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sensors

Article
Streetlight Control System Based on Wireless
Communication over DALI Protocol
Francisco José Bellido-Outeiriño *, Francisco Javier Quiles-Latorre, Carlos Diego Moreno-Moreno,
José María Flores-Arias, Isabel Moreno-García and Manuel Ortiz-López
Department of Computer Architecture, Electronics and Electronic Technology, University of Córdoba,
Córdoba 14071, Spain; el1qulaf@uco.es (F.J.Q.-L.); el1momoc@uco.es (C.D.M.-M.); jmflores@uco.es (J.M.F.-A.);
p92mogai@uco.es (I.M.-G.); el1orlom@uco.es (M.O.-L.)
* Correspondence: fjbellido@uco.es; Tel.: +34-957-218-699; Fax: +34-957-218-327

Academic Editor: Gonzalo Pajares Martinsanz


Received: 11 March 2016; Accepted: 13 April 2016; Published: 27 April 2016

Abstract: Public lighting represents a large part of the energy consumption of towns and cities.
Efficient management of public lighting can entail significant energy savings. This work presents a
smart system for managing public lighting networks based on wireless communication and the DALI
protocol. Wireless communication entails significant economic savings, as there is no need to install
new wiring and visual impacts and damage to the facades of historical buildings in city centers are
avoided. The DALI protocol uses bidirectional communication with the ballast, which allows its
status to be controlled and monitored at all times. The novelty of this work is that it tackles all aspects
related to the management of public lighting: a standard protocol, DALI, was selected to control the
ballast, a wireless node based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard with a DALI interface was designed,
a network layer that considers the topology of the lighting network has been developed, and lastly,
some user-friendly applications for the control and maintenance of the system by the technical crews
of the different towns and cities have been developed.

Keywords: street lighting system; wireless sensor networks; IEEE 802.15.4; DALI protocol

1. Introduction
Public lighting installations are important sources of energy consumption that are affected
by certain factors, such as regulation and maintenance. This energy consumption can be reduced
considerably by applying new communication and control technologies. The International Energy
Agency (IEA) has estimated that the potential energy savings due to lighting technology can be
approximately 133 to 212 TWh/y on a global level. The corresponding reductions in CO2 emissions
could equal about 86–137 MT/y for IEA countries [1]. The European Commission carried out a recent
study [2] proving that between 30% and 50% of the electricity used for lighting could be saved through
research into energy-efficient lighting systems. The use of low-consumption lamps, lighting fixtures
and other types of outdoor luminary lighting fixtures is advisable, as is the use of cleaner methods of
generating electric energy. This is not just a profitable investment but can also improve the quality of
the lighting [3].
Two-thirds of the public lighting systems currently in use are still based on obsolete and inefficient
technologies, with higher energy consumption than needed; therefore, there is great technological
potential to renovate public lighting and reduce energy consumption [4]. According to estimates,
around 5% of the energy used in lighting is consumed by public lighting, which is the most important
component of a city or town’s energy consumption.
The minimum acceptable or legal requirements for controlling lighting are different for industry,
offices, streets, and public lighting, but the concept is always the same: a fixed lighting intensity must

Sensors 2016, 16, 597; doi:10.3390/s16050597 www.mdpi.com/journal/sensors


Sensors 2016, 16, 597 2 of 23

be always achieved with energy efficiency and the lowest possible cost for energy consumption to
increase the expected lifespan of the lamps. As a result, by using available lamps, ballasts and control
systems, as well as techniques to develop an efficient lighting system, it is possible to produce quality
energy in a more efficient and profitable way [5].
Traditional energy-saving techniques entail totally or partially turning off streetlights, but this
implies a reduction in the uniformity of the lighting, which also has a considerable impact on the
lifespan of lamps.
Several recommendations exist to reduce the electric energy consumption of public lighting [6].
One of these actions is to control the on-off timespan of the lighting. This period can be controlled using
photocell relays or astronomical time relays [7]. The photocells are activated or deactivated depending
on the level of environmental light. Their main disadvantage is their low sensitivity to dawn and the
presence of clouds, which can cause the relay to be activated too soon. On the other hand, astronomical
time relays use a program that contains the sunrise and sunset times in each time zone. A second
action is to reduce light output (dimming) during hours with reduced traffic by reducing the voltage
applied to each lamp, which reduces electric energy consumption. Lastly, another proposed action
is to use high-performance lamps and lighting devices. This consists of installing smart, adjustable
electronic ballasts that are able to automatically detect electric failures and lamp problems; measure
and send data, such as on the state of the lighting, the lighting level, the energy consumption, voltage,
current, and power factor; and receive interruption and lighting control commands.
Regarding the need for uniform lighting, the control systems have two possibilities: light posts
with two lamps or with only one fully controllable lamp. In the first case, one of the two lamps can be
turned off late at night and during the early morning hours. In the second case, the lamp needs to be
connected to a regulation system. The last method has two practical options: dimmable ballasts or
centralized control systems as line voltage regulators.
On the other hand, remote management systems also exist that allow the user to control and
monitor each lamp individually. When using these systems, the operator can monitor the main
parameters of any light from a control room or a mobile unit. The obtained data can be processed,
allowing for statistical calculation of the consumption, state of the lamp, voltage, failures, etc. In this
way, the average repair time can be reduced. Another interesting parameter could be the arc voltage
level, which entails the change from corrective maintenance to predictive maintenance, meaning
economic savings in maintenance costs.
To optimize the control, the over-the-air management system needs to support bidirectional
communication between the user and the ballast. This management system is implemented using a
communication system and a control protocol for the lighting. The communication system can be wired
or wireless. The wired communication systems that are normally used include Ethernet-based systems
and those based on optical fiber or power-line carrier (PLC). As wireless standards, we can find, among
others, GSM/GPRS, RF, Wi-Fi™, IEEE 802.15.4™ and ZigBee™. The latter two are responsible for the
increase of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) [8,9].
Standard IEEE 802.15.4 is aimed at low-rate wireless personal area networks (WPANs) [10].
Its objective is to standardize the two lower layers of the communication protocols between open
protocols, i.e., the physical layer and the MAC layer. On the other hand, ZigBee defines the upper
layers, the network and the application layers. For the lighting-control protocol, it is possible to choose
between open protocols, such as TCP/IP, BACNet™, DMX 512™, LONWorks™, X-10™, 0–10 V and
DALI™, and proprietary protocols.
From the previously mentioned protocols, the system described in this work uses protocol
IEEE 802.15.4 for wireless communications and the DALI protocol to control the lamps. The Digital
Addressable Lighting Interface (DALI) is designed to digitally control electronic ballasts and luminaries
equipped with this technology [11]. The interface and protocol are defined by standard IEC 60929/EN
60929 Section E.4, and were modified by IEC 62386, which also includes other applications for DALI
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besides lighting and expands the types of lamps to high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps, halogen lamps,
incandescent bulbs, LEDs, etc.
The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 provides a short review of the state of the art in
lighting control systems; Section 3 presents an overview on the architecture of the system; Section 4
describes the hardware and software implementation of the wireless node; Section 5 shows the results
of some of the implemented tests and installations; and finally, Section 6 provides conclusions.

2. Related Works
Many works deal with the smart control of outdoor lighting systems to solve specific problems.
On the one hand, they do so by using new technologies such as LED technology. On the other hand,
the most innovative approach may be to use a remote control based on wireless communication
and on control over smart ballasts. Several scientific studies have taken advantage of WSNs for
public lighting systems. A ZigBee-based wireless control system is presented in [12]. Its aim is to
overcome the disadvantages of a control group base by designing a public lighting control system
that is able to control each luminaire individually. This study considers communication systems such
as those based on power line communication (PLC) and ZigBee, and describe and compare their
features. Finally, ZigBee is chosen due to the inconveniences of PLC, such as the price of the devices
and the lack of communication when a short-circuit problem appears. Its system allows the user to
control and monitor the state of the lighting; however, energy efficiency is not taken into account. Just
maintenance and the removal of cables from the streets are taken into account to protect individuals
from electric shocks.
Another more complex example of the application of WSNs to public lighting is found in [13].
A system is developed that consists of sensor nodes placed at each side of the street, with a receiver
node at the main transformation station to which each luminaire belongs. Information from the
receiver nodes is sent to the control center through GPRS. The system also has individual or group
regulation, which saves up to 60% in energy consumption. A significant breakthrough of these systems
is the combined use of identification addresses for the individual nodes, together with a geographic
information system (GIS) that enables the graphic viewing of the location of any individual node. As a
result, it is possible to know the location and state of each lamp. A simple but effective routing protocol
is proposed in a later study [14] that makes it unnecessary to take the network topology into account,
which is convenient due to the characteristics of public lighting.
Another proposal [15] lists the main characteristics of a WSN that may be used in a control system
for public lighting. Among these characteristics, we find the ability to manage common operations
in public lighting, such as turning off/on or regulation (dimming) and network functions such as
neighbor discovery, pairing, and network formation. 6LoWPAN™ is used instead of ZigBee due to the
disadvantages of the latter’s routing protocol (high end-to-end delay, low packet delivery ratio) and
the easy adaptation of 6LoWPAN, which does not define the routing protocols for a specific system.
Other more current examples of the application of WSN to public lighting can be found in [16],
in which the authors analyze the use of solar energy and propose a stand-alone streetlight system using
a ZigBee network supplied by solar PV panels. Using part of the previous work, in [17], the authors
present a fully controlled street lighting “isle” with a WIMAX connection. Lastly, we point out [18],
which presents a streetlight control system based on wireless communication using LED technology.
However, the authors do not use any standard protocol to control the lamps.
Other perspectives have been considered for the use of the DALI protocol in public lighting
and its integration with WSNs. In fact, the NumeLiTe Project [19,20] used the DALI protocol for
street lighting applications, but the manufacturers did not take this into account and the project was
finally used just for indoor lighting and not for public lighting systems. Another work developed a
DALI-protocol-based electronic ballast for sending commands through radio waves with a ZigBee
module [21].
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3. System
SystemArchitecture
Architecture
general structure of
Figure 1 shows the general of the
the tele-management
tele-management lighting system described in this
three-level hierarchical model that is widely used in lighting-control
work. It is a three-level lighting-control systems based on
wireless communication. To complete the system, an
wireless communication. To complete the system, an information information and failure location application was
devices. This app can be easily used by maintenance
developed for mobile devices. maintenance technicians.
technicians.
At the lowest level, directly controlling the luminaire, we can find the wireless nodes, which
communicate in
communicate in a wireless way using IEEE 802.15.4. At the intermediate level, managing the wireless
networks of
networks ofaalighting
lightingsector,
sector,we
we can
can find
find anan industrial
industrial computer
computer with
with 802.15.4
802.15.4 communication
communication that
that also
also as
acts acts
theas the network’s
network’s coordinator.
coordinator. This computer
This computer contains an contains an application
application that enablesthat enables the
the comfortable
comfortable
and and user-friendly
user-friendly managementmanagement of a given
of a given sector’s sector’s
lighting lighting
network. network.
This This local
local computer computer
can also act
cana also
as act astowards
gateway a gateway towards
central central
control control
of the of the
lighting lighting
network. network.
The The communication
communication with
with the central
the central control is executed through another communication network that allows
control is executed through another communication network that allows for greater distances, such as for greater
distances, such
3G/GPRS, WIFI asor 3G/GPRS, WIFI or
WIMAX. Lastly, theWIMAX. Lastly,
upper level the upper
contains levelcontrol,
the central contains the central
which groupscontrol,
several
which groups
sectors several network.
of the lighting sectors of the lighting network.

Figure 1. Architecture of the system.

local monitoring
The local monitoringof ofaalighting
lightingsector
sectorisisessential,
essential,asasthe
thecentral
central control
control may
may bebe very
very farfar away
away or
or have
have obstacles
obstacles exceeding
exceeding the the physical
physical capacities
capacities of wireless
of the the wireless protocol.
protocol. Onother
On the the other
hand,hand, the
the local
local computer
computer for lighting
for each each lighting
sectorsector can work
can work in isolation,
in isolation, since since
it canitwork
can work as a server
as a server database.
database. This
This characteristic
characteristic ensuresensures easy deployment
easy deployment and scalability
and scalability of the telemanagement
of the telemanagement system.system. New
New sectors
sectors
of of the lighting
the lighting networknetwork
that are that aretoadded
added to thecontrol
the central centralcancontrol can be debugged.
be debugged. Then,detailed
Then, a more a more
detailed description
description of each
of each part will part will be given.
be given.

3.1. Network Topology


Topology
The 802.15.4
802.15.4standard is framed
standard within
is framed the area
within the of the wireless
area personal personal
of the wireless area networks
area (WPANs),
networks
with low consumption
(WPANs), and cost. As
with low consumption anda result,
cost. Asit aisresult,
increasingly gaining relevance
it is increasingly gaining in the industrial
relevance in the
industrial domain. Standard 802.15.4 only defines the physical and media access control layers. A
network and application layer has been developed on this standard, as shown by Figure 2.
Sensors 2016, 16, 597 5 of 23

domain. Standard 802.15.4 only defines the physical and media access control layers. A network and
Sensors 2016, 16,
application 597 has been developed on this standard, as shown by Figure 2.
layer 5 of 23

Figure 2. Layers model.

Standard 802.15.4
Standard 802.15.4 defines
defines two two typestypes ofof topologies:
topologies: star star andand peer-to-peer
peer-to-peer networks.
networks. The The
peer-to-peer topology allows each node of the network
peer-to-peer topology allows each node of the network to communicate with any other node, provided to communicate with any other node,
provided
that the node that the node
is within is within
its range. The star its topology
range. The allows starthetopology
establishment allows the establishment
of communication among of
communication among the devices and of a sole central node
the devices and of a sole central node that acts as the network coordinator. The network coordinator is that acts as the network coordinator.
The network
responsible forcoordinator
starting and is responsible
finishing for startingand
the connections, andanyfinishing
communicationthe connections,
between two andnodes
any
communication
must compulsorily between two nodes
pass through the must
network compulsorily
coordinator. pass through the network coordinator.
The network layer must take the topology of the lighting network
The network layer must take the topology of the lighting network into into account.
account. On On the
the one
one hand,
hand,
each luminaire is controlled by a node with 802.15.4 communication capacities. On the other hand,
each luminaire is controlled by a node with 802.15.4 communication capacities. On the other hand,
the luminaires
the luminaires are are often
often deployed
deployed along along longlong streets,
streets, which
which results
results in in aa linear
linear structure
structure withwith slight
slight
branches. Taking this topology formed by the luminaires into
branches. Taking this topology formed by the luminaires into account, a tree topology created from account, a tree topology created from
the peer-to-peer
the peer-to-peer connectionconnection possibilities
possibilities of of standard
standard 802.15.4
802.15.4 has has been
been chosen.
chosen.
In the tree topology, the coordinator is located
In the tree topology, the coordinator is located on the first level of the on the first level of the network,
network, withwith several
several end
end
devices and a router. The router forms a new network level consisting of several end devices anda
devices and a router. The router forms a new network level consisting of several end devices and
anew
newrouter,
router,and andsosoon onuntil
untilthe thedesired
desired numbernumber of of levels
levels required
required in each case
in each case isis achieved.
achieved. TheThe
number of leaps allowed by the network layer must be high.
number of leaps allowed by the network layer must be high. This type of structure does not adapt This type of structure does not adapt
well to
well to any
any usual
usual topology
topology in in wireless
wireless networks
networks or or toto any
any standard.
standard. For For example,
example, Zigbee
Zigbee Pro has aa
Pro has
limited tree-type
limited tree-type numbernumber of network layers,
of network layers, with with aa maximum
maximum depth depth of of 15.
15. The
The number
number of of network
network
hops allowable within ZigBee PRO is increased to 30
hops allowable within ZigBee PRO is increased to 30 from the 10 allowed under ZigBee. from the 10 allowed under ZigBee.
A tree
A tree topology
topology with with aa high
high depth
depth entails
entails aa serious
serious routing
routing problem,
problem, as as almost
almost allall nodes
nodes need
need to
to
have this ability. In [22], a novel routing algorithm is proposed
have this ability. In [22], a novel routing algorithm is proposed for streetlight systems. Additionally, for streetlight systems. Additionally,
there are
there arefewfewalternatives
alternativesinin the the event
event of an
of an intermediate
intermediate node node failure.
failure. The allocation
The allocation of addresses
of addresses turns
turnsa into
into complexa complexproblem problem
as well.asInwell. In [23–25],
[23–25], a new address-allocation
a new address-allocation methodmethod that improves
that improves ZigBee
ZigBee
tree tree addressing
addressing is proposed,is proposed,
which offers which some offers some
results in results in simulations.
simulations. For these
For these reasons, wereasons,
decidedwe to
decided to create our own network layer that could adapt to
create our own network layer that could adapt to a tree topology with a high number of levels: the a tree topology with a high number of
levels: thethat
computer computer
serves as thattheserves
originas orthe origin orofdestination
destination all exchanged of all exchangedoninformation
information the network. onThat
the
network. That is, we have implemented the communication
is, we have implemented the communication by using IEEE 802.15.4 Std. and by creating our own by using IEEE 802.15.4 Std. and by
creating our
(ad-hoc) Networkown (ad-hoc)
layer (NWK).Network layer (NWK).
Each node has two unique
Each node has two unique identifiers—the identifiers—the radio radio module’s
module’s MAC MAC address
address and and a a node
node identifier
identifier
(nodeID)—that allow it to be located by the application, similar
(nodeID)—that allow it to be located by the application, similar to a lamp address. In this way, when to a lamp address. In this way, when a
a radio
radio module
module is replaced,
is replaced, only only
the the
same same
nodeID nodeID needs needs
to betoselected
be selectedin theinnode.
the node. This nodeID
This nodeID is
is easily
easily
set with seta with a microswitch.
microswitch. The nodeID The nodeID has a length
has a length of 16 bits of 16
and bits
can and canup
select select up to 65,536
to 65,536 ballasts,ballasts,
which
which increases the number of ballasts that can be routed by a DALI controller. The user application
only needs to know the nodeID. The network layer maintains some tables with the MAC addresses
where the frames need to be sent to get to their destination. These tables are dynamically created
when the network is initialised, when a node is connected, etc.
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increases the number of ballasts that can be routed by a DALI controller. The user application only
needs to know the nodeID. The network layer maintains some tables with the MAC addresses where
Sensors 2016, 16, 597 6 of 23
the frames need to be sent to get to their destination. These tables are dynamically created when the
Sensors 2016, 16, 597 6 of 23
network is initialised, when a node is connected, etc.
3.2. Lighting Control: DALI
3.2. Lighting Control: DALI
3.2. Lighting Control:
Most current DALIballasts implement the DALI protocol. Additionally, it is also implemented
digital
Most
in low-voltage current digital
transformers, ballasts implement
movement the DALI
detectors, wallprotocol.
switches,Additionally,
etc. it is also implemented
Most current digital ballasts implement the DALI protocol. Additionally, it is also implemented
in low-voltage transformers,
The main transformers,
reason movement
for choosing DALI detectors,
over otherwall switches, etc. protocols is that it allows for
in low-voltage movement detectors, walllighting
switches,control
etc.
The main
bidirectional reason for choosing
communication DALI
(unlikeDALI over other
X-10, 0-10 lightingOn control protocols is that it allows for
The main reason for choosing overVother
and DMX). the other
lighting control hand, its
protocols is physical interface
that it allows for
bidirectional
is very simple, communication (unlike
as it uses only(unlike
two wires X-10, 0-10
for0-10
the VV and
control DMX).
signals.On the other hand, its physical interface
bidirectional communication X-10, and DMX). OnThanks to the
the other useits
hand, ofphysical
this protocol, the
interface
is very simple,
following as it uses
advantages only
areonly two wires for the control signals. Thanks to the use of this protocol, the
achieved:
is very simple, as it uses two wires for the control signals. Thanks to the use of this protocol, the
following advantages are achieved:
following
 Failureadvantages
detection are achieved:
for lamps or electric failures
 Failure detection for lamps or electric failures
‚ The ability
Failure to takefor
detection and sendor
lamps data related
electric to the lamp’s status
failures
‚ The
Level ability
dimming to take and send data related to the lamp’s status
The ability to take and send data related to the lamp’s status
 Level dimming
‚ Level
Betterdimming
Better
energy consumption
energy
 Information onconsumption
the lamp’s voltage, current and power factor
‚ Better energy on
Information consumption
the lamp’s
 The ability to execute othervoltage,
actions, current
such asand power
turning thefactor
lights on/off, controlling them, etc.
‚ Information
The ability to onexecute
the lamp’sother voltage,
actions,current
such asand power
turning thefactor
lights on/off, controlling them, etc.
‚ The ability
The physical layer of other
to execute the DALI protocol
actions, such asuses Differential
turning the lightsManchester encoding,them,
on/off, controlling in which
etc. the
The physical layer of the DALI protocol uses Differential Manchester encoding, in which the
logic values are represented by transitions in the signal, as shown by Figure 3. Each node is
logicThe physical
values are layer of the DALI
represented protocol uses
by transitions in Differential
the signal, Manchester
as shown by encoding,
Figure in 3. which the logic
Each node is
attached to the bus line via its two bus terminals, which provide differential receiving and
values are represented by transitions in the signal, as shown by Figure 3.
attached to the bus line via its two bus terminals, which provide differential receiving and Each node is attached to the
transmitting capability.
bus line via itscapability.
transmitting two bus terminals, which provide differential receiving and transmitting capability.

Figure 3. Differential Manchester encoding.


Figure 3. Differential Manchester encoding.
Figure 3. encoding.

The DALI protocol is based on the master/slave model, in which one master can control up to 64
TheDALI
The DALIprotocol
protocolisisbased
basedon onthe
themaster/slave
master/slave model,
model, inin which
whichone onemaster
mastercan cancontrol
controlupuptoto64
64
slaves.
slaves.The
Themaster
mastersends
sendsframes
frames (forward
(forward messages) to any slave device
device ofthe the systemandand receivesaa
slaves. The master sends frames (forward messages) to any slaveslave device of of thesystem
system andreceives
receives a
response frame
responseframe (backward
frame(backward
(backward message)
message) if
if the
the forward
forward frame requested
requested aa response.
response. AsAs shown
shown by by
response message) if the forward frameframe
requested a response. As shown by Figure 4,
Figure 4,4,aaforward
forwardmaster–slave frame (ballast)
(ballast)ofconsists of 19
19 bits,
bits, distributed
distributedas asfollows:
follows:one
onestarting
starting
aFigure
forward master–slave master–slave frameconsists
frame (ballast) consists
19 bits,of
distributed as follows: one starting bit, eight
bit,
bit,eight
eight bits
bits for
for routing,
routing, another
another eight
eight bits
bits for
for data
data and
and two
two stop
stop bits.
bits. Meanwhile,
Meanwhile, aa backward
backward
bits for routing, another eight bits for data and two stop bits. Meanwhile, a backward response frame
response
response frame consists of 11
11 8bits, a start bit, 88 bits for data
data and
and two
two stop
stop bits.
bits.At
Atthe
the physicallayer,
layer,
consists offrame consists
11 bits, a startofbit, bits,
bitsafor
start bit,and
data bits
twofor
stop bits. At the physical layer,physical
DALI uses an
DALI
DALIuses
uses an effective
antransfer data
effectiverate
data transfer rate of 1.2 kb/s and aa tolerance
tolerance inin the
the timing
timing bit of 10%.
effective data of transfer
1.2 kb/srate
andofa 1.2 kb/s and
tolerance in the timing bit of 10%. bit of 10%.

Figure
Figure 4.
Figure 4. Format of
4. Format of the
the DALI
DALI frames.
frames.
frames.

The main
Themain
main disadvantage
disadvantage of
of the
disadvantage the
ofDALI DALI protocol
the protocol is not
is that it is that
that itit is
is not
implemented not inimplemented inin most
most
most microcontrollers.
implemented
microcontrollers.
In addition, the In addition,
logic levels the
of logic
the levels
physical
microcontrollers. In addition, the logic of the
layer physical
have layer have
incompatible incompatible
voltage voltage
values with
layer have incompatible voltage valuesvalues
most
with
withmost
mostmicrocontroller-based
microcontroller-based systems. systems.
microcontroller-based systems.

3.3.
3.3. Wireless
WirelessNode
3.3.Wireless Node
Node
An
Animportant
An importantaspect
important aspectof
aspect ofdeveloping
of developing streetlight
developing streetlight control systems
control systems
systems is is deciding
is deciding which
decidingwhich components
componentstoto
whichcomponents to
develop
developand
develop andwhich
and whichones
which onesto
ones purchase
purchase from
topurchase
to from the
from the market.
market. To make this
make this decision,
decision,itit
this decision, itisis importanttoto
isimportant
important tostudy
study
study
whetherthese
whether thesecomponents
components existexist in
in the
the market, their price and
and the
the economic
economic impact
impacton onthe
theproject,
project,
amongother
among otherfactors.
factors.In
In the
the presented
presented system,
system, we have to paypay special
special attention
attentionto tothe
thewireless
wirelessnode
node
(mote), as a mote needs to be installed
(mote), as a mote needs to be installed in each luminaire. As
As a result, a high number of motesare
a result, a high number of motes are
needed. A comparison of several
needed. A comparison of several motes motes was implemented in [26],
[26], and
and in
inour
ourcase,
case,several
severalcommercial
commercial
motessuch
motes suchas as Waspmote
Waspmote [27] [27] have
have been
been analyzed, in in particular,
particular, together
together with
with other
otheropen-source,
open-source,
Sensors 2016, 16, 597 7 of 23

whether these components exist in the market, their price and the economic impact on the project,
among other factors. In the presented system, we have to pay special attention to the wireless node
(mote), as a mote needs to be installed in each luminaire. As a result, a high number of motes are
needed. A comparison of several motes was implemented in [26], and in our case, several commercial
motes such as Waspmote [27] have been analyzed, in particular, together with other open-source,
Arduino- and hardware-based nodes [28]. All of them show the following disadvantages in our system:

‚ They do not have a DALI interface.


‚ They are not properly powered. The input voltage is 230 VAC; hence, the voltages for the
processing part and for the DALI interface must be generated, as explained below.
‚ The nodeID cannot be configured in an easy way by maintenance technicians if a mote needs to
be replaced.
‚ No robust connectors are available.

We decided to design our own mote, since if we had opted to use commercial mote, we would
have needed to design an adaptation board to solve the aforementioned disadvantages. The designed
mote has two different parts: the processing and radio module, and the rest of interfaces, including
the DALI interface and the power supply block. The reason for this division is to try different radio
modules, so that both parts can later be integrated into just one board. In this way, we would obtain a
specific mote to control the ballasts at a low economic cost. The designed mote will be described in
detail in Section 4.
The decision to design a specific mote is a usual process in many works related to wireless sensor
networks. In works such as [29–32], motes were developed for specific applications to minimize total
consumption. In [33], a wireless sensor mote was designed for precision horticulture applications. In
other works, some motes were designed to search for possibilities not offered by commercial motes.
For example, in [34], a mote was designed to support remote hardware modification. Lastly, regarding
wireless nodes to control LED lamps in over-the-air lighting-control systems, motes using the XBee
module of the Digi MaxStream radio frequency were designed in [16,35]. In [18], the Waspmote
module was improved by connecting sensors to it and including control over LED lamps. In [36],
a simple intelligent wireless module was presented for use in street lighting systems that provides a
specific driver capable of communicating through the DALI protocol to the lamp.

3.4. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System


A SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system was developed to control lighting
systems. This application is executed on an embedded industrial computer in each wireless network
of a section of the lighting network. The computer communicates directly with the coordinator node
of the wireless network. Another SCADA system has been planned to control more than one section of
the lighting network. This central SCADA system communicates with each local SCADA system. The
central SCADA system collects the information from the local SCADA. The local SCADA is actually
the one in control; as a result, it will be the one described below.
The software used for the execution of the SCADA is the integrated development environment
(IDE) NetBeans [37]. NetBeans is a free product without any restrictions on its use. It was mainly
designed to be used with the Java programming language. In this way, it can be used in any Java
virtual machine (JVM), no matter the architecture of the computer used.
By means of SCADA, a user with the appropriate licenses has both individual and collective
control over the lamps. The coordinator (who is connected to the computer) deals with forming/
managing the tree wireless network, so that an intermediate router node will be used to reach a lamp
if the coordinator is unable to do so. Once all of the luminaires have been located, their status may
be viewed and modified, making it also possible to specify different modes of operation from the
interface. Figure 5 shows one of the windows of SCADA.
Sensors 2016,
Sensors 2016, 16,
16, 597
597 88 of
of 23
23
Sensors 2016, 16, 597 8 of 23

Figure 5. View of one of the windows of the local SCADA.


Figure 5. View of one of the windows of the local SCADA.
Figure 5. View of one of the windows of the local SCADA.
As an example, Figure 6 shows the information of a selected street lamp, which allows the user
As an example,
to know: Figure 6 shows the information of a selected street lamp, which allows the user
As an example, Figure 6 shows the information of a selected street lamp, which allows the user
to know:

to know: Whether the light is switched on or off.
‚  Its current
Whether regulation
the light setpoint.
is switched on or off.
 Whether
 the lightofislimit
The existence switched on or off.
error events.
‚ Its current regulation setpoint.
  current
Its regulation
The existence setpoint.
of lamp error events.
‚ The

existence of limit errorerror
events.
 The The existence
existence of ballast
of limit events.
error events.
‚ The
 existence
The reset of lamp error events.
state.
 The existence of lamp error events.
‚ The
The existence
existence ofof ballast
ballast error
error events.
events.
‚ The
The reset
reset state.
state.

Figure 6. Detail of the information window of a lamp.

3.5. Application for the Maintenance of the Lighting Network


A graphic application for mobile devices has been developed to manage maintenance tasks for
lighting networks. TheFigure 6. Detail
application of theinformation
obtains informationfrom
window of a lamp.created by the SCADA
the database

3.5. Application for the Maintenance of the Lighting Network


3.5. Application for the Maintenance of the Lighting Network
A graphic application for mobile devices has been developed to manage maintenance tasks for
lighting networks.
A graphic The application
application for mobileobtains
devicesinformation from the database
has been developed to managecreated by the tasks
maintenance SCADAfor
lighting networks. The application obtains information from the database created by the SCADA
Sensors 2016, 16, 597 9 of 23
Sensors 2016, 16, 597 9 of 23

system.
Sensors Once
system. Once the
2016, 16, 597application has been launched and the user has been identified, the streets allocated
the application has been launched and the user has been identified, the streets allocated
9 of 23
to the operator
to system.
the operator will appear. If
willapplication any
appear. Ifhas failure
anybeen
failurehas happened,
has happened, the application
the application will inform
will inform the user with
theallocated
user with an
interface Once
such the
as as
the one shown launched
ininFigure and
7.7.Each the user has been identified, the streets
an interface
to such
the operator willthe one
appear. shown Figure
If any failure Eachstreetlamp
has happened, streetlamp isisidentified
the applicationidentified by
by aathe
will inform
unique
unique identifier
identifier
user with an
(nodeID),
(nodeID), which is set by hardware when the node is installed, as mentioned in Section 3.1.
interfacewhich
such is as set
theby hardware
one shown in when the7.node
Figure Eachis streetlamp
installed, asis mentioned in Section
identified by a unique3.1.
identifier
(nodeID), which is set by hardware when the node is installed, as mentioned in Section 3.1.

Figure 7.
Figure App screenshot
7. App screenshot with
with information
information on
on incidents
incidents for
for the
the maintenance
maintenance technician.
technician.
Figure 7. App screenshot with information on incidents for the maintenance technician.

From this moment, the application includes several screens, screens, such
such as the one shownshown in Figure 8,
From this moment, the application includes several screens, such as the one shown in Figure 8,
which helps the technician
technician to determine
determine the the location
location of
of the
the streetlight.
streetlight. This system is particularly
which helps the technician to determine the location of the streetlight. This system is particularly
useful in in
small towns company is responsible
responsible for maintaining
maintaining
useful small townsororvillages
villageswhere
where just
just one
one company
company is responsible for maintaining thethe whole
whole
lighting system, preventing unnecessary
lighting system, preventingunnecessary driving
unnecessarydriving around
driving around to control
to control
around to control thethe status
thestatus of
statusofofthethe streetlamps.
thestreetlamps.
streetlamps.
This is the case, for example,
example, in some
some areas
areas of Andalusia
Andalusia (Spain), which has scattered
This is the case, for example, in some areas of Andalusia (Spain), which has scattered small small towns
towns
and an onsite
onsite maintenance
maintenance technician is impossible.
and villages where having an onsite maintenance technician is impossible. Once the technician hashas
villages where having impossible. Once the technician
solved
solved thethe
problem,
problem,thethesystem detects
systemdetects ititand
detectsit and the
and the databaseis
the database
database isupdated
is updatedaccordingly.
updated accordingly.
accordingly.

Figure8.8.App
Figure App screenshot
screenshot GIS
GIS location
locationof
ofan
anincident.
incident.
Figure 8. App screenshot GIS location of an incident.
Sensors 2016, 16, 597 10 of 23
Sensors 2016, 16, 597 10 of 23
Sensors 2016, 16, 597 10 of 23
4. 4.
Implementation
Implementationof ofthetheWireless
Wireless Node
Node
4. Implementation of the Wireless Node
AsAs waswas already
alreadydiscussed
discussedininSection
Section3.3,
2.3, we designed
designedour
ourown
ownwireless
wirelessnode
nodeforfor several
several reasons.
reasons.
WeWe will Asdescribe
will was already
describeinin discussed
detail
detailboth
bothin
theSection
the 2.3, we
hardware
hardware designed
and
and the our ownof
the software
software ofwireless node forwireless
theUCODALI
the UCODALI several
wirelessreasons.
node
node in in
We
detail
detailwill
below.describe
below. in detail both the hardware and the software of the UCODALI wireless node in
detail below.
4.1.4.1.
Hardware
Hardware Node:
Node:UCODALI
UCODALIBoard Board
4.1. Hardware Node: UCODALI Board
This section
This will
section willinclude
includeaadescription
descriptionof of the
the hardware
hardware ofof UCODALI
UCODALIboard,
board,version
version 2, 2, shown
shown in in
Figure This section will include a description of the hardware of UCODALI board, version 2, shown in
Figure 9. 9.
Figure 9.

Figure9.9.UCODALI
Figure UCODALI version
version 22 board.
board.
Figure 9. UCODALI version 2 board.
Until now, two versions of the UCODALI board have been designed to implement the sensor
Until now,
Until now,two
twoversions
versions ofofthe
theUCODALI
UCODALI board have been
boardare
have beendesigned
designedtotoimplement
implement the sensor
network node with the DALI interface. Both versions very similar. Its block diagram isthe sensor
shown in
network
network node
nodewith
withthe
theDALI interface. Both versions arevery
verysimilar.
similar.Its
Its blockdiagram
diagramis is shownin in
Figure 10, in which the DALI interface.
following can beBoth versions are
distinguished: the power supply,block
CC2530OEM module shown [38],
Figure
Figure
DALI10,10,
inin which
which
interface, thefollowing
the
selector following can be
can
of the nodeID beand
distinguished:
distinguished:
HMI (buttonsthe
thepower
power
and supply,
LEDs) supply,
blocks. CC2530OEM
CC2530OEM module
module [38],
[38],
DALI
DALI interface,
interface, selectorofofthe
selector thenodeID
nodeIDandand HMI
HMI (buttons
(buttons and
and LEDs)
LEDs)blocks.
blocks.

Figure 10. UCODALI block diagram.


Figure 10. UCODALI block diagram.
Figure 10. UCODALI block diagram.
4.1.1. Power Supply Block
4.1.1. Power Supply Block
4.1.1. Power
All of Supply Block
the board’s components, except for the DALI interface block, need a power supply voltage
of AllAll
3.3 of of
VDC. the board’s
We used components,
the FC47121 except for thepower
switching DALI supply
interface[39]
block, need a power
to obtain supplyfromvoltage
of 3.3
the board’s
VDC. We used
components,
the FC47121
except for the
switching
DALIsupply
power
interface
[39]
block,
to obtain
athis
need this voltage
power supply
voltage from
the
voltage
the
230VDC.
of 230
3.3 VAC network. ThisFC47121
We used This
the power supply
switchinghas the
powerfollowing
supply characteristics:
[39] to obtain3.3 3.3 VDC
thisVDC output
voltage from voltage,
the 230 ±2%
VAC
VAC
output network.
voltage accuracy power
(100% supply
load), hasW
2.5 the following
power and characteristics:
65% efficiency. This output
switching voltage,
power ±2%
supply
network.
output This power
voltagemode supply
accuracy has
(100% the
load), following
2.5 on
W power characteristics: 3.3 VDC output voltage, ˘2% output
is a switched power supply based flybackand 65% efficiency.
topology This an
that provides switching power
alternative supply
solution to
voltage
is a accuracy
switched mode (100%
powerload), 2.5 W
supply power
based on and 65%
flyback efficiency.
topology that This switching
provides an powersolution
alternative supplytois a
traditional power supplies used in low-power applications.
switched mode
traditional powerpower supply
supplies based
used inthe on flyback
low-power topology that provides an alternative solution to
applications.
As will be indicated below, DALI interface uses voltage levels to represent the high logic
traditional power supplies used inthe
low-power applications.
level between 11.5 V and 22.5 V. As a result, a power supplyvoltage
As will be indicated below, DALI interface uses levels toa voltage
that generates represent the high
within logic
this range
As
level will be indicated below, the DALI interface uses voltage levels to represent the high logic
needsbetween 11.5On
to be used. V and 22.5 V.hand,
the other As a result, a power
the control partsupply that generates
of the node of the DALI a voltage within
bus needs to bethis range
isolated.
level
needsbetween 11.5On
to be used. V and 22.5 hand,
the other V. As the a result,
controlapart
power supply
of the node ofthat
thegenerates
DALI bus needsa voltage
to bewithin
isolated.this
Sensors 2016, 16, 597 11 of 23

Sensors
range 2016, 16,
needs to 597
be used. On the other hand, the control part of the node of the DALI bus needs 11 ofto
23 be

isolated. To do this, we used the MEU1S0315ZC DC/DC converter by Murata Power Solutions [40].
To do this, we used the MEU1S0315ZC DC/DC converter by Murata Power Solutions [40]. The
The MEU1S0315ZC is an ultra-miniature through-hole 1 W DC/DC converter that is available in a
MEU1S0315ZC is an ultra-miniature through-hole 1 W DC/DC converter that is available in a
ZIP-style pinout. It is ideally suited for providing local power supplies on control system boards, with
ZIP-style pinout. It is ideally suited for providing local power supplies on control system boards,
the added benefit of 1 kVDC galvanic isolation to reduce switching noise. From the 3.3 VDC voltage,
with the added benefit of 1 kVDC galvanic isolation to reduce switching noise. From the 3.3 VDC
it generates an output voltage of 15 VDC with 81% efficiency.
voltage, it generates an output voltage of 15 VDC with 81% efficiency.
In In
the first version of the board, a FC47125 switching power supply was used instead of
the first version of the board, a FC47125 switching power supply was used instead of the
theMEU1S0315ZC
MEU1S0315ZC DC/DC
DC/DC converter.
converter. The The
use use of this
of this converter
converter and and the fact
the fact that that version
version 2 has2 4has
4 layers—compared with version 1, which had just 2 layers—have allowed us to reduce
layers—compared with version 1, which had just 2 layers—have allowed us to reduce the size the size
of of
thethe
board by 40% and reduce its total cost.
board by 40% and reduce its total cost.

4.1.2. CC2530OEM
4.1.2. CC2530OEMModule
Module
Figure 1111
Figure shows
showsa aphotograph
photographof ofthe
theCC2530OEM module.This
CC2530OEM module. Thismodule
moduleisisthe
themain
main component
component
of the board, as it acts as a processor, controls the node and implements both the
of the board, as it acts as a processor, controls the node and implements both the DALI DALI communication
and IEEE 802.15.4and
communication protocols as wellprotocols
IEEE 802.15.4 as the necessary
as well asnetwork and application
the necessary network and layers for thelayers
application remote
management of management
for the remote lighting ballasts. Our research
of lighting group
ballasts. Our selected
research thisselected
group modulethis
because
module we have broad
because we
experience
have broadusing Texas Instruments
experience using Texaswireless modules
Instruments andmodules
wireless because and
its characteristics and featuresand
because its characteristics meet
thefeatures meet the
requirements forrequirements
our node. for our node.

Figure11.
Figure 11.CC2530OEM
CC2530OEM module
module [Source:
[Source:TI.com].
TI.com].

It has reduced power consumption, although this is not an essential requirement here, as the
It has
node willreduced
be poweredpower consumption,
directly by the 230 although this is not
VAC network. Thean essential
module requirement
contains here, as
a CC2530F256
thechip
node will be powered directly by the 230 VAC network. The module contains
[41]; two quartz crystals, one 32 MHz and the other 32 KHz; an SMA antenna connector; and a a CC2530F256
chip [41]; two quartz
radiofrequency crystals,adaptation
impedance one 32 MHz and the
circuit. Theother 32 KHz; has,
CC2530F256 an SMA antenna
in just connector;
one chip, an IEEEand
a radiofrequency impedance adaptation circuit. The CC2530F256 has, in
802.15.4-compliant RF transceiver, an 8051 microcontroller, an AES Security Coprocessor, flash just one chip, an IEEE
802.15.4-compliant
memory and RAM. RF transceiver, an 8051 microcontroller, an AES Security Coprocessor, flash memory
and RAM. The CPU 8051 enables the execution of an instruction period, as it has three different buses with
The to
which CPU 8051the
access enables the execution
SFR (special functionofregister)
an instruction
memories,period,
DATA as it has register)
(data three different
and SRAM.busesOnwith
the other
which hand,
to access thehaving three general-purpose
SFR (special function register) timers is very important
memories, DATA (data for register)
our objectives, for us to
and SRAM. Onbethe
ablehand,
other to implement the Manchester
having three coding–decoding
general-purpose timers is very used in the DALI
important for interface.
our objectives, for us to be able
to implement the Manchester coding–decoding used in the DALI interface.
4.1.3. DALI Interface
4.1.3. DALI Interface
The DALI bus consists of two wires that transmit information in a differential way. The
maximum
The DALI communication
bus consists ofdistance
two wiresis 300 m.transmit
that Logic levels are determined
information by the difference
in a differential way. The inmaximum
voltage
between both distance
communication wires of the bus.
is 300 m.The logic
Logic levels
levels areofdetermined
the DALI control
by theinterface
differencerange from 9.5
in voltage V to
between
22.5 V for the high logic level, with the ballast acting as a receiver, and 11.5 V to 20.5
both wires of the bus. The logic levels of the DALI control interface range from 9.5 V to 22.5 V for the V when acting
as logic
high transmitter. Meanwhile,
level, with on acting
the ballast a low as logic level, they
a receiver, and vary
11.5 Vbetween
to 20.5 V−4.5 V and
when +4.5
acting as Vtransmitter.
for the
transmitteronand
Meanwhile, between
a low −6.5 Vthey
logic level, and vary
+6.5 V for the ´4.5
between receiver,
V andas +4.5
can beV seen in transmitter
for the Figure 12. Because the
and between
logic levels of DALI are not compatible with those of the CC2530 control module and because both
´6.5 V and +6.5 V for the receiver, as can be seen in Figure 12. Because the logic levels of DALI are not
need to be electrically isolated, we designed an interface that meets both requirements.
compatible with those of the CC2530 control module and because both need to be electrically isolated,
we designed an interface that meets both requirements.
Sensors 2016, 16, 597 12 of 23
Sensors 2016, 16, 597 12 of 23

Sensors 2016, 16, 597 12 of 23

Figure 12. DALI logic levels.


Figure 12. DALI logic levels.
Even though
Even though several
several manufacturers
manufacturers have have developed
developed severalseveral types
types of ofmicrocontroller/DALI
microcontroller/DALI
Even
interfaces, such though several manufacturers have developed several types of microcontroller/DALI
interfaces, such as Texas Instruments’
as Texas Instruments’ MSP40MSP40 [42],[42], wewe have
have decided
decided to to design
design our our own
own interface
interface
interfaces,
because the such as from
interface TexasTI Instruments’
does not MSP40
feature a [42], we
DALI bus have
power decided
supply toanddesign
is ourprotected
not own interface
against
because the interface from TI does not feature a DALI bus power supply and is not protected against
because
polarity the interface from TI does not feature a DALI bus power supply and is not protected against
changes.
polarity changes.
polarity
Figurechanges.
Figure 13 shows
13 shows the the designed
designed DALI interface.
interface. In its design, we took into account
account that
that it
it must
must
support Figure 13 shows
bidirectional the designedDALI
communication. DALI
We interface.
used two
In its design,
In its design, we
optocouplers
wetook
with
tookinto
4N36
into account that
phototransistor itoutputs
must
support
supportbidirectional
bidirectional communication.
communication.We Weusedusedtwotwo optocouplers
optocouplers with with4N364N36phototransistor
phototransistor outputs
outputs
to isolate
to isolate both
both the
thethetransmission
transmission and
and the
thethe reception
reception of
of of the
thethe
DALIDALI bus bus microcontroller.
microcontroller. It was designed
to isolate both transmission and reception DALI bus microcontroller.It Itwas wasdesigned
designedfor
for a low
a low
logic level in microcontroller’s pin to correspond tolow
a low logic level in the DALI bus, and
for a low logic level in microcontroller’s pin to correspond to a low logic level in the DALI bus,and
logic level in microcontroller’s pin to correspond to a logic level in the DALI bus, and in
in the same
theinsame way
way for
for
a
a high
high
logic
logic
level.
level. In
In this
this
way,
way,
the
the
bits
bits of
of the
the
frames
frames
should
should
not
not
be
be
complemented
complemented
the same way for a high logic level. In this way, the bits of the frames should not be complemented
by software,
by by
software,
either
either
in transmission or in reception. The diode bridge is is
included in in
thethe
connection to
software, eitherinintransmission
transmission or or in reception.
reception.The Thediodediode bridge
bridge included
is included in the connection
connection to
the DALI bus to protect against polarity changes, in case further ballasts are connected and an
to the DALI bus to protect against polarity
protect against polaritychanges,
changes,inincase casefurther
furtherballasts
ballastsare areconnected
connected andandanan
external source
external source is is
used.
used. This
This bridge
bridge isisaaSchottky
Schottky diode
diode to
to ensure aalow
ensure lowforward
forwardvoltage
voltagedrop
dropandanda aa
external source is used. This bridge is a Schottky diode ensure a low forward voltage drop and
fast switching speed.
fastfast switching
switching speed.
speed.

Figure13.
Figure 13.DALI
DALI interface.
Figure 13. DALI interface.
Sensors 2016, 16, 597 13 of 23
Sensors 2016, 16, 597 13 of 23

The operation
The operation is is very
very simple.
simple. If If the
the microcontroller
microcontroller sets sets the
the transmission
transmission signal signal (TXD)
(TXD) to to aa high
high
logic level,
logic level, thethe optocoupler
optocouplerdiode diodeU6 U6does
doesnotnotconduct.
conduct.AsAs a result,
a result, itsits
output
output phototransistor
phototransistor willwill
be
cut off, just like the Q1 transistor. In this way, the voltage in the DALI
be cut off, just like the Q1 transistor. In this way, the voltage in the DALI bus will be 15 V minus bus will be 15 V minus the
voltage
the voltagedrops in the
drops diode
in the and and
diode the theresistances,
resistances,obtaining
obtaininga final value
a final of 11.5
value V, according
of 11.5 V, according to theto
implemented
the implemented tests. As aAsresult,
tests. a result,thethe DALIDALI bus bus will
willhave
havea ahighhighlogic
logic level.
level. Oppositely,
Oppositely, if the
if the
microcontroller sets
microcontroller sets the TXD to
the TXD to aa low
low logic
logic level,
level, thethe U6
U6 optocoupler
optocoupler diode diode willwill conduct
conduct and and will
will
saturate its output phototransistor. In this way, the Q1 base will receive
saturate its output phototransistor. In this way, the Q1 base will receive enough current to be driven enough current to be driven
and, due
and, due to toitsitshigh
highcurrent
currentgaingain(200
(200 min.),
min.),to to
establish
establisha voltage
a voltage of 1.5
of V1.5maximum
V maximum in theinDALI
the DALI bus,
i.e., a low logic level. By using the Q1 transistor to control the DALI
bus, i.e., a low logic level. By using the Q1 transistor to control the DALI bus, a low current will bus, a low current will circulate
though the
circulate though optocoupler diode when
the optocoupler diode whenit is conducting.
it is conducting.In this way,
In this way,thethe
reliability
reliabilityofofthethe circuit
circuit
will increase.
will increase.
The operation
The operation of of reception
reception is is very
very similar.
similar. IfIf the
the ballast
ballast establishes
establishes aa highhigh logic
logic level
level inin the
the DALI
DALI
bus (9.5
bus (9.5 VV minimum),
minimum), it it will
will switch
switch on on the
the diode
diode bridge,
bridge, the
the Zener
Zener diode
diode and
and the the U7
U7 optocoupler
optocoupler
diode. As a result, its output phototransistor will saturate and the
diode. As a result, its output phototransistor will saturate and the reception signal (RXD) will reception signal (RXD) will bebe set
set
to a high logic level. If the ballast establishes a low logic level in the
to a high logic level. If the ballast establishes a low logic level in the DALI bus (6.5 V maximum),DALI bus (6.5 V maximum), the
voltage
the willwill
voltage be insufficient
be insufficient to bias
to biasthethediode
diodebridge,
bridge, the
thezener
zenerdiode
diodeand andthe
theU7 U7optocoupler
optocoupler diode.diode.
As a result, its output phototransistor will be cut off and the
As a result, its output phototransistor will be cut off and the RXD signal will be set on RXD signal will be seta on
lowalogic
low logic
level
level through
through the R18 theresistance.
R18 resistance.
Figure 14
Figure 14 shows
shows aaDALI DALIframe
framefor fortransmission/reception.
transmission/reception.The Thefirst
first19-bit
19-bitframe
framecorresponds
correspondstoto a
a forward frame sent by the microcontroller to the ballast. The
forward frame sent by the microcontroller to the ballast. The second one is the response framesecond one is the response frame of
of the
the ballast
ballast (11 bits).
(11 bits). As canAs becanseen,
be seen, appropriate
appropriate DALIDALI levelslevels are obtained.
are obtained. The signal
The signal is set
is set to 11.5toV11.5
at theV
at the high logic level and to 1.2 V at
high logic level and to 1.2 V at the low logic level. the low logic level.

Figure 14. DALI frames.

4.1.4. NodeID Selector


This block consists of two 88 encapsulated
encapsulated microswitches
microswitches and two two 8-to-1
8-to-1 multiplexers.
multiplexers. A 16-bit
identifierisisset
node identifier setby
bymeans
means ofof
thethe microswitches.
microswitches. In this
In this way,way,
if anifaction
an action
eventevent on a streetlight
on a streetlight takes
place, this event will be easily identified by the technician. Due to the limited number of I/O pins on I/O
takes place, this event will be easily identified by the technician. Due to the limited number of the
pins on the CC2530OEM
CC2530OEM module, the module,
address istheread
address
throughis read
twothrough two 8-to-1 multiplexers,
8-to-1 multiplexers, one for each
one for each microswitch.
microswitch.
In In this
this way, just threeway, just are
signals three signalstoare
needed needed
control to multiplexers
both control both multiplexers at theplus
at the same time, sametwotime,
to
plus two to read the data. Once the data have been read, the application will be able to
read the data. Once the data have been read, the application will be able to process them correctly and process them
correctly
obtain theand obtain
16-bit the 16-bit
identifier identifier (nodeID).
(nodeID).

4.1.5. Push Button and LEDs


The board contains two push buttons. One of them is the Reset button, which the technician can
push if the node is in any anomalous state for any reason. The other button was included for manual
tests, so that the node connects to the coordinator
coordinator when
when this
this button
button is
is pushed.
pushed.
On the
the other
other hand,
hand,some
someLEDs
LEDshavehavebeen
been included
included to to monitor
monitor thethe power
power supply’s
supply’s voltages,
voltages, the
the transmission
transmission andand reception
reception signals
signals ofDALI
of the the DALI bus with
bus with the microcontroller
the microcontroller and
and the theof
state state
the of the
node.
The state LEDs show the technician the state of the node, such as if the wireless node is scanning or
if it has been associated with another node.
Sensors 2016, 16, 597 14 of 23

Sensors 2016, 16, 597 14 of 23


node. The state LEDs show the technician the state of the node, such as if the wireless node is scanning
or if it has been associated with another node.
4.2. Software Node
4.2. Software Node in Section 4.1, we used a processing and radio module: the SOC 2530 by Texas
As mentioned
Instruments. To develop
As mentioned wireless
in Section 4.1, weapplications with this
used a processing and circuit,
radio Texas
module: Instruments
the SOC 2530 provides the
by Texas
IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control (MAC) software stack TIMAC [43] for free.
Instruments. To develop wireless applications with this circuit, Texas Instruments provides the IEEEZigBee was built on
top of this
802.15.4 standard.
medium accessTIMAC
controlconsists
(MAC) of three components:
software stack TIMACMAC (IEEE
[43] for free.802.15.4
ZigBee was Medium
built Access
on top
Control Software Stack), HAL (Hardware Abstraction Library) and OSAL
of this standard. TIMAC consists of three components: MAC (IEEE 802.15.4 Medium Access Control (Operating System
Abstraction
Software Library)
Stack), [43–45]. IAR
HAL (Hardware Embedded
Abstraction Workbench
Library) and OSAL EW8051
(Operating[46] System
was used as the
Abstraction
development environment.
Library) [43–45]. IAR Embedded Workbench EW8051 [46] was used as the development environment.
We created
We createdananapplication
application andand a network
a network layerlayer
on theonmedium
the medium
access access
controlcontrol
layer forlayer for the
the wireless
wirelessThe
nodes. nodes. The application
application network isnetwork is responsible
responsible for analyzing
for analyzing the received the frames
received andframes and for
for acting on
acting on the lamps and the rest of the node’s peripherals. The network layer
the lamps and the rest of the node’s peripherals. The network layer is responsible for the networkis responsible for the
networkoperations
creation creation operations and for appropriately
and for appropriately routing therouting
packets. the packets.
Each packetEachthatpacket
arrivesthat arrives
at the node atis
the node is processed to check whether the node is its final destination. Otherwise,
processed to check whether the node is its final destination. Otherwise, it is routed towards another it is routed
towards
node. Theanother node.depending
node reacts The node on reacts depending
whether on whether
the received message theis received message(taking
a DALI message is a DALI
into
message (taking into consideration the kind of DALI message received) or
consideration the kind of DALI message received) or a network message, according to the flowchart a network message,
according
shown to the 15.
in Figure flowchart shown in Figure 15.

Figure 15. Microcontroller program flowchart.


flowchart.

The RF
The RF module
module only onlysupports
supportspoint-to-point
point-to-pointand andstar
star(point-to-multipoint)
(point-to-multipoint)communications.
communications. InIn
a
a street
street lightingsystem,
lighting system,ititisisessential
essentialthat
thatthe
thePAN
PANcoordinator
coordinatorcan canreach
reachanyanynode.
node. This
This requirement
requirement
makes the
makes thestar
star topology
topology completely
completely useless,
useless, so wesowere
we required
were required
to modify to the
modify thelayer
network network layer
somewhat
somewhat to ensure a tree topology. The nodes have several tables
to ensure a tree topology. The nodes have several tables containing the routing information of the containing the routing
information
messages. of the
When the messages.
network When the network
is created, each node is also
created, each
creates nodewhere
a table also creates a tableis where
the nodeID relatedthe
to
nodeID is related to its MAC address or to the MAC address of the node
its MAC address or to the MAC address of the node to which the messages destined for the nodeID to which the messages
destined
need to befor the nodeID need to be routed.
routed.
The coordinator’s
The coordinator’s table tablecontains
containsthetheMAC
MACaddress
address ofof
thethe node
node andand every
every router
router in the
in the wayway of
of the
the node. The table size is predefined by the total length (maximum depth) of
node. The table size is predefined by the total length (maximum depth) of the network. Another field the network. Another
field
of thisoftable
this table
is the ischild
the child
number number that
that the the node
node represents
represents for itsfor its father.
father. The stored
The table table stored
in anyinnode
any
node only contains the MAC addresses of its children, in an order given by the coordinator. This way
of creating the network allows the coordinator to use source routing packet transmission, in which
the coordinator puts in the packet the addresses of the nodes through which the message must pass.
Sensors 2016, 16, 597 15 of 23

only contains the MAC addresses of its children, in an order given by the coordinator. This way of
creating the16,network
Sensors 2016, 597 allows the coordinator to use source routing packet transmission, in which the
15 of 23
coordinator puts in the packet the addresses of the nodes through which the message must pass.
From the
From the individual
individual node
node point
point ofof view,
view, there
there are
are only
only two
two kinds
kinds of
of DALI
DALI frames,
frames, according
according to to
whether they
whether they require
require aa response
response oror not.
not. For
For instance,
instance, for
for an
an arc
arc power
power control
control command,
command, just just aa frame
frame
is transmitted
is transmitted without
without anyany response
response from
from thethe ballast.
ballast. In
In contrast,
contrast, aa backward
backward frame
frame is is received
received for for aa
ballast status
ballast status query
query command.
command.
The microcontroller
The microcontroller also also manages
manages the the conversion
conversionto/from
to/from the
the Differential Manchester code.
Differential Manchester code. The
The
microcontrollers do not usually have an integrated peripheral that communicates
microcontrollers do not usually have an integrated peripheral that communicates using Manchester using Manchester
coding, nor
coding, nor does
does this
this peripheral
peripheral implement
implement the the DALI
DALI protocol.
protocol. We needed to
We needed to create
create this
this component
component
using software and by creating a set of functions for the user to use to communicate
using software and by creating a set of functions for the user to use to communicate with this with this virtual
virtual
peripheral. The
peripheral. The software
software component
component for for DALI
DALI communication
communication is is relatively
relatively complex,
complex, as as it
it must
must await
await
responses from
responses from the
theDALI
DALIslave,
slave,consumes
consumesthree threetimers
timersofofthe
themicrocontroller
microcontrollerand andisisimplemented
implemented onon a
a physical level with input/output
physical level with input/output port pins. port pins.
The coordinator
The coordinatornode nodecommunicates
communicates directly
directly with
with thethe industrial
industrial computer
computer through
through USB andUSBdoesand
does not control any lamp. Because of this, we used the CC2531 module by
not control any lamp. Because of this, we used the CC2531 module by Texas Instruments, shown Texas Instruments, shown
in Figure
in Figure 1616 [47].
[47]. In
In any
any case,
case, any
any other
other module
module identified
identified byby the
the computer
computer as as aa UART
UART (universal
(universal
asynchronous receiver-transmitter)
asynchronous receiver-transmitter) can can also
also be
be used.
used.

16. CC2531 USB Dongle [Source:


Figure 16. [Source: TI.com].

Lastly, we
Lastly, we took
took into
into account
accountthe
thefact
factthat
thatthe
thewireless
wirelessmodules
modulesinstalled in the
installed street
in the lamps
street are
lamps
within
are anyone’s
within reach.
anyone’s Because
reach. of of
Because this, some
this, someencrypted
encryptedframes
framesusing
usingaa SOC
SOC CC2530 security
CC2530 security
coprocessor with 128-bit AES encryption and pre-shared key authentication have been
coprocessor with 128-bit AES encryption and pre-shared key authentication have been used. used.

5. Experimental
5. ExperimentalResults:
Results:Test
Test Scenarios
Scenarios

Test
5.1. Lab Test
installed in any
Before the system was installed any given
given location,
location, some
some experiments
experiments were implemented
implemented in
the lab, where it is easier to check the system’s functionality.
functionality. The nodes were placed in separated labs
to have the walls
walls limit
limit the
the radio
radio range.
range. In particular,
particular, we
we implemented
implemented connection
connection andand reconnection
reconnection
control of
tests for the nodes and control of the
the lamps.
lamps.
We executed
We executed aa global
global operation
operation testtest that
that saw
saw the
the whole
whole system
system asas aa black
black box.
box. The global test
consisted of
consisted ofprogramming
programmingsome somelamps
lampsininthethe SCADA
SCADA system
system with
with a given
a given regulation
regulation andand watching
watching the
the power
power consumed
consumed by lamp.
by each each lamp. We implemented
We implemented tests
tests with with different
different lamps tolamps to check
check that that the
the dimming
dimming
by by the telemanagement
the designed designed telemanagement module was module was correctly.
working working correctly. A high-pressure
A high-pressure 100 W
100 W OSRAM
OSRAM NAV(SON)-E
VIALOX VIALOX NAV(SON)-E
sodium vapor sodium
lampvapor
and alamp and a LED
LED luminaire luminaire
were were
used. The used.
tests The tests
implemented
implemented
with with the LED
the LED luminaire luminaire
will be will be just
just commented commented
upon upon In
as an example. as particular,
an example. theInBANDEJA
particular,FCO
the
BANDEJA FCO model by LED & POLES S.L.L. with STREETLED ASW/X-50/740
model by LED & POLES S.L.L. with STREETLED ASW/X-50/740 IP65 46 W module with adjustable IP65 46 W module
with adjustable
Xitanium Xitanium
75 W 0.7 A Prog +75 W 0.7
GL-Z sXtA Prog +byGL-Z
module PhilipssXtwas
module
tested.byFigure
Philips was tested.
17 shows Figure
an image 17
of the
shows consisting
system an image of of the
theLED
system consisting
luminaire, of the LED
the Xitanium luminaire,
driver the Xitanium
and the UCODALI board. driver and the
UCODALI board.
Sensors 2016, 16, 597 16 of 23

Sensors 2016, 16, 597 16 of 23


Sensors 2016, 16, 597 16 of 23

Figure 17. System used in the lab to control a 46 W LED lamp.

We measured the active power, reactive power, apparent power and cos  of the LED lamp. To
Figure 17. System used
Figure Instruments
17. System used in
in the lab to control aa 46
46 W
W LED lamp.
do so, we used a California 3001 the
IX lab
[48]topower
controlsupply, LED lamp. to a data acquisition
connected
board by National Instruments that was inserted into a PC, and a user interface by means of the
We measured
We measuredthe the activepower,
power, reactive power, apparent power and
coscos  the
of the LED lamp. To
LabView tool. Table 1 active
and Figure 18reactive
show thepower, apparent
results of these power and
measurements. ϕ of LED lamp. To do
do so, we used a California Instruments 3001 IX [48] power supply, connected to a
so, we used a California Instruments 3001 IX [48] power supply, connected to a data acquisition boarddata acquisition
board
by by National
National Instruments
Instruments
Table that was
1. Consumption that
and was inserted
inserted into
intovalues
illuminance a PC, atanda PC,
a user
three andinterface
a user
checkpoints interface
meansby of means
byprogramming.
after of the
the LabView
LabView tool. Table 1 and Figure 18 show the results of
tool. Table 1 and Figure 18 show the results of these measurements. these measurements.
Dimming Flow S (VA) P (W) Q (VAr) cos ϕ
Table 1. Consumption
0% and illuminance
0% values
9.8 at three
three checkpoints
checkpoints
2.1 after programming.
after
9.6 programming.
0.214
10%
Dimming 10%
Flow S 16.5
(VA)P (W)P 8.3
(W) Q 14.4
(VAr) 0.503
cos ϕ
Dimming Flow S (VA) Q (VAr) cos ϕ
20%
0% 27%
0% 18.9
9.8 12.5
2.1 13.9
9.6 0.661
0.214
30%0%
10%
0%
35%
10%
9.8
21.4 2.1 17.0
16.5 8.3
9.6
13.1 0.214 0.503
14.4 0.794
10% 10% 16.5 8.3 14.4 0.503
40%
20%20% 45%
27%
27% 24.8 12.5 12.5
18.918.9 20.9 13.9 13.9
13.3 0.661 0.661
0.843
50%30% 35%
58% 21.428.6 17.0 25.2 13.1 14.0 0.794 0.881
30%40% 35%
45% 24.821.4 20.9 17.0 13.3 13.1 0.843 0.794
60%
40% 69%
45% 32.9 29.8 14.4 0.906
50% 58% 28.624.8 25.2 20.9 14.0 13.3 0.881 0.843
70%
50%60% 76%
69%
58% 36.9 29.8 25.2
32.928.6 33.8 14.4 14.0
14.6 0.906 0.881
0.916
80%70% 76%
85% 36.941.0 33.8 38.0 14.6 15.0 0.916 0.927
60%80% 69%
85% 41.032.9 38.0 29.8 15.0 14.4 0.927 0.906
90%
70%90% 91%
76%
91% 46.0 43.5 33.8
46.036.9 43.5 15.5 14.6
15.5 0.946 0.916
0.946
100%
80%100% 100%
100%
85% 49.7 49.7 47.3 15.5 0.952
41.0 47.3 38.0 15.5 15.0 0.952 0.927
90% 91% 46.0 43.5 15.5 0.946
100% 100% 49.7 47.3 15.5 0.952

Figure 18.
Figure 18. Power
Power curve
curve and
and cos
cos ϕ
ϕ depending
depending on
on the
the dimming.
dimming.

Figure 18. Power curve and cos ϕ depending on the dimming.


Sensors 2016, 16, 597 17 of 23
Sensors 2016,
Sensors 16,16,
2016, 597597 17 17
of of
23 23

As a result, these data show that the power dimming of the lamp controlled by the remote
As a result, these data show that the power dimming of the lamp controlled by the remote
management module
As a result, theseworks properly.
data show that Thus, it alsodimming
the power proves theof good communication
the lamp controlled by between both
the remote
management module works properly. Thus, it also proves the good communication between both
through the DALI
management modulebus.works properly. Thus, it also proves the good communication between both
through the DALI bus.
Regarding
through the DALI thebus.
network tests, nodes have been connected and reconnected to check if the
Regarding the network tests, nodes have been connected and reconnected to check if the
network was correctly
Regarding allocating
the network the addresses
tests, nodes have been and if the SCADA
connected system informed
and reconnected to checkthe user
if the about
network
network was correctly allocating the addresses and if the SCADA system informed the user about
the connection
was and reconnection
correctly allocating in and
the addresses an automatic
if the SCADA way. The lighting
system informednetwork
the userhas
aboutalso
thebeen tested
connection
the connection and reconnection in an automatic way. The lighting network has also been tested
regarding
and turningin
reconnection on/off without fulfilling
an automatic way. Thethe communication
lighting network haswith allbeen
also of thetested
nodesregarding
to check whether
turning
regarding turning on/off without fulfilling the communication with all of the nodes to check whether
the lamps
on/off beginfulfilling
without the previously established operation
the communication with all ofcurve whentothere
the nodes checkiswhether
no communication
the lamps beginwith
the lamps begin the previously established operation curve when there is no communication with
the previously
SCADA system.established operation curve when there is no communication with the SCADA system.
the SCADA system.
5.2. Onsite Test
5.2. Onsite Test
The lighting control system has been installed in two towns within the province of Cordoba, in
The lighting control system has been installed in two towns within the province of Cordoba, in
the Andalusia
Andalusiaregion
regionin in
southern Spain.
southern In both
Spain. cases,cases,
In both the system was deployed
the system without any
was deployed incidents
without any
the Andalusia region in southern Spain. In both cases, the system was deployed without any
and is currently
incidents and is being used.
currently Before
being the Before
used. deployment of the system,
the deployment a photometric
of the study was performed
system, a photometric study was
incidents and is currently being used. Before the deployment of the system, a photometric study was
to determine
performed tothe correct location
determine of the
the correct lamps.
location of the lamps.
performed to determine the correct location of the lamps.
Figure 19 shows, in detail, the type of luminaries
luminaries installed
installed in
in the
the city
city centers
centers of
of both
both towns.
towns.
Figure 19 shows, in detail, the type of luminaries installed in the city centers of both towns.
Thanks to the wireless communication, no new wiring was necessary. necessary. The network created is a linear
Thanks to the wireless communication, no new wiring was necessary. The network created is a linear
network with a depth of 7. The coordinator node, together with the embedded computer, is located
network with a depth of 7. The coordinator node, together with the embedded computer, is located
inside of the town hall, at the end of street.
inside of the town hall, at the end of street.

(a) (b)
(a) (b)
Figure
Figure 19. (a) General
(a)(a)
19.19. General overview
overview of the
ofof street;
thethe
street; (b) Details
(b) Details of
of the
the lamp
lamp post
post installation.
installation.
Figure General overview street; (b) Details of the lamp post installation.

Figure 20a shows the connection and placement of the wireless node with the ballast, whereas
Figure
Figure 20a
20a shows
shows thethe connection
connection and
and placement
placement ofof the
the wireless
wireless node
node with
with thethe ballast,
ballast, whereas
whereas
Figure 20b shows the location of the system in the luminaires. The RF antenna is located on the outer
Figure
Figure 20b
20b shows
shows the
the location
location ofof
thethe system
system inin the
the luminaires.
luminaires. The
The RFRF antenna
antenna is is located
located onon the
the outer
outer
side of the luminaire.
side of the luminaire.
side of the luminaire.

(a) (b)
(a) (b)
Figure 20. (a) Wireless node and ballast; (b) Installation of the node into the luminaire.
Figure
Figure 20.20.
(a)(a) Wireless
Wireless node
node and
and ballast;
ballast; (b)(b) Installation
Installation of of
thethe node
node into
into thethe luminaire.
luminaire.
As an example, Figure 21 shows a graph with real data obtained during three different days
As an example, Figure 21 shows a graph with real data obtained during three different days
(24–25 April: red, 13–14 May: green and 7–8 May: purple) from a lamp installed at the street. The
(24–25 April: red, 13–14 May: green and 7–8 May: purple) from a lamp installed at the street. The
running sequence is as follows:
running sequence is as follows:
Sensors 2016, 16, 597 18 of 23

As an example, Figure 21 shows a graph with real data obtained during three different days
(24–25 April: red, 13–14 May: green and 7–8 May: purple) from a lamp installed at the street. The
Sensors 2016, 16, 597 18 of 23
running sequence is as follows:
• Lights are turned on later every day due to the daily delay of the sunset. At sunset the lamp is
‚ Lights are turned on later every day due to the daily delay of the sunset. At sunset the lamp is
turning on at 70% set point (smooth turn-on and warming period).
turning on at 70% set point (smooth turn-on and warming period).
• 30 min later the set point is set at 80% (full illumination set point).
‚ 30 min later the set point is set at 80% (full illumination set point).
• At 11:00 p.m. the dimming is reduced to 60% until 7 a.m. of the following day (saving
‚ At 11:00 p.m. the dimming is reduced to 60% until 7 a.m. of the following day (saving
mode operation).
mode operation).
• At 7 a.m. is set again at 70% until sunrise (sunrise turn-off mode).
‚ At 7 a.m. is set again at 70% until sunrise (sunrise turn-off mode).
The smooth turn-on and warming period is performed to optimize their lifespan and reduce
peaks,The smooth
flickers turn-on
and and warming
other instabilities thatperiod
used toisappear
performed
in thetomain
optimize their lifespan
grid when switching andon reduce
a huge
peaks,
number of lamps. After the smooth turn-on period the dimming increases to turn intohuge
flickers and other instabilities that used to appear in the main grid when switching on a full
number of lamps.
illumination. After
Later the the smoothisturn-on
dimming period
set to the the dimming
saving increasesFrom
mode operation. to turn intomoment
that full illumination.
onwards
Later
when the dimming
starts is set
the sunrise to the mode
turn-off saving(turns
modeagain
operation.
to 70% From that moment
until sunrise when areonwards whenAs
turned-off). starts
can
the sunrise
be seen, on turn-off
14 May, mode (turnsdid
these lamps again
nottoreached
70% until
the sunrise turn-off
when are turned-off).
mode As can
as the sunrise be seen,
happened
on 14 May,
before 7 a.m.these lamps did not reached the sunrise turn-off mode as the sunrise happened before
7 a.m.

Figure 21. Data collected by the SCADA system (lamp #1).


Figure 21. Data collected by the SCADA system (lamp #1).

The
The most
mostcommon
common control
controlmodes for streetlighting
modes that can
for streetlighting be found
that can beare those are
found based on controlling
those based on
the
controlling the on-off timespan of the lighting using astronomical time relays (ATRs). In thisthe
on-off timespan of the lighting using astronomical time relays (ATRs). In this manner, lamp
manner,
will on at 100% at sunset and will switched off when sunrise, i.e.,
the lamp will be switched on at 100% at sunset and will switched off when sunrise, i.e., the lamp100%
be switched the lamp will be at will
during
be at 100%its entire operation
during time.
its entire Anothertime.
operation very Another
commonvery control mode iscontrol
common the lastmode
one combined
is the lastwithone
double-level ballast (DLB), by which the lamp starts lighting at 100% and drops
combined with double-level ballast (DLB), by which the lamp starts lighting at 100% and drops to to 70% several hours
later (definedhours
70% several manually
later by microswitches
(defined manuallyby bythe technical operator)
microswitches [49].
by the technical operator) [49].
The
The proposed
proposed system
system clearly
clearly presents advantages versus
presents advantages versus the
the others
others mentioned,
mentioned, both both inin technical
technical
aspects as well as in economic and environmental ones. The energy savings
aspects as well as in economic and environmental ones. The energy savings that can be extracted that can be extracted from
Figure
from Figure 21 are about 30%–40% of the overall operation time of each lamp as shown in Tablethe
21 are about 30%–40% of the overall operation time of each lamp as shown in Table 2, versus 2,
ATR or DLB modes, and comply with lighting level regulations.
versus the ATR or DLB modes, and comply with lighting level regulations.
The
The savings
savings can
can bebe even
even higher
higher because
because the the lighting
lighting levels
levels at
at 60%
60% of
of the
the setpoint
setpoint areare still
still higher
higher
than
than the threshold established by regulations. In addition, the remote management interface enables
the threshold established by regulations. In addition, the remote management interface enables
the
the lighting
lighting schedule
schedule to to be
be changed
changed in in real
real time
time to
to easily
easily adapt the lighting
adapt the lighting levels
levels and
and timing
timing to to needs,
needs,
in an easier and more powerful way than the aforementioned
in an easier and more powerful way than the aforementioned existing methods. existing methods.
Once proven that the proposed system runs as expected and using the experimental data
gathered a simulation of the expected behavior for a whole year (January to December) have been
done for the onsite installation mentioned. The results are shown in Tables 3 and 4.
Sensors 2016, 16, 597 19 of 23

Once proven that the proposed system runs as expected and using the experimental data gathered
a simulation of the expected behavior for a whole year (January to December) have been done for the
onsite installation mentioned. The results are shown in Tables 3 and 4.

Table 2. Measured consumption: energy, cost and saving rate.

25- 26- 27- 28- 29- 30- 1- 3- 4- 8- 9- 10- 11- 12- 13- 14-
Dimming
April April April April April April May May May May May May May May May May
70% (h) 0.50 0.48 0.50 0.50 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.48 0.47 0.47
80% (h) 1.40 1.38 1.37 1.33 1.30 1.30 1.27 1.25 1.23 1.20 1.18 1.17 1.17 1.13 1.13 1.13
60% (h) 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.00 8.02 7.97 7.97
70% (h) 0.30 0.32 0.25 0.20 0.23 0.15 0.10 0.12 0.05 0.08 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00
TOTAL (h) 10.20 10.18 10.12 10.03 10.02 9.93 9.85 9.85 9.77 9.77 9.68 9.68 9.68 9.63 9.57 9.57
Proposed RF/DALI ballast
Energy
5.83 5.82 5.78 5.72 5.71 5.65 5.60 5.60 5.54 5.54 5.49 5.49 5.49 5.45 5.41 5.41
(kWh)
Cost (€) 0.93 0.93 0.92 0.92 0.91 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.89 0.89 0.88 0.88 0.88 0.87 0.87 0.87
Non regulated ballast
Energy
9.18 9.16 9.10 9.03 9.01 8.94 8.86 8.86 8.79 8.79 8.71 8.71 8.71 8.67 8.61 8.61
(kWh)
Cost (€) 1.47 1.47 1.46 1.44 1.44 1.43 1.42 1.42 1.41 1.41 1.39 1.39 1.39 1.39 1.38 1.38
Savings (%) 36.47 36.50 36.56 36.64 36.69 36.74 36.84 36.85 36.93 36.96 37.04 37.06 37.06 37.15 37.14 37.14
Clock regulated 2-level ballast
Energy
6.41 6.40 6.36 6.32 6.31 6.26 6.22 6.22 6.17 6.17 6.13 6.13 6.13 6.10 6.07 6.07
(kWh)
Cost (€) 1.03 1.02 1.02 1.01 1.01 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.97 0.97
Savings (%) 8.99 9.05 9.22 9.45 9.53 9.72 9.96 9.99 10.20 10.25 10.47 10.50 10.50 10.69 10.78 10.78

Table 3. Estimated consumption (energy and cost) for 1-year operation.

Regulation Mode ATR DBL UCODALI


Energy (kWh) 3879.315 2809.642 2663.704
Cost (€) 682.76 449.54 426.19

Table 4. Saving rates (energy and cost) for 1-year operation.

UCODALI Savings vs. ATR vs. DBL


Energy (kWh) 1215.611 31.34% 145.938 5.19%
Cost (€) 256.57 37.58% 23.35 5.19%

In terms of energy consumption and energy cost, the proposed system present clear savings versus
others (ATR up to 31% and DBL up to 5%). Regarding price difference: it is constantly decreasing.
Last year the difference was about 10%—regarding a luminaire alone (UCODALI or DBL vs. ATR).
If the replacement regards a pole and luminaire, it drops to about 3%–4% (UCODALI vs. DBL). We are
aware that the prices vary, depending heavily on particular market properties. That is why we are
focusing on energy savings. Calculating Total Cost of Ownership and ROI requires further research
and comparative market analysis.
From a technical point of view, this system allows users to fully customize the set of dimming
setpoints and the switching time, versus the fixed and limited sets provided by the ATR and DLB
methods. In addition, the presented system optimizes the lamps’ lifespan and provides a very valuable
tool to the end user (mainly public administrators, e.g., citizens) for maintaining street-lighting facilities
because the bidirectional communication data flow gathers relevant information about the status of
the lamps and provides a source of information to detect any failure or malfunction in the luminaries.
Compared to other existing methods and technologies, like those based on power line
communication (PLC) or LONWorks™, the system presents a clear advantage due to its wireless
nature. No additional wires or installations are needed other than attaching a UCODALI board to the
Sensors 2016, 16, 597 20 of 23

ballast into the luminaire. This obviously represents a huge benefit in terms of time and money when
renewing existing facilities, acting in historical areas or buildings and even for new infrastructure.
From economic and environmental points of view, the benefits are clear in terms of energy
savings: less consumption, lower costs and less CO2 emissions, in addition to the benefits obtained
from optimizing the lifespan and maintenance of the lighting.

6. Conclusions
We presented a lighting control system based on wireless communication with a DALI interface.
The system uses a wireless communication based on standard IEEE 802.15.4 over which a new network
layer adapted to a linear topology has been created.
We described the architecture of the system, which is based on a three-level hierarchical model, and
developed a SCADA application that allows the lamps’ operation curves to be controlled individually.
This application also detects possible failures in the lamps, which are immediately communicated
using cloud architecture thanks to a developed mobile application.
We developed a new low-cost wireless node with a DALI interface. This node is powered from
mains (230 VAC), which makes it easily installable beside the lamp. The node can drive any DALI
ballast or driver; it works with any kind of lamp, from high-pressure sodium lamps to LED lamps.
In addition, due to the use of WSNs, the number of ballasts that can be managed with just one DALI
controller has been increased.
The implemented tests and a brief description of the pilot installations have been presented.
We have also presented and discussed experimental results that provide evidence that the system
performs correctly.
The fully customizable time-dimming operation provides clear savings in terms of energy
consumption, which means benefits in terms of environmental aspects (less CO2 emissions) plus
profit due to lower energy costs. In addition, the system optimizes the lamps’ lifespan and provides a
very valuable tool for maintaining street-lighting facilities because the bidirectional communication
enables relevant information to be gathered about the status of the lamp and provides information
about events, failures or malfunctions in the luminaries. Besides, it gives additional benefits being able
to integrate lighting network with other Smart City solutions increasing safety and quality of life.

Acknowledgments: This research has been partially supported by FEDER-Local Andalusian Gob. Research
grants under Project Intelligent Technologies for Streetlighting Management (IT2SIP), under contract No.
12013112 G-GI3002/IDIF. In addition, this work has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and
Competitiveness under Project TEC2013-47316-C3-1-P.
Author Contributions: Francisco J. Bellido-Outeiriño has been leading the research project and leading the
communication issues as well as electronics and interfacing. Francisco J. Quiles-Latorre has been working in the
HW design, development and test. Carlos Diego Moreno-Moreno has been leading the software and application
layer. SCADA, APP, server, database, external connections and programming and setting the embedded PC.
José María Flores-Arias has been leading the tasks concerning lighting technologies, facilities, power quality or
photometric studies, among others. Also he has been in charge of the physical installation in the real test scenarios
mounted. Isabel Moreno-García has been working in a deep analysis of the data gathered, modes of operation,
ROI, economic case studies and collaborating with the rest of the team in the electronic design and prototyping
stage. Manuel Ortiz-López has been working in the HW design, firmware development and test. Also collaborates
in communication.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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