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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

Chapter One, “Introduction to Employee Training and Development,” discusses why training and
development are important to help companies successfully compete in today’s business
environment. The chapter provides an overview of training practices, the training profession, and
how to design effective training. This chapter is a basic introductory chapter explaining many of
the terms used in the area of training and development. The chapter begins with a discussion of
how companies such as Jiffy Lube International, Seattle City Light, Blue Cross, Blue Shield,
Scotiabank Group, and U.S. Airways Group used training to improve their competitive
advantage in the marketplace. The terms training and development are defined, and the various
forces such as globalization, workforce demographic changes, new technologies, the changing
roles of leadership, rapid development of knowledge, and development of e-commerce are
explained. The importance of training and development in today’s organizations, and today’s
global market is discussed, including the immense amount of money invested in training by U.S.
companies. A basic Instructional System Design model (ISD) or the ADDIE model is introduced,
and essential roles and competencies of trainer professionals are identified. Related training and
development Web sites, internet, and e-commerce examples are discussed at the end of the
chapter.

Objectives

1. Discuss the forces influencing the workplace and learning, and explain how training can help
companies deal with these forces.
2. Draw a figure or diagram and explain how training, development, informal learning, and
knowledge management contribute to business success.
3. Discuss various aspects of the training design process.
4. Describe the amount and types of training occurring in U.S. companies.
5. Discuss the key roles for training professionals.
6. Identify appropriate resources (e.g., journals, Web sites) for learning about training research
and practice.

I. Introduction

A. Competitiveness is the company’s ability to maintain and gain market share in an


industry.
B. Human resource management refers to the policies, practices, and systems that influence
employees’ behavior, attitudes, and performance.
C. Stakeholders refer to shareholders, the community, customers, employees, and all the
other parties that have an interest in seeing that the company succeeds.

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II. Training and Development: Key Components of Learning

A. Learning refers to employees acquiring knowledge, skills, competencies, attitudes, or


behaviors.
B. Human capital refers to knowledge (know what), advanced skills (know how), system
understanding and creativity (know why), and motivation to deliver high-quality products
and services (care why).
C. Training refers to a planned effort by a company to facilitate learning of job-related
competencies, knowledge, skills, and behaviors by employees. The goal of training is for
employees to master the knowledge, skills, and behaviors emphasized in training and
apply them to their day-to-day activities.
D. Development refers to training as well as formal education, job experiences, relationship,
and assessments of personality, skills, and abilities that help employees prepare for future
jobs or positions.
E. Formal training and development refers to training and development programs, courses,
and events that are developed and organized by the company.
F. Informal learning refers to learning that is learner initiated, involves action and doing, is
motivated by an intent to develop, and does not occur in a formal learning setting.
G. Explicit knowledge refers to knowledge which is well documented, easily articulated, and
easily transferred from person-to-person. Examples of explicit knowledge include
processes, checklists, flowcharts, formulas, and definitions.
H. Tacit knowledge refers to personal knowledge based on individual experiences that is
difficult to codify.
I. Knowledge management refers to the process of enhancing company performance by
designing and implementing tools, processes, systems, structures, and cultures to improve
the creation, sharing, and use of knowledge.

III. Designing Effective Training

A. The training design process refers to a systematic approach for developing training
programs.
1. It is based on principles of Instructional System Design, which refers to a process for
designing and developing training programs.
2. The training design process sometimes is referred to as the ADDIE model because it
includes analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.
3. Regardless of the specific Instructional System Design (ISD) approach used, all share
the following assumptions:
a. Training design is effective only if it helps employees reach instructional or
training goals and objectives.
b. Measurable learning objectives should be identified before the training program
begins.
c. Evaluation plays an important part in planning and choosing a training method,
monitoring the training program, and suggesting changes to the training design
process.
B. Overcoming the Flaws of the ISD Model
1. The ISD model is flawed for the following reasons:

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a. In organizations, the training design process rarely follows the neat, orderly, step
by- step approach of activities.
b. In trying to standardize their own ISD method used in the training function, some
organizations require trainers to provide detailed documents of each activity
found in the model.
c. The ISD implies an end point: evaluation.
d. Many companies claim to use an instructional design approach but dilute its
application.
2. The training design process should be systematic, yet flexible enough to adapt to
changing business needs.

IV. The Forces Influencing Working and Learning

The poor economy means more companies are downsizing their work force, delaying plans
for new operations and growth, and revisiting training and development and human resource
budgets to cut unnecessary programs and costs. Economic crisis provide an opportunity for
companies to take a closer look at training and development to identify those activities that
are critical for supporting the business strategy as well as those mandated by law.
A. Globalization
1. Companies provide cross-cultural training to their global employees and their family
which prepares them to understand the culture and norms of the country to which they
are being relocated and assists in their return to their home country after the
assignment.
2. Some companies develop a leadership team to learn about the needs and the culture of
the foreign countries while at the same time providing valuable community service.
3. Few companies provide extensive coaching and assessment of managerial potential
and provide regular feedback to keep employees focused on the things they need to
do to reach their career goals.
4. Globalization also means that U.S. companies may move jobs overseas; offshoring
refers to the process of moving jobs from the United States to other locations in the
world.
B. Increased Value Placed on Intangible Assets and Human Capital
1. Human capital refers to the sum of the attributes, life experiences, knowledge,
inventiveness, energy, and enthusiasm that the company’s employees invest in their
work.
2. Intellectual capital refers to the codified knowledge that exists in a company.
3. Social capital refers to relationships in the company.
4. Customer capital refers to the value of relationships with persons or other
organizations outside the company for accomplishing the goals of the company.
5. The value of intangible assets and human capital has three important implications:
a. A focus on knowledge worker
b. Employee engagement
c. An increased emphasis on adapting to change and continuous learning
6. Knowledge workers are employees who contribute to the company not through
manual labor but through what they know, perhaps about customers or a specialized
body of knowledge.

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7. Employee engagement refers to the degree to which employees are fully involved in
their work and the strength of their commitment to their job and the company.
8. Change refers to the adoption of a new idea or behavior by a company.
9. A learning organization embraces a culture of lifelong learning, enabling all
employees to continually acquire and share knowledge.
C. Focus on Links to Business Strategy
Managers are beginning to see a more important role for training and development as a
means to support a company’s business strategy.
D. Changing Demographics and Diversity of the Work Force
1. Increase in ethnic and racial diversity
2. Aging work force
E. Generational Differences
According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, five generations (generation Z,
generation Y, generation X, baby boomers, and traditionalists) will participate in the
workforce in 2012, each one with unique and similar characteristics to the others. To
successfully manage a diverse work force, managers and employees must be trained in a
new set of skills, including:
1. Communicating effectively with employees from a wide variety of backgrounds
2. Coaching, training, and developing employees of different ages, educational
backgrounds, ethnicities, physical abilities, and races
3. Providing performance feedback that is free of values and stereotypes based on
gender, ethnicity, or physical handicap
4. Training managers to recognize and respond to generational differences
5. Creating a work environment that allows employees of all backgrounds to be creative
and innovative
F. Talent Management
Talent management refers to the systematic, planned, and strategic effort by a company to
use bundles of human resource management practices, including acquiring and assessing
employees, learning and development, performance management, and compensation to
attract, retain, develop, and motivate highly skilled employees and managers. It is
becoming increasingly important because of:
1. Occupational and job changes
2. Retirement of baby boomers
3. Skill requirements
4. Need for developing leadership skills
G. Customer Service and Quality Emphasis
1. Total Quality Management (TQM) is a companywide effort to continuously improve
the ways people, machines, and systems accomplish work.
2. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award and ISO 9000:2000 quality standards
were established to emphasize and recognize high quality and to publicize strategies
and expectations for quality. Table 1.5 lists the categories and point values for the
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award examination.
3. The ISO 9000:2000 Standards were developed by the International Organization for
Standardization. These standards have been adopted as the national quality standards
in nearly 100 countries. These are used in manufacturing, processing, servicing,
printing, forestry, electronics, steel, computing, legal services, and financial services.

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4. Many companies are also using the Six Sigma process for monitoring and improving
quality. The Six Sigma process refers to a process of measuring, analyzing,
improving, and then controlling processes once they have been brought within the
narrow Six Sigma quality tolerances or standards. Training is an important component
of the process.
5. Lean thinking involves doing more with less effort, equipment, space, and time, but
providing customers with what they need and want.
6. ISO 10015 is a quality management tool designed to ensure that training is linked to
company needs and performance.
H. New Technology
1. The Internet is a global collection of computer networks that allow users to exchange
data and information.
2. The Internet has created a new business model—e-commerce, in which business
transactions and relationships can be conducted electronically.
3. Advances in sophisticated technology along with reduced costs for the technology are
changing the delivery of training, making training more realistic, and giving
employees the opportunity to choose where and when they will work.
4. Technology also allows companies greater use of alternative work arrangements. A
key training issue with alternative work arrangements is to prepare managers and
employees to coordinate their efforts so such work arrangements do not interfere with
customer service or product quality.
I. High-Performance Models of Work Systems
1. Work teams involve employees with various skills who interact to assemble a product
or provide a service.
2. Cross-training refers to training employees in a wide range of skills so they can fill
any of the roles needed to be performed on the team.
3. Use of new technology and work designs needs to be supported by specific human
resource management practices.
4. Virtual teams refer to teams that are separated by time, geographic distance, culture,
and/or organizational boundaries and that rely almost exclusively on technology (e-
mail, Internet, video conferencing) to interact and complete their projects.

V. Snapshot of Training Practices

A. Training Facts and Figures


Key trends in investments in learning initiatives:
1. Direct expenditures, as a percentage of payroll and learning hours, have remained
stable over the last several years.
2. There is an increased demand for specialized learning that includes professional or
industry-specific content.
3. The use of technology-based learning delivery has increased from 11 percent in 2001
to 29 percent in 2010.
4. Self-paced online learning is the most frequently used type of technology-based
learning.
5. Technology-based learning has helped improve learning efficiency, as shown by
increases in the reuse ration since 2003.

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6. Technology-based learning has resulted in a larger employee–learning staff member


ratio.
7. The percentage of services distributed by external providers (e.g., consultants,
workshops, training programs) dropped from 29 percent in 2004 to 23 percent in
2010.
B. Training Investment Leaders
1. Higher investment in training by companies in the United States is related to use of
innovative training practices and high-performance work practices such as teams,
employee stock ownership plans, incentive compensation systems (profit sharing),
individual development plans, and employee involvement in business decisions.
2. The BEST Award winners were companies that had made a significant investment in
training, determined by ranking all companies that participated in the Benchmarking
Service on four categories: training investment, total training hours per employee,
percentage of employees eligible for training who received it, and percentage of
training time delivered through learning technologies.
C. Roles, Competencies and Positions of Training Professionals
1. Each job held by a trainer (instructional designer, technical trainer, or needs analyst)
has specific roles or functions.
2. The ASTD competency model describes what it takes for an individual to be
successful in the training and development field.
3. Traditional narrow jobs in the training department focusing on one type of expertise
are changing.
D. Who Provides Training?
1. In most companies training and development activities are provided by trainers,
managers, in-house consultants, and employee experts.
2. Outsourcing means that training and development activities are provided by
individuals outside the company.
E. Who Is in Charge of Training?
1. Training and development can be the responsibility of professionals in human
resources, human resource development, or organizational development.
2. Human resource development refers to the integrated use of training and
development, organizational development, and career development to improve
individual, group, and organizational effectiveness. The reporting relationship
between human resource management and the training function varies across
companies.
F. Preparing to Work in Training
1. To be a successful training professional requires staying up-to-date on current
research and training practices.
2. The primary professional organizations for persons interested in training and
development include:
a. American Society for Training and Development (ASTD)
b. Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD)
c. Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM)
d. Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP)
e. Academy of Management (AOM)
f. International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI)

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Chapter Summary

The chapter explains some real case scenarios where training has contributed to companies’
competitiveness. It explains what training is and how an effective training program can be
designed. It further discusses the factors which has an influence on working and learning. The
chapter concludes by providing a snapshot of the training practices, in which the competency
model is discussed. At the end, a list of key words and discussion questions are provided along
with application assignments and a case study.

Discussion Questions

1. Describe the forces affecting the work place and learning. How can training help companies
deal with these forces?

Answer: Economic cycles, globalization, customer service and quality emphasis, talent
management, new technology, increased value placed on intangible assets and human capital,
focus on link to business strategy, changing demographics and diversity of the work force,
high-performance work systems are the forces affecting the work place and learning.
Training can improve professional conduct, improve job performance by teaching new
techniques and skills, and increase a company’s productivity and customer satisfaction. (p.
13-39)

2. Discuss the relationship between formal training and development, informal learning, and
knowledge management. How are they related to learning and creating a learning
organization?

Answer: There are a number of different ways that learning occurs in a company.
Formal training and development refers to training and development programs, courses, and
events that are developed and organized by the company. Typically, employees are required
to attend or complete these programs, which can include face-to-face training programs (such
as instructor-led courses) as well as online programs.

Informal learning is also important for facilitating the development of human capital.
Informal learning refers to learning that is learner initiated, involves action and doing, is
motivated by an intent to develop, and does not occur in a formal learning setting. Informal
learning occurs without a trainer or instructor, and its breadth, depth, and timing is controlled
by the employee. It occurs on an as-needed basis and may involve an employee learning
either alone or through face-to-face or technology-aided social interactions.

Knowledge management refers to the process of enhancing company performance by


designing and implementing tools, processes, systems, structures, and cultures to improve the
creation, sharing, and use of knowledge. Knowledge management contributes to informal
learning. (p. 8-10)

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3. What steps are included in the training design model? What step do you think is the most
important? Why?

Answer: Step 1 is to conduct a needs assessment, which is necessary to identify if training is


needed. Step 2 is to ensure that employees have the motivational and basic skills necessary to
master the training content. Step 3 is to create a learning environment that have features
necessary for learning to occur. Step 4 is to ensure that trainees apply the training content to
their jobs. Step 5 is to develop an evaluation plan. Developing an evaluation plan includes
identifying what types of outcomes training is expected to influence, choosing an evaluation
design that allows you to determine the influence of training on these outcomes, and planning
how to demonstrate how training affects the “bottom line”. Step 6 is to choose the training
method based on the learning objectives and learning environment. Step 7 is to evaluate the
program and make changes in it or revisit any of the earlier steps in the process to improve
the program so that learning, behavior, change and the other learning objectives are obtained.

The training design process should be systematic, yet flexible enough to adapt to business
needs. Different steps may be completed simultaneously. Keep in mind that designing
training unsystematically will reduce the benefits that can be realized. For example, choosing
a training method before determining training needs or ensuring employees’ readiness for
training, increases the risk that the method chosen will not be the most effective one for
meeting training needs. Also, training may not even be necessary and may result in a waste of
time and money. Employees may have the knowledge, skills, or behavior they need but
simply not be motivated to use them. (p. 10-12)

4. What are intangible assets? How do they relate to training and development?

Answer: Intangible assets consist of human capital, customer capital, social capital, and
intellectual capital. Intangible assets have been shown to be responsible for a company’s
competitive advantage. Training and development can help a company’s competitiveness by
directly increasing the company’s value through contributing to intangible assets. Intangible
assets are equally as valuable as financial and physical assets, but they are not something that
can be touched and they are nonmonetary. Intangible assets have been shown to be
responsible for a company’s competitive advantage. (p. 17)

5. How is Starbucks using training to benefit the company during difficult economic times?

Answer: Starbucks believes that the key to company success is its employees or partners.
Training is integral to Starbucks's strategy for successfully competing in a weak economy in
which customers are spending less. Store managers serve as trainers. The training focuses on
coffee knowledge and how to create a positive experience for customers. Training specialists
from headquarters work with store managers to ensure that training is consistent across all
stores. The training courses are also frequently updated. Managers and assistant store
managers take a 10-week retail management training course. When Starbucks enters a new
international market, partners are brought to Seattle for 6 to 12 weeks of training and then
sent to other locations to get store experience. (p. 3)

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6. Training Professionals continue to debate whether the ISD model is flawed. Some argue that
ISD should be treated as a project management approach rather than a step- by- step recipe
for building training programs. Others suggest that ISD is too linear and rigid a process, that
it is the primary reason that training is expensive, and that it takes too long to develop. ISD
focuses on inputs; management wants outputs. Businesses want results, not the use of a
design technology. Do you believe that ISD is a useful process? Why or why not? Are there
certain situations when it is a more (or less) effective way to design training?

Answer: The training design process is useful because it gives a systematic approach to
training. Designing training unsystematically will reduce the benefits that can be achieved.
For example, choosing a training method before determining training needs or ensuring
employees’ readiness for training increases the risk that the method chosen will not be the
most effective one for meeting training needs. Also, training may not even be necessary and
may result in a waste of time and money. Employees may have the knowledge, skills, and
behavior they need but simply not be motivated to use them. Regardless of the specific ISD
approach used, the following assumptions should be considered:
 Training design is effective only if it helps employees reach instructional or
training goals and objectives.
 Measurable learning objectives should be identified before the training program
begins.
 Evaluation plays an important part in planning and choosing a training method,
monitoring the training program, and suggesting changes to the training design process.
(p. 11-12)

7. Which of the training professionals’ roles do you believe is the most difficult to learn? Which
is easiest?

Answer: Student answers would vary. The ASTD competency model describes what it takes
for an individual to be successful in the training and development field. The top of the model
shows the roles that training and development professionals can take. The learning strategist
determines how workplace learning can be best used to help meet the company’s business
strategy. The business partner uses business and industry knowledge to create training that
improves performance. The project manager plans, obtains, and monitors the effective
delivery of learning and performance solutions to support the business. The professional
specialist designs, develops, delivers, and evaluates learning and solutions. These roles are
included in jobs such as organizational change agent, career counselor, instructional designer,
and classroom trainer. Training department managers devote considerable time to the roles of
business partner and learning strategist. Training department managers may be involved in
the project manager role but, because of their other responsibilities, they are involved to a
lesser extent than are specialists who hold other jobs. Human resource or personnel managers
may also be required to complete many of the training roles, although their primary
responsibility is in overseeing the human resources functions of the company (e.g., staffing,
recruiting, compensation, benefits). (p. 43-44)

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8. How might technology influence the importance of training professionals’ roles? Can
technology reduce the importance of any of the roles? Can it result in additional roles?

Answer: The training professionals’ role would become easier and they would be able to
reach more clients by using technology. They can put a training program on a CD-ROM or
the Internet and allow employees the opportunity to access it when it is convenient for them.
It should not reduce the importance of any of the roles because you will still need the trainers
to implement the programs. Additional roles may develop when training experts in the
technology field are used to answer questions on the Internet and to create the CD-ROM
programs. (p. 45)

9. Describe the training courses that you have taken. How have they helped you? Provide
recommendations for improving the courses.

Answer: Each student may share different experiences depending on the course opted for.
Opting for a course would depend on needs and interests. Any course would be helpful if it is
effective and the student achieves his/her instructional or training objective after the
completion of the course. To make the course more effective and helpful, measurable
learning objectives should be identified before the course begins. The student can evaluate
the course by being involved in planning and choosing a training method, monitoring the
program, and suggesting changes for improvement. (p. 48)

10. How does training differ between companies that are considered BEST Award winners and
those that are not?

Answer: The BEST Award winners included thirty-two companies with an average of 24,875
employees. Companies that were BEST Award winners used more learning technologies,
such as internet-delivered training, and spent less time training in the classroom than
Benchmark firms. Also, at BEST Award winning companies employees on average engaged
in learning twenty-four more hours than employees at Benchmark companies. (p. 42-43)

11. What are the implications of generational differences in the workforce? What strategies
should companies consider from a training and development perspective to cope with
generational differences and use them to benefit the company?

Answer: It is important to note that although generation differences likely exist, members of
the same generations are no more alike than members of the same gender or race. Differences
in work ethic have been found between baby boomers, Generation Xers, and millennials.
However, millennial employees are more similar than different from other generations in
their work beliefs, job values, and gender beliefs. Also, the lack of study of generational
differences over time, the inability of most studies to separate generational effects from age
or life stage, and possible differences across generation in how they interpret survey items
used in studies means that you should be cautious in attributing differences in employee
behaviors and attitudes to generational differences. Also, treating employees differently
based on their age, such as only inviting younger employees to attend training or
development programs, may result in adverse legal consequences (e.g., employees forty

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years or older are covered by the Age Discrimination in Employment Act). Nonetheless,
members of each generation may have misperceptions of each other, causing tensions and
misunderstanding in the workplace.

Training plays a key role in ensuring that employees accept and work more effectively with
each other. To successfully manage a diverse workforce, managers and employees must be
trained in a new set of skills, including:
 Communicating effectively with employees from a wide variety of backgrounds
 Coaching, training, and developing employees of different ages, educational
backgrounds, ethnicities, physical abilities, and races
 Providing performance feedback that is free of values and stereotypes based on gender,
ethnicity, or physical handicap
 Training managers to recognize and respond to generational differences
 Creating a work environment that allows employees of all backgrounds to be creative and
innovative (p. 24)

12. How has new technology improved training and development? What are some of the
limitations of using iPods or PDAs for training?

Answer: Advances in sophisticated technology along with reduced costs for the technology
are changing the delivery of training, making training more realistic, and giving employees
the opportunity to choose where and when they will work. New technologies allow training
to occur at any time and any place. Technological advances in electronics and
communications software have made possible mobile technology such as personal digital
assistants (PDAs), iPads, and iPods and enhanced the Internet through developing the
capability for social networking. Social networking refers to websites such as Facebook,
Twitter, and LinkedIn, wikis, and blogs that facilitate interactions between people, usually
around shared interests.

Despite its potential advantages, many companies are uncertain as to whether they should
embrace social networking. 90 They fear, perhaps correctly, that social networking will result
in employees wasting time or offending or harassing their coworkers. But other companies
believe that the benefits of using social networking for human resource practices and
allowing employees to access social networks at work outweigh the risks. They trust
employees to use social networking productively and are proactive in developing policies
about personal use and training employees about privacy settings and social network
etiquette. They realize that employees will likely check their Twitter, Facebook, or Linkedln
accounts, but they ignore it unless productivity is decreasing. In some ways, social
networking has become the electronic substitute for daydreaming at one’s desk or walking to
the break room to socialize with coworkers. (p. 14; 33-34)

13. Explain how training relates to attracting new employees, employee retention, and
motivation.

Answer: Given the tight labor market and numerous job applicants’ lack of basic skills, many
companies are unable to hire qualified employees. But they are unwilling or unable to leave

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jobs open. Therefore, they have to hire employees with skill deficiencies and rely on training
and involvement in local school districts to correct the deficiencies. Retention is an important
part of talent management. Talented employees are looking for growth and a career path.
Training and development is a key to attracting and retaining talented employees. Talent
retention is still an important concern. Some companies are creating discretionary bonus
pools to reward employees who may be recruited by other companies. To keep employees
engaged, Best Buy uses online surveys to get employees’ opinions and suggestions regarding
how to cut costs. (p. 14)

14. What is the relationship between talent management and employee engagement? What role
can training and development practices play in keeping employee engagement high during
poor economic times? Explain.

Answer: Employee engagement is the degree to which employees are fully involved in their
work and the strength of their commitment to their job and the company. Talent management
helps to attract, retain, develop, and motivate highly skilled employees and managers.
Therefore, talent management plays a crucial role in employee engagement. Employees'
engagement is influenced by training and development. Training and development gives
employees an opportunity for personal growth within the company and helps provide the
company with the knowledge and skills it needs to gain a competitive advantage. Using
training delivery methods that provide employees with the flexibility to manage their
personal learning while balancing other work and nonwork responsibilities, such as online
learning, helps build employee commitment to the company. Managers contribute to
employee engagement by performing basic management functions (planning, organizing,
controlling, and leading) but also through using good communication skills, helping
employees develop, and working collaboratively with employees. (p. 19; 29)

15. How can training, informal learning, and knowledge management benefit from the use of
social collaboration tools like Twitter and Facebook? Identify the social collaboration tool
and explain the potential benefits gained by using it.

Answer: Social networking refers to websites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Linkedln,
wikis, and blogs that facilitate interactions between people, usually around shared interests.
In general, social networking facilitates communications, decentralized decision making, and
collaboration. Social networking can be useful for busy employees to share knowledge and
ideas with their peers and managers, with whom they may not have much time to interact in
person on a daily basis. Employees, especially young workers from the millennial or Gen-Y
generations, have learned to use social networking tools such as Facebook throughout their
lives and see them as valuable tools for both their work and personal lives.

Informal learning can occur through many different ways, including casual unplanned
interactions with peers, e-mail, informal mentoring, or company-developed or publically
available social networking websites such as Twitter or Facebook. The application of social
media from a marketing strategy to a learning strategy and the availability of Web 2.0
technologies such as social networks, microblogs, and wikis allow employees easy access to
social learning or learning through collaboration and sharing with one or two or more people.

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manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.
Full file at http://testbankonline.eu/Solution-manual-for-Employee-Training-and-Development,-6th-edition-by-
Raymond-A.-Noe

Caterpillar’s web-based knowledge management system, known as Knowledge Network, has


thousands of communities of practice. They range in size from small teams to hundreds of
employees worldwide. The communities of practice are useful for employees to gain both
explicit and tacit knowledge. They are used to distribute information, post questions, and
provide space for reference materials. (p 8-9; 34)

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© 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any
manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.