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UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR

Malaysian Institute of Chemical & Bioengineering


Technology

CEB 30403
Air Pollution Control Technology

Experiment 2 Part I
MONITORING OF PARTICULATE MATTER BY HIGH VOLUME SAMPLER

PREPARED BY:

LECTURER: EN AHMAD NAIM AHMAD YAHAYA


&
MS. NADIA RAZALI
Introduction

THERMO ANDERSON WITH HIGH VOLUME SAMPLER (PM10)

Figure 5: Thermo Anderson PM10 High Volume Sampler [11]

Thermo Anderson with High Volume Sampler (PM10) is an equipment to monitor the air
quality. PM10 is the abbreviation to particulate matter with a diameter equal to or less than
10micrometer. It is originates primarily from stationary and fugitive resources.

High Volume Sampler typically operated during a 24-hour sampling period. Total
suspended particulates can be collected as well as 10-micron or 2.5-micron particles. It
also can be used with cascade impactors.

Gravimetric measurements yield values of suspended particulate matter (SPM), as the


sum of the two fractions, and PM10, the material retained on the filter paper. The filter
paper can be used to determine benzene-soluble organics, metals such as Pb, Cd, etc,
fluorides, radioactive materials and biologically active non- metals, sulphate, nitrate and
ammonium.
Air quality monitoring is the part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention
program especially in Malaysia. The industrial emission, land transportation and open
burning source are the main consequences of air become polluted. Some source defuses
pollutant to the atmosphere.
Particulate matter (PM10) is widely studied in recent year due to its potential health effect
and the need for its controlled. Studies indicated that finer particulate matter has the
strongest health effect. The sources, characteristic and potential health effect of PM 10 and
PM2.5 are very different. The latter can more readily penetrate into the lungs and therefore
more likely to have short and long term effect such as premature death, increased
respiratory symptoms and disease, decreased lung functions and alteration in lung tissues.
Air pollution monitoring is required to estimate compliance with adopted air quality
standards or objectives; evaluate public health risks, determine trends in pollutant
concentrations and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs.

Location
Experiment

Procedure;

HIGH VOLUME SAMPLER MEASUREMENT OF SIZE CLASSIFIED


PARTICULATE MATTER.

Purpose : This procedure is applicable for all measurements of ambient (SPM).

Scope : To measure Particulate Matter in the 0 to 10 µm size range (PM10)

Procedure : 1. Filter Identification: The qualitative filter paper was cut with
20.5cm x 25.5cm and put in the sealed plastic for protection from any
other particles. The initial weight of the filter paper was taken using
analytical balance. The location and date also were taking into
account.

2. Filter weighing: Gloves was used during handling all the filter papers.
The weight of the filter paper was taken and the filter paper was
place in the sealed plastic bag when weighing is complete. The filter
paper was put into storage.

3. Filter Sampling: The facelift wing nuts were loosening and the
faceplate was removed. The filter paper was removed from the sealed
plastic bag and was put at the center of the support screen with the
rough side of the filter facing upward. The wing nuts were tightening
to secure the filter paper. After sampling was completed for 24 hours,
the filter paper was put backed in the sealed plastic bag.

4. PM10 measurement: The filter paper was weighing for final reading
after run for 24 hours using analytical balance and the reading was
recorded. The concentration of PM10 was calculated. The filter paper
was put into the proper storage for the analysis.
Start

Filter Identification

Filter Weighing

Filter Sampling

PM10 Measurement

End

Figure 9: Schematic Diagram of PM10 Measurement


Figure 10: Thermo Andersen with High Volume Sampler (PM10) (HVPM10 Sampler,
RFPS-1287-064)

Figure 11: Schematic Diagram for High Volume Sampler (PM10)


25.5cm

20.5cm
Figure 12: Cut Off Filter Paper

Figure 13: Filter Paper sealed in a clean plastic zipper


Figure 14: Dickson Chart [8]

Dickson Chart is used to estimate and indicate the air flow during 24 hours sampling. The
red pen is used to indicate the air flow and make a circulation on the Dickson chart. The
sample will be rejected when the air flow is not consistent or unstable flow and also if the
sampling exceeds 24 hours.
HIGH VOLUME / PM10 DATA RECORD

Site / Station :
Sample Date :
Collection Date :
Time :
Initial Filter Weight :
Gross Filter Weight :
Net Particulate Weight (A) :
Flow Rate (Using air flow : 40 ft3/min
meter)
Running Time Meter (Initial) :
(Final) :
Total Sample Time : 1720 – 280 = 1440min = 24 hours
Total Air Volume : (40 X 1440) X 0.028 = 1612.8 m3

Particulate Concentration : A g / 1612.8 m3 = 6.20µg/m3


Exposed Area : 20.5 X 27 = 553.5 cm2

Experiment 2
ANALYSIS OF METALLIC AIR POLLUTANTS

Purpose : Analysis of Metallic Air Pollutants such as Lead.

Scope : This method describes a collection procedure for air contaminants and
an analytical procedure for determination of lead (Pb).

Reagents : Hydrochloric acid, HCl, concentrated.


Nitric acid, HNO3, concentrated.
Standard : Standard solutions are prepared by suitable dilutions of the stock
Solutions standard solutions described under the Standard Conditions for each
element.

Sample : The air contaminants on 20.5cm x 25.5cm qualitative fiber glass was
Preparation collected, passing air through the filter for 24 hours. The filters were cut
into small pieces 6.6cm in diameter, and digest for 30minutes in 100mL
of HCl over low heat. The solution was removed and extracted the
solids three times for 15 minutes each time, with water. The extracts and
the HCl was combined and evaporated nearly to dryness. Redissolve in
10mL HCl and 10 drop of HNO3 was added. The solution was
transferred to a 50 mL volumetric flask and make up to volume with
Deionized water.

25.5 cm
20.5 cm

6.6 cm
6.6 cm

Figure 15: Pattern of sub-sampling. Positions of discs cut from each qualitative filter
paper.

Figure 16: Digestion of Filter Paper in HCl


Figure 17: Filtration of Filter Paper and HCl

Figure 18: Evaporation of Filter Paper with the HCl

- Make sure before lab start “lab draft is ready to be used”.