You are on page 1of 86

Seamanship

Acomi Nicoleta
• 1. GENERALITIES
• 1.1 Ship’s definition
• 2.2 Types of ships
• 2. LINES AND PLANES
• 3. SHIPBOARD MEASUREMENTS
• 4. SHIPS’ QUALITIES
• 5. STRUCTURAL PARTS OF THE SHIP’S HULL
• 6. MAIN PARTS OF THE SHIP’S HULL
• 7. PROTECTION OF SHIPS AGAINST CORROSION
• 8. SPARS, SAILS AND RIGGING FOR SAILING VESSELS
• 9. LOADING / UNLOADING EQUIPMENT
• 10. GROUND TACKLE
• 11. SHIPBOARD MOORING EQUIPMENT
• 12. THE STEERING GEAR
• 13. PROPULSION SYSTEM 116
• 14. RESCUE AND SURVIVAL EQUIPMENTS
Ship’s definition

• Vessel – a general word for all craft capable of floating on water and
larger than a rowboat.

• Craft – a term applied to every kind of vessel but especially to small


vessels sometimes more sophisticated from structural or propulsion
points of view (e.g. hovercraft, hydrofoil craft).

• Boat –this term is applied to larger vessels built to navigate rivers and
inland waters, and sometimes to sea-going vessels but in such case it is
mostly used as a part of a compound word or expression (by ferry boat,
fishing boat, rowboat and lifeboat).

• Ship – is a sea-going engineering structure designed to perform different


duties to ensure navigation, shipping and defense of the state's interests.
Types of ships (1)

Categories of ships in terms of navigation area:

• Maritime vessels are large and very large ships, built specifically to
be able to navigate the seas and oceans.

• Inland-going ships (inland waters) are smaller vessels, built


especially for navigation on rivers, lakes, canals.

• Combined sailing vessels are designed for mixed sea-river


navigation.
Types of ships(2)

In terms of nature of motion:

• Sailing on the water surface


• Sailing below the water surface
• Sailing above the water surface – hydrofoils, hovercrafts
Types of ships(3)
In terms of propulsion:
• Self-Propelled vessels
– Powered craft designed to carry out goods;
– Passenger vessels;
– Fishing vessels;
– Special purpose powered craft;
– Technical vessels;
– Service craft;
• Non-Propelled vessels
– Non-propelled craft designed to carry out goods: barges;
– Non-propelled vessels for passengers and staff: mooring pontoons,
bedroom pontoons;
– Technical non-propelled vessels: dredgers, floating docks, floating
cranes, bunkering tankers.
Ship designed to carry out goods

• General cargo ships - are ships designed to transport


general cargo (in bags, barrels, boxes, packages);
• Ore and bulk carriers- ships designed to carry loose
goods, ore, coal, phosphates,
• Tankers - tankers carrying liquid cargo, usually
petroleum products, liquefied gas, chemicals;
• Port-container ships – ships for transportation of goods
packed in containers;
• Roll-on/roll-off ships(Ro-Ro) - special vessels for the
transport of vehicles;
• Barge carrying ships - are ships designed for loading
and carrying barges, which are downloaded in avanport
or at the mouth of rivers from where the barges are
towed or pushed to continue their way to the destination;
• Reefer - vessels designed for the transport of food.
Passenger ships

• Ocean liners - large vessels used for transporting


passengers over long distances. Liners sail on one and
the same route according to a timetable.
• Cruise ships - are small vessels, designed to carrying
passengers over short distances.
• Mixed ships – for both freight and passenger.
• Air cushion vessels - the ship moving on a cushion of air
created between the bottom of the vessel and water
surface;
• Hydrofoil vessels - passenger vessels with hull relatively
small that amounts from the water because of the wings
arranged at the bottom of the vessel, with hydrodynamic
profile and such a guidance that raises the vessel from
the water when moving.
• Ferries - special vessels for the carriage of passenger
liners and trains or cars and passengers.
Fishing vessels
• Trawlers: - the most widespread type of fishing vessel.
Trawling is a method of fishing that involves actively
dragging or pulling a trawl through the water behind
trawlers.
• Seiners: - use a peculiar kind of net (a purse seine) which
hangs vertically in the water and has a rope at its bottom.
Once the shoal of fish enters the net, the rope tightens and
closes it, just like an upside-down purse;
• Gillnetters: -are smaller commercial fishing vessels with a
net suspended in the water by floats and a lead line.
Entangled fish are removed as the net is hauled in on a
drum. Gillnetters often drift with tides and currents.
• Processing ships: -Their main purpose is to receive the
catch from extractive ships (trawlers and seiners), process it
into usable products and bring it to ports.
Ships with special purpose

• Training ships
• Research vessels
• Icebreaker ship
• Lighthouse ship
Floating equipment and technical ships

• Dredges
• Un-propelled dredges
• Floating docks
• Floating cranes
• Offshore platform
• Remotely operated underwater vehicles
Service crafts

• Tugs;
• Pilot boat;
• Bunker tanker;
• Fireboats;
• Medical vessels;
• Boats for various services;
• Cable laying ships;
Types of ships(4)
From the propeller point of view:
• Paddle wheels - While the draft is varying with ship
displacement, the immersion of wheels also varies. The
wheels may come out of the water when the ship is rolling,
causing erratic course-keeping and they are likely to damage
from rough seas.
• Contra-rotating propeller - It is used because the diameter of a
propeller is restricted due to the limit of different reasons (the
draft). The efficiency of the propeller usually decreases.
• Azimuth propeller
• Voith-Schneider propeller - Vertical axis propeller. The
advantage is to control the direction of the thrust. Therefore,
the ship has good maneuverability
• Sailing vessels
• Water jet propuosor - Water is drawn by a pump and delivered
sternwards as a jet at a high velocity. The reaction provides
the thrust.
?
Ship designed to carry out goods(1)

• General cargo ships - are ships designed to transport general cargo


(in bags, barrels, boxes, packages)

Back
Cargo handling

Back
Ship designed to carry out goods(2)

• Ore and bulk carriers - ships designed to carry loose goods, ore,
coal, phosphates;

Back
Ship designed to carry out goods(3)

• Tanks – tankers carrying liquid cargo, usually petroleum products,


liquefied gas ,chemicals ;

Back
The effect of free surfaces

Back
Ship designed to carry out goods(4)

• LNG: liquefied natural gas .

Back
Ship designed to carry out goods(5)

• Port-container ship - ships for transportation of goods packed in


containers;

Back
Back
Ship designed to carry out goods(6)

• Roll-on/Roll-off ships - special vessels for the transport of vehicles

Back
Ship designed to carry out goods(7)

• Self propelled barges;

Back
Ship designed to carry out goods(8)

• LASH (Lighter Aboard


Ship) type has a high-
capacity crane at the
stern which lifts the
barge, moves it
horizontally over the
deck and arranges it;

Back
Ship designed to carry out goods(9)

• SEA BEE type has a platform at the stern which is just like an
elevator - it takes the lighter on and lifts it up to the deck..

Back
Ship designed to carry out goods(10)

• Reefer – vessels designed for the transport of food..

Back
Passenger ships(1)
• Ocean liners – large vessels used for transporting passengers over
long distances. Liners sail on one and the same route according to a
timetable.

Back
Passenger ships(2)
• Cruise ships - are small vessels, designed to carrying passengers
over short distances

Back
Passenger ships(3)
• Mixed ship – for both freight and passenger;

Back
Passenger ships(4)
• Air-cushion vessels (hovercraft) - the ship moving on a cushion of air
created between the bottom of the vessel and water surface. ;

Back
Passenger ships(5)
• Hydrofoil vessels – passenger vessels with hull relatively
small that amounts from the water because of the wings
arranged at the bottom of the vessel, with hydrodynamic
profile and such a guidance that raises the vessel from
the water when moving.

Back
Passenger ships (6)
• Ferries - special vessels for the carriage of passenger and trains or
cars

Back
Passenger ships(7)
• Cruise vessel

Back
Fishing vessels(1)
• Trawlers - The name "trawler" comes from "trawl" - a fishing net which
is dragged along the bottom of the sea. Depending on where the trawl
is launched - over the side of the ship or over her stern, there are side
and stern trawlers, respectively. Some of the largest trawlers (Factory
Trawlers) are equipped with machines for processing, canning and
storing the fish in refrigerator compartments;

Back
Fishing vessels (2)

• trawlers

Back
Fishing vessels(3)
• seiners: use a peculiar kind of net (a purse seine) which hangs
vertically in the water and has a rope at its bottom. Once the shoal
of fish enters the net, the rope tightens and closes it, just like an
upside-down purse;

Back
Fishing vessels(4)

• Tuna fishing

Back
Fishing vessels(5)
• gillnetters: are smaller commercial fishing vessels with a net
suspended in the water by floats and a lead line. Entangled fish are
removed as the net is hauled in on a drum. Gillnetters often drift with
tides and currents;

Back
Fishing vessels(6)
• Processing ships - Their main purpose is to receive the catch from
extractive ships (trawlers and seiners), process it into usable
products and bring it to ports. Mother ships and refrigerator fishing
vessels (provided that they freeze the fish) are common
representatives of this group;

Back
Ships with special purpose(1)

• Training Ships - are vessels designed for


training cadets

Back
Ships with special purpose(2)

• Research vessels - ships used for exploring waterways,


surveying the sea bottom and ocean processes, locating
natural resources (petroleum, cobalt, copper, iron, etc.)
and observing marine life. They also have laboratories
inside.

Back
Ships with special purpose(3)

• Cable lying vessels;

Back
Ships with special purpose(4)
• Icebreaker ship - These are ships maintaining navigation in winter
by leading other vessels across ice tracks (and breaking ice-floes).
Compared to common ships, icebreakers have a strong bow and
different construction of the hull whose purpose is to make ice
blocks lift up the vessel. The principle of operation is the following:
the ship climbs up the thick ice and cracks it with its hull weight, this
way clearing pathways for other ships to cross;

Back
Ships with special purpose(5)
• Lighthouse ship - are smaller vessels painted in red and equipped
with light- and radio-signal devices and anchored at places which
are dangerous for ships to pass through (e.g. shallow water, rocks).
Lightships have begun to decrease in number and are being
replaced by navigation buoys

Back
Ships with special purpose(5)

• Floating "houses;

Back
Floating equipment and technical ships (1)

• Dredges - are special construction vessel with facilities to dig under


water and the removal of dredged material;
• Suction dredgers - an extension of dredges; These crafts have a
suction device which gathers sand from the sea floor and carries it
away with a system of pipes to land or to another deep place in
water which has to be made shallower.

Back
Floating equipment and technical ships (2)

• Un-propelled dredges – ships for dredged material storage and


transport in special places

Back
Floating equipment and technical ships (3)

• Floating docks - are floating vessels that cannot move on their own
and by which we can lift vessels to carry out maintenance and repair
of ship;

Back
Floating equipment and technical ships (4)

• Floating cranes – are platforms that support a high-power crane.


They are intended for handling loads in river or inland port;

Back
Floating equipment and technical ships (5)

• Offshore platform – floating platforms equipped with special facilities


for deep sea drilling;

Back
Floating equipment and technical ships (6)

• Remotely operated underwater vehicles, ROV, are systems used


mainly in off shore industry, linked to the ship by either a neutrally
buoyant tether or often when working in rough conditions or in
deeper water a load carrying umbilical cable is used along with a
tether management system (TMS).

Back
Service crafts(1)
Tugs - there are two types of tugs:
• Salvage tugs (or tugboats) are used for towing barges and damaged
ships and taking them across narrow canals or fairways;

Back
Service crafts(2)
• Push tugs - vessels used for pushing an assembly of barges; Push
tugs have very high superstructures which allow keeping a watch on
the vessels in front and way ahead;

Back
Service crafts(3)
• Pilot boat - small vessels that carry a pilot to a ship and then bring
him back to the port. These pilots steer the ship through rivers and
canals from one point to another by showing the safest way to go. It
is true that ships have their own officers to navigate them through
different waters but peculiarities and changes of a particular water
area are not shown on any guide;

Back
• Pilot ladder;

Back
Service crafts(4)
• Bunker tankers - with an increased number of cargo segregations,
equal to that of product/chemical tankers, provide safe handling of
multiple fuel qualities.

• The regulations on marine fuel quality require ships to bunker


several grades of fuel to meet the legal requirements in different
emission zones.
Back
Standards and classification
• IFO 380 - Intermediate fuel oil with a maximum viscosity of 380 Centistokes
(<3.5% sulphur)
• IFO 180 - Intermediate fuel oil with a maximum viscosity of 180 Centistokes
(<3.5% sulphur)
• LS 380 - Low-sulphur (<1.0%) intermediate fuel oil with a maximum
viscosity of 380 Centistokes
• LS 180 - Low-sulphur (<1.0%) intermediate fuel oil with a maximum
viscosity of 180 Centistokes
• MDO - Marine diesel oil.
• MGO - Marine gasoil.
• LSMGO - Low-sulphur (<0.1%) Marine Gas Oil - The fuel is to be used in
EU community Ports and Anchorages. EU Sulphur directive 2005/33/EC
• ULSMGO - Ultra Low Sulphur Marine Gas Oil - referred to as Ultra Low
Sulfur Diesel (sulphur 0.0015% max) in the US and Auto Gas Oil (sulphur
0.001% max) in the EU. Maximum sulphur allowable in US territories and
territorial waters (inland, marine and automotive) and in the EU for inland
use.
Bunkering operation

Back
Service crafts(5)
• Fireboats - are vessels equipped to fight fire aboard
ships and floating platforms by spraying foam and water
from a distance of 60-100 meters;

Back
Service crafts(6)
• Medical ship;

Back
Service crafts(7)
• Boats for various services: cable laying ships, bunkering tankers, oil
collector ships (they surround the oil spills and clear them), drill
ships, supply vessels

Back
Paddle wheels

Back
Types of propeller
Thruster propeller Propeller

Contra- rotating propeller

Back
Azimuth propeller

Back
Voith-Schneider propeller

Back
Sails propulsion
The sails of sailing vessels are active propulsion devices, using wind energy;

Back
Water jet propulsor

Back
1. What type of ship is the following?
2. What type of ship is the following?
3. What type of ship is the following?
4. What type of ship is the following?
5. What type of ship is the following?
6. What type of ship is the following?
7. What type of ship is the following?
8. What type of ship is the following?
9. What type of ship is the following?
10. What type of ship is the following?
11. What type of ship is the following?
12. What type of ship is the following?
13. What type of ship is the following?
14. What type of ship is the following?
15. What type of ship is the following?
16. What type of ship is the following?
17. What type of ship is the following?
18. What type of ship is the following?