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2/21/2018 shraddha's pmp notes

PMP Study my preparation plan

April 7, 2015  Study Plan

Dear All,

Here I am sharing my study plan which could be helpful for others.

PMP Preparation plan

1) First I read PMBOK – general reading

2) I subscribed for online course – Izenbridge and studied all the videos
and gave chapter test

3) Read Head First PMP – it is really nice book in the form of storytelling
so helps understand concept faster.

4) Read Rita and completed Rita’s chapter test

5) Started solving Scordo. In all the exams score was going above 70 so I
got the confidence

6) After every test, I identified the gaps and studied those things again.

7) After 2 months I started giving full length test for 4 hours. 2 test on
weekends and study during week days – morning. I used following sites for
full test Simplilearn, pmsforsure, examcentral, pmstudy

8) Used to view Izenbridge forum daily.

9) At last, I got myself thorough with Glossary and ITTO – This is very
important ( I studied this by Process group wise and not knowledge wise .I
think this helped me a lot )

10) Cleared the exam


Shraddha 1/11
2/21/2018 shraddha's pmp notes



Change Request, Corrective Action,

Preventive Action
April 4, 2015  05. Scope Management Scope Management

Change Request is a very sensitive term in the Project Management. In

spite of you working hard to complete your project as per scope, schedule
and cost as a project manager, inevitable thing always occurs which is
referred to as a Change. This blog clarifies how to manage these
modifications in project execution by major weapons mentioned in Project
Management Study i.e. Change Request, Corrective Action and Preventive
action, Defect Repair.

As per PMBOK® Guide, whenever issues are found while project work is
being performed, submit a change request which may/ may not modify
project scope, schedule and cost baselines.

Ideally a change request can be considered as a formal / official document

containing a call for adjustment. In the software implementation project,
modifications in report output format can be considered as a Change
Request, unavailability of resources would be a Change which certainly
requires corrective or preventive action, if a particular formula is not 2/11
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working as per state logic requires a change hence Change Request is the
output of almost all the processes in Monitoring and controlling Group i.e.
Monitor and Control Project Work, Control scope, Control Schedule,
Control Cost, Control Quality, Control, Communication, Control Risks,
Control Procurement, and Control Stakeholder Engagement.

Change Request is an output of few executing process group processes like

Direct and Manage Project work, Perform Quality assurance, Manage
Project Team, conduct procurement, manage stakeholder engagement.

Apart from that Change Request is a part of only one planning process
group process i.e. Plan Procurement. Though PMBOK® Guide has not
precisely mentioned that why Change Request is output of only Plan
Procurement (Planning process), it can be fairly considered for a reason
because Plan procurement process will decide whether to buy, build or rent
any particular component, item, service it could lead into changes in
project management plan.

As per PMBOK® Guide Fifth Edition

“Change Request is a formal proposal to modify any document,

deliverable or baseline.”

Now let’s analyze following few examples.

You are a project manager for a project who is responsible to complete a

development and implementation of an application. During deployment
stage, you realize installation of software is done on a server which is
getting used for lot of other applications. As a best practice you recommend
to have your application on a separate server for security reason so you take
an action to uninstall from the existing server and load it on another
separate server.
The action taken above is of a type Corrective action which is carried out
only after a problem occurs. However, in same software you find the
particular formula is not giving the desired output so you perform testing
and come to know it requires fixing of the formula. This would be
considered as a defect repair which is conducted at that point of time to fix
a particular error / defect.

In the same software implementation project, you come to know that

developing a code for a particular functionality is tedious and complicated, 3/11
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so you convince a customer for not including it in the current

implementation and customer agrees to have it in the next phase. The
action taken to remove that particular component from existing
implementation is a Preventive Action. It is carried out before the problem

In spite of following best practices and structured documentation

approach, a project manager often faces a challenge in managing
customer’s expectations. In the software implementation during final stage
of implementation where software is about to go live, customer may
request for a change in access rights settings or additional security
privileges creation etc. All such mentioned requirements could be minor or
major but does fall under Change Request category which requires clear
and concise documentation. This change request document will also have
information about the impact on scope, schedule and cost. If any of the
baselines are getting affected due to this proposed change, then this change
should be discussed in Change control committee and based on their
decision, execution will be carried away.

Following is the comparative description for three commonly

misinterpreted terms of Change Request

Corrective Actions Defect Repair

Intentional activity An intentional An intentional

that realigns the activity that ensures activity to modify
performance of the the future a non-conforming
project work with the performance of the product or
project management project work is product
plan aligned with the component.
project management

These are the steps These are the steps These are steps
taken to remove the taken to remove the taken to correct
causes of existing causes of potential existing
undesirable situation undesirable undesirable
situations. situation

Reactive in nature Proactive in nature Instant in nature

Should be taken place Should be taken Should be taken

when a situation has place when a place as an
occurred situation has not immediate action
occurred when the situation

Don’t let it happen Don’t let it happen at Don’t let it go 4/11
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again all

E.g. On hiking, hiking E.g. Carrying a pair E.g. Before

shoes got torn or of extra shoes would starting hiking,
broken, fixing the be preventive action inspecting the
broken part and start shoes and
using the same shoes stitching and or
would be corrective fixing the areas
action would be defect

There are further two more confusing terms in PMBOK®Guide

Recommendation of corrective action – may bring the expected future

performance of the project back in line with the project management
plan. These are nothing but preventive actions only.
Recommendation of Preventive actions – an activity may reduce the
probability of incurring future negative project performance.

To conclude, any change in scope, schedule or cost of the project should be

considered as a change request. Request for a change could be direct or
indirect, internal or external, hence could be chargeable or non chargeable
to the customer and may include Corrective action, Preventive Action or
Defect repair.

I hope this blog helps you in clearing the doubt related to Change Requests,
Corrective actions, and Preventive Actions.

The above blog has been published

on I thought
of reposting it here.

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13. Stakeholder Management

March 31, 2015  13. Stakeholder Management Stakeholder Management

Identify Stakeholder:The process of identifying people, groups or

organization that could impact or be impacted by decision, activity or 5/11
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outcome of the project; analyzing and documenting relevant information

regarding their interests, involvement, interdependencies, influence and
potential impact on project success.

TT1 Stakeholder Analysis – It is a technique of gathering and analyzing

qualitative and quantitative information to determine whose interest
should be taken into account.

Classification models of stakeholder analysis –

Power/interest Grid – grouping stakeholders based on the

authority(“power”) and their level or concern (“interest”) regarding the
project outcomes;

Power / Influence Grid – Stakeholders based on their level of authority (

“power”) and their active involvement (“influence”)

Influence / Impact Grid – grouping stakeholders based on their active

involvement in project and ability to effect changes to project’s planning or
execution (“impact”)

Power on Y Axis and Interest or Influence on X axis

Low Power+ Low interest = Monitor

Low Power + high interest = Keep informed

High Power + Low interest = Keep Satisfied

High Power + High interest = manage closely

Salience Model– describing classes of stakeholder based on their power

(ability to impose their will), urgency (need for immediate attention) and
legitimacy (involvement is appropriate)

#OP1 – Stakeholder Register has

Identification information – Name, Organization position, Role in project,

contact information

Assessment information – Major Requirements, main expectations,

potential influence in the project,

Stakeholder classification – Internal/External, supporter, neutral, resistor

etc. 6/11
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For detailed notes please download 13.Stakeholder Mgmt_updated

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12. Procurement Management

March 31, 2015  12. Procurement Management Procurement Management

Plan Procurements: The process of documenting project procuring

decisions, specifying the approach, and identifying potential sellers.
(How, What, How Much and When) * Document Make/Buy decisions and
define the purchasing approach.
* Buyers Risk (from Highest to Lowest) – CPFF – T&M – CPIF – FPIF –
FFP * Commonly used & Preferred Type – FFP
* Direct Cost or Out-of-Pocket Cost * RFI – Request for Information
* IFB – Invitation for Bid * RFB/P – Request for Bid/Proposal * RFQ –
Request for Quotation (Procurement Docs)
* IFB or RFB/P used for 1. Single Price, 2.High $ Value, 3. Standardized *
RFQ used for 1. Per Item/Hour Price, 2. Lower $ Value, 3. May be used to
develop info in RFP

OP2 : Types of Procurement statement of work (1) Performance e.g. I want

a car having 120 km speed in 4 seconds

(2) Functional – I want a car with 23 cup holders (3) Design – Build a car
as per given design

OP5 : can be based on Understanding of need, overall or life-cycle cost,

Technical capability, Risk, Management Approach, Warranty etc.

For detailed notes please download 12.Procurement Mgmt_updated

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11. Risk Management 7/11
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March 31, 2015  11. Risk Management Risk Management

Plan Risk Management: The process of DEFINING HOW to conduct risk

management activities for a project. In Plan Risk Management, the
remaining FIVE risk management processes are PLANNED (creating a
road map for them) and HOW they will be conducted is documented. Here
PROJECT”. Risk attitudes Risk appetite, which is the degree of uncertainty
an entity, is willing to take on in anticipation of a reward. Risk tolerance,
which is the degree, amount, or volume of risk that an organization or
individual will withstand. (measurable amount of acceptable risk) Risk
threshold, specific Point at which risk becomes unacceptable. Above that
risk threshold, the organization will not tolerate the risk. # Risk
Management Plan defines WHAT LEVEL of risk will be considered
tolerable for the project, HOW risk will be managed, WHO will be
responsible for risk activities, the AMOUNT OF TIME and COST that will
be allotted to risk activities, and HOW risk findings will be
COMMUNICATED. # Risk Breakdown Structure (RBS): It is not breaking
down the actual risks; instead, we are breaking down the CATEGORIES of
risks that we will evaluate

For detailed notes please download 11.Risk Management_updated

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10. Communication Management

March 31, 2015  10. Communication Management Communication Management

Plan Communications: process of developing an appropriate

communication approach and plan for project communications based on
Stakeholder’s information needs and requirements and available
organization assets.
TT1: Total No of Comm Channels or Paths = n(n-1)/2 — Comm Channels:
# Upward Comm to Management # Lateral Comm to Peers, other
Functional Groups and Customers # Downward Comm to Subordinates.
TT2: Technology: Method used to transfer information among project
stakeholders. Factors that can affect – 1. Urgency of the need for
information 2. Availability of Technology 3. Ease of use 4. Project 8/11
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Environment 5. Sensitivity and Confidentiality of the information.

TT3: Model – It consists of the following components – a Sender, a
Receiver, Encode, Decode, a Medium (through which messages are sent
and received), Noise and Message & Feedback Message.
TT4: Methods : 1. Interactive Comm–This method is reciprocal and can
involve just two people or many people. One person provides information
other receives it and responds to the information. E.g. (i) Formal Verbal
(Presentations and Speeches) (ii) Informal Verbal (Meetings,
Conversations, Humour, and Inquiries)

2. Push Comm–This method involves one way stream of information.

The sender provides the information to people who need it but does
not expect the feedback. E.g. (i) Formal Written (Proj. Plans, Charter,
Comm over Long Distances, Complex Problems, Legal Docs and Long
or Tech situations for a wide and varied audience) (ii) Informal
Written (Status Updates, Information Updates and Day-to-day
Comm., Email)
3. Pull Comm–PM places the information in a central location. The
recipients are then responsible for retrieving or “pulling” the
information from that location. Useful for very large volumes of
information, or for very large audiences E.g.Internet Sites, E-learning
and Knowledge Repositories. Are more likely to use Formal Written

Communication dimensions

Internal (within the project) and external (customer, vendors, other

projects, organizations, the public);
Formal (reports, minutes, briefings) and informal (emails, memos, ad-
hoc discussions);
Vertical (up and down the organization) and horizontal (with peers);
Official (newsletters, annual report) and unofficial (off the record
communications); and

• Written and oral, and verbal (voice inflections) and nonverbal (body

For detailed notes please download 10.Communication Mgmt_updated

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09. Human Resource Management

March 31, 2015  09. Human Resource Management Human Resource Management

Plan Human Resource Management: The process of identifying and

documenting Project Roles, Responsibilities, and Required Skills,
Reporting Relationships, and creating a Staff Management Plan.

#OP – The HR Plan a) project Roles and Responsibilities b) Project

Organization Charts c) the Staffing Management Plan – staff acquisition,
Resource calendar, Staff Release Plan, Training needs, Recognition and
Rewards, Compliance, Safety

OP: Resource Histogram – shows the resource usage for a given period of
time. It illustrates the number of hours a person, department, or entire
project team will be needed each week or month over the course of the

TT1: Organisation Charts and position description ensures that each

activity and work package has a clear owner and a team member have clear
understanding of their roles and responsibilities.

Three Primary Formats for defining Roles and Responsibilities are 1.

Hierarchical, 2. Matrix (RAM – Responsibility Assignment Matrix, which
displays work packages in the rows and roles in the columns – Popular
Type is RACI chart – R-Responsible; A-Accountable; C-Consult; I-Inform.
It is important when team consists of Internal and External Resources),
and 3. Text (Job/Position Descriptions and Role-Responsibility-Authority
Forms – This tool is particularly useful in Recruiting).

TT2: For understanding Organizations and Teams behaviour.

TT3: Networking is the process of communicating with others within your
“Network” of contacts – By networking within the organization, PM can
understand the political and Organizational Forces that will influence the
project. HR Networking activities include Proactive Correspondence,
Luncheon Meetings, Informal Conversations including Meeting and
Events, Trade Conferences, and Symposia. It can be a useful technique at
the beginning of a project.

For detailed notes please download 09.Human Resource

Management_updated 10/11
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