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ESSENCE - International Journal for Environmental Rehabilitation and Conservation

Srivastava, Naresh Gopal/Vol. VIII [1] 2017/73 - 91


Volume VIII: No. 1 2017 [73 – 91] [ISSN 0975 - 6272]
[www.essence-journal.com]

Methodology for Pollution Control of Lakes and Management

Shrivastva, Naresh Gopal

Received: March 28, 2017  Accepted: April 15, 2017  Online: June 30, 2017

Abstract
Lakes are suffering from different stress Addition of alkaline chemicals is useful only
factors and need to be restored using for soft waters, and technologies for
different approaches. The eutrophication (microbial) alkalinization of very acidic hard
remains as the main water quality water mining lakes are in development. The
management problem for inland waters: both corrective measures differ from those in use
lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the for eutrophication control.
degradation is to stop the nutrient sources The contamination of lakes with hazardous
and to accelerate the restoration with help of substances from industry and agriculture
in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a require different restoration technologies,
long retention time need (eco-) technological including subhydric isolation and storage,
help to decrease the nutrient content in the addition of nutrients for better self-
free water. purification or anaerobic technologies, to
The microbial and other organic matter from eliminate the pollutant nitrate by microbial
sewage and other autochthonous biomasses denitrification. The retention time is an
causes oxygen depletion, which has many important parameter for modelers and
adverse effects. In less developed countries limnologists that allows them to decide,
big reservoirs function as sewage treatment which technologies – hydromechanical,
plants. Natural aeration solves problems only chemical or biological – have to be applied
partly and many pollutants tend to alone or in combination to cope best with
accumulate in the sediments. each specific problem. The technologies
The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite have to be economical and ecological safe.
oxidation has to be controlled by acid
neutralizing technologies. Keywords: lake degradation | lake
restoration | restoration technologies |
For correspondence:
National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee, Uttrakhand residence time | recovery
Email: gopalshri@hotmail.com

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Introduction the population density. A good orientation


Lakes, both natural and man-made suffer about the pre-industrial status may be gained
from urban, industrial, agricultural and other with help of paleolimnological
impacts. As a result, many aquatic investigations. Deeper layers contain fossils
ecosystems have become severely degraded of more sensitive indicator organisms and the
and need to be restored. In many countries, thickness of the yearly sediment layer is
large sums of money now being spent to growing. The time needed to achieve the
restore such lakes (Allan 1997). The last restoration target is longer than one would
three decades good experience and expertise expect on basis of some existing models: it
has increased worldwide. But the high depends first of all from residence time (RT)
investments, that are needed demand for a and is included in most mode is applied
more scientific and sustainable ecosystem (Imboden & Gaechter 1978).
management, i.e. to restore the degraded lake Water quality management of lakes and
to a level that can be permanently sustained reservoirs was first oriented to control
through protection and conservation. The eutrophication and the factors causing
water-quality target should be in accordance increase of nutrient load (Table 1). Many
with quality of natural waters, and without solutions are now available to control
the stresses, that cause degradation, i.e. with eutrophication by minimizing the nutrient
a good ecosystem health, long-term stability inflows. But often organic loads, acidity,
and sustainability. Such conditions prevailed salinity or contamination with hazardous
in the pre-industrial time. In the drainage substances need to be controlled. The
basins of the lakes the organic matter amendment of the conditions may be very
production has now dramatically increased different, in some cases contrary to the
because of the intensive use of nutrients (N, technologies developed to control
P) by the agriculture in the lake catchments eutrophication.
areas, the industrialization and the growth of

Lake Ecosystem Stress Main Reasons Consequences for Ecosystem

Eutrophication Nutrient load from point sources Unwanted high plant growth algae blooms,
fish kills (very numerous)
Saprobization & BOD from : Oxygen depletion, fish kills.
microbial infection  Antropogenic sources (sewage)
 Natural sources (e.g. humic matter from
rewetting of bogs)
 Autochthonous biomass
Acidification Acid rain with SO 2 & NOx Low pH, metal load, absence of hydrogen
Geogenic sulfur acidification from pyrite carbonate, low species diversity (soft water
oxidation lakes in the primary rocks, mining lakes)

Stalinization Transpiration losses by irrigation Decrease size of lakes.


Transpiration losses by big surface Decrease of the through flow
Connections of salt layers Meromixis in mining lakes
Contamination Hazardous substances; industrial wastes, Oxygen depletion, insufficient self
nitrate or pesticides from agriculture purification
Table 1: Main Stress Factors, demanding restoration activities on and
in lakes

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harmful impacts, using statutory regulations


that the lakes and their catchment can be
controlled on a long-term planned basis to
Control of Eutrophication
prevent the need for more costly clean-up
Curbing the nutrient import into a lake The
measures. Thus "prophylaxis" has the highest
prophylaxis against eutrophication includes
priority, followed by activities for
the socio-political tools for water quality
maintenance of a healthy state in which the
management. They make use of the legal
nutrients are detained to prevent their
options for protecting the water body from
entering the water body (Table. 2).
Measures Examples
Point Sources
1. Diversion of sewage from the drainage basin. Ring sewage system and purification plants downstream the
2. Rational water use with recirculation and use of the lakes are typical restoration approaches for many alpine
secondary raw material. lakes.
3. Sewage treatment with nutrient elimination or nutrient Sugar factories with full recirculation do not produce wastes.
utilization
Non point sources
4. Afforestation of erosion endangered steep slopes. Protecting zones with rules for performing land use with
5. Establishment of protecting zones and adapted minimized nutrient losses are standard at drinking water
agricultural practice. reservoir and exemplary for all lakes.
5.1 Soil utilization and hydromelioration with minimum
nutrient losses.
5.2 Fruit sequences with intercropping, permanent
vegetation cover
5.3 Fertizing according to plant demand (kind amount and
time.
5.4 Soil treatment ( ploughing, harrowing sowing…) parallel
Barriers for nutrient entry to lake
6. Protecting forest belts along the inflowing rivers The belt functions as a buffer system. Harvest without
7. Prebasins with crown overflow for nutrient elimination. fertilizing curbs the output to the water bodies.
8. Extraction by macrophytes. About 50% of the incoming P does not reach the main
9. Phosphorous elimination plant (PEP) at main inlet reservoir.
Inlet “bioplateaus” wetland with harvest.
PEP are in operation at Wahnbach Reservoir, Tegeler
See,Schlachtensee, Ulmener Maar, Susser See.
Table 2: Control of the Nutrient export from the drainage
basin and the nutrient import into Lakes

The point sources reduction of phosphorus have to be kept on a low level of


has been achieved using high level of productivity. Therefore, buffer ecosystems
technologies. The oxygen produced by algal are useful between agricultural and water
photosynthesis is used for degradation of areas. The predams at nearly all new drinking
organic pollutants. In addition to the use of water reservoirs in Germany have to be
treated water for irrigation, the groundwater operated with several days retention time
is replenished by artificial enrichment. (RT). Therefore, with inlet barriers and
Hence, water re-use in such countries with underwater walls the inflowing water is
limited water resources is quite usual. mixed into the whole volume to get as near
Nonpoint sources of nutrient inflow to lakes as possible to the theoretical RT. From the
are mainly caused by farming in the drainage predams the water is diverted by crown
basins. Agricultural soils are fertilized, overflows to the main reservoirs, to make use
irrigated, drained, to increase the of the vertical concentration gradient
bioproduction, the lakes in the same basin (Benndorf & Pütz 1987). Similar effects may
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be gained with natural or mining lakes, settling of these particles and capping the
situated in chains along a river system. sediments with silt may improve the water
Upstream lakes also act as "prebasins" for quality as could be demonstrated on small
water bodies situated downstream. The lakes.
efficiency of the elimination of particulate In addition, in deep water bodies during
matter may be increased with help of thermal stratification the highest nutrient
sedimentation traps and macrophytic concentrations which are found in the
biofilters in outlet and inlet reaches of the deepest waters, can be reduced by using the
different "links" of the chain. bottom outlet to drain away this nutrient-rich
In addition the Phosphorus-content of a lake water (Fig. 2).
may be decreased by increasing exports to
the outflow or by immobilization in the
sediments (Fig. 1).

Fig. 2: Water quality control in reservoirs by selective off-


Fig. 1: Outline of the phosphorus balance in a lake (modified from take (Klapper, 1991)
Hupfer & Scharf, 2002)
In natural lakes the export of nutrients from
Increasing the nutrient export deepest layers may be realized by means of
Using waters low in nutrient content a the so-called Olszewski-tubes. The use of
"dilution" of the Phosphorus-content in the irrigation waters was licensed only for
lake may be achieved. The flushing nutrient-rich hypolimnetic waters, extracted
sometimes improves the water quality even if with flexible spiral wound plastic pipes
total phosphorus in the flushing water is high (Klapper 1991). The technology was
(e.g. during high floods) due to the low endangered, however, by high contents of
utilizability of the Phosphorus compounds H 2 S in relatively small hypolimnia and
from erosion for algae growth. Also the stinking irrigation water (Fig. 3).

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Fig. 3: Deep level abstraction; technological variants and typical cases in the former GDR (from Klapper, 1991)

New concepts now being implemented


combining the deep water delivery with an
on-site external Phosphorus (P) elimination.
The treated water is fed back into the lake by
pipe to the depth of the adequate temperature
somewhat above the level of the intake. The
so-called PELICON technology is a
combination of precipitation, flocculation
and flotation with compressed air. The
continuous intake of P and its redissolution Fig. 4: Transportable on-site phosphorus elimination plant

from the sediments not only improves water "PELICON" (sensu Keil, 1995)

quality but also the P-binding capacity of the


waters are skimmed with a special shovel
sediments (Keil, 1995; Fitschen, 2002).
from the surface of eutrophic waters and the
In June 2001 such a P-elimination plant was algae with the nutrients incorporated are
installed at the Kleiner Seddiner See with diverted mechanically by filters. Another
inlet TP concentrations of 80 to 100 µgl-1 option is a second filter step with P-
and a backflow (target) of <20 µgl-1 TP. The adsorbing granules (Stelling, 2002). For
treatment costs in the first year where 43 € small lakes Richert (2002) designed a
m-3 (Vietinghoff 2001, 2002) (Fig. 4). floating phosphorus elimination plant
Other P-elimination technologies use "NESSIE" on the basis of a filter with porous
harvesting of phytoplankton: Algae-rich adsorbing granules with a large specific

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surface area of 300 m2 g-1. Lake water is inlet to the stratified lake is dammed 0.5 ...
pumped over the filter using a wind-solar 1.0 m by a weir and from this storage the
hybrid system as the energy source (150 inflowing waters are led with help of a pipe
Wh). The P-loading capacity under to the greatest depth of the hypolimnion. This
laboratory conditions is about 60 g kg-1 very cheap "ecotechnology" combines
adsorbent, but may be half as much in situ. oxygen import into the anoxic hypolimnion
The loaded adsorbent is suitable to be used as and mixing due to the higher temperature
fertilizer. (Fig. 5 and Table 3).
In deep lakes a higher nutrient elimination
during the stagnation period can be achieved
using artificial mixing or destratification, so
that deep waters with high nutrient contents
are mixed with the epilimnetic waters, and
exported with the outflow at the surface. In
both, in deep and shallow lakes long-term
scale the destratification increases the
nutrient export, but short term effects differ.
The most often applied method for
destratification is the introduction of
compressed air by boreholes in pipes inserted
in horizontal position above the lake bottom.
The air-water mixture with lowered specific
weight causes a rising water curtain,
destroying stratification and ideally the lake
remains fully circulated the entire year. Other
mixing technologies include pumping
oxygen-oversaturated water from the surface
down to the highest deficit near the sediment
(MIXOX). The O 2 - deficient water may be
transported from the depth to the surface
using rising pipes (aerohydraulic guns) or
modified deep water aerators. The
oxygenation of the deeper water takes place
partly by the air-lifting, but mainly at the
large surface of the lake. Further, under some
specific local circumstances, where in a
series of reservoirs or lakes, an oxygen-
saturated lake is followed by a lake that is
stratified and has an anoxic hypolimnion, the
flow through pattern can be changed: the Fig. 5: Destratification technologies

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1. Flushing with nutrient-poor waters. Removal of sediments is an expensive


2. Deep water delivery. method for removing the P, but it is the only
3. On-site P-elimination by
possibility to counter rapid ageing and
flocculation/flotation with water backflow.
4. On-site algae filtration by filters and P- silting. After the sediment removal or de-
adsorbers. sludgeing the lake is deeper, the volume and
5. On-site algae skimming and separator RT are higher and the oxygen demand and
thickening. internal nutrient load are lower. De-sludgeing
6. On-site floating P-elimination plant NESSIE
may be payable if there is a demand of
with adsorbents.
7. Artificial mixing / Destratification organic matter for soil improvement in the
(permanent or intermittent). lake surroundings. The utilization of the lake
8. Harvest of fishes and macrophytes. sediments is an excellent example of a
9. Sludge removal holistic landscape ecology: The organic
matter and other fine particles such as the
Table 3: Increasing the nutrient export from a Lake
calcite crystals and plant nutrients originating
Fish harvesting influences the P budget only from the sandy agricultural areas in the
sporadically. Stocking of the lakes with fish drainage basin and accumulated in the lake
sometimes introduces higher amounts of sediment, are brought back to the fields
nutrients into the lake than the fishermen where they improve the fertility and
remove by their catches. But fishery may especially the sorption capacity so that the
enhance the eutrophication by introduced nutrient losses from that areas will decrease
certain fish and fish fodder. Bottom feeders in future. Some examples of the different
like the carp intensify the redissolution of P technological measures for sludge removal
from the sediments; the process is called as are given in Fig. 6.
ichthyo-eutrophication (Rjabyshew, 1972).
In shallow waterbodies dominated by
macrophytes, removal and composting of the
plants outsides may remove the biggest part
of the Total Phosphorus. Harvesting should
left over moderate stands of plants so as not
to exchange macrophytes with
phytoplankton, especially if the macrophytes
are controlled using grass carps
(Ctenopharyngodon idella). The lake can
than become a weed free but plankton
dominated, and very turbid lake. A better
option is the mechanical harvesting of the
submerged plants at only the bathing places
thereby keeping the water of the main
ecosystem clean. Fig. 6: Large-scale measures for sludge removal from lakes
or reservoirs (after Klapper, 1991)

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However sludge removal may be very conditions has to be considered. Therefore,


expensive if the agricultural utilization is the technology should include a sediment
impossible due to hazardous pollutants in oxidation with nitrate and additional liming
urban and industrial regions (mercury, against acidification (Ripl 1978). A very long
pesticide metabolic, heavy metals...). In such lasting P flocculation with liquid aluminum
cases the separation of the mostly non- sulphate was performed in 1986 at Barleber
polluted sand and mechanical drying and the See near Magdeburg (Roenicke et al. 1995).
very expensive special deposition of the The water blooms with cyanobacteria have
contaminated fine-grained materials is not returned in the 17 years thereafter and
necessary. macrophytes again made the clear water
Increasing the P-sedimentation and stage to persist. The remarkable long-term
preventing its re-dissolution effect was caused by the sediment capping
Phosphorus precipitation with iron or alumn with aluminum hydroxide/ aluminum
salts is the most common method to decrease posphate. Before the Al-flocculation each
the phosphate contents in the free-water of oxygen depletion in the small hypolimnion
lakes with long RT: was followed by Pre dissolution. Until today
M3+ + 3H2O = M(OH) 3 + 3H+ the binding capacity of this layer holds back
the P in the sediment even under anoxic
M 3+ + PO4 3+ = MPO 4
conditions (Roenicke et al., 1995).
The formation of hydroxides predominates in
This explains why aluminum compounds are
the competitive processes. The metal
preferred to those of iron. Also easier
phosphate is either occluded within the flocs
handling of the less aggressive chemicals
or deposited on the outside. During the
during the application contributes to the
formation of the hydroxide flocs,
preference for Al. Today many different
considerable quantities of H+ ions are
flocculants, as well as many flocculant aids
released, which reduce the carbonate
like polyacrylamide, bentonite, clay powder
hardness, thereby reducing the buffering
etc. are available and for each case the
capacity:
dosage may be optimized (Table 4)
HCO 3 - + H+ = H 2 O + CO 2 Technological realizations are given in Fig.
In very soft waters with carbonate hardness 7.
below 10 mg l-1 CaO, the addition of only 3 1. Phosphorus precipitation with iron salts (FeCl 2 ,
mg/l Al3+ leads to a complete loss of the FeCl 3 , FeSO 4 ...) alone and combined with nitrate
buffering capacity and further Al dosage and Ca(OH) 2 .
would result in an ecologically unacceptable 2. Phosphorus precipitation with aluminium salts
(AlCl, Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , Al(OH) 2 Cl, AlSO 4 Cl,
pH decrease. For P-precipitation in soft water
Polyaluminiumchloride...) alone and in
lakes, the combination with neutralizing combination with calcium carbonate.
components like lime is useful (Panning, 3. Phosphorus precipitation with lime.
pers. comm.). 3.1. Direct application of calcium carbonate or
calcium oxide/hydroxide (CaO, Ca(OH) 2 ,
For applying iron salts as flocculants, the
CaCO 3 , coccolithic lime).
redissolution of the phosphates under anoxic
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3.2. Flushing of natural calcite layers (Arendsee). and good sorption ability. A combined
3.3. Stimulation of calcite forming with addition restoration approach with polyaluminium
of CaO and oxigen in the hypolimnion
chloride and coccolithic lime was successful
(Schmaler Lucin).
4. Sediment conditioning with oxidizing chemicals or at Auensee in Leipzig, and 2002 the long-
aeration. lasting dominance of the Microcystis was
5. Sediment capping with sand (Hamilton harbour). broken (Menschel, pers. comm.).
6. Sediment capping with clay from gravel
The idea to utilize natural littoral calcite
excavation or clay powder (pilot experiments).
7. Collecting the youngest sediments in "sediment layers for sediment capping resulted in
traps". relatively modest P-reductions in the free
Table 4: Increasing the phosphorus flux to the sediment and water. 57,000 m3 internal lake limes were
curbing the re-dissolution
flushed 1996 with help of a cutter-head
suction dredger and spread on the bottom of
the 5 km2 big lake.
Sediment capping is another way for
preventing Pre dissolution. In this respect,
sand and clay minerals are currently being
investigated (Zeman et al., 1997; Quandt
2001). Sediment capping with clay occurs as
a side-effect during the underwater sand and
gravel excavation. During the wet excavation
the mining lakes become turbid from the clay
resuspension. But, after the mining has
terminated the fine particles settle and clear
and P-poor water allows macrophytes to
grow. Measures for supporting macrophytes
such as lowered water table, controlling
plant-feeding animals or introducing suitable
macrophytes belong to restoration tools
aimed at preventing algae-dominated turbid
waters. Fresh sedimented plankton organisms
Fig. 7: Large-scale measures for phosphate flocculation in with their high contents in organic matter, P
natural water bodies – case studies and microbes contribute importantly to
Calcite may serve as an active barrier nutrient redissolution, and therefore need to
material and as sediment capping. The result be moved to excavated traps and Collected
of the P-binding of different technical by "funnel effect".
products depends on particle size, specific Food-web manipulation
surface-area and on the fine structure of the
In addition to the diverse hydromechanical
calcite applied. The coccolithic lime, formed
and chemical technologies many biological
several million years ago belongs to those
methods of eutrophication control are now
with extremely large specific surface area
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available. These include changing the fish manipulation is more effective if nutrient
stock to a decrease in planktivores and a loads are reduced (Moss, 1999). Domination
higher share of predator species. Thus the of the fish stock by planktivorous tench
effect of prey fish on the zooplankton is (Tinca tinca) and the benthivorous carp
reduced and the phytoplankton growth may (Cyprinus carpio) appeared to perpetuate the
be controlled by the filter feeders. The best poor water conditions (Fig. 9). A substantial
solutions should combine reductions of fish removal effort over one year achieved a
nutrient loadings, repeated reductions of 57% reduction in the fish stock which led to
planktivorous and benthivorous fish stocks, a 2.5-fold increase in transparency. A strong
and concurrent establishment of piscivorous top down effect of fish on the large sized
stocks. Available evident suggests that grazers was evident as density and the body
removing of fish populations could provide size of Daphnia pulex increased significantly
the trigger needed for complete lake after the fish removal. Thus reductions in
recovery. Lake recovery has been achieved bleak predation pressure may allow for
this way especially in Denmark, in the increases in cyclopoid, copepod abundance
Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Great Britain and thereby a net increase in predation
and Germany (Benndorf, 1980, 1987; van pressure on herbivorous zooplankton.
Donk et al., 1989; Meijer et al., 1989; Harper
1992; Gulati & van Donk, 2002).
Indian Major Carp
Fishes Types of Food Water Column
Catla Zoo plankton feeder Surface feeder
Rohu Omnivorous Column feeder
Mrigal Detritivorous Bottom feeder

Exotic carps
Fishes Types of Food Water Column
Silver carp Phytoplankton Surface feeder
feeder
Grass carp Herbivorous Surface, column
and marginal areas Fig. 8: Interrelations in food webs in Lakes
Common carp Detritivorous/ Bottom feeder
Omnivorous
Table 5: Use of Composite Fish Culture Practices as
Biomanupulation Technique

Biomanipulation studies stimulated


limnological research on the interrelations in
food webs in lakes (Fig. 8). Some unexpected
developments were caused by water fowl,
snails, mussels, carnivorous zooplankton,
filamentous algae, changing species of water
plants, weather etc. Many questions have to Fig. 9: Food Habit of Fishes in lakes

be answered by limnologists also in future.


Macrophytes are combattants for
On all constellations however, bio-
phytoplankton in the use of the limited
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nutrients and they provide niches for A new remediation method which directly
zooplankton and periphyton. To allow a affects lakes is the re-wetting of former bogs
better macrophyte growth, the water table and wetlands. If carried out too quickly (one
may be lowered that light may penetrate to or a few years), the outflow of the re-wetted
the bottom. They may be planted by hand as areas will be rich with humic matter and
starting cultures to develop the wanted bank contain high concentrations of total carbon
and outlet "bioplateaus" and as floating reed and phosphorus due to the degrading
or raft bioplateaus (simultaneously terrestrial vegetation.
suppressing floating algae blooms). On the Problems with high organic loading of lakes
other hand, too many macrophytes may be and reservoirs are common in many
nuisance for other lake uses by humans. That developing countries, especially around the
is true especially with so-called neophytes megacities with often insufficient sewage
and neozoons, introduced from foreign treatment facilities. Where the water bodies
countries. Without their natural enemies such and their self-purification potential are used,
plants like Eichhornia crassipes, Salvinia rather than treatment plants, the first
natans, Elodea canadensis, Myriopyllum discernible effect is oxygen depletion, and
spicatum and others tended in their new consequently fish kills occur. Some tropical
environment to mass developments causing reservoirs exhibit high H 2 S production and
huge economic damages. Therefore many the water at bottom outlet has to be aerated to
different technologies for a water quality protect fish-life in the river downstream
management by food-web manipulation need (Klapper, 1997). Most reservoirs, built for
a high standard of symptom diagnosis and hydropower generation, can be artificially
ecosystem knowledge for appropriate aerated, by adding oxygen via surface
decision-making. aerators, via destratification facilities or by
Control of Organic Load (Saprobization) hypolimnion aerators. The aeration of the
In the industrialized countries the sewage activated sludge in sewage treatment plants
load is reduced with help of rational water would have been the more economic method
uses and sewage treatment. Also the for satisfying the oxygen demand.
biological purified sewage contains nutrients Control of Acidification in Lakes
and increases oxygen demand at least The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite
indirectly by eutrophication and degrading oxidation has to be controlled using special
biomass. The sewage treatment plant could neutralizing technologies. Addition of
not reduce the huge oxygen demand. The alkaline compounds is useful only in soft
post treatment was performed in the reservoir waters acidified by increase of SO 2 and NO x
with 14 large deepwater aerators and for from burning processes and from traffic
accidental loading peaks additional chemical emissions, which spread over long distances
oxygen was supplied by injecting several with the wind. The typical pH of rain
thousand tons nitrate per year into the treated acidified soft-water lakes is about 4.5 to 5.5,
sewage before it entered the reservoir. the scale of aluminum buffer. In thousands of

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cases the neutralization was achieved by Several neutralizing technologies are known
adding CaCO 3 powder with help of aircraft for acidic effluents from mining areas (Fig.
in Sweden, Norway, Canada and USA. The 10). The neutralization of large acidic lakes
measures have led to the return of fish life is still an unaccomplished solved problem.
and the neutralization measures are an Some approaches are shown in Fig. 9.
example of success in lake restoration
(summary in Olem, 1991).
The geogenic acidification caused by pyrite-
oxidation is far more complicated. The
typical pH of geogenic acidified hard-water
lakes is 2.0 to 3.5 buffered by high
concentrations of iron. Here, the alkalinity
demand for a chemical neutralization is one
to three orders of magnitude higher than for
neutralizing rain-acidified waters. Microbial
reduction of the high sulphate- and iron
contents leads finally to the formation of
FeS 2 the main cause of acidification. The
conditions necessary for the sulphate
reduction in a mining lake are contrary to
those for eutrophication control. For sulphate
reduction the environment has to be anoxic, Fig. 10: "Service ecosystems" for neutralization of acidic
carbon and phosphorus should be added to effluents (from Klapper & Schultze, 1997)

initiate the acidity-binding processes. Such


conditions are found mainly in the sediments,
but there are difficulties in including the
liquids from the uppermost sediment layers
in the water circulation and the matter
exchange.
The abatement of geogenical acidification
should be realized in all steps of the mining
process: preparation, performance and
recultivation of the landscape. Exposure of
the pyrite containing minerals and other
materials to the atmospheric oxygen has to be
minimized. Layers with the highest pyrite
levels should be buried in the deepest part of
the mine. For filling the new forming lakes,
Fig. 11: Abatement of acidification by in situ-technologies
surface water with high carbon hardness (from Klapper and Schultze, 1997)
showed to buffer and neutralizes the acidity.
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Stalinization in the above mentioned areas have serious


The Stalinization of inland waters has consequences for the water quality too.
different reasons. Sometimes more water is Water depth of Lake Sewan, Armenia, is
extracted and used than available. Especially reduced by 18 m due to very high extraction
the irrigation of desert soils leads to losses by for hydropower generation. A 40% loss of
evaporation. Water shortage in L. Aral, in the the volume and 12% of the area has the same
Dead Sea, L. Tschad, L. Nasser and some effect as eutrophication: hypolimnion oxygen
lakes in the aridic part of the USA belong to deficit, diminished Secchi-disc visibility, and
the most severe environmental problems on a development of bluegreen blooms
global scale. Changes in hydrologic regimes (Meschkova, 1976).

Treatment of deposits and contaminations in and at mining lakes


Isolation of contamination Rehabilitation of the contamination
Away from Beneath the Lake In the lake Ex-situ technologies off- Separate parts of Direct parts of
Lake site/on-site the lake the lake
Relocating to Mechanical Subhydric Physical technologies Enloures, Mixolimnion,
other (special) covering with deposits Sedimentation, flotation, limnocorrals, monimolimn,
dumps foils of plastic or stripping, adsorption, submerged straw- hypolimnion,
soil & vegetation incineration etc reactor sediment
Screening and Horizontal Profound region Chemical technologies Incorporation in biomass, transport
deposition of separation by Capping with Coagulation, dissolving into the sediment, addition of limiting
only the sheet piling or sand,ashes, waste ion exchange, oxidation nutrients to stimulate the
hazardous slot sealing rock etc aerobic biotechnologies: biodegradation
share activated sludge (+P),
Drying Geohydraulic Capping by trickling filter, disc Stabilization of stratification for
incineration locking wells material from the aerator… anaerobic bio anaerobic treatment in the deep water,
against pelagic zone: technologies anaerobic flocculation and transfer to sediment.
groundwater algae, iron- fixed bed reactor for
influx hydroxide, calcite desulfurication, combined
Utilsation as Geohydraulic littoral covering anoxic/oxic technologies Neutralization with lime, change of
secondary raw extraction well with soil, planting solubility
material again deposit vegetation
water effluent
Pumping Treatment of the Surface covering Curbing H 2 S by Fe1-, NO 3 or liquid
away the water from the with biological oxygen aeration surface aeration deep
liquid deposit like deodorizing filter water aeration destratification
byproducts for sewage, tighting covering with
treatment (e.g. of the deposit by floating reeds
tar) thixotropic matter
Table 6: Treatment of deposits and contaminations in and at
mining lakes (from Klapper & Geller, 2001)

The salt layers at the bottom of some because of the byproducts of anaerobic
(mining) lakes leads to increased stability of degradation and their greater oxygen
stratification, increase of oxygen deficit, and demand. Technologies such as oxygenation
accumulation of hydrogen sulfide, methane using nitrate or liquid oxygen are expensive
and ammonium in the deepest part of the alternatives.
meromictic lakes. The monimolimnion Restoring a Lake Contaminated With
represents an extremely long RT with all Hazardous Substances
problems for restoration such waters. Opencast mining pits have been used by
Destratification, the most widely used mining companies and the coal processing
measure in lake restoration, is dangerous industry for dumping overburden, ash, coal

85
Srivastava, Naresh Gopal/Vol. VIII [1] 2017/73 - 91

dust, wastes from smoulderies and tar. Such the RT. But it is not easy to distinguish
deposits to the mining lakes of eastern groundwater inflow and outflow at different
Germany led to a great number of localities in such manmade lakes. Near the
environmental impacts. The restoration of surface, the infiltration or exfiltration is
these impaired lakes requires different highest due to the "filter cleaning" by wind
rehabilitation approaches. Deposits and and wave action. The deeper parts of the
contaminations may be removed and treated littoral are clogged by biofilms in the course
or the contamination may be isolated on the of time. The bottom may be watertight where
shore or at the lake bottom. Technologies dead algae accumulate. A few metres further
were developed for ex-situ or in-situ tailing piles may be free from sediments and
rehabilitation of the contamination (Table. 6). groundwater enters without greater
Conclusions resistance. During the filling process the
On a global scale, the factors causing water morphometric conditions are rapidly
quality degradation and thus the restorative changing. Nevertheless, it is imperative to
measures differ. Eutrophication, estimate RT as one of the main factors being
saprobization and microbial load, deciding for success or failure of the
acidification, salinization and siltation, as restoration measures planned or performed.
well as contamination with hazardous Acknowledgment
substances are typical ecosystem stresses. The author is very much thankful to National
The deviations from "natural" or "normal" Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee for given
conditions in the lakes demand adequate opportunity for this work.
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