back wall thickness Back side of die.12 in). aluminum. fire extinguisher cases.

A floating mandrel. also known as a French type. whereas dies can cost up to $2000. [edit] Forming internal cavities Two-piece aluminum extrusion die set (parts shown separated. either vertical or horizontal. means it is integrated into the dummy block and stem.[4] [edit] Direct extrusion . or in other specialized processes such as rollers inside a perforated drum for the production of many simultaneous streams of material. The type of drive. leaving weld lines in the final product. powered by an electric motor.[1] The solid billet could also be used with a spider die.A horizontal hydraulic press for hot aluminum extrusion (loose dies and scrap visible in foreground) There are many different variations of extrusion equipment. One way is to use a hollow billet and then use a fixed or floating mandrel. The type of load applied. The position of the press. 4. If a solid billet is used as the feed material then it must first be pierced by the mandrel before extruding through the die. All of these types of dies incorporate the mandrel in the die and have "legs" that hold the mandrel in place. Movement of the extrusion with relation to the ram. Typical extrusion presses cost more than $100. driven by hydraulic pressure (often used for steel and titanium alloys). A fixed mandrel. They vary by four major characteristics:[1] 1. There are several methods for forming internal cavities in extrusions. 2. 3. During extrusion the metal divides and flows around the legs. oil pressure (for aluminum). If the die is held stationary and the ram moves towards it then its called "direct extrusion". either conventional (variable) or hydrostatic. or a ram.) The male part (at right) is for forming the internal cavity in the resulting round tube extrusion. either hydraulic or mechanical. porthole die or bridge die. If the ram is held stationary and the die moves towards the ram its called "indirect extrusion". also known as a German type. A single or twin screw auger. A special press is used in order to control the mandrel independently from the ram. floats in slots in the dummy block and aligns itself in the die when extruding.000.

There is a reusable dummy block between the ram and the billet to keep them separated. also known as forward extrusion. is not used for this reason. This leads to the following advantages:[6] • • • • A 25 to 30% reduction of friction. The die is held in place by a "stem" which has to be longer than the container length. The disadvantages are:[6] • . The billet is pushed through the die by a ram or screw. Impurities and defects on the surface of the billet affect the surface of the extrusion. The end of the billet. It works by placing the billet in a heavy walled container. called the butt end. is the most common extrusion process. increasing speed. and an increased ability to extrude smaller cross-sections There is less of a tendency for extrusions to crack because there is no heat formed from friction The container liner will last longer due to less wear The billet is used more uniformly so extrusion defects and coarse grained peripherals zones are less likely. These defects ruin the piece if it needs to be anodized or the aesthetics are important. Because of this the greatest force required is at the beginning of process and slowly decreases as the billet is used up. which allows for extruding larger billets.[5] [edit] Indirect extrusion In indirect extrusion. the billet and container move together while the die is stationary. The maximum length of the extrusion is ultimately dictated by the column strength of the stem.Plot of forces required by various extrusion processes. machined or chemically cleaned before being used. The major disadvantage of this process is that the force required to extrude the billet is greater than that need in the indirect extrusion process because of the frictional forces introduced by the need for the billet to travel the entire length of the container. Because the billet moves with the container the frictional forces are eliminated. Direct extrusion. also known as backwards extrusion. At the end of the billet the force greatly increases because the billet is thin and the material must flow radially to exit the die. In order to get around this the billets may be wire brushed.

Because of this they are used when extruding steel. but there are some small mechanical presses still used. Large billets and large cross-sections can be extruded. They can deliver over 35 MPa (5000 psi). or cold. . however the temperature is limited by the stability of the fluid used. An even flow of material. The disadvantages are:[6] [edit] Drives Most modern direct or indirect extrusion presses are hydraulically driven. It can also happen at lower temperatures if the extruded product temporarily sticks to the die. Constant-rate extrusion: A ram or plunger is used to pressurize the fluid inside the container. This ultimately allows for faster speeds. which is then pumped to the container. They are also used on materials that must be heated to very hot temperatures for safety reasons. Usually the ductility of the material increases when high pressures are applied. Of the hydraulic presses there are two types: direct-drive oil presses and accumulator water drives. plus they lose about 10% of their pressure over the stroke. The disadvantage is that they are slow. [edit] Hydrostatic extrusion In the hydrostatic extrusion process the billet is completely surrounded by a pressurized liquid. friction. This is often caused by the extrusion temperature.[7] Hydrostatic extrusion presses usually use castor oil at pressure up to 1400 MPa (200 ksi). 2. They supply a constant pressure throughout the whole billet. The fluid can be pressurized two ways:[6] 1. possibly with a pressure intensifier. The billets must be prepared by tapering one end to match the die entry angle. or speed being too high.[7] Accumulator water drives are more expensive and larger than direct-drive oil presses. but they are much faster. and lower billet temperatures. Usually the entire billet needs to be machined to remove any surface defects.When the surface of an extrusion splits. to pressurize the fluid. Direct-drive oil presses are the most common because they are reliable and robust. up to 380 mm/s (15 ips).[8] [edit] Extrusion defects • Surface cracking . warm. except where the billet contacts the die. Constant-pressure extrusion: A pump is used. between 50 and 200 mm/s (2–8 ips). No billet residue is left on the container walls. Castor oil is used because it has good lubricity and high pressure properties.• This process isn't as versatile as direct extrusions because the cross-sectional area is limited by the maximum size of the stem. This process can be done hot. Containing the fluid under high pressures can be difficult. The advantages of this process include:[6] • • • • • • • No friction between the container and the billet reduces force requirements. higher reduction ratios. The process must be carried out in a sealed cylinder to contain the hydrostatic medium. This is needed to form a seal at the beginning of the cycle.

Magnesium (575 to 1100 °F (300 to 600 °C)) aircraft parts and nuclear industry parts.75 mm). Zinc (400 to 650 °F (200 to 350 °C)) rods. Examples of products include profiles for tracks. A second advantage of this glass ring is its ability to insulate the . Aluminium can be hot or cold extruded. but alloy steel and stainless steel can also be extruded. in order to separate it from chamber walls and allow it to act as a lubricant.75 in (6 to 18 mm) thick is placed in the chamber on the die to lubricate the extrusion as it is forced through the die. UgineSéjournet. Tungsten carbide this is one of the most commonly used extruded metals due to its extreme toughness and ability to withhold its own form.25 to 0. A thick solid glass ring that is 0. Lead and tin (maximum 575 °F (300 °C)) pipes.5 to 0. as some residues of the material extruded can stick to the die surface and produce the embossed lines. • [edit] Materials [edit] Metal Metals that are commonly extruded include:[9] • Aluminium is the most commonly extruded material.When there are lines visible on the surface of the extruded profile. tubes. This depends heavily on the quality of the die production and how well the die is maintained. 20 to 30 mils (0. and heat sinks.A flow pattern that draws the surface oxides and impurities to the center of the product. and other structural parts. and cable sheathing. Magnesium is about as extrudable as aluminum. wire. invented a process which uses glass as a lubricant for extruding steel. hardware components.When the center of the extrusion develops cracks or voids. Molten lead may also be used in place of billets on vertical extrusion presses. wire.[citation needed] • • • • • • • Magnesium and aluminium alloys usually have a 0.75 μm (30 μin).[1] In 1950. (A similar situation to the necked region in a tensile stress specimen) Surface lines . rails. and welding electrodes. Often more than 100 ksi (690 MPa) is required to extrude copper. The glass melts and forms a thin film. process is now used for other materials that have melting temperatures higher than steel or that require a narrow range of temperatures to extrude. of France. Titanium (1100 to 1825 °F (600 to 1000 °C)) aircraft components including seat tracks. or Sejournet. bar. Steel (1825 to 2375 °F (1000 to 1300 °C)) rods and tracks.[10] The Ugine-Sejournet. Copper (1100 to 1825 °F (600 to 1000 °C)) pipe. fitting.• • Pipe . These cracks are attributed to a state of hydrostatic tensile stress at the centerline in the deformation zone in the die. mullions. bars. and handrails. Titanium and steel can achieve a 3 μm (125 μin). rods. The process starts by heating the materials to the extruding temperature and then rolling it in glass powder. Internal cracking . Usually plain carbon steel is extruded. engine rings. frames. tubes. Such a pattern is often caused by high friction or cooling of the outer regions of the billet. RMS or better surface finish. RMS. If it is hot extruded it is heated to 575 to 1100 °F (300 to 600 °C). tubes.

The extrusion will have a 1 mil thick layer of glass. The polymer resin is heated to molten state by a combination of heating elements and shear heating from the extrusion screw. and sheets or films. pipes. seals.[3] [edit] Plastic Sectional view of a plastic extruder showing the components Main article: Plastics extrusion Plastics extrusion commonly uses plastic chips or pellets. rails. forming the resin into the desired shape. in conjunction with glass lubrication. In some cases (such as fibre-reinforced tubes) the extrudate is pulled through a very long die. rods.[11] [edit] Food Macaroni is an extruded hollow pasta. which are usually dried in a hopper before going to the feed screw.heat of the billet from the die. which can be easily removed once it cools. The phosphate coat absorbs the liquid glass to offer even better lubricating properties. This section requires expansion.[3] Another breakthrough in lubrication is the use of phosphate coatings. The screw forces the resin through a die. Terracotta extrusion is used to produce pipes. steel can be cold extruded. in a process called pultrusion. A multitude of polymers are used in the production of plastic tubing. . The extrudate is cooled and solidified as it is pulled through the die or water tank. [edit] Ceramic Ceramic can also be formed into shapes via extrusion. Many modern bricks are also manufactured using a brick extrusion process. With this process.

030 in) and fillets should be 3 mm (0. for aluminium and magnesium the minimum radius should be 0. dry pet food and ready-to-eat snacks are mostly manufactured by extrusion. Idiappam. In order for the material to flow properly legs should not be more than ten times longer than their thickness. dyes. This affects the cost of tooling as well as the rate of production. The following table lists the minimum cross-section and thickness for various materials. controls the size of the die required. fats.4 mm (1/64 in) and for steel corners should be 0. jalebi. in turn. french fries. cookie dough. where other ingredients are added (liquid sugar. meats and water depending on the product being made). The cooking process takes place within the extruder where the product produces its own friction and heat due to the pressure generated (10–20 bar). [edit] Drug carriers This section requires expansion. a larger press can handle 60 cm (24 in) diameter circumscribing circles for aluminium and 55 cm (22 in). Extrusion through nano-porous. In the extrusion process. Products such as pastas. diameter circles for steel and titanium. [edit] Design The design of an extrusion profile has a large impact on how readily it can be extruded. Fig Newtons.[12] Thicker sections generally need an increased section size.[1] Material Minimum cross-section [cm² (sq. Extruders using this process have a capacity from 1–25 tonnes per hour depending on design.)] . Use of the extrusion cooking process gives the following food benefits: • • • • • Starch gelatinization Protein denaturation Inactivation of raw food enzymes Destruction of naturally occurring toxins Diminishing of microorganisms in the final product Extrusion is also used to modify starch and to pellet animal feed. This diameter. for example.[1] The complexity of an extruded profile can be roughly quantified by calculating the shape factor. The preconditioned mix is then passed through an extruder. The maximum size for an extrusion is determined by finding the smallest circle that will fit around the cross-section. polymeric filters is being used to manufacture suspensions of lipid vesicles liposomes or Transfersomes for use in pharmaceutical products. adjacent sections should be as close to the same size as possible. The dry mix is passed through a pre-conditioner. which ultimately determines if the part will fit in a given press. The anti-cancer drug Doxorubicin in liposome delivery system is formulated by extrusion.75 mm (0. Sharp corners should be avoided. baby food. in. this is called the circumscribing circle. If the cross-section is asymmetrical. raw materials are first ground to the correct particle size (usually the consistency of coarse flour). steam is also injected to start the cooking process.)] Minimum thickness [mm (in.Extrusion has found great application in food processing. and then forced through a die where it is cut to the desired length. The cooking process utilizes a process known as starch gelatinization. Sevai. For example.12 in). breakfast cereals. which is the amount of surface area generated per unit mass of extrusion. Murujju.

. ^ abcDrozda. ISBN 0-8311-2635-3. Günther. 7. Extrusion. Machinery's Handbook (26th ed. 2000. Henry H.50) <2.70) 3. 13-21.150) 1. p..0 (0. (1987). pp.80 (0. Franklin D. ^ abDrozda.^Brick manufacturing process 12.45-0. Charles. p. Jones. ISBN 087170837X. Inc. 13-13. Siegert. 2. 1348–1349. 3. Bakerjian.00 (0.187) 3.5 (0. ^ abcdefghiOberg et al.). Tool and manufacturing engineers handbook: Forming. "Metal forming". pp. 5. ^Drozda.40) 3. Klaus (2006). New York: Industrial Press. ^Drozda. Veilleux. 10. Tom. San Diego: Academic Press. Ryffel.5 (0.5 (0. p. B. Raymond F. Encyclopedia of Physical Science & Technology.00-4. ^ abcAvitzur.75 (0. (2000).40) <2. http://books..040) 1. SME. 8.MakeItFrom [edit] Bibliography • Drozda. ^Drozda.00 (0.120) 3. 270. 80–109 . 2.Extrusion Extrusion cross-sectional tolerances [show] Metalworking [hide] . ^ abcdeDrozda.040) [edit] See also • Equal channel angular extrusion [edit] References [edit] Notes 1. ^Drozda. ISBN 0872631354. Ramon. 13-11 & 13-12.5 (0.google. p. Wick.0-4.com/?id=9ty5NPJ0UI4C.^Aluminum Extrusion Tooling . http://books. p. 4.^Bauser. 13-16. pp. ASM International.google. Erik.com/?id=9NnDQ0oJFLEC 11. Horton.Carbon steels Stainless steel Titanium Aluminium Magnesium 2. Petro. 6.. 8. Sauer. 9. Louis (1984). • [edit] External links • • v•d•e eFunda Engineering Fundamentals . 13-15 & 16. p. 13-14.00 (0. Holbrook L.40) 3.120-0. Oberg. Martin. 13-20. pp.

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