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# Table of Cardinal Numbers

## Carcinal numbers from 1 through 1,000,000

1 one 11 eleven 21 twenty-one 31 thirty-one
2 two 12 twelve 22 twenty-two 40 forty
3 three 13 thirteen 23 twenty-three 50 fifty
4 four 14 fourteen 24 twenty-four 60 sixty
5 five 15 fifteen 25 twenty-five 70 seventy
6 six 16 sixteen 26 twenty-six 80 eighty
7 seven 17 seventeen 27 twenty-seven 90 ninety
8 eight 18 eighteen 28 twenty-eight 100 a/one hundred
9 nine 19 nineteen 29 twenty-nine 1,000 a/one thousand
10 ten 20 twenty 30 thirty 1,000,000 a/one million

## Separation between hundreds and tens

Hundreds and tens are usually separated by 'and' (in American English 'and' is not necessary).

## 110 - one hundred and ten

1,250 - one thousand, two hundred and fifty
2,001 - two thousand and one

Hundreds
Use 100 always with 'a' or 'one'.

## 100 - a hundred / one hundred

2,100 - two thousand, one hundred

## Thousands and Millions

Use 1,000 and 1,000,000 always with 'a' or 'one'.

## 1,000 - a thousand / one thousand

201,000 - two hundred and one thousand

57,458,302

## The Number 1,000,000,000

In English this number is a billion. This is very tricky for nations where 'a billion' has 12
zeros. 1,000,000,000,000 in English, however, is a trillion.

But don't worry, these numbers are even a bit problematic for native speakers: for a long time
the British 'billion' had 12 zeros (a number with 9 zeros was called 'a thousand million'). Now,
however, also in British English 'a billion' has 9 zeros. But from time to time this number still
causes confusion (just like this paragraph, I'm afraid). ;o)

Singular or Plural?
Numbers are usually written in singular.

## two hundred Euros

several thousand light years

The plural is only used with dozen, hundred, thousand, million, billion, if they are not
modified by another number or expression (e.g. a few / several).

hundreds of Euros
thousands of light years

## Table of Ordinal Numbers

Ordinal Numbers from 1 through 1,000,000
1 st first 11 th eleventh 21 st twenty-first 31 st thirty-first
2 nd second 12 th twelfth 22 nd twenty-second 40 th fortieth
3 rd third 13 th thirteenth 23 rd twenty-third 50 th fiftieth
4 th fourth 14 th fourteenth 24 th twenty-fourth 60 th sixtieth
5 th fifth 15 th fifteenth 25 th twenty-fifth 70 th seventieth
6 th sixth 16 th sixteenth 26 th twenty-sixth 80 th eightieth
7 th seventh 17 th seventeenth 27 th twenty-seventh 90 th ninetieth
8 th eighth 18 th eighteenth 28 th twenty-eighth 100 th one hundredth
9 th ninth 19 th nineteenth 29 th twenty-ninth 1,000 th one thousandth
10 th tenth 20 th twentieth 30 th thirtieth 1,000,000 th one millionth

Form
Spelling of Ordinal Numbers

## Just add th to the cardinal number:

 four - fourth
 eleven - eleventh

Exceptions:

 one - first
 two - second
 three - third
 five - fifth
 eight - eighth
 nine - ninth
 twelve - twelfth

In compound ordinal numbers, note that only the last figure is written as an ordinal number:

##  421st = four hundred and twenty-first

 5,111th = five thousand, one hundred and eleventh

Figures

When expressed as figures, the last two letters of the written word are added to the ordinal
number:

 first = 1st
 second = 2nd
 third = 3rd
 fourth = 4th
 twenty-sixth = 26th
 hundred and first = 101st

Titles
In names for kings and queens, ordinal numbers are written in Roman numbers. In spoken
English, the definite article is used before the ordinal number:

##  Charles II - Charles the Second

 Edward VI - Edward the Sixth
 Henry VIII - Henry the Eighth

## Prijedlozi se dijele na:

a) prijedloge za mjesto: at (u, na, kod, pri), to (u, ka, prema), in (u), into (u), on (na),
between (između), in front of (ispred), before (ispred), above (iznad), behind (iza),
under (ispod) i dr;

b) prijedlozi za vrijeme: before (prije), after (poslije), since (od), on (u) i dr;

c) prijedlozi za očuvanje porijekla, uzroka, cilja: from (od), by (od), through (pomoću),
towards (prema);

d) prijedlozi za sredstva: by (od, pomoću), in (u), with (s, sa), without (bez).

Prijedlozi mogu biti složeni, tj. sastavljeni su od više riječi: into (u), upon (na), within (u),
outside (napulju), throughout (skroz).

Poslije prijedloga uvijek slijedi "imenica", a nikad glagol. Pod "imenica" mislimo na:

## imenice (dog, money, house, love);

lične imenice (Sarajevo, Zagreb, Beograd, Edin, Mary);
zamjenice (you, him, us);
grupne imenice (my first job, your blue book);
gerund (swimming).

Pošto poslije prijedloga ne može ići glagol, a ako to želimo onda moramo koristiti "-ing"
oblik koji je ustvari gerund ili glagolska imenica.

## subjekat + glagol prijedlog "imenica"

The food is on the table.
She lives in Japan.
Mary is looking for you.
The letter is under your blue book.
Pascal is used to English people.
She isn't used to working.
I ate before coming.

## of - he is a friend of mine (on je moj prijatelj)

what are you thinking of? (o čemu mislite?)

## from - where did you came from? (odakle ste?)

whom did you get this book from? (od koga ste dobili ovu knjigu)
I translated this from English into Bosnian (preveo sam to sa engleskog na bosanski)

## to - I get into my office every morning (svako jutro idem u kancelariju)

we went to see him (pošli smo da ga posjetimo)
I want to tell you the truth (želim da vam kažem istinu)
at - the family is at dinner (porodica ruča)
she is at the dressmaker's (ona je kod krojačice)
he is standing at the door (on stoji kod vrata)

## in - I live in Visoko (živim u Visokom)

my money is in my pocket (moj novac je u džepu)
I'll be back in a minute (vraćam se za minut)

## into - he came into the room (ušao je u sobu)

I put the money into my pocket (stavio sam novac u džep)

she walked about the house (hodala je po kući)
it's about seven o'clock (oko sedam je sati)
I was about to go home when she came (upravo sam htio da odem kad je ona došla)

since - I haven't seen you since last Friday (nisam vas vidjeo od prošlog petka)

for - I haven't seen you for ages (nisam vas vidjeo od odavno)
I waited for an hour (čekao sam jedan sat)
I did it for you (to sam za vas učinio)

except - there was no one at the conference except the president (niko sem predsjednika nije
bio na konferenciji)

between - what is between you and her (šta je između tebe i nje)
there is great difference between words and deeds (velika je razlika između riječi i djela)

among - you will find some interesting girls among this students (naći ćete interesantne
djevojke među ovim studenticama)

before - she stood before the door waiting (stajala je pred vratima i čekala)
came before eight o'clock (dođi prije osam)

## beyond - this is beyond my understanding (to ne mogu da shvatim)

his house stands beyond that road (njegova kuća se nalazi iznad ovog puta)

## without - I shall be lonely without you (bit ću usamljen bez vas)

she left without saying good-bye (otišla je bez zbogom)

## towards - they came to the house (prišli su kući)

until - I shall wait until day come (čekat ću dok oni dođu)

till - I have been waiting for you till now (sve do sada sam vas čekao)

## with - will you take me with you (hoćete li me povesti sa sobom)

the proposal was approved with great majority (prijedlog je prihvaćen velikom većinom)
I cannot remain with him any longer (ne mogu više ostati s njim)
he cut himself with a knife (posjekao se nožem)

regarding - what have you done regarding this report? (šta ste učinili u vezi sa ovim
izvještajem)

Pored ovih prijedloga u engleskom jeziku imamo i tzv. prijedložne fraze (prepositional
frases):

in spite of (uprkos)
in front of (ispred)
according to (prema)
because of (zbog)
by means of (pomoću)

There was a pool in front of his house. (pred njegovom kućom se nalazio bazen)
This is not truth in spite of what he has said. (to nije istina uprkos tome što je on rekao)

## English Prepositions List

There are about 150 prepositions in English. Yet this is a very small number when you think
of the thousands of other words (nouns, verbs etc). Prepositions are important words. We use
individual prepositions more frequently than other individual words. In fact, the prepositions
of, to and in are among the ten most frequent words in English. Here is a short list of 70 of
the more common one-word prepositions. Many of these prepositions have more than one
meaning. Please refer to a dictionary for precise meaning and usage.

## For a full list of 150 prepositions, try

founder Josef Essberger:

##  includes one-word and complex prepositions

 370 example sentences
 200 quiz questions with answers
 aboard  works on Windows or Mac
 above Buy online at eslDepot.com
 across
 after
 against
 along
 amid
 among
 anti
 around
 as
 at

 before
 behind
 below
 beneath
 beside
 besides
 between
 beyond
 but
 by

 concerning
 considering

 despite
 down
 during

 except
 excepting
 excluding

 following
 for
 from

 in
 inside
 into

 like

 minus

 near
 of
 off
 on
 onto
 opposite
 outside
 over

 past
 per
 plus

 regarding
 round

 save
 since

 than
 through
 to
 toward
 towards

 under
 underneath
 unlike
 until
 up
 upon

 versus
 via

 with
 within
 without
Prepositions can be used to show movement.

For example:-

## We use to to show movement with the aim of a specific destination

For example:-
I moved to Germany in 1998.
He's gone to the shops.

We use through to show movement from one side of an enclosed space to the other.

For example:
The train went through the tunnel.

We use across to show movement from one side of a surface or line to another.

For example:
She swam across the river.

S
h
e

r
a
n

to the door.

## the tunnel. (from one side of an

through
enclosed space to the other)

## the road. (from one side of an open space to

across
the other)

over the bridge. (from one side of an open space
to the other)

round the track.

## into the room.

Prepositions of movement are prepositions that indicate how one thing is moving in relation to another.
This can be contrasted to prepositions of place, which indicate how one thing is situated in relation to
another.

## Some common prepositions of movement are:

onto, into, through, across, past, off of, away from, toward, under, over, along and around.

## 2.5 Instrument and means

Quirk and Greenbaum say that questions starting with How...? (e.g. How shall I break the window?)
are answered with phrases expressing means or instrument (1973, 159):

a. The idea of instrument can be expressed in two ways, either by using the verb use and its
object, or by using a phrase introduced by with (Leech and Svartvik 2002, 106):

## You can use a stone to break the window.

I'll break the window with a stone.

To express means, on the other hand, a phrase introduced by the preposition by is used
(Leech and Svartvik 2002, 106):

## By using a stone, he broke the window.

He went there by bus.

## b. In the passive, the instrument can be expressed either by a with-phrase or a by-phrase,

whereas the animate and (usually human) agent is always expressed by a by-phrase (Quirk
and Greenbaum 1973, 160):

## The window was broken with a ball.

The window was broken by a ball.
*The window was broken with a boy.
The window was broken by a boy.

However, the second sentence suggests that the ball was a kind of independent “agent” rather
than a deliberately used “instrument”.

## Prepositions used for time of different natures are in, on at etc.

Preposition Time Nature
In 1. Month or Year.
e.g. in January, in 1985

## 2. Particular time of day or month or year

e.g. in morning, in evening, in first week of January, in summer, in winter

## 3. Century or specific time in past etc

e.g. in 21st century, in stone age, in past, in future, in present
On 1. Day
e.g. on Monday

2. Date
e.g. on 5th of March, March 5

3. Particular day
e.g. on Independence Day, on my birthday,
At 1. Time of clock
e.g. at 5 O’clock, at 7:30 PM

## 2. Short and precise time

e.g. at noon, at sunset, at lunch time, at bed time, at the moment, at the
same time

Examples.
He was born in 1945.
She will go to New York on 25th of March.
The concert will begin at 7 O’clock.
He gets up early in the morning.
We enjoyed a lot in the summer.
The president will deliver speech to public on Independence Day.
Where were you at the lunchtime?
I will call you at 12 A.M

## Prepositions “in, on or at” are usually used for different places.

 “In” is usually used for place which have some boundary (boundary may physical or
virtual).
 “On” is used for surface
 “At” is used for specific place.

## Preposition Place Nature

In Place having some boundary (physical or virtual boundary)
Examples.
In hall
In school
In a building
In a box
In a car
In library
In garden
In America
In room
In cupboard
On Surface of something.
Examples.
On a table
On blackboard
On a page
On the wall
On the roof
On a map
At Specific Place.
Examples.
At the entrance
At the bottom of glass
At front of the chair
At bus stop
At the edge of roof

Examples
She lives in New York.
Students study in library.
The wedding ceremony will be held in the hall.
There are some books on the table.
The teacher wrote a sentence on blackboard.
He was flying kite on the roof.
Her parents were waiting for her at the entrance of school
There was a huge gathering at bus stop.
His house is at the end of street.

## Preposition for Direction.

(to, toward, through, into)

Prepositions like to, towards, through, into are used to describe the direction. Following
examples will help in better understanding.

Examples.
She went to the library.
He jumped into the river.
He ran away when he felt that someone was coming toward him.
Preposition for Agent. (by)

Preposition for agent is used for a thing which is cause of another thing in the sentence. Such
prepositions are by, with etc. Following examples will help in better understanding.

Examples.
This book is written by Shakespeare.
The work was completed by him.
The room was decorated by her.
The tub is filled with water.

## Preposition for device, instrument or machine.

Different preposition are used by different devices, instruments or machines. e.g. by, with, on
etc. Following examples will help in better understanding.

Examples.
She comes by bus daily.
He opened the lock with key.

1. We have DSL Internet access at work, but I don't have a high-speed connection at home.

2. The kids are learning about the Civil War in their history class at school.

3. Toby was in the hospital for two weeks after his motorcycle accident on the freeway.

4. Jane and Debbie saw dolphins in the ocean while they were having a picnic on the beach.

5. Fred loves to go camping in the desert, but Kyle prefers to camp in the mountains.

6. The conference was held at a ski resort in Telluride, a small town in southwest Colorado.

## 7. You can buy stamps at the post office on Delancy Street.

8. The old man who was standing on the corner yelled at the kids who were playing in the
street.

9. While they were hiking on Ridgeback Mountain, Laurelle and Frank saw a bear in the
woods.

10. They have a small house on a lake in the countryside. When I visit them, I always love to
sit on the shore and watch the kids swimming in the lake.

Position Prepositions
Multiple Choice Exercise
1. The computer printer is on the table next to the computer.

2. Shawn and Noel stood under the tree waiting for the rain to stop.

3. I didn't see the mailbox even though I was standing right next to it.

4. Everybody was already sitting at the table waiting for dinner to be served.

5. Every evening, the dog sits under the dinner table begging for food.

## 7. Debra was sitting at the computer surfing the Internet.

8. I asked the woman standing next to me on the bus where I should get out.

9. My car keys were on the desk, but I couldn't see them because they were under a magazine.

10. When I went to buy the concert tickets, there was nobody at the ticket sales window.

## Prepositions of place test: in / at / on

1. What have you got ..... your bag.

## 4. Milan is ..... the north of Italy.

5. There's somebody waiting ..... the bus stop.

1. in
2. at
3. on
4. in
5. at
6. on
7. in
8. on
9. at
10. in