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Stars&&&Galaxies

AST&104&2&Fall&2010

Lecture&04&2&Ancient&Astronomy

A total LUNAR eclipse occurs

Question 8

A total LUNAR eclipse occurs Question 8 1) during the NEW moon phase. 2) when the

1) during the NEW moon phase. 2) when the Sun blocks the Moon. 3) during FULL moon phase. 4) always around the summer solstice.

the NEW moon phase. 2) when the Sun blocks the Moon. 3) during FULL moon phase.
Question 8 A total LUNAR eclipse occurs 1) during the NEW moon phase. 2) when
Question 8
A total LUNAR
eclipse occurs
1) during the NEW moon phase.
2) when the Sun blocks the Moon.
3) during FULL moon phase.
4) always around the summer
solstice.
the NEW moon phase. 2) when the Sun blocks the Moon. 3) during FULL moon phase.

Question 7

How long does it take the Moon to go around the ecliptic?

1) one day 2) one hour 3) one week 4) one month 5) one year

7 How long does it take the Moon to go around the ecliptic? 1) one day
How long does it take the Moon to go around the ecliptic? 1) one day 2)
Question 7 How long does it take the Moon to go around the ecliptic? 1)
Question 7
How long does it take
the Moon to go around
the ecliptic?
1) one day
2) one hour
3) one week
4) one month
5) one year

The Moon orbits Earth in a month, and passes in front of the constellations of the zodiac which are arranged around the ecliptic.

orbits Earth in a month, and passes in front of the constellations of the zodiac which

The Ecliptic

The&apparent&path&of&the&Sun&on&the&celes?al&sphere.

The Zodiac

The Zodiac

The&constella?ons&the&Sun&appears&to&travel&through&

during&the&year.

Summary

1. &Scien?fic&Models

2. &The&Greeks

i)

ii)

& Aristotle &Ptolemy &Aristarchus &Erestothenes

iii)

iv)

3. &Copernicus

4. &Tycho&Brahe

Criteria for Scientific Models

1. The model must fit the data.

2. The model must make testable predictions that can disprove the model.

3. The model should be as simple as possible.

Aristotle& (384&BC&2&322&BC&)

Greek&philosopher,&student&of&Plato&

and&teacher&of&Alexander&the&Great

• The&Earth&is&at&the&center&of&the&

Universe.

• The&Earth&and&Moon&are&spherical.

• The&Sun&and&planets&move&along&

spheres&centered&on&the&Earth.

• The&Sun&and&planets&move&along& spheres&centered&on&the&Earth.
• The&Sun&and&planets&move&along& spheres&centered&on&the&Earth.

Why think that the Earth is the center of the Universe? Aristotle reasoned that if the Earth moved around the Sun, the positions of nearby stars would appear to move.

Sun Nearby Star
Sun
Nearby
Star
of nearby stars would appear to move. Sun Nearby Star Distant Stars The apparent motion of

Distant

Stars

The apparent motion of nearby objects relative to distant ones is known as Parallax.

View from Earth

Star Distant Stars The apparent motion of nearby objects relative to distant ones is known as
Star Distant Stars The apparent motion of nearby objects relative to distant ones is known as
Star Distant Stars The apparent motion of nearby objects relative to distant ones is known as

The Geocentric Model

The Sun, planets and stars are fixed to crystalline spheres.

The Moon was on the sphere closest to the Earth, and the stars on the outermost sphere.

Each object orbits the Earth on a path along its sphere at a uniform speed.

This model appealed to the Greeks because it used geometry to explain the motion of the Sun and stars.

Star Sphere

model appealed to the Greeks because it used geometry to explain the motion of the Sun

Sun Sphere

Ptolemy (90 AD - 168 AD)

Roman citizen who lived in Alexandria, Egypt. Studied astronomy, geography, music and astrology.

Adapted the geocentric model to explain the motion of the planets.

Used ‘Epicycles’ to explain the retrograde motion of the planets.

His model fitted available data, and predicted the motion of the stars and planets.

The model was complicated.

Retrograde Motion

Retrograde Motion

Epicycles - Mercury and Venus

Epicycles - Mercury and Venus

Aristarchus (310 BC - 230 BC)

The first person to argue that the Earth orbits the Sun, after calculating that the Sun is larger than the Earth.

Was the first person to create a map of the Solar System, but didn’t have the scale

Thought the Sun was about 7 times larger than the Earth and 20 times larger than the Moon.

The relative distance of the Earth and Moon from the Sun.

Moon&(Third&Quarter)

90° 87° Earth 90°
90°
87°
Earth
90°

Sun

Moon&(First&Quarter)

The relative Size of the Earth and the Moon.

Light from the Sun

Earth

Size of the Earth and the Moon. Light from the Sun Earth Moon The Moon is

Moon

The Moon is about 3/8 of the width of the Earth’s shadow

Erastothenes (276 BC to 195 BC)

The first person to understand the shape and approximate size of the Earth.

Used the position of the Sun in the sky to estimate the Earth’s circumference.

Erastothenes calculated the diameter of the Earth to within 5% of the correct distance.

Measuring the size of the Earth

Earth’s Circumference = 360

the size of the Earth Earth’s Circumference = 360 7 ≈ 50 × d Lines to

7

50 × d

Lines to the Sun

Zenith at Alexandria

the size of the Earth Earth’s Circumference = 360 7 ≈ 50 × d Lines to

Combining&the&calcula?ons&of&Aristarchus&and&

Eratosthenes,&the&ancient&Greeks&had&for&

the&first&?me&measurements&of&the&radii&of&

Earth,&Moon,&and&Sun&and&their&rela?ve&

distances.

We&had&to&wait&un?l&1769&AD&to&observe&the&

actual&value&of&the&astronomical+unit&and&

thus&the&true&dimensions&of&the&solar&

system.

Thomas Aquinas (1225 - 1274)

Introduced the philosophy of Aristotle to Christianity.

The idea of a central immovable Earth became part of Christian doctrine.

People in the Middle Ages relied greatly on established authority.

Earth became part of Christian doctrine. • People in the Middle Ages relied greatly on established

Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 - 1543)

Polish astronomer educated in Italy.

Lived 100 years before the invention of the telescope.

Spent 40 years working on his model of the Solar System

Lived 100 years before the invention of the telescope. • Spent 40 years working on his

Copernicus developed his model for two reasons:

1. Ptolemy’s model had become less accurate over time

2. Ptolemy’s model was complex - not aesthetically pleasing.

Copernicus developed a heliocentric model, with the Earth just another planet orbiting the Sun.

This idea was so controversial at the time, his work has become known as the Copernican Revolution

Relative orbital speeds of the planets

Relative orbital speeds of the planets

The apparent motion of the Sun through the Zodiac

The apparent motion of the Sun through the Zodiac

Tycho Brahe (1546 - 1601)

Decided to make accurate measurements of planetary motions.

Built the largest and most accurate instruments before the invention if the telescope.

He also recorded the accuracy of each measurement.

most accurate instruments before the invention if the telescope. • He also recorded the accuracy of

Tycho’s model:

Tycho rejected the Copernican model because he could not measure stellar parallax.

His model was a mix between those of Ptolemy and Copernicus.

The Earth was at the center with the Sun revolving around it.

The other planets revolved around the Sun.

Johannes Kepler (1571 - 1630)

Tycho hired Kepler as his assistant a year before he died.

Kepler was able to use Tycho’s accurate measurements to develop his own model.

Spent four years trying to use circular orbits, before abandoning the circle and using the ellipse instead.

The ellipse worked for every planet he had data for.

before abandoning the circle and using the ellipse instead. • The ellipse worked for every planet

The Ellipse

The Ellipse

Kepler devised three laws of planetary motion:

1. Each planet’s path around the Sun is an ellipse, with the Sun at one focus of the ellipse.

2. A planet moves along its elliptical path with a speed that changes in such a way that a line from the Sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time.

Kepler’s third law:

3

a

p 2 = constant

Kepler’s third law: 3 a p 2 = constant a &is&the&semimajor&axis&(the&average&

a &is&the&semimajor&axis&(the&average&

distance&of&the&planet&from&the&Sun)&

p is the sidereal period of the planet

Kepler’s Contribution

For&the&first&?me,&the&Copernican&

model&worked&be^er&than&the&old&

geocentric&model.

Kepler&used&data&to&decide&that&

ellipses&worked&be^er&than&circular&

orbits,&but&he&didn’t&know&why.