textbook notes for psychology

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textbook notes for psychology

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one another, even when all the subjects in the study are assess under the

same circumstances (not everyone will get the same grade in our stats

class) The dissimilarity in scores and outcomes obtained under the same

circumstances. 3 Sources of Variability:

Individual Differences - People are different from one another/have

different behaviors

Measurement Error – cannot always accurately measure stuff

o Ambiguous wording

o One part of a course is emphasized more than other parts

Unreliability – people don’t respond to the same question exactly

the same of two different occasions

quantitative information, which is called data. 2 Broad categories:

Descriptive Stats – procedures for organizing summarizing and

describing data

o Did Ritalin improve performance? (refers to what you found in

your experiment with your own sample)

Inferential Stats – methods for making inferences about a larger

group of individuals on the basis of data actually collected on a

much smaller group

o Does Ritalin improve performance? (refers to the

generalization of your findings to a population)

Sample – group in the exp

Look at the difference between the control and the experimental group

Large Difference – the IV manipulation has an effect

Small Difference – the difference is likely dt variability

Probability – how unlikely the difference has to be to conclude that the IV

had an effect on the DV. Ranges from 0.00 (impossible) to 1.00 (certain)

that the observed result is due to expected variability (p0.05)

Small probability = unlikely it occurred by chance

Measurement – The orderly assignment of a numerical value to a

characteristic

obtained by the measurement process (ex the numbers on a tape measure)

Properties of Scales

Rank order – ranking in increasing magnitude (rank them 1, 2, 3)

Categorization/Rating – putting people in categories (fun, boring),

or in rating groups (5 star scale)

Magnitude – you can assign data judging values as less than or

greater than or equal.

Equal Intervals – a unit of measurement on the scale is the same

regardless of where on the scale the unit falls

Abs Zero – a value where “nothing at all” of the attribute being

measured exists.

o Height or Kelvin

o Assigned 1,2,3 ranks doesn’t have AZ (no rank of zero used)

o

Types of Scales

Ratio Scale – Mag, EI, AZ

o Ratio statements can be made (a 70” person is dbl the height

of a 35” person)

Interval Scale – Mag, EI (NO AZ)

o Farenheit or Celcius – because at zero degrees, there is still

temperature. 0 deg is not abs zero. 25o is warmer than 12.5o,

but it isn’t twice as hot. But a 12 deg difference on the scale

is the same magnitude regardless of where on the scale youre

at.

Ordinal Scale – Magnitude (No EI or AZ) – rank in magnitude,

shortest to tallest, then can assign them numbers too, but the

difference bw the rankings (diff between 1 and 2, and 2 and 3) are

not equal.

Nominal Scale – Mutually exclusive groups (No Mag, EI, AZ)

o Classification of cars based on their brand name

Continuous Variable – infinite number of values bw any two points on it.

Discrete Variables – non infinite values (ex: basketball game points)

measurement.

Temp is a continuous variable, even though the device only reads

differences in 0.1o increments. Your data will show 9.1o but really

the variable is continuous cause the temp could have really been

9.1218376876…..o)

Real Limits – Upper and lower values that can be rounded off to the value

collected as data.

Example) You finish a race in 33s, and the timer measures to the

tenth position but you round to the nearest second..

o Lower real limit 32.5s (below this is 32s)

o Upper real limit 33.5s (above this is 34s)

Real Limits of a number are the points falling ½ measurement unit above

and below the number.

Depends on the units measured by a device, can it measure 1s

intervals(+/- 0.5s limits), or 0.1s intervals (+/- 0.05s limits)

Notation

Capital letters represent a variable X, Y, V

Subscripts distinguish one score from another

o Participant 1 = X1

o Participant 2 = X2

N – total # of scores. Subscripts^ run form 1 to N

Xi – any particular score in a distribution

Σ – summing of scores. Ex) Σ X = all Xi values summed

i = 1 sets the lower limit. Start at X1

*The sum of a constant times a variable equals the sum of a constant times

the sum of the variable (C is a constant)

ΣX2 – the sum of each squared score

Σ(X)2 – the square of the sum of the scores

1/10/2018 10:24:00 AM

score value or within each interval of score values in a group of score.

Tally up all the people who scored 10pts, or 4pts, etc.

Relative Distribution – a distribution that indicates the proportion of the total

number of cases (scores) observed at each score value or interval or score

values.

Find N: total # of data values

If 5 people scored a certain value, you divide 5/N

The relative frequency equals that number

than one possible score value. Ex) an A+ is 90-100%

Cum f (cumulative freq distribution) – one in which the entry for any score

value or class interval is the sum of the frequencies for that value or that

interval plus the frequencies of all lower scores.

Cum Rel f (cumulative relative freq distribution) - one in which the entry for

any score value or class interval expresses that value’s or that interval’s

cumulative frequency as a proportion to the total number of cases.

f - how many scores in that class interval?

Rel f – what proportion of scores were in that class? (f/N)

Cum f – sum of scores in that class interval and the class intervals below?

Cum Rel f – what proportion of the Cum f scores are in that CI and the ones

below? (Cum f/N)

Don’t add Rel f to get Cum Rel f, because the dividing and rounding to get

the Rel f will make those values less accurate than adding up the individual

frequency values and dividing by N.

If 45% of scores are in a class interval and below, then the upper limit of

that class interval defines the 45th percentile.

divide the range of the score values in the distribution by the max

number of intervals. Determine Max number of intervals using

below…

Round the minimum class interval size UP to the next round number 1, 2, 5

0.1, 0.2, 0.5. 10, 20, 50, 100

Usually the lowest class interval starts with the lowest score… see below.

The 1st score values (lowest value) in the lowest class interval should be

evenly divisible by the size of the interval

Ex) If the lowest score is 30 and the intervals are 5 units large, 30/5 = 6

If the lowest score is 49, and the interval size is 4, drop down to the lowest

interval starting at 48-51, because 48 is evenly divisible by 4.

Stated Limits – In a class interval, the highest and lowest values in the

interval.

The size of a class interval is obtained by subtracting the lower real limit

from the upper real limit.

Ex) The Class interval size of 30-34 is 5 because 34.5-29.5 = 5

Frequency Histogram

Abscissa – horizontal axis

Ordinate – vertical axis (3/4 as long as abscissa)

Each axis should have a zero origin, the break in the abscissa scale

indicated that part of the scale was omitted.

Each bar width = 1 class interval and saddles the interval midpoint

FREQUENCY POLYGON

a point above each interval midpoint corresponds to the frequency

within that interval

Must have empty intervals with 0 frequences to the left and right

(dots on the abscissa)

relative frequency, not frequency.

Cum Rel f & Cum f Histogram or polygon

Ordinate is labeled Cum f or Cum Rel f

Polygon – points placed over upper real limit of each CI including

the lowest 0 frequency interval. There is no upper 0 frequency

interval

HISTOGRAMS – preferred over polygons for discrete variables

POLYGONS – preferred over histograms when you have a continuous

variable or when you have a shit ton of score values (you get a smooth

curve, indicating the frequency distribution for ANY score)

BAR GRAPH - NOMINAL frequency

You can swap up the labels on the abscissa and ordinate for these

PIE CHART - NOMINAL relative frequency

Relative frequency is a f/N value. It’s a fraction. So you can just multiply it

by 360o to find out how big of a wedge a relative frequency should occupy.

Central Tendency of a distribution is a point on the scale

corresponding to a typical, representative, or central score.

Variability – the extent to which scores in a distribution deviate

from their central tendency

Skewness – an assymetric distribution in which the scores are

bunched on one side of the central tendency and trail out on the

other. The longer the skew tail, the more its skewed (B is more

skewed than A)

o Score A: Skewed to the right – positive skew

o Score B: Skewed to the left – negative skew (due to an easy

exam—lots of students getting high scores)

have the same central tendency, but different kurtoses.

o Dist A is leptokurtic (thin distribution. Less variability)

o Dist B is platykurtic (flat dist. Greater variability)

A has less variability than B

1/10/2018 10:24:00 AM

Exploratory Data Analysis – an approach and a set of tools that are used,

often in an unplanned and exploratory manner, to describe and understand

the meaning of a set of data.

Stem & Leaf Display – combine histogram and frequency distribution into

one display, while preserving more of the information in the original data

than does a frequency distribution

A score value is broken down into a stem and a leaf

o Stem – the remaining larger digits

o Leaf – the smallest digit

o Ex) Score 23 Stem (2), Leaf (3)

Here, stems are tens digits and leafs are ones digits.

Batch – ordered listed of the stems and leafs of the scores (similar

to a distribution)

Smallest stem at the bottom and go in ascending order (like class

intervals)

Depth of a case is its rank order from the top or bottom of the

distribution (whichever rank is smaller)

o Its like cumulative frequency

o Calculated from top/bottom until the accumulated total = ½N

o Count left to right (increasing) when counting from the

bottom

o Count right to left (decreasing) when counting from the top

o Counts (trained condition)

73 is the 5th score from the bottom

96 is the 3rd score from the top

o Untrained – symmetrical distribution

o Trained – centre of the batch is at the 8th stem—they scoring

high

o ^notice how it’s a vertical histogram

Line Width – new line for each stem. The line width is the number of possible

leaves for that stem

Above, there are 10 possible leaves per stem.

You can have bigger line widths by using the same stem for

multiple lines, but with code symbols

o * = 0,1

o t = 2,3

o f = 4,5

o s = 6,7

o = 8,9

Line Widths can be 2, 5, 10 times a power of 10

When you have positive and negative data, you have two stems for

zero

o 0 for positive leaves

o -0 for negative leaves

Resistant indicators that describe a set of data are those that change

relatively little in value if a small portion of the data is replaced with new

number that may be very different from the original ones

bc mean, variance, and standard deviation depend on all values in a

set of data, and a few very high/low scores can throw them off

influenced by how many scores are higher or lower than it, not how much

they are higher than it.

Median Case for Even number of scores = [(N/2) + (N/2 + 1)]/2

Take the avg of the two median cases

Ex) if N = 16, the median case is an average of the 8th & 9th cases

“Fourth Spread”.

Find the depth of the median and drop any fractional part on it

Depth of the ¼ = [depth of median + 1]/2

FL – Lower fourth

FU – Upper fourth

Depth of the 4th gives you a number that is fractional, you count to

that case number from the bottom and top and take the averages

o Ex) if you get 4.5, take an average of the 4th and 5th cases

from the bottom, and the 4th and 5th cases from the top.

o FL – ½ way bw median and bottom of the batch

o FU – ½ way bw median and top of the batch

Fourth-Spread = FU - FL

o Use these to see which outliers deviate from the group

substantially

o Outliers Below FL – 1.5(4th spread)

o Outliers Above FU + 1.5(4th spread)

Extreme Scores – the lowest & highest scores in the batch, excluding

outliers

ESL is immediately above FL – 1.5(4th spread)

ESH is immediately below FU + 1.5(4th spread)

the 4th spread and the the fourths +/- 1.5(4th spread) are resistance

indicators of variability

- reflects the main body of the data, the central half of the batch

- no influenced by outliers.

central tendency and variability

Md – median

FL

FU

LEx – lower extreme score

UEx

Boxplot

Ordinate has no scale

Box stretches from FL to FU

Horizontal lines going to the extremes

X to label outliers

Median reflects central tendency

The box and lines reflect the variability

Asymmetry implies skewness

Short box is more peaked – leptokurtic

Broad box is flatter – platykurtic

1/10/2018 10:24:00 AM

Mode – more do it at this value than any other

Indices of Variability

Range

Variance

Standard deviation

The Sum of the Squared Deviations of Scores about their mean is not zero

Least Squares Sense – Taking deviations from the mean yields the

smallest number than if deviations from the scores were taken and squared

from any other number.

Median

Odd # Cases: Md score corresponds to case (N+1)/2

Even# Cases: Md score corresponds to the middle/avg of two cases

o (N/2 + N/2 + 1)/2

Mode – the most frequently occurring score value, NOT the frequency of the

most commonly occurring score value. Always the value at max peak height.

Bimodal – 2 modes

Multimodal – more than two modes

Median – not affected by extremes

Mode – describe nominal/categorical data and bimodal distributions

- the sum of the deviations of the scores about the mean is zero

- the sum of the square of the deviations of the scores about the mean is

less than any other value.

central tendency.

Range – not sensitive to all scores, just the extremes

Variance (s2) – sum of squares (SS)/N-1

o

Properties of s2 and s

Logical to base variability on deviation from the mean

Always positive

s2 is very sensitive to extremes since it’s the squared deviation

Variance is proportional to the average squared deviation of each

score from every other score.

As variability increases, variance increases.

No variability gives s2 and s of zero

Under certain conditions, variance can be partitioned and its

portions attributed to different sources.

Population Formulas

μ = population average

σ2 = pop variance

σ = pop SD

Mean/Variance of the sample are used as estimators of the mean and

variance of the population.

Parameter – quantitative characteristic of a pop. Greek Letter

than N does.

every other score. So not only does the variance reflects the extent to which

scores deviate from the mean, it also reflects how much they deviate from

one another.

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