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Da t a B o o k , J u l y 2 0 0 0

Semiconductor Sensors

Sensors

N e v e r s t o p t h i n k i n g .
Semiconductor Sensors
Revision History: Current Version: 2000-07-01
Previous Version: This Data Book is an Update of our Sensors Data Book 04.99
Page Subjects (major changes since last revision)

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Edition 2000-07-01
Published by Infineon Technologies AG,
St.-Martin-Strasse 53,
D-81541 München, Germany
© Infineon Technologies AG 2000.
All Rights Reserved.

Attention please!
The information herein is given to describe certain components and shall not be considered as warranted
characteristics.
Terms of delivery and rights to technical change reserved.
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circuits, descriptions and charts stated herein.
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be endangered.
Da t a B o o k , J u l y 2 0 0 0

Semiconductor Sensors

Sensors

N e v e r s t o p t h i n k i n g .
Table of Contents Page
1 Semiconductor Sensors Selection Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
1.1 Silicon Temperature Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
1.2 Silicon Pressure Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
1.3 Silicon Pressure Sensors in SMD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
1.4 GaAs Hall Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
1.5 Silicon Hall ICs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
1.6 Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
2 Quality Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
2.1 Quality Assurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
2.2 Delivery Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
2.3 Random Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
2.4 Classification of Defects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
2.5 lncoming Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
2.6 Quality Assurance in Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
2.7 Quality Assurance Concept for Preproduction and Production . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
3 Silicon Pressure Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
3.2 The Piezoresistive Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
3.3 Pressure Sensors Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
3.4 Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
3.5 Housings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
3.6 Installation Notes KPY-Series Pressure Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
3.7 Installation Notes KP 200-Series Pressure Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
3.8 Electrical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
3.9 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
3.10 Temperature Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
3.11 Environmental Actions on Pressure Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39

Data Book 4 2000-07-01


Table of Contents Page
4 Silicon Temperature Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
4.2 Technology of the KTY Temperature Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
5 GaAs Hall Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
5.1 Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
5.2 Construction of Hall Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
5.3 Concepts and General Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
5.4 Practical Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
6 Silicon Hall ICs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
6.2 Principles of Operation of Integrated Hall ICs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
6.3 Application Notes: Magnetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
6.4 Application Notes:
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) in Automotive Applications . . . . . . . . . . .83
6.5 Application Notes: Uni- and Bipolar Hall IC Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
6.6 Application Notes: Differential Hall IC TLE 4921-3U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94
6.7 Application Notes: Differential Hall IC TLE 4923 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
7 Magneto Resistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126
7.1 Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126
7.2 Concepts and General Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
7.3 Construction of the Magneto Resistor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
7.4 Practical Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141
7.5 TAB Magneto Resistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
8 Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
8.2 GMR Basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
8.3 Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151
8.4 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153
8.5 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159
8.6 Hysteresis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169

Data Book 5 2000-07-01


Table of Contents Page
Data Sheets
Silicon Pressure Sensors
◆ KP 200-A/AK Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170
◆ KP 200-R/RK Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180
◆ KP 205-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190
KPY 32-RK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
KPY 33-RK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
KPY 40-A Series. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
KPY 40-R Series. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
■ KPY 50-A Series. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
■ KPY 50-R Series. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
KPY 50-AK Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
KPY 50-RK Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Silicon Temperature Sensors
KT- and KTY-Series Temperature Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .226
Silicon Hall ICs
TLE 49x5 G Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
TLE 49x5 L Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250
TLE 4921-3U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
TLE 4923 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Magneto Resistors
FP 210 D 250-22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .302
FP 210 L 100-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307
FP 212 D 250-22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
FP 212 L 100-22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317
FP 310 L 100-30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322
FP 310 L 100-75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322
FP 312 L 100 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324
FP 410 L (4 × 80) FM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .326
FP 420 L 90 B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .330
FP 425 L 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .334

■ not for new design


◆ preliminary

Data Book 6 2000-07-01


Table of Contents Page
GaAs Hall Sensors
■ KSY 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .338
KSY 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .341
KSY 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .344
KSY 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347
KSY 44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349
KSY 46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .352
Giant Magneto Resistors
GMR B6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355
◆ GMR C6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359

Packing and Handling Instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .362


Type List and Ordering Codes (alphanumeric) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

■ not for new design


◆ preliminary

Data Book 7 2000-07-01


Selection Guide

1 Semiconductor Sensors Selection Guide

1.1 Silicon Temperature Sensors

Table 1
Resistance Package

R25

Modified TO-92 TO-92mini SOT-23 Custom Custom


1940 − 2060 KT 100 KT 110 KT 130 − −
1950 − 1990 KTY 10-5 KTY 11-5 KTY 13-5 − −
1980 − 2020 KTY 10-6 KTY 11-6 KTY 13-6 KTY 16-6 KTY 19-6
1990 − 2010 KTY 10-62 − − − −
2010 − 2050 KTY 10-7 KTY 11-7 KTY 13-7 − −
970 − 1030 − KT 210 KT 230 − −
975 − 995 − KTY 21-5 KTY 23-5 − −
990 − 1010 − KTY 21-6 KTY 23-6 − −
1005 − 1025 − KTY 21-7 KTY 23-7 − −

Data Book 8 2000-07-01


Selection Guide

1.2 Silicon Pressure Sensors


Table 2
4VIWWYVI 7 83
6ERKI
RSQMREP

FEV

 /4=6/
 /4=6/
 /4=6
 /4=6 /4=%
 /4=6 /4=%
 /4=6 /4=%
 /4=6 /4=%
 /4=6 /4=%

4VIWWYVI 83
6ERKI
RSQMREP

FEV

 /4=6/ /4=6 ■


 /4=6/ /4=6 ■ /4=%/ /4=% ■
 /4=6/ /4=6 ■ /4=%/ /4=% ■
 /4=6/ /4=6 ■ /4=%/ /4=% ■
 /4=6/ /4=6 ■ /4=%/ /4=% ■
 /4=6/ /4=6 ■ /4=%/ /4=% ■
 /4=6/


not for new design

Data Book 9 2000-07-01


Selection Guide

1.3 Silicon Pressure Sensors in SMD 1)


Table 3
Pressure P-DSOF-8-1 2)

Range
(nominal)

bar

0.6 KP 202-A KP 202-R KP 202-AK KP 202-RK


1.6 KP 203-A KP 203-R KP 203-AK KP 203-RK
10 KP 205-A

2)
This package is a future option for high volumes.

1.4 GaAs Hall Sensors


Table 4
H-Plast SOT 143 SOH MW6

R10 900 - 1200 Ω


KSY 10 ■ KSY 13 KSY 14 KSY 16
R20 900 - 1200 Ω
R10 600 - 900 Ω
– – KSY 44 KSY 46
R20 1000 - 1500 Ω

1)
Preliminary information

not for new design

Data Book 10 2000-07-01


Selection Guide

1.5 Silicon Hall ICs


Table 5
Uni- and Bipolar Hall IC Switches Dynamic Differen- Dynamic Differen-
tial Hall IC tial Hall IC with
Current Interface

P-SSO-3-6

P-SSO-3-2 SOT-89 P-SSO-4-1 P-SSO-3-6


TLE 4905 L TLE 4905 G TLE 4921-3U TLE 4923
TLE 4935 L TLE 4935 G
TLE 4935-2 L TLE 4935-2 G
TLE 4945 L –
TLE 4945-2 L TLE 4945-2 G

1.6 Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)


Table 6
MW6

Full Bridge GMR B6


Crossed Half Bridge GMR C6

Data Book 11 2000-07-01


Quality Details

2 Quality Details

2.1 Quality Assurance


For our small-signal semiconductor division supplying Quality means satisfying our
customers’ present and future expectations.
Our strategic goal is the zero-defect principle, which we have largely achieved by a
continuous improvement of the delivered quality. Extremely high investments in the
automation of manufacturing processes, computer-aided statistical process control
(SPC) and a 100% inspection and protocolled data according to customer specifications,
help to ensure and significantly improve the quality.
A basic requirement for our strategy is a high output of components based on a similar
technology. A large-scale concept of preproduction and production release allows only
fully developed products to enter the manufacturing process.
This procedure as well as extensive process monitoring results in a high level of delivery
quality.

2.2 Delivery Quality


The term “delivery quality” means conformance with agreed data at the time of delivery.

2.3 Random Sampling


The given AQL values (AQL = acceptable quality level) are based on the sampling
inspection regulation DIN 40 080 (contents correspond to MIL-STD 105 D and IEC 410),
single sampling plan for normal inspection, inspection level II. The sampling instructions
of this standard are such that a delivered lot will be accepted with a probability of higher
than 90% if the percentage of defectives does not exceed the specified AQL level. The
percentage of defectives delivered lies significantly below the AQL value.

2.4 Classification of Defects


A defect exists if a component characteristic does not correspond to the specifications
stated in the data sheets or in an agreed delivery specification. Defects which generally
exclude the functional use of the component (inoperatives) are classified separately from
less significant defects.

2.5 lncoming Inspection


The use of a sampling inspection plan according to DIN 40 080 (contents conform to
MIL STD-105 D and IEC 410) is recommended for the implementation of an incoming
inspection. The employed inspection methods must be agreed between the customer
and the supplier. The following information is required for the assessment of possible
claims: test circuit, sampling size, quantity of defectives found, sample defectives and
packing slip.

Data Book 12 2000-07-01


Quality Details

2.6 Quality Assurance in Production


The quality assurance actions implemented in the production sequences are listed
below. Production is based only on documented and preselected instructions. The
required materials, parts and consumables are examined in a special incoming goods
inspection. Random checks are carried out at various stages of production to see that
the actual/ideal state is being held and that any deviations are prompt upheld through
corrective action in production control.

Figure 1

Data Book 13 2000-07-01


Quality Details

2.7 Quality Assurance Concept for Preproduction and Production


New products or processes are only released for shipments if the processes pertaining
to the product as well as the production documentation meet the required quality
standards. The quality control is integrated into the production sequence so that quality
assurance and corrective actions can be applied in time.

Development and prepoduction steps Quality testing and approval

Specification, product plan Proven technology and design rules

Engineering samples Concept approval


Development phase

Testing of samples, if necessary


First quality and reliability testing
re-design or process change

Eng. samples for customer


Preliminary manufacturing
and test specs, data sheets

Release for preproduction


Prototype samples
Preproduction phase

Manufacturing process Quality and reliability testing

Automatic test equipment Qualification


manufacturing and test specs

Complete documentation
Release for production
EHA07240

Figure 2

Data Book 14 2000-07-01


Silicon Pressure Sensors

3 Silicon Pressure Sensors

3.1 Introduction
Pressure sensors are transducers that convert the physical quantity “pressure” into an
electrical signal. At their core there is a measuring cell consisting of a system chip with
a thinly etched silicon diaphragm in which resistance paths are formed by ion
implantation and a carrier chip which is also formed of silicon.
When pressure is applied the deflection of the diaphragm leads to changes in the
implanted resistances according to the piezoresistive effect. The thickness of the
diaphragm, its surface area and the geometric design of the resistors determine the
permissible pressure range. Mechanical effects of the housing on the measuring cell can
largely be avoided by structural features.
Table 7
Conversion Table for Pressure Units
14.502 psi
10.2 mH2O
1.02 at
1 bar ≅
1.02 kp/cm2
750 mm HG (Torr)
105 N/m2
100 kPa

3.2 The Piezoresistive Effect


The resistance change caused by changes in geometry, the basis of metallic strain
gauges is an effect which is only of secondary importance here. The primary effect is the
change in conductivity, dependent on the mechanical stresses within the crystal. This
dependence can be defined by the proportionality constant.

δρ
------ = π × σ
ρ

Compressive and dilate tensions within the semiconductor crystal are used to produce
resistance changes in piezoresistors connected as a bridge circuit.
a) Compressive tension in the crystal causes a reduction in the energy maxima and
hence an increase in the number of charge carriers in the direction of the compressive
force. This increase in conductivity reflects itself as a decrease in resistance.
b) Conversely dilatory tension causes an increase in the energy maxima and hence a
decrease in the number of charge carriers in the direction of the dilatory force. This is
reflected by an increase in resistance.

Data Book 15 2000-07-01


Silicon Pressure Sensors

The resistors are therefore precisely located on a flexible diaphragm to correspond with
the maximum compressive and dilatory tensions. With reference to the relative
directions of the components of mechanical tension σ, the electric field E, and the current
density j; the following effects can be distinguished.
– Longitudinal effect:
E|| j||σ
– Transverse effect:
E|| j⊥σ
– Sheer tension effect:
(E ⊥ j) | | σ
An indicator for the magnitude of the piezo effect is the material dependent K-factor, also
known as the Gauge factor, which is the proportionality between the relative change in
constant resistance and the relative change in length:

δR δL
------- = K × ------
R L
The Gauge-factor can be derived from basic equations:

K = π×E

Where π is the piezoconstant and E the module of elasticity. The K-factor is


approximately 2 for metals and about 50 to 100 times greater for semiconductors,
depending on the doping level.
The advantages of a pressure sensor using semiconductor technology as compared to
conventional resistance strain gauges are as follows:
• greater sensitivity
• high linearity
• very low pressure and temperature hysteresis
• high reliability through silicon nitride passivation
• fast response
• high load cycle stability as a result of the fatigue-free, monocrystaline silicon
diaphragm
• compactness
• low cost due to economic production using planar technology
One disadvantage that should be mentioned is the dependence on temperature, but
these effects can be compensated by suitable circuitry.
All Infineon Technologies pressure sensors contain a KTY-Series temperature sensor
which can be used, with excellent results, in the compensation method described (see
Chapter 3.10 Temperature Compensation).

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Silicon Pressure Sensors

Infineon Technologies initially developed pressure sensors for industrial applications


(e.g. measurement and control engineering). Sensors are available for the low pressure
range to 0.06 bar and for the high pressure range up to 400 bar. The semiconductor
technology determines parameters such as the spread of the offset voltage, its
sensitivity and temperature dependence and also the sensors stability. Other
parameters which are not seen as being ideal e.g. long term drift, pressure and
temperature hysteresis and also the effectiveness of the pressure seal are primarily
determined by the packaging.

Figure 3
Four Piezoresistors Form a Bridge Circuit
To achieve maximum measuring accuracy, four piezoresistors are connected to form a
bridge circuit (Figure 3). The position of the individual resistors is chosen such that on
deflection of the diaphragm, two oppositely situated resistors increase in resistance,
while the other two decrease. These changes in resistance result in an output voltage
Vout according to the following equation.

R1 ( p ) × R3 ( p ) – R2 ( p ) × R4 ( p )
V out = V in × ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
[ R 1 ( p ) + R 2( p ) ] × [ R 3 ( p ) + R 4 ( p ) ]

Where Vin is the supply voltage and Ri(p) the pressure dependent resistance.

Ri ( p ) = Ri + ∆ Ri ( p )

Using suitable technology and design it is possible to produce each resistor Ri as well as
their pressure-dependent change ∆Ri to the same module value.

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Silicon Pressure Sensors

The equation can then be simplified to:

∆R
V out = V in × --------
R
∆R
-------- = K × ε ( p )
R

Where ε is the mechanical deflection and K a proportionality factor known as the gauge
factor. To a first approximation, the function ε(p) is linear for small diaphragm deflections
it therefore also represents the relationship between output voltage and pressure.

V out = V in × K × ε ( p )

With greater deflection of the diaphragm the non-linearity increases because a common
expansion of all four resistors is then added to the above mentioned change in
resistance. This means for two resistors a further increase and for the other two a
decrease in the resistance change (balloon effect). This effect limits the obtainable
output signal for a given maximum permissible linearity error FL.

3.3 Pressure Sensors Design


The conversion of the physical entity pressure into an electric voltage occurs through
precisely located resistors which are connected as a Wheatstone bridge circuit
(Figure 3). In order to obtain the maximum possible signal with optimal linearity, two
conditions must be fulfilled.
Firstly, all four resistors must have the same nominal value and secondly diagonally
opposite resistors must change in equal by opposite amounts.
In principle this second condition can be met with two separate methods. Either through
positioning the resistors at locations of opposite mechanical stress-states (e.g. at the
outer edge and in the centre of circular diaphragms) or by making use of the different
signs of the longitudinal and transverse effects. The optimal position of the individual
resistors is calculated by computer using finite-element-analysis techniques.

Data Book 18 2000-07-01


Silicon Pressure Sensors

3.3.1 Low Pressure Range (50 mbar to 100 mbar)


Below 200 mbar output signals up to only 5 mV/V can be achieved with circular
diaphragms if the non-linearity is to be kept within 0.2%. The possibility of increasing the
output signal within a given non-linearity error band is provided by changing from a
circular diaphragm to an annular diaphragm of app. 20 µm thickness. Reinforcing the
diaphragm on the inside reduces extension and also the balloon effect. The
piezoresistors are arranged radially on the outside and the inside edges of the etched
ring using the longitudinal piezoresistive effect. In this way sensors can be produced for
the low pressure range with an output signal 2 or 3 times greater than that of equivalent
sensors with circular diaphragms. At a supply voltage of 5 V, the 50 mbar and 100 mbar
sensors produce output signals of 35 to 40 mV. The design of these Iow, pressure
sensors is shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5.

Figure 4
View on Chip with an Ring Diaphragm. Showing 4 Separate and Independent
Bridge Systems

Figure 5
Close Up of One of the Bridge Circuits of Figure 4

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Silicon Pressure Sensors

3.3.2 Medium Pressure Range (0.250 bar to 25 bar)


Medium pressure sensors consist of chips with circular diaphragms of 20 to 60 µm
thickness. For these pressure ranges alternatively the crystallographic (111)- or (100)-
plane is selected. The (111)-plane is used in the KPY 40- and KPY 50-series due to its
greater resistance to rupture in comparison to other planes. The (100)-plane is used in
the KPY 60-series due to its greater sensitivity.
Figure 6 for example shows the chip design of a medium pressure sensor of the KPY60-
series. The same design is also used in the high pressure range of this series. Two
piezoresistors are located radially and two tangentially at the rim of the circular
diaphragm, using the longitudinal and transversal piezoresistive effect.
The medium-range pressure sensors, available in the 0.250 bar to 25 bar ranges, have
full-scale output voltages of 25 mV to 250 mV (with 5 V supply).

Figure 6
View on the Chip of KP 200-Series Sensor

3.3.3 High Pressure Range (60 bar to 400 bar)


At high pressures, the actual bending stresses are not limited to the diaphragm region,
but extend far into the thicker peripheral region. With the (111)-plane, this would result
in a non-linearity of over 1%. Therefore high pressure sensors are structured in the (100)
crystallographic plane with circular form diaphragms like shown in Figure 6. The
diaphragm thickness in this case is up to 300 µm. Output voltage signals up to 550 mV
for a 5 V supply can be attained.

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Silicon Pressure Sensors

3.4 Technology

3.4.1 Wafer Fabrication


Most processing steps used in the production of pressure sensors are Silicon planar
technology. For the production of pressure sensors in particular two further processes
are used: the production of the diaphragm and the wafer bonding technique.
Apart from these steps, there are some special requirements for the passivation layers
and for the mounting technique.
The greatest care is taken in the establishment of the planar processes for pressure
sensors to avoid instabilities, which could result in a drift of the output signal or of the
offset. The cause of these drifts are leakage currents between the p/n regions of the
piezoresistors and the substrate, surface creep currents and mechanical tensions.
These possible error sources are kept low by the technology processes and also by the
chip mounting technique used. The isolation resistances between the connecting pins
and the housing must not fall below a value of 109 Ω.
The p-conducting resistor tracks are surrounded by a low ohmic stopper channel which
helps to prevent the formation of inversion layers on the surface of the semiconductor.
Alternatively the whole surface (including the resistance tracks) can be lightly counter
implanted. In this case the doping level (1016 cm− 3) is limited at the upper level by the
breakdown voltage which typically lies between 30 and 40 V.
Another important factor for the stability is the use of a nitride layer over the oxide layer
as a diffusion barrier. As the coefficient of thermal expansion of silicon (2 × 10− 6 /K) lies
between that of its oxide (0.55 × 10− 6 /K) and its nitride (4 × 10− 6 /K) through the selection
of special combinations of both layers, a stress free state can be obtained which has the
effect of reducing the temperature coefficient of the offset TCV0.
Further precautions to improve the stability are the deposition of a plasma nitride layer
over the metalisation tracks, which suppresses creep current between neighbouring
conductor tracks, and the deposition of a thin conductive screening layer of evaporated
silicon on top through which horizontal field components are prevented. An accumulation
of charge carriers in the silicon oxide is thereby suppressed and the sensor is screened
from induction by external charge carriers.

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Silicon Pressure Sensors

Figure 7
Cross-section of a Pressure Sensor Chip (not to scale)
0 Substrate 1 Epitaxy
2 Channelstopper 3 Piezoresistors
4 Contact implantation 5 Oxide
6 LP-nitride 7 Aluminium
8 Plasmanitride 9 Polysilicon
Many of the parameters of a pressure sensor e.g. sensitivity, linearity, rupture pressure,
etc. are determined essentially by the mechanics of the pressure sensitive diaphragm.
The characterization is obtained through the thickness and area of the diaphragm, the
profile of the diaphragm rim and the crystallographic orientation of the diaphragm
surface. The unavoidable tolerances on some of these parameters in manufacture
produce the tolerances shown in the electrical data. The dependence of the sensitivity
“s” on the radius “r” and the thickness “d” of a circular diaphragm is given by:

k × r2
s = -------------
d2

where k = a design dependent constant.


The thickness of the diaphragm is defined by a low doped epitaxial layer grown onto a
highly doped substrate. By using an etching technique, consisting of a wet chemical
isotropic coarse etching and an electrochemical fine etching with an automatic etch-stop
process it is possible to reduce the mean tolerance of the epitaxial layer diaphragm.
The advantage of a circular or ring diaphragms, compared with a rectangular
diaphragms is, that the unavoidable stresses caused by mounting are evenly distributed
to the four piezoresistors by virtue of their radial symmetry.

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Silicon Pressure Sensors

3.4.2 Wafer Bonding Techniques and Mounting Methods


The mounting of the pressure sensitive chip is a decisive factor in pressure sensor
design. As the chip is designed to react to mechanical action a thermomechanically
stable construction is a fundamental prerequisite in attaining a reproducible output
signal.
The system chip wafer is bonded to a silicon constraint wafer of the same thickness
using a gold alloying process. This adds mechanical stability to the chip and stresses
caused by the mounting are reduced. Bonding takes place under vacuum and at a
temperature above that of the Gold/Silicon eutectic point. On cooling, a metallic pressure
tight seal is obtained with a rupture load higher than that of silicon. This high quality
bonding is a contributory factor to the excellent long term stability of these sensors.
Modification of the constraint wafer allows the construction of absolute pressure or
differential pressure (with opening) sensor chips (Figure 8).
Further steps taken to reduce the disruptive tensions attributable to the mounting include
the choice of the baseplate material and also the mounting technology. The material
chosen for the baseplate is KOVAR®, as this is thermally matched to Silicon more than
any other metallic material. Depending on the application of the sensor, two alternative
mounting methods are used.
The “hard mounting” (Figure 8) method uses a AuSn solder bond to join the chip onto a
small tube glazed into the centre of the baseplate. The bonding area is kept as small as
possible, in this case to a circle of diameter 2 mm. This mounting method is used in
pressure sensors of the KPY 40-series and KPY 50-series. Low and medium range
pressure sensors have (in addition to the above) a small ring channel etched into the
carrier chip around the mounting point which also acts to reduce thermal stresses at the
carrier chip.

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Silicon Pressure Sensors

Figure 8
Basic Structure of a Hard Mounted Relative Pressure Sensor
1 Metal base of housing
2 Glaze
3 KOVAR® mounting tube
4 Gold-tin soldering
5 Opening in carrier chip, only for differential pressure sensor chips
6 Silicon constraint wafer
7 Metallic connecting layer (Eutectic bond)
8 Silicon system wafer
9 Cavity, under vacuum in absolute pressure sensor chips
10 Silicon epitaxial layer (corresponds to pressure-sensitive diaphragm)

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Silicon Pressure Sensors

3.5 Housings

3.5.1 KPY 30 R/RK Series Pressure Sensors


The differential/gauge pressure sensor chips are “hard mounted”, as previously
described, directly onto a tube glazed into the baseplate. The reference pressure is
brought onto the rearside of the chip through the centre tube. A KTY-series temperature
sensor chip is located on a ceramic carrier beside the pressure sensor chip, and this can
be used to compensate the pressure sensor. A compensation method which produces
excellent results is shown in Chapter 3.10 Temperature Compensation.
In the KPY 32-RK and KPY 33-RK construction, a funnel shaped plastic handling cap is
fitted over the sensor baseplate. This handling cap can easily removed to allow further
fabrication of the sensor. This basic construction is used to produce media separated
sensors (see Figure 9). The baseplate rim has a sacrificial welding lip embossed onto it
to allow further fabrication by resistive welding.

With protective plastic cap


EHA07234

Figure 9
a) KPY 30-RK Pressure Sensor
1 Plastic protection cap/nickel cap 2 Pressure sensor chip
3 Centre tube for chip mounting 4 Baseplate
5 Electrical contact pin

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Silicon Pressure Sensors

3.5.2 KPY 40 A/R Series Pressure Sensors


This construction is similar to that of the KPY 30-series described previously. The
housing is completed by welding a nickel cap onto the baseplate. One of the electrical
contact pins glazed into the baseplate has been replaced by a small capillary tube which
vents to atmosphere, or to a reference pressure for the differential sensors. Absolute
pressure sensors are produce by evacuating the housing through this capillary tube, and
then sealing it by welding. A thickfilm conductor pattern on ceramic is used to
interconnect the bonds to the chip with the contact pins, and is also used as a substrate
for a KTY-series temperature sensor chip. This temperature sensor chip can be used to
compensate the pressure sensor. A compensation method which produces excellent
results is shown in Chapter 3.10 Temperature Compensation.

Figure 10a/b
Construction of Rear-side Coupled Housing KPY 40-A/R Series
a) Relative Pressure b) Absolute Pressure
1 Ni-cap (TO-8)
2 Pressure sensitive Chip
3 Si-temperature sensor
4 Capillary tube: open for differential sensors
5 Electrical contacts
6 Centre tube for chip mounting and as pressure coupling port
7 Capillary tube: weld sealed for absolute pressure sensors

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Silicon Pressure Sensors

3.5.3 KPY 50-AK and KPY 50-RK Series Pressure Sensors


In the KPY 50-AK construction, a funnel shaped plastic handling cap is fitted over the
sensor baseplate. This handling cap can easily removed to allow further fabrication of
the sensor. This basic construction is used to produce media separated sensors (see
Figure 12a/b). It is also the basis of the KPY 40 A/R series described previously.
The baseplate rim has a sacrificial welding lip embossed onto it to allow further
fabrication by resistive welding. The ceramic plate serves primarily to reduce the volume
of oil filling.

Figure 11a/b
a) KPY 50-RK Relative Pressure Sensor b) KPY 50-AK Absolute Pressure Sensor
Figure 11a shows the construction of relative pressure sensors where the pressure
sensitive cell is “hard mounted” directly onto a tube glazed into the baseplate. The
pressure can be applied either onto the front or the rear of the chip.
Figure 11b shows the construction of absolute pressure sensors where the pressure
sensitive cell contains an integral vacuum, which is “hard mounted” directly onto a stud
glazed into the baseplate. This stud replaces the centre tube and gives additional
security in the case of diaphragm rupture.

Figure 11c
View on a KPY 50-RK Sensor, Showing Pressure Sensor Chip in the Centre, and
the Small Temperature Sensor Chip Located on the Ceramic

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Silicon Pressure Sensors

3.5.4 Media Separated Housing KPY 50-A/R Series


This construction allows the measurement of pressure of media which are aggressive,
contaminated or require to be kept sterile (e.g. food industry, medical equipment). The
sensor element is welded to a stainless steel housing which is then filled with silicone oil
(Figure 12). A stainless steel diaphragm separates the sensor from the media being
measured. The oil acts as a coupling media between the sensor chip and the media
being measured.
The pressure from the media being measured is transferred from the stainless steel
diaphragm through the silicone oil onto the top surface of the silicon diaphragm. The
reference pressure is applied to the rear of the silicon diaphragm.

Figure 12a/b
Construction of Media Separated Housing
a) Relative Pressure b) Absolute Pressure
1 Stainless steel diaphragm
2 Stainless steel housing
3 “VITON” O-Ring
4 Silicon oil (coupling medium)
5 Pressure sensitive chip
6 Si-temperature sensor
7 Capillary tube
8 Centre tube (for differential pressure)
9 Centre stud (for absolute pressure)

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Silicon Pressure Sensors

3.5.5 KP 200-A/AK and KP 200-R/RK Series Pressure Sensors


The KP 200-A/AK/R/RK series sensors use the “soft mounting” method to secure the
pressure sensitive chip. The chip is glued into the P-DSOF-8 housing using an isolating
silicone adhesive. These sensors are designed for further fabrication using pick and
place tools. The pressure to be sensed should be applied to the top surface of the chip.
A KTY-Series temperature sensor chip is mounted directly onto pin 5 of the senor
housing. This pin should therefore not be connected. The temperature sensor is
connected electrically to the + Vin pin of the pressure sensor.

a) Relative Pressure Sensor b) Absolute Pressure Sensor

2
3

Figure 13a/b
a) KP 200-R/RK Pressure Sensor b) KP 200-A/AK Pressure Sensor
1 Port 2 Gel coat
3 P-DSOF-8 housing 4 Pressure Sensor Chip
5 Electrical contact pin

Figure 14c
KP 200-R/RK and KP 200-A/AK Pressure Sensors

Data Book 29 2000-07-01


Silicon Pressure Sensors

3.6 Installation Notes KPY-Series Pressure Sensors


• Soldering conditions: 245 °C max. 5 s at least 1.5 mm from the sensor base. Neither
the centre tube/stud nor the capillary should be soldered.
• As the electrical contact pins as well as the chip mounting tube/stud are glazed into
the base plate of the housing, care must be taken that these are not subjected to
unnecessary mechanical loading. The maximum values to which they should be
subjected are:
Axial tension 5.0 N
Axial bend 0.02 Nm
Radial torsion 0.02 Nm
• A reduction in the length of the pressure supply tube can only be done if no
mechanical stresses are brought to bear on the glazing. Such handling procedures
are entirely at the user's own risk, and no warranty is extended to parts damaged by
such procedures. Even slight damage to the glaze can lead to failure in the long term.
• Under no circumstances should the sealed capillary tube of the KPY 40-A, or of the
KPY 50-A/R series sensors be shortened! This would lead to oil or vacuum loss. The
capillay tube can only be shortened with KPY 30-RK; KPY 40-R and KPY 50-AK/RK
series sensors. Care should also be taken that no flux or solvents block the capillary
tube.
• As the chip of the KPY 30-RK; KPY 40-R; KPY 50-A/R and KPY 50-AK/RK is
electrically connected to the centre tube through the solder bond, it also carries the
electrical potential of chip substrate which is held at +Vin. The centre tube must be
isolated from ground potential. Note that if the pressure media is ionic then this can
also lead to short circuiting.
• A 10 nF capacitor should be connected in parallel with temperature sensor chip when
it is operated over long supply leads (see Chapter 4 Silicon Temperature Sensors).
• To ensure mechanical stability of high pressure sensor > 60 bar, The baseplate
should be supported by a metal plate of min. 3 mm thickness.
• Light incidence through the pressure entry port should be avoided as photocurrents
may cause a change in the output voltage.
• When removing the protective plastic cap from KPY 50-KA/RK-Series sensors, care
should be taken to avoid damage to the bondwires, ceramic and chip.
The use of a specially constructed tool is recommended.
• The design of customized housings must ensure that the mechanical stresses acting
onto the baseplate are kept to a minimum to avoid damage to the glazing.
• Welding parameters should be se to avoid excessive thermal stress onto the glazing.
• Oil used for filling sensors should be de-gased and free from residual contaminants.
The volume of oil used should be kept to an absolute minimum so that the effects of
thermal expansion are also reduced.
• KPY 50-AK/RK-Series sensors are supplied with the capillary tube sealed at the base.
This capillary can be opened to allow oil-filling and can then be resealed at the
required length.

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Silicon Pressure Sensors

3.7 Installation Notes KP 200-Series Pressure Sensors


• Soldering condition (two times): 260 °C max. 10 s.
• A 10 nF capacitor should be connected in parallel with temperature sensor chip when
it is operated over long supply leads (see Chapter 4 Silicon Temperature Sensors).
• Light incidence through the pressure entry port should be avoided as photocurrents
may cause a change in the output voltage.
• When removing the protective plastic cap from KP 200 R/A-Series sensors, care
should be taken to avoid damage to bondwires, housing and chip. The use of a
specially constructed tool is recommended.
• For further fabrication standard SMT equipment can be used. Working with pick and
place tools the following nozzle types are suitable.
KP 200 with protection cap: nozzle type 617, 618, 717, 7181)
KP 200 without protection cap: special nozzle type 6XX4K+8-DI1, 5-L51)

1) Valid for Siemens SIPLACE 80S15 or 80S29 equipment

Data Book 31 2000-07-01


Silicon Pressure Sensors

3.8 Electrical Characteristics


The typical characteristics of a pressure sensor is shown in Figure 15. The output
voltage is shown in the pressure range p0 … pN, the so called working pressure range.

Figure 15
Characteristics of an Elementary Pressure Sensor.
p0 is the reference pressure that leaves the sensor membrane relaxed, that means
p0 = vacuum, for absolute pressure sensors, and p0 = athmospheric pressure, for relative
pressure sensors. The output voltage at the reference pressure p0 is called offset signal,
offset voltage or simply offset V0.

V out ( p 0 ) = V 0

The basic data is the nominal pressure pN, by which the working pressure range is
defined, in which the values like output span, nonlinearity, and all other values that
depend on the output span are defined. So the most important value of a pressure
sensor is the output span Vfin. The output voltage at nominal pressure is:

V out ( p N ) = V 0 + V fin = V N

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Silicon Pressure Sensors

This equation defines the output span Vfin. To compare different types of pressure
sensors it is use full to introduce a further definition, the sensitivity s, with Vin being the
supply voltage.

V fin
s = ----------------------------------
-
V in × ( p N – p 0 )

Most of the errors of the Infineon Technologies elementary pressure sensors such as
linearity, long term stability, pressure hysteresis, and temperature hysteresis are low
enough to be neglected, so there is no need for compensation. Only four parameters
remain, to be compensated:
a) Offset voltage due to production spread
b) Sensitivity due to production spread
c) Temperature drift of the offset voltage
d) Temperature drift of the sensitivity
If the output signal Vout of a pressure sensor is plotted against load pressure p then the
gently curving line depicted in Figure 16 is obtained: Vout = f (p) for the range between
the reference pressure p0, and the nominal pressure pN.
The measured (actual) output signal at half of the rated pressure p = pN/2 is denoted by
VN/2. Superimposed on this, the ideal case of a perfectly linear pressure sensor has a
characteristic which is a straight line, which is determined by the points V0 and VN (ideal
curve). The calculated (ideal) output signal at half of the rated pressure is denoted by
V´N/2.
The maximum deviation ε is the difference between the actual output signal VN/2 and the
ideal output signal V´N/2 at half of the rated pressure:

ε = V N/2 – V′N/2

where:

V
V′N/2 = ------fin- + V 0
2

The described definition is known as “fixed point setting”.


The linearity error is as follows:

ε V N/2 – V′N/2
L = ------- × 100% = -------------------------- × 100%
V fin V fin

The linearity error L in fixed point setting is therefore defined by only three measured
points; V0; VN/2 and VN.

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Silicon Pressure Sensors

However, tolerance band setting as shown in Figure 17 is often chosen instead of


linearity error determination. By this definition the ideal straight line characteristic is
placed over the measured characteristic so that it gives equal areas above (area 1) and
below (sum of areas 2a + 2b) the line.
The error then becomes:

1 1 ε
F L = --- × L = --- × ------- × 100%
2 2 V fin
V N/2 – V′N/2
F L = -------------------------- × 100%
2 × V fin

Figure 16
Fixed Point Setting

Figure 17
Setting of Tolerance Bands

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Silicon Pressure Sensors

3.9 Stability
Instability is taken as the change in the physical parameters under constant external
operating conditions. Parameters are for example the sensitivity, the offset signal, the
linearity and the temperature dependence. With mechanical pressure sensors made of
elastic material, changes of these parameters can occur through fatigue. Silicon does
not suffer from fatigue, so this effect cannot occur.
Sometimes “stability” is confused with “reliability”. In this case a change in the physical
properties is possible under cyclic changing of the operating conditions. The pressure
hysteresis and temperature hysteresis are described below. These are caused by
hysteresis in slow changes of the tension between the silicon base material, the covering
layers and the surface metalisation. The relaxation time after such treatment may be
longer than the duration of the measurement, so that these hysteresis tend to be seen
as an instability.
Other causes may be environmental. For example the output signal of non-media
separated elementary pressure sensors responds to change in humidity.
The actual offset drift is of fundamental importance in defining the stability of the Infineon
Technologies elementary sensors, and this is normally sample tested under overstress
conditions. Under normal operating conditions the measured drift is negligibly small.

3.9.1 The Temperature Coefficients


The output characteristic of the pressure sensor is changed by the physical influence of
temperature. The influences on V0, the offset voltage, and on VN, the output voltage at pN
are of different magnitudes. Strictly speaking the relation over the whole temperature
range is non-linear, but as the deviation from linearity within the temperature range of
25 °C to 125 °C is very small, it can be defined as a temperature-independent constant
as the normalized temperature coefficient of the offset and can be given by:

V0 ( T1 ) – V0 ( T0 ) 1
- × ------------------ × 100% K –1
TCV0 = ---------------------------------------
T1 – T0 V fin ( T 0 )

and the normalized temperature coefficient of the output span by:

V fin ( T 1 ) – V fin ( T 0 ) 1
- × ------------------ × 100% K –1
TCVfin = ------------------------------------------
T1 – T0 V fin ( T 0 )

To determine the TC it is sufficient to measure the offset V0 and the span Vfin at the rated
pressure pN and at two temperatures T0 = 25 °C and T1 = 125 °C.

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Silicon Pressure Sensors

Substituting these TC values results in the following definition for output voltage Vout:

 p 
Vout = V 0 ( T 0 ) + V fin ( T 0 ) ×  TCV0 × ( T – T 0 ) + ----- × [ 1 + TCVfin × ( T – T 0 ) ] 
 pN 

3.9.2 Temperature Hysteresis


If a sensor is influenced by a temperature and is later brought back to its original
temperature, then the offset voltage as well as the span may have shifted slightly. This
change is known as temperature hysteresis. The magnitude of this hysteresis is
dependent of two influencing factors:
1. The magnitude of the temperature difference between the original and the transitory
temperature
2. The duration of the temperature cycle.
The definition of the offset temperature hysteresis is as follows:

V′0 ( T 0 ) – V 0 ( T 0 )
- × 100%
THV0 = -----------------------------------------
V fin ( T 0 )

THVfin can be defined in a similar way:

V′fin ( T 0 ) – V fin ( T 0 )
- × 100%
THVfin = --------------------------------------------
V fin ( T 0 )

3.9.3 Pressure Hysteresis


From mechanical pressure sensing devices it is known that the effect of the measured
parameter pressure, can also lead to a hysteresis in the offset voltage V0 and in the span
Vfin when the sensor is loaded with the rated pressure pN in between the unloaded states
of p0 and p´0. Due to the excellent elasticity of the silicon diaphragm this influence is very
small (typically less than 0.1%) and thereby negligible. Defined in a similar way as the
temperature hysteresis; the normalized pressure hysteresis of the offset is given by:

V′ 0 ( T 0, p 0 ) – V 0 ( T 0, p 0 )
PHV0 = ---------------------------------------------------------- × 100%
V fin ( T 0 )

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Silicon Pressure Sensors

3.10 Temperature Compensation

Passive Temperature Compensation of a Pressure Sensor


Compensation range: T0 … T1, (maximum − 40 °C … + 125 °C)
Values to be Measured (Before Connection of any External Components):
V0(T0), V0(T1): Offset voltage at T0 and at T1
RB(T0), RB(T1): Bridge resistance at T0 and at T1
VN(T0), VN(T1): Output voltage at rated pressure pN at T0 and at T1

Fixed Parameters
RL: Linearization resistance (typical 806 Ω)
VIN: Supply voltage (typical 5 V)
RT(25 °C): KTY temperature sensor resistance at 25 °C = typically 2 kΩ

R T ( T 0 ) = R T ( 25 °C ) × [ 1 + a × ( T 0 – 25 °C ) + b × ( T 0 – 25 °C )2 ]
R T ( T 1 ) = R T ( 25 °C ) × [ 1 + a × ( T 1 – 25 °C ) + b × ( T 1 – 25 °C )2 ]
with: a = 7.88 10- 3 K- 1; b = 1.937 10- 5 K- 2

Equations
Equation for Calculating the Temperature Compensation of the Span Signal:

k–1
R V = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
RB ( T0 ) + RT ( T0 ) + RL RB ( T 1 ) + RT ( T 1 ) + RL
---------------------------------------------------------- – k × --------------------------------------------------------- -
RB ( T0 ) × [ RT ( T0 ) + RL ] RB ( T1 ) × [ RT ( T1 ) + RL ]

Data Book 37 2000-07-01


Silicon Pressure Sensors

Equation for Calculating the Temperature Compensation of the Offset Voltage:

V k × RB ( T1 ) – RB ( T0 )
R P = ------in × -------------------------------------------------
-
4 k × V0 ( T1 ) – V0 ( T0 )

with

V N ( T 0 ) – V 0 ( T 0 ) V fin ( T 0 )
k = ---------------------------------------
- = ------------------
V N ( T 1 ) – V 0 ( T 1 ) V fin ( T 1 )

Connection of the Temperature Compensation Circuit:

Figure 18
The sign (+ or −) of Rp from the equation above shows whether the resistance Rp1 or Rp2
is to be used:
for + Rp: Rp1 = Rp
between + Vout and ground
for − Rp: Rp2 = |Rp|
between − Vout and ground

Data Book 38 2000-07-01


Silicon Pressure Sensors

3.11 Environmental Actions on Pressure Sensors

3.11.1 Mechanical Load Maximum Ratings


Table 8
Force Direction Acceleration Duration
Horizontal acceleration X, Y 150 g 100 min
Vertical acceleration Z 500 g 10 min
Periodic cycling X, Y, Z 20 g, 3 h
between 1 to 2000 Hz
Half sine shock (each 5 cycles) X, Y, Z 1500 g 0.5 ms

The above parameters were tested after temperature cycling, 100 cycles in the
temperature range − 55 °C to + 150 °C, performed on the types KPY 40-series and
KPY 50-series.
For continuous operation under conditions of alternating mechanical loading the above
limits should be reduced by 50% to avoid permanent damage to the sensor.

Data Book 39 2000-07-01


Silicon Pressure Sensors

3.11.2 Media Compatibility


Table 9a Gases
Medium Type Series
1)
KPY 30-RK KPY 40-A/R KPY 50-A/R KP 200-A/AK
KPY 50-AK/RK1) KPY 50-RK 2)
/R/RK
Gases Front Side Rear Side Separating Front Side
without with Diaphragm without
Condensation Condensation with Condensation
Water Content Contaminants
Oxygen ● ● ● ●

Nitrogen ● ● ● ●

Hydrogen ● ● ● ●

Carbon oxide ● ● ● ●

Noble gases ● ● ● ●
e.g. He
SF6 − ● ● −
(sulphur
hexafloride)
Butane − ● ● −
Nitrous dioxide − ● ● −
Methane − ● ● −
Propane − ● ● −
Exhaust gas − − ● −
CO2 + H2S + SO2

● compatible
− not compatible

1) Sensors of the KPY 30-RK and KPY 50-AK/RK series are designed for further fabrication and should not be
used, in the supplied form directly. Pressure applied to frontside (i.e. onto chip face).
2) Pressure applied to rearside of chip (i.e. via KOVAR® centretube).

Data Book 40 2000-07-01


Silicon Pressure Sensors

Table 9b Liquids
Medium Type Series
KPY 30-RK1) KPY 40-A/R KPY 50-A/R KP 200-A/
1) 2)
KPY 50-AK/RK KPY 50-RK (Stainless- AK/R/RK
steel housing)
Liquids Dried with Water Mildly –
Content Aggressive
(traces)
Silicone oil AK 100 ● ● ● −
(coupling medium)
Fluorates e.g. FC 43 … ● ● ● −
72 (coupling medium)
Hydraulic oils − ● ● −
Alcohol’s, Acetone − ● ● −
Petrol, heating oil − ● ● −
Engine/Gearbox oil − ● ● −
ATF-oils − ● ● −
Water oil emulsion − ● ● −
Brake fluid − ● ● −
Ink − ● ● −
Coolants, Freon − ● ● −
Coolants to DIN 8962 − ● ● −
Ammonium − − ● −
Benzol − ● ● −
Liquid gelantine − ● ● −
Insulin − ● ● −
Salt water − − ● −
Washing agents − − ● −
Water − − ● −
Wine, Beer − − ● −
● compatible
− not compatible
This list has been prepared to give an example of the types of media which can be used
with Siemens pressure sensors and is not intended to be complete.

1) Sensors of the KPY 30-RK and KPY 50-AK/RK series are designed for further fabrication and should not be
used, in the supplied form directly. Pressure applied to frontside (i.e. onto chip face).
2) Pressure applied to rearside of chip (i.e. via KOVAR® centretube).

Data Book 41 2000-07-01


Silicon Temperature Sensors

4 Silicon Temperature Sensors

4.1 Introduction
The KTY temperature sensor developed by Infineon Technologies is based on the
principle of the Spreading Resistance.
The expression “Spreading Resistance” derives from a method, called the “one-point-
method” (Figure 19) used to measure the specific resistivity of semiconductor wafers.
The resistance R is given by:

ρ
R = ------------
π×d

where:
R Sensor resistance (Ω)
ρ Specific resistivity of bulk Silicon (Ω × cm)
d Diameter of measuring point (cm)
This measurement is independent of the thickness, “D” and the diameter of the wafer,
as long as the contact point diameter “d” is negligibly small in comparison.
In addition, the contact resistance between semiconductor and metal is also measured.

Figure 19
Measuring the Specific Resistance of Semiconductors Using the “One-point
Method”
In a conventional temperature sensor based on the principle of spreading resistance, a
contact hole in the oxide mask serves as the measuring point (Figure 20). In order to
comply with the measuring principle, the hole diameter must be negligibly small
compared to the chip dimensions.
An essential feature of the spreading resistance sensor is that it contains no p/n junction.

Data Book 42 2000-07-01


Silicon Temperature Sensors

Figure 20
Conventional Spreading Resistance Temperature Sensor
The basic conduction mechanism can be explained by looking at a single Si-crystal. At
normal temperatures all crystal locations are ionised, so an increase in temperature
does not lead to an increase in the number of charge carriers. However, the increased
lattice energy associated with a rise in temperature leads to an increase in the phonon
scatter within the crystal and thereby increases the resistance. A Si-temperature sensor
based on the spreading resistance principle therefore has a positive temperature
coefficient (Figure 21).

Figure 21
Change in the Specific Conductivity of Silicon with the Reciprical Temperature 1/T
The temperature range of dislocation creation is limited by the intrinsic conductivity
process at higher temperatures and by the dislocation reserves at low temperatures.
This gives a natural boundary on the measurement range of a Spreading resistance
sensor, it is dependent on the crystal doping. A specific resistance of about 7 Ωcm

Data Book 43 2000-07-01


Silicon Temperature Sensors

results in a TC factor (100 °C/25 °C) of 1.70. With a hole diameter of 22 µm this gives a
resistance value of 1000 Ω.
In a conventional spreading resistance temperature sensor the current flow spreads
from the contact hole in the oxide mask on the chip surface through to to the rearside of
the chip (Figure 19).This construction is assymmetric and, due to the non-ohmic contact
between the metalisation and the silicon, produces to a resistor which is dependent on
current direction.
To overcome this, a symmetric construction was selected for the KTY temperature
sensor (Figure 22). Here, two spreading-resistance sensors are put in series with one
another, the current through the sensor then flows through two identical contact holes in
the oxide mask. With this arrangement the sensor is low in capacitance; this means that
the sensor has to be protected against high voltages.
With the optimised values of 7 Ωcm and 22 µm hole diameter the sensor resistance is
defined at (2 × 1000) Ω = 2000 Ω.

Figure 22
Schematic Cross Section through the Temperature Sensor KTY Chip

Figure 23
View on the KTY Sensor Chip

Data Book 44 2000-07-01


Silicon Temperature Sensors

4.2 Technology of the KTY Temperature Sensor


Photolithography with image definitions in the sub micron range are used to produce the
KTY temperature sensor. A double layer of Oxide and Nitride on the chip surface serves
as an insulation film. After deposition of the contact areas, this is again covered with
plasma nitride, only that over the contact point being etched away to allow bonding. The
chip produced in this process is thereby fully passivated against environmental
influences.
In order to increase the yield of chips per wafer which fall into the tightest possible
tolerance band, neutron activated material is used in the production of the KTY sensors.
In this doping method the silicon wafer is implanted with neutrons in a nuclear reactor
which change Si-atoms into P-atoms. This method allows not only a precise doping level
(to 0,1%), but also gives exceptionally high homogeneity (1% Tolerance on doping level
instead of 15% with normal material ).
The quality of the contact of the back of the Silicon chip to the metal lead frame is a
further factor influencing the resistance value of a conventional spreading resistor
sensor. With the KTY sensor the chip rear side is coated with Gold and alloyed to the
lead frame. In comparison to the conventionally used adhesive solution this leads to a
higher stability of the bonding between the sensor chip and the lead frame.
The restrictions placed on the contact holes are decisive for the reproducibility and the
long term stability. In the KTY sensor a multi-layer metalisation is employed as opposed
to the conventional Al-Metalisation. This multi-layer metalisation of Ti-Pt-Au, was
developed for industrial microwave components which normally have very high current
densities and which place strong demands on reliability. This together with Au-thermo-
compression bondwire contacting assures high reliability in the KTY sensor. Figure 24
shows results of long-term high temperature steady state operation.

Data Book 45 2000-07-01


Silicon Temperature Sensors

Figure 24
Drift of the Resistance R with Long-term High Temperature Steady State
Operation

Spread of Resistance Value and Corresponding Temperature Error (Iop = 1 mA)


Table 10
T Resistance Band Temperature
Ω Deviation
°C R25 = 2000 Ω ± 1% R25 = 1000 Ω ± 1% °C
− 50 1002.2 … 1070.5 501.1 … 535.2 ± 3.43
− 45 1053.0 … 1121.0 526.5 … 560.5 ± 3.29
− 40 1105.9 … 1173.3 553.0 … 586.7 ± 3.15
− 35 1160.9 … 1227.5 580.4 … 613.7 ± 3.00
− 30 1217.9 … 1283.5 608.9 … 641.7 ± 2.86
− 25 1276.9 … 1341.3 638.4 … 670.7 ± 2.71
− 20 1338.0 … 1401.0 669.0 … 700.5 ± 2.57
− 15 1401.1 … 1462.4 700.6 … 731.2 ± 2.43
− 10 1466.3 … 1525.7 733.1 … 762.9 ± 2.28
−5 1533.5 … 1590.9 766.8 … 795.4 ± 2.14
0 1602.8 … 1657.8 801.4 … 828.9 ± 1.99
5 1674.2 … 1726.6 837.1 … 863.3 ± 1.85
10 1747.5 … 1797.2 873.8 … 898.6 ± 1.71

Data Book 46 2000-07-01


Silicon Temperature Sensors

Table 10 (cont’d)
T Resistance Band Temperature
Ω Deviation
°C R25 = 2000 Ω ± 1% R25 = 1000 Ω ± 1% °C
15 1823.0 … 1869.6 911.5 … 934.8 ± 1.56
20 1900.5 … 1943.9 950.2 … 972.0 ± 1.42
25 1980.0 … 2020.0 990.0 … 1010.0 ± 1.27
30 2057.0 … 2102.6 1028.5 … 1051.3 ± 1.41
35 2135.8 … 2187.3 1067.9 … 1093.6 ± 1.56
40 2216.4 … 2274.0 1108.2 … 1137.0 ± 1.71
45 2298.8 … 2362.7 1149.4 … 1181.4 ± 1.85
50 2383.1 … 2453.5 1191.5 … 1226.8 ± 1.99
55 2469.2 … 2546.4 1234.6 … 1273.2 ± 2.14
60 2557.1 … 2641.3 1278.6 … 1320.6 ± 2.28
65 2646.9 … 2738.2 1323.4 … 1369.1 ± 2.43
70 2738.5 … 2837.2 1369.2 … 1418.6 ± 2.57
75 2831.9 … 2938.3 1415.9 … 1469.1 ± 2.71
80 2927.1 … 3041.4 1463.6 … 1520.7 ± 2.86
85 3024.2 … 3146.5 1512.1 … 1573.3 ± 3.00
90 3123.1 … 3253.7 1561.5 … 1626.9 ± 3.15
95 3223.8 … 3363.0 1611.9 … 1681.5 ± 3.29
100 3326.3 … 3474.3 1663.2 … 1737.2 ± 3.43
105 3430.7 … 3587.7 1715.3 … 1793.8 ± 3.58
110 3536.9 … 3703.1 1768.4 … 1851.5 ± 3.72
115 3644.9 … 3820.5 1822.5 … 1910.3 ± 3.87
120 3754.8 … 3940.0 1877.4 … 1970.0 ± 4.01
125 3866.4 … 4061.6 1933.2 … 2030.8 ± 4.15
130 3979.9 … 4185.2 1990.0 … 2092.6 ± 4.30
135 4043.5 … 4256.3 2021.7 … 2128.2 ± 4.44
140 4145.0 … 4367.5 2072.5 … 2183.8 ± 4.59
145 4246.6 … 4478.9 2123.3 … 2239.4 ± 4.73
150 4348.1 … 4590.2 2174.0 … 2295.1 ± 4.87

Data Book 47 2000-07-01


GaAs Hall Sensors

5 GaAs Hall Sensors

5.1 Fundamentals
The Hall effect, so named after its discoverer Edwin Hall in 1879, is the result of the
Lorentz force on moving electrons subjected to a magnetic field. Figure 25a is a
representation of the current flow in a material when no magnetic field is present. As
shown, the electric equipotential lines drawn across the material perpendicular to the
current flow are straight lines. The Lorentz force on the electrons transiting the material
is given by
F = q × (v × B) when q = electron charge
E = Electric field
Where the cross-product indicates that the force is in a direction mutually perpendicular
to the current flow and the magnetic field. Figure 25b is a representation of the current
flow in a material subjected to a perpendicular magnetic field.

Figure 25a Figure 25b


The angle through which the current flow is changed by the magnetic field is known as
the Hall angle and is a material dependent parameter, being determined by the electron
mobility µ which also determines the Hall coefficient RH.
As is shown in Figure 25b, the equipotentials along the length of the material are
skewed, and this brings about the Hall voltage measured along the material. Although
the Hall effect is present in all materials it only finds practical application in a few, where
the electron mobility is exceptionally high. Examples of such materials are III-V
compounds, e.g. Gallium Arsenide and Indium Antimonide.

Data Book 48 2000-07-01


GaAs Hall Sensors

5.2 Construction of Hall Sensors

Figure 26
Principle Construction of a Hall Sensor
A strap of suitable material, thickness d, length l and width b, carries a current I1 along
its length and is subjected to a magnetic field B in the direction of its thickness. The result
of the simultaneous action of these parameters is the generation of a voltage across the
points 3 and 4. This voltage is known as the open circuit Hall voltage V20, and its
magnitude is given by

RH
V 20 = ------ × I1 × B
d

where RH is the Hall constant of the material.


The supply current is contacted to the material by the electrodes 1 and 2 and the Hall
voltage is measured across the electrodes 3 and 4. The effective area of the Hall sensor
is then within the limits set by the tips of the electrodes.

Data Book 49 2000-07-01


GaAs Hall Sensors

5.3 Concepts and General Data

5.3.1 Rated Supply Current I1N


The rated supply current is set such that in operation in still air the semiconductor Hall
sensor establishes a system over-temperature of between 10 °C and 15 °C. The effects
of this temperature increase on the Hall coefficient, and hence the open circuit Hall
voltage is shown in Figure 27 as well as in the data sheets by the TCV20 value.

Figure 27
The Hall coefficient RH is a material constant and as shown in Figure 27 is also
temperature dependent. It is, however, not dependent on magnetic field within the
following constraints: For Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) up to inductions of 15 Tesla.

5.3.2 Open Circuit Hall Voltage V20


The data sheets give values of the open circuit Hall voltage which is the output voltage
V20 generated across the unloaded Hall element when supplied by the rated current I1N
and subjected to a magnetic induction B as indicated.

Data Book 50 2000-07-01


GaAs Hall Sensors

5.3.3 Open Circuit Induction Sensitivity KBO


The open circuit sensitivity to magnetic induction is defined by the equation

KBO = V20/(I1N × B) [V/AT]

5.3.4 Resistive Offset Component R10


Due to production methods the Hall voltage of the sensors invariably includes an offset
which is resistive in nature. With induction B = 0 a small voltage V2RO is present across
the Hall terminals and arises e.g. from the tolerances on the geometry of the Hall voltage
terminals, and from chip inherent gradients between them. The maximum value of V2RO
is given in the data sheets and can be compensated for using the following circuit.

where R is a high value potentiometer

Figure 28
Compensation Circuit for Ohmic Zero Voltage

5.3.5 Inductive Offset Component A2


The supply leads to the Hall electrodes invariably are laid out as a loop, enclosing an
area A which cannot be reduced to zero, even with the most careful layout of the leads.
This means that in time varying (e.g. alternating) magnetic inductions, even with zero
supply current II = 0, a voltage is induced in the loop which can be measured across the
Hall electrodes, given by
:

dB
V 10 = A 2 × ------
dT

This is known as the inductive offset component and is given in terms of the area of the
loop in cm2 and is dependent on the temporal induction and its amplitude and frequency.

Data Book 51 2000-07-01


GaAs Hall Sensors

5.3.6 Maximum Permissible Supply Current I1M


The maximum permissible supply current of a Hall sensor is strongly dependent on the
packaging method and on the mode of operation, i.e. from the cooling method and on the
ambient temperature. The data sheets give the value of the maximum permissible supply
current in still air. An increase in this value without sufficient cooling precautions being
taken may lead to overheating and the consequent destruction of the sensor.

5.3.7 Thermal Conductivity between the Sensor Material and the Package
Exterior Gthc
In order to calculate the maximum permissible supply current for specific cooling
methods, the data sheets give a value for the thermal conductivity between the sensor
and the surface of the package. The value is referenced to heat being conducted from
both sides of the package.

Data Book 52 2000-07-01


GaAs Hall Sensors

5.4 Practical Applications

5.4.1 Application of Signal Hall Sensors


Signal Hall sensors find universal application in non-contact position sensing; as
opposed to inductive sensors, their output signal level is independent of their operating
frequency and thus can be operated at low speeds even down to zero. The major
application is in brushless-dc motors where the Hall sensor is actuated directly by the
magnetic field of the stator. In other applications the Hall sensors are actuated by bar
magnets, magnetized data carrier straps or magnetic fields generated by currents
flowing in adjacent conductors.

5.4.1.1 Position Detection


This can be the simple detection of a position that has been reached (i.e. a limit switch)
or an object being in a particular position (i.e. presence indication or counter), and it can
be the continuous detection of movement or displacement i.e. for the measurement of
force, pressure, torque or acceleration.
The measurement of these parameters does not generally require linear sensor
characteristics if the non-linear characteristics of the transducer being used (e.g. a
diaphragm in pressure sensing) can be compensated for, or can be linearized
electronically.

Head-on
Figure 29 shows a Hall sensor being actuated by a small SmCo magnet (4 mm diameter
× 2 mm), in the head-on mode. This means that the sensor is placed over the pole face
of the magnet. The output characteristics, output voltage versus varying airgap is as
shown.

Figure 29

Data Book 53 2000-07-01


GaAs Hall Sensors

Slide-by
Figure 30 shows the same components but being actuated in a slide-by mode, with the
airgap being kept constant. The plane of the active area of the sensor is kept parallel to
that of the magnet pole face. If the plane of the sensor is tilted through 90° and kept
perpendicular to the plane of the pole face as shown in the arrangement of Figure 31,
then the output characteristic as shown is obtained.

Figure 30 Figure 31

5.4.1.2 Actuation by Magnet Pairs or Multiple Magnet Arrays


By placing two ore more magnets together it is possible to produce magnetic fields which
have sharper defined maximum and minimum values. These can then be reproduced in
the output of the Hall sensor.

Figure 32a Figure 32b


Actuation by Magnet Pair Actuation by Magnet Array

Data Book 54 2000-07-01


GaAs Hall Sensors

5.4.1.3 Magnetic Biasing and Actuation by Ferromagnetic Parts


By mounting the Hall sensor directly onto the pole face of a permanent magnet it is
possible to produce a fixed output level which can be increased by the flux concentrating
effect and unloading of the magnet by ferromagnetic materials placed in its proximity.
The arrangement and the output characteristics is as shown in Figures 33 and 34 for
both head-on and slide-by actuation.

Figure 33 Figure 34
Figure 33 shows how a ferrous part acts to concentrate the flux of the magnet onto which
the Hall sensor is mounted. The influence of the iron part decreases with increasing
seperation which leads to a reduction in the Hall voltage (head-on operating mode).
Figure 34 shows how the ferrous part moved over the face of the magnet at a constant
seperation produces an output signal with maximum occuring where they are directly
aligned (slide-by operating mode).

5.4.1.4 Ferrous Geartooth Sensing


An extension of the principle shown above is to actuate the biased sensor with a series
of ferromagnetic targets in a form of a gearwheel. The arrangement of this and the
corresponding output waveform are shown in Figure 35.
Operated under conditions of constant seperation between the magnet mounted sensor
and the geartooth, the geartooth acts as a flux concentrator for the magnetic field and
produces a maximum output. Where the gap between gearteeth is over the sensor, no
flux concentration occurs and the output level remains at the bias level.

Data Book 55 2000-07-01


GaAs Hall Sensors

Figure 35

5.4.1.5 Control of Brushless DC Motors


Brushless motors, which are also often called commutatorless motors, are finding
increasing implementation in specialized equipment where smooth operation is a
requirement. Due to their easy starting characteristic and their absence of sparking at the
brushes they find application in video recorders, disk drives, tape recorders, etc. Suitable
sensors are the KSY 13, KSY 14, KSY 16. The leadframe of the KSY 13 is of a high
permeable material which acts as a flux concentrator and hence delivers an output signal
that is markedly larger than that of the KSY 14.
The principle of the circuit for the motor control is shown in Figure 36. Two Hall sensors
are placed in the windings of the motor and give an output of the relative position of the
motor poles to those of the stator. The current to the stator coils is then controlled by
transistors powered by the output of the Hall sensors. In addition it is possible to regulate
the motor speed by the induced voltage.

Data Book 56 2000-07-01


GaAs Hall Sensors

Figure 36 Figure 37
Figure 36 shows the control voltages to the transistors versus angular rotation, for the
motor arrangement shown in Figure 37.

5.4.1.6 Non Contact Current Sensing from Magnetic Induction

Slotted Core
The use of a Hall sensor in a soft iron core allows the measurement of direct currents
with complete potential isolation between the load circuit and the measuring circuit. The
simplest method is to pass the current to be measured through the loop of the soft iron
core and then measure the magnetic induction generated in the airgap. The magnetic
flux density in the airgap of the core is represented by

µ0 × n × I
B = ----------------------
- (Tesla)
l Fe
δ + -------
µr

Data Book 57 2000-07-01


GaAs Hall Sensors

where µ0 = magnetic field constant 1.256 × 10 –6 Vs/Am


n = number of turns
I = current to be measured
δ = airgap dimensions
lFe = path length of iron core
µr = relative permeability of the core material.

Figure 38
Usually in this equation the IFe/µr is negligibly small compared to the airgap δ
(where IFe / µr < 100 δ ) and the above equation can be written as:

µ0 × n I
B = ---------------
-
δ

with I in Amps
δ in m
B in Tesla.
The Hall voltage of the Hall sensor placed in the airgap can be calculated from the
following relation

VH = KB0 × IIN × B (Volts)

where KB0 = open circuit Hall sensor sensivity (in V/AT) and
IIN = Hall sensor rated supply current (in Amps)
Using this measured configuration it must be ensured that the soft iron core is not
saturated.

Application using KSY 14 as a Current Sensor

a) Direct Method using Slotted Core


Figure 39 shows the measuring arrangement in which a KSY 14 was inserted into the
airgap of a soft iron core. The core was wound with 4 turns of a current carrying
conductor. The magnetic field generated in the airgap was measured by the KSY 14 in
the circuit arrangement shown and the output for increasing input current was recorded.

Data Book 58 2000-07-01


GaAs Hall Sensors

+10 V
Ι
330 Ω 4.7 k Ω TAE 2.2 k Ω
1453A 1
2
KSY 14 KSY 14 + 5
4 Turns 10 k Ω 3 _ O/P

470 Ω
330 Ω 4
10 k Ω 680 k Ω

4.7 k Ω
Core Diameter: ø = 18 mm
X-Section = 4 mm 2 -10 V
OHAX0166

Figure 39 Figure 40

Figure 41
Advantages: – Current is directly proportional to Hall voltage
– Simple construction
– Sensitivity (with KSY 14, s = 1 mV/AT for I1 = 5 mA and δ = 1 mm).
The results of trials with the KSY 14 are shown above (Figure 41).

Data Book 59 2000-07-01


GaAs Hall Sensors

b) Slotted Core with Compensation Coil


Higher accuracy is attainable if the Hall sensor is used only to detect the diminishing
induction in the airgap, and, by the closed feedback loop, hold the magnetic field in the
airgap at zero by injecting a current into a secondary compensating coil.

Figure 42
Accurate current measurement using a compensating coil. The following relations are
valid for I1 and I2

n
I1 × n1 = I2 × n2 I 2 = ----1- × I 1
n2

n
Vout = R × I 2 = R × ----1- × I 1
n2

Advantages:
High measurement accuracy (independent of both core and Hall sensor linearity, as
provided response times are fast enough, the airgap is always kept free from magnetic
field).
Also a remanence is noted in cases of undesired residual magnetization of the core (or
with current drop out or other defects).

Data Book 60 2000-07-01


Silicon Hall ICs

6 Silicon Hall ICs

6.1 Introduction

Electrical Tests and Application Circuit


• The sockets or integrated circuits must not be conducting any voltage when individual
devices or assembled circuit boards are inserted or withdrawn, unless works’
specifications state otherwise. Ensure that the test devices and power supplies do not
produce any voltage spikes, either when being turned on and off in normal operation
or if the power fuse blows or other fuses respond.
• When supplying bipolar integrated circuits with current, the negative voltage (– VS or
GND) has first to be connected. In general, an interruption of this potential during
operations is not permissible.
• Signal voltages may only be applied to the inputs of ICs when or better after the supply
voltage is turned on. They must be disconnected when or better before the supply
voltage is turned off.
• Power supplies of integrated circuits are to be blocked as near as possible at the
supply terminals of the IC. With bipolar ICs it is recommended to use a low-inductance
electrolytic capacitor or at least a paralleled ceramic capacitor of 100 nF to 470 nF for
example. Using ICs with high output currents, the necessary value of the electrolytic
capacitor must be adapted to the test or application circuit. Transient behaviour and
dynamic output resistance of the power supplies, line inductances in the supply and
load circuit and in particular inductive loads or motors have to be considered. When
switching off line inductances of inductive loads, the stored power has to be consumed
externally, unless otherwise specified (e.g. by an electrolytic capacitor, diodes, Z-
diodes or the power supply). Also a switching off of the supply voltage prior to the load
rejection should be taken into account.
• ICs with low-pass characteristic of the output stages (e.g. PNP drivers or PNP/NPN
end stages), normally need an additional external compensation at the output. This
applies particulary to complex loads. The output of AF power amplifiers is
compensated by the Boucherot element. In individual cases, bridge circuits only need
a capacitance for bypassing the load. Depending on the application it is, however, also
recommended to connect one capacitor from each output to ground.
• Observe any notes and instructions in the respective data sheets.

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Data Classification

Maximum Ratings
Maximum ratings are absolute ratings; exceeding any one of these values may cause
irreversible damage to the integrated circuit.

Characteristics
The listed characteristics are ensured over the operating range of the integrated circuit.
Typical characteristics specify mean values expected over the production spread. If not
otherwise specified, typical characteristics apply TA = 25 °C and the given supply
voltage.

Operating Range
In the operating range the functions given in the circuit description are fulfilled.

Quality Assurance System


The high quality and reliability of integrated circuits from Siemens is the result of a
carefully arranged production which is systematically checked and controlled at each
production stage.
The procedures are subject to a quality assurance system; full details are given in the
brochure ‘Siemens Quality Assurance – Integrated Circuits’.

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6.2 Principles of Operation of Integrated Hall ICs


Automotive manufacturers and industry in general are placing ever increasing demands
on accurate sensor systems for wheel speed sensing systems, engine and transmission
management as well as power steering. In addition such systems are also required for
onboard instrumentation, fuel consumption and for the accurate calculation of any kind
of positional and rotational position sensing.
Contactless, magnetically actuated Integrated Hall Effect Circuits are subject to stringent
performance and reliability requirements in automotive applications. The Hall Effect
Sensor is virtually immune to environmental contaminants and is suitable for use under
severe conditions. The IC is very sensitive and provides a reliable, reproducible
operation in close tolerance applications with temperatures in excess of 150 °C.
Silicon Hall Effect ICs have found increasing use in the past ten years. By using standard
bipolar IC technologies it is possible to create and process integrated Hall Effect Sensors
resulting in very cost effective solutions to a wide variety of sensing tasks.

Solid State Hall Effect Sensors


The integrated Hall Effect Sensor is based on the Hall effect, named after its discoverer
Edwin Hall in 1879. A Hall element (a square shaped semiconductor layer, for example)
is supplied by a constant current. When applying a magnetic field perpendicular to the
current flow, the charge carriers are deflected due to the Lorentz force. This deflection
can be measured as the so-called Hall voltage, which is perpendicular to both the
magnetic field and the current flow. The Hall voltage is directly proportional to the
magnetic field (Figure 43).

Figure 43

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Hall Effect Principle


Silicon Hall Effect IC Sensors have experienced a rapidly growing demand in the past
years. Merging the silicon based monolithic Hall element with standard bipolar IC
fabrication and assembly technologies allows the development and production of small
and reliable Hall ICs in large volumes at competitive prices, resulting in attractive
solutions for many sensing applications.

Signal Processing
There are three basic configurations for integrated signal processing of magnetic
sensors:
– Linear Hall ICs with analog output
– Switching Hall ICs with digital output
– Switching Hall ICs with digital output using two Hall elements in a differential
configuration
All these configurations share some basic circuitry. One of the most important
components is the differential amplifier. The signal levels of silicon based Hall elements
are very low. By using a low noise, high impedance differential amplifier (OTA), the basic
signal is amplified and adapted for further processing. Another important feature is the
Hall voltage generator that provides a constant supply current to the Hall element.
Additional circuit cells for protection purposes are required. Clamping structures protect
input and output against overvoltages. These structures consist of arrays of zener diodes
that cut voltage peaks. Diodes at the input and output protect against accidental polarity
reversal. Finally, EMI structures minimize the influence of electromagnetic radiation. All
the forementioned protection structures are integrated on-chip.

Packaging
One important benefit of Integrated Hall Effect Sensors is their small size. This allows for
new concepts in sensing applications such as the integration of the sensor into sealed
bearings (in-bearing sensor). The operating temperature range of Infineon Technologies
Hall Effect Sensors is − 40 … + 150 °C junction temperature, but temperatures of
+ 170 °C, for some of the ICs even up to + 210 °C, are possible.
An important aspect for the package is the thickness. A thin package where the IC
surface is close to the package surface increases the usable working air gap between
the sensor and the magnet.

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Switching Hall ICs with Digital Output


The Hall Effect switch includes a Schmitt trigger with built-in hysteresis for realizing a non
contact, magnetically controlled switching function. Some hysteresis is required for
minimizing undefined switching or oscillation and ensures that the output remains
unaffected by mechanical vibration.
The output stage is an open collector (current sink) transistor (Figure 44).

VS Protection Threshold
Q
Circuit Hall- Generator
Generator

VS
VRef

GND AEB01577

Figure 44
Block Diagram of a Switching Hall IC
The magnetic characteristics, i.e. the thresholds of the Schmitt trigger, are specified in
terms of magnetic flux density (Tesla, 1 mT = 10 Gauss). Maximum, minimum and
typical operating (switch on) and release (switch off) points as well as the hysteresis are
specified.
Switching Hall ICs are divided into two categories:
– Unipolar Switches
– Bipolar Switches
The output transistor of an unipolar switch conducts when exposed to a magnetic south
pole (operate point or BOP). If the flux density is reduced by removing the south pole, the
output becomes non-conducting (release point or BRP) (Figure 45a). By definition the
field of a magnetic south (north) pole is represented by a positive (negative) sign.

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Figure 45a
Unipolar Hall IC, Switching Characteristics
The bipolar or latching switches are designed to operate (switch ON) when exposed to
a magnetic south pole. However the switch remains on after the south pole has been
removed. To reach the release point (switch OFF), the switch must be exposed to a
magnetic north pole (Figure 45b). A symmetrical and cyclical south to north alternation
will produce a frequency output with a duty cycle of 50%.

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Figure 45b
Bipolar Hall IC, Switching Characteristics
For achieving stable and precise thresholds over the whole operating temperature
range, a temperature compensation has to be integrated. The Hall element is electrically
compensated to minimize piezoresistive effects (shifts of the switching points due to
mechanical stresses in the chip).
Hall IC switches are used in a wide range of applications in industry, consumer and
automotive. Position recognition, detection of rotational speed, e.g. for measuring liquid
volumes and noncontact commutation of DC motors are just some examples.

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Differential Hall ICs with Digital Output


For rotation or position sensing of magnetically permeable materials (i.e. ferromagnetic
gear wheels, slotted crankshafts, etc.) the Hall IC must be placed between a backbiasing
magnet and the target wheel (Figure 46a).

Figure 46a
Differential Hall IC, Toothed Wheel Application
The sensor is magnetically biased by the magnet and the rotating target wheel
modulates the flux density through the Hall cells. A tooth acts as a flux concentrator that
increases the absolute value of the magnetic field while a gap decreases it. The
separation between the tooth and the gap of the gear wheel corresponds approximately
to the one of the Hall elements. In this way, the output signals of the elements are shifted
by 180°. When the differential signal of both element outputs is formed by subtraction in
a differential amplifier, the constant magnetic bias is eliminated and the sensitivity is
doubled (Figure 46b). In addition noise signals or disturbances, which can be caused by
system offsets or by bearing clearances of the wheel and which act equally on both Hall
elements, are eliminated. The benefits of the differential principle are the intrinsically
high sensitivity and the high stability.

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Figure 46b
Differential Mode Principle
Each Hall element consists of several Hall cells with different orientation for
compensation of piezoresistive effects. The statistical spread of the individual cell offset
is also averaged by the differential amplifier so that the resulting offset is minimized.
The achievable airgap depends primarily upon the ratio of Hall signal amplitude to
residual Hall element offset. For improving this ratio, the offset can be reduced by an
integrated trimming circuit.
The differential signal is conditioned by a Schmitt trigger with hysteresis.
The sensor provides a frequency proportional the rotational speed of the target. Over the
total operating air gap range the signal is unaffected by radial vibration of the target
wheel due to bearing clearances or by positioning tolerances.

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Dynamic Differential Hall Effect Sensors


Large airgaps for differential sensors can be achieved if they are operated in the dynamic
mode. This mode of operation employs a highpass filter with an external capacitor
between the differential amplifier and the Schmitt trigger (Figure 47).

Protection Internal Reference and Supply


Device
1
VS Vreg (3V)

Hall-Probes

Open Protection
Highpass- Schmitt- Collector Device
Amplifier Filter Trigger 2
Q

3 4
GND CF AEB01695

Figure 47
Block Diagram of a Dynamic Differential Hall IC
In this case, spurious low frequent effects are filtered and the hysteresis can be kept very
small. This allows for a high sensitivity and a large working air gap. Also here,
symmetrical switching points lead to a duty cycle approaching 50%.
Applications for differential Hall ICs are in industry and automotive such as for timing
control in engines, speed control in gearboxes and general speed/position control of
mechanical shafts.
Differential Hall ICs with a current interface allow true two-wire operation. In this case the
supply current is modulated in order to transmit the output state of the IC. Two-wire
operation is preferred in cases using long wire distances and for applications with high
safety requirements, i.e. detection of “broken wire”.
An important two-wire application is for AWSS (Active Wheel Speed System) where the
distance to the controller is large.

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6.3 Application Notes: Magnetics

Measurement Configurations
Two separate methods for the detection of position or rotational motion using magnetic
sensors can be distinguished. In the first case, the magnetic flux is varied by
approaching or removing a magnet to/from the sensor or vice versa. This mechanism is
suitable for position measurement or for non-contact switching. In rotational applications
a rotating ring magnet or a ferromagnetic gear wheel modulate the flux through the
sensor. This mechanism is applied when angular position or velocity has to be detected.
In Figure 48 the possible measurement configurations are shown in detail.

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Figure 48
Measurement Configurations

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Translational applications consist of two alternative functions, the Head-On Mode and
the Slide-By Mode.

Head-On Mode
This is the simplest method with the magnet approaching from the front. Advantages of
this mode are the simple mechanical design and the low sensitivity to lateral motion of
the magnet. The flux density plot in Figure 49 shows that the displacement
characteristics are nonlinear, for position detection the switching points of the sensor
therefore have to be very precise. Also, a zero flux state cannot be achieved. Additionally
the head-on mode bears the risk of damage to the sensor when the measurement range
is exceeded (direct physical contact with the magnet). Unipolar switches, i.e. the
TLE 4905 L, are suitable for head-on mode operation.

Figure 49
Magnetic Flux Density as a Function of the Distance S between Sensor and
Magnet (Magnet: VX 145, Vacuumschmelze)

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Slide-By Mode A
The magnet is led past the IC with one magnetic pole facing towards the chip surface.
With this arrangement steep slopes and a zero or even negative fields are reached (in
the case of a passing southpole). This allows for wider switching tolerances of the
sensor. Sensor damgage due to overtravel of the magnet is excluded. This mode is,
however, very sensitive to the lateral tolerances of the magnet, as the drastic variation
of flux density versus air gap in Figure 50 shows. As for the head-on mode, the slide-by
mode A is suitable for unipolar switches, i.e. the TLE 4905 L.

Figure 50
Magnetic Flux Density versus Displacement S in the Slide-by Mode A, Distance d
as Parameter (Magnet: VX 145, Vacuumschmelze)

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Slide-By Mode B
The magnet is led past the IC sidewards with both poles perpendicular to the chip
surface, as shown in Figure 51.
Both magnetic poles are used in this application. With this arrangement the highest flux
density swing, which is very important for operational reliability, is achieved. Bipolar
switches with different hysteresis as well as unipolar switches, i.e. the complete
TLE 49x5 family, can operate in this mode.

Figure 51
Magnetic Flux Density in the Slide-by Mode B, Distance d as Parameter (Magnet:
VX 145, Vacuumschmelze)
Rotational applications serve to detect angular position, displacement or velocity. The
first decision that must be made is whether the rotor is used as a generator for the
magnetic field or as a modulator of the magnetic field strength.

Rotor as Magnetic Field Generator


A magnetic encoder wheel may be used in a radial or axial configuration, as in
Figure 48.

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Ferromagnetic Rotor as Flux Modulator


For high precision angular position and speed measurements, rotors that modify the flux
through the sensors have several advantages over magnetic rotors. When operating a
sensor with a ferromagnetic rotor, a constant magnetic field must be provided by a back
biasing permanent magnet attached to the rear side of the sensor. The turning rotor
modulates the magnetic field, i.e. a ferromagnetic material in front of the sensor acts as
a concentrator and increases the flux density of the magnet through the sensor.
Axial mounting of the sensor requires toothed wheels, whereas radial mounting is
performed with vanes or punched soft iron rings. The application with a toothed wheel
has the advantage that already existing wheels can be used. Especially for high
precision toothed wheel applications, differential sensors based on two Hall cells give
best results together with the lowest assembly requirements
Vane applications are very sensitive to radial bearing play, there is, however, only little
sensitivity to axial play. Toothed wheels are used in automotive industry for ignition
systems. ACPS systems (Active Crankshaft Position Sensing) that require a very precise
angular position readout are based on a toothed crankshaft wheel in combination with a
differential sensor. Also for speed sensing in gearbox applications, toothed wheels are
the obvious solution.
For AWSS systems (Active Wheel Speed Sensing) the rotor wheel can be directly
molded into the bearing, requiring therefore a flat punched soft iron wheel. Since the flux
density change of a molded punched iron is very small (in the range of a few mT), the
sensor must be able to switch very small field changes. Also for this application,
differential sensors yield optimum results.

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Magnet Choice
The described Hall IC applications always use one or more permanent magnets. Either
the magnet itself moves, or its magnetic field is modulated by a ferromagnetic part. For
the right choice of the magnet for a specific application, several factors must be taken
into consideration.

Mechanical Factors
– Dimensions and tolerances
– Thermal expansion coefficients
– Is there a shaft hole required for the rotating part and what is its maximum eccentricity

Magnetic Factors
– Quantity, alignment and fitting accuracy of the magnetic poles
– Flux density at the specified airgap
– Magnetic temperature coefficient

Environmental Factors
– Resistance of the materials to the environment with regard to temperature, chemical
composition and electrical potential
Of special importance are the characteristics and properties of the different permanent
magnet materials. The three most important characteristics are the remanence BR, the
coercive force HC and the density product BH max:
• The remanence BR [Tesla or Gauss] is a measure of how high the remaining magentic
flux is after full magnetization in a closed circuit.
• The coercive force HC is the field strength which must be applied in order to bring the
flux density B or the magentization J back to zero (BHC, JHC).
• The absolute maximum energy product BH max [kJ/m3] is of great significance for the
performance of the permanent magnet. It is calculated from the B-H values obtained
during the demagnetization of a permanent magnet, see Figure 52.

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Figure 52
Magnetic Hysteresis Loops
In the following some common permanent magnets and their properties are discussed.

Rare-Earth Cobalt Sinter Material


This material is an alloy of a rare-earth material and Cobalt. Rare-earth materials are for
example Samarium or Selen with the corresponding magnet materials Sm2CO17 and
SeCO5, respectively. Rare-earth Cobalt magnets have the highest performances of all
magnet types, however they are also the most expensive ones. They allow for high
temperature ranges, up to about 250 °C for Selen Cobalt and up to 300 °C for
Samaraium Cobalt. Also their maximum energy product is by far higher than the ones of
other magnets. The long term stability of rare-earth based magnets is very good. Due to
the hardness and brittleness, these materials cannot be shaped other than by grinding.

AlNiCo Alloys
As the name implies, AlNiCo magnets are alloys containing Aluminium, Nickel, Cobalt,
Iron and additives which are offered in a wide range of properties. Among all magnets,
AlNiCo magnets have the best thermal properties, i.e. the lowest temperature coefficient
of expansion. The material is easily formed, it can be cast or sintered to any shape from
metal powders.

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Also the mechanical stability is good. This, and the above properties, make AlNiCo a
suitable magnet material for mass production. However, the coercive force of AlNiCo is
low and its longterm stability is rather moderate. AlNiCo is too hard and brittle to be
shaped.

Sintered Compund Material from Neodymium, Iron and Boron (NdFeB)


As the name says, an alloy of Neodymium, Iron and Boron. This material has a high
maximum energy value and a very high field strength. The drawbacks are the low
temperature range and the susceptibility to corrosion. Also the relatively high reversible
temperature coefficient of remanence must be mentioned.

Barium and Strontium Ferrites


These types belong to the group of ceramic magnets. The ferrites, typically Barium or
Strontium, and the base ceramic material are compacted and sintered. A high coercive
force and a low price are characteristic for ceramic magnets. As disadvantages the low
remanence and the very high reversible temperature coefficient can be mentioned.

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6.4 Application Notes: Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) in Automotive


Applications
Electromagnetic compatibility is the ability of an electric device to work satisfactorily in
an electromagnetic enviroment without any impermissible influence on this environment
(e.g. DIN VDE 0870).
The DIN 40839 and the comparable ISO 7637 standards insure EMC in road vehicles
and define several types of tests:
DIN 40839-1: Injection of supply line transients (test pulses) in 12 V onboard systems
DIN 40839-2: Injection of supply line transients (test pulses) in 24 V onboard systems
DIN 40839-3: Injection of capacitive line transients
DIN 40839-3: Radiated interference

DIN 40839-1/-2: Injection of Supply Line Transients


Table 11 summarizes the amplitudes of the different transients. The respective pulse
profiles are defined in the standards. The battery voltages used are Vbatt = 13.5 V (27 V)
for a 12 V (24 V) on-board voltage supply. Since some of the pulses are generated with
the so-called Schaffner Generator, it is sometimes referred to as Schaffner test pulses.

Table 11
Severity Level of Test Pulse for 12 V Supply Voltage (24 V Supply Voltage)
Test Pulse Pulse Amplitude VS in Volts for Severity Levels
I II III IV
1 − 25 (− 50) − 50 (− 100) − 75 (− 150) − 100 (− 200)
2 + 25 (+ 25) + 50 (+ 50) + 75 (+ 75) + 100 (+ 100)
3a − 25 (− 35) − 50 (− 70) − 100 (− 140) − 150 (− 200)
3b + 25 (+ 35) + 50 (+ 70) + 75 (+ 140) + 100 (+ 200)
4 − 4 (− 5) − 5 (− 10) − 6 (− 14) − 7 (− 16)
5 + 26.5 (+ 70) + 46.5(+ 113) + 66.5 (+ 156) + 86.5 (+ 200)

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Table 12 lists the failure mode serverity classification that applies to DIN 40839 and
ISO 7637.

Table 12
DIN 40839 and ISO 7637 Failure Mode Severity Classification
Class A All functions of a device/system perform as designed during and after
exposure to disturbance.
Class B All functions of a device/system perform as designed during
exposure: however, one or more of them can go beyond specified
tolerance. All functions return automatically to within normal limits
after exposure is removed. Memory functions shall remain Class A.
Class C All functions of a device/system does not perform as designed during
exposure but returns automatically to normal operation after
exposure is removed .
Class D All functions of a device/system does not perform as designed during
exposure and does not return to normal operation until exposure is
removed and the device/system is reset by simple “operator/use”
action.
Class E One or more functions of a device/system does not perform as
designed during and after exposure and cannot be returned to proper
operation without repairing or replacing the device/system.

DIN 40839-3: Injection of Capacitive Line Transients


This test is used to simulate capacitive coupling of burst pulses into control and data lines
of electric devices. A so-called coupling clamp is used to generate the capacitive
coupling. The setup as used for the measurements is shown in Figure 53.

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12 V Battery EFT 200

+ _ GND OUT 50 Ω

1A

1 µF

5 µH 0.1 µ F
50 Ω PLANE

CLAMP Length 1 m DUT

50 Ω
Cable length 2 m
AES02550

Figure 53
Coupling Clamp Measurement Setup (EFT 200: Pulse Generator)
The Hall IC (DUT: Device Under Test) is actuated with a magnetic coil (∆B = 5 mT @
f = 200 Hz) and the supply line has a length of 2 m. Missing pulses are the malfunction
criteria. Table 13 shows the amplitudes of the capacitive pulses according to the DIN
standard. Also in this test the severity classification in Table 12 applies.

Table 13
Severity Level of DIN 40839-3 Test Pulses (12 V Supply Voltage)
Test Pulse Pulse Amplitude VS in Volts for Severity Levels
I II III IV
1 − 7.5 − 15 − 22.5 − 30
2 + 7.5 + 15 + 22.5 + 30
3a − 15 − 30 − 45 − 60
3b + 10 + 20 + 30 + 40

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DIN 40839-4: Radiated Interference


There are different tests for exposing an electric device to electromagnetic radiation. The
two most common test methods for single components as e.g. Hall ICs are
• Stripline measurements
• Measurements in a TEM cell (Transverse Electro Magnetic)
For stripline measurements a signal generator provides an electromagnetic field
(frequency typically 10 kHz … 1 GHz, E-field up to 250 V/m) between the two electrodes
of an about 1 m long stripline. The wiring of the electric component is placed between
the two electrodes of the stripline. The component itself is not exposed to the
electromagnetic field. With this setup coupling of electromagnetic radiation into the
wiring of the component is simulated. In a TEM cell the immunity of the component itself
to electromagnetic radiation is measured. The component is placed in a homogeneous
electromagnetic field, generated between the inner conductor of the TEM cell (septum)
and is outer conductor (enclosure). Figure 54 illustrates the structure of the TEM cell
and the complete measurement setup, including the signal generator and the readout
electronics.
Following the detailed measurement conditions for the differential ICs are summarized:

ElectromagneticField
• TLE 4921-3U: Maximum carrier field 90 V/m, f = 10 kHz to 750 MHz, AM = 1 kHz,
m = 80% (peak value 160 V/m)
• TLE 4923: Maximum carrier field 110 V/m, f = 10 kHz to 750 MHz, AM = 1 kHz,
m = 80% (peak value 198 V/m)

Hall IC Actuation
• TLE 4921-3U: Target wheel, ∆B = 50 mT @ f = 100 Hz
• TLE 4923: Magnetic coil for actuation, ∆B = 5 mT @ f = 200 Hz
• The position of the cables is fixed on a wooden board (thickness 20 mm). The cables
must not touch the cell.

Malfunction Criteria and Detection


• TLE 4921-3U: Missing pulses in the IC output
• TLE 4923: Jitter of ± 0.2 ms is exceeded
• Detection: Oscilloscope and frequency counter

Measurement Method
Frequency sweeps in steps of 1 MHz at the highest E-field level, remaining one second
at each frequency. In case of malfunction: Decrease of E-field to locate the minimum
values.

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Figure 54
Top View of the TEM Cell with Target Wheel powered by a DC Motor (TLE 4921-3U)
for Magnetic Actuation of the Hall IC Samples to be Tested.

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6.5 Application Notes: Uni- and Bipolar Hall IC Switches

Applications
• Detection of rotational speed
• Detection of linear position and rotational position
• Non contact limit switch
• Flow-rate measurement
• Brushless commutation

Main Features
• For uni- and bipolar fields
• Clean, rapid and bounce-free switching
• No mechanical wear
• Low power consumption
• Insensitive to contamination
• Wide temperature range
• Reverse polarity protection

General Description
The integrated Uni- and Bipolar Hall IC switch series TLE 49x5 is designed specifically
for industrial, automotive and consumer applications. These magnetic sensors with
digital output are available as unipolar and bipolar switches and bipolar latches.
The bipolar circuit includes the Hall element, an operational transconduction amplifier
and a Schmitt-Trigger. Compensation electronics guarantees a linear temperature
behaviour of the switching thresholds with a negative slope. A quadruple Hall cell
arrangement minimizes the piezoresistive effect (sensitivity to mechanical stresses).
The open-collector output can sink up to 100 mA.

Design and Function of the Chip


A magnetic field acting perpendiculary to the chip surface generates a voltage on the
probe terminals of the Hall element. This voltage is amplified and fed into a Schmitt-
Trigger that drives an npn-transistor, the collector of which gives the output. If the
induction exceeds the turn-on induction, the output transistor will conduct. If the
magnetic field is reduced by the hysteresis, the output ceases to conduct.
To minimize the variation of the switching points as a result of supply voltage drift and
ambient temperature, the Hall probe is fed from a stabilized voltage source. The
switching thresholds are stabilized in the operating temperature range by a
compensation circuit.
The devices are protected internally against reverse polarity protection.

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The TLE 4905 L is a unipolar switch, i.e. it only reacts to a magnetic south pole.
Hereafter the flux caused by a magnetic south (north) pole is defined as a positive
(negative) flux. If an applied positive magnetic flux density exceeds the turn-on value
BOP, the output conducts. If the magnetic flux density falls below the positive turn-off value
BRP, the output is inhibited again. The typical application is that of a position switch
actuated by the proximity of a permanent magnet.
The TLE 4935/35-2/45 are bipolar switches. They switch into a conducting state when
the positive flux density BOP is exceeded and they do not switch back to the inhibited state
until the equally strong negative flux density BRP is applied. In the absence of a field the
output retains in the last state (latch). Bipolar switches are applied for electronic
commutation of brushless DC motors, position detection and speed measurement of a
rotating magnetic bar or magnetic encoder wheel.

Figure 55
Block Diagram of Uni- and Bipolar Hall IC Switches
The following sections present the test results of the DIN 40839-1 and -4 tests and show
how the Hall IC switches are to be used in equipment guaranteeing Electromagnetic
Compatibility.

Injection of Supply Line Transients (DIN 40839-1)


Internally the devices TLE 4905/35/35-2/45/45-2 have no protection against surge
voltages, only against reversal of the supply voltage, so the supply voltage limit
40 V < VS ≤ 32 V must not be exceeded under any circumstances.

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Stage 1: Without External Protection


If the devices are operated in the application circuit according to the data sheet, the high
pulse amplitudes (with the exception of pulses 1 and 4) exceed the limit of the supply
voltage. Without a protection circuit there will naturally be failures.

Figure 56
TLE 4905/35/35-2/45/45-2 without External Protection

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Stage 2: Simple Surge Protection


In this case a simple zener diode (or also a suppressor diode) is used for surge
protection.

Figure 57
TLE 4905/35/35-2/45/45-2 with Simple Surge Protection

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Stage 3: Complete Protection


The illustrated protective circuitry is effective against all standard interference pulses of
severity level IV. The lower limit of the supply voltage for the circuit is slightly higher
(approx. 1 V) than that of the devices.

Figure 58
TLE 4905/35/35-2/45/45-2 with Complete Protective Circuitry

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Radiated Interference (DIN 40839-4)


The device in the application circuit according to Figure 56 is exposed to an
electromagnetic field in the range from 100 kHz to 750 kHz with field strength of
100 V/m with 1 kHz AM
200 V/m without AM
in a TEM cell. The tested item is located at the end of a 20 cm long, open adapter board
in the center of the cell.

Figure 59
Test Setup with TEM Cell
No switching error occurs, the previously set Low or High states are maintained. The
same applies for the minimum operating voltage.

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6.6 Application Notes: Differential Hall IC TLE 4921-3U

Applications
• Detection of rotational speed of ferromagnetic gear wheels
• Detection of rotational position
• Detection of rotational speed of magnetic encoder wheels
• Generation of trigger signals

Main Features
• Evaluation of very small magnetic field differences
• Large airgap in dynamic mode
• Low cut-off frequency
• Fully temperature compensated
• Clean, fast, bounce-free switching
• Overvoltage and reverse polarity protection
• Guarded against RF interference
• Wide temperature range
• Open-collector output

General Description
The TLE 4921-3U has a combination of two Hall cells, a differential amplifier and
evaluating circuitry, all on a single chip. Evaluating field difference instead of absolute
field strength means that disruptive effects, like temperature drifts, manufacturing
tolerances and magnetic environment are minimized. Further reduction in interference is
obtained by the dynamic evaluation of the difference signal using a highpass filter with
an external capacitor.
The IC is designed for use under aggressive conditions found in automotive applications.
A small permanent biasing magnet is required for sensing ferromagnetic gear wheels of
various shapes. Correct switching for even the smallest field differences between tooth
and gap is guaranteed. The typical lower switching frequency is about 10 Hz for a 470 nF
filter capacitor. The TLE 4921-3U is offered in a 1 mm thick ultraflat package with four
leads (P-SSO-4-1).

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Silicon Hall ICs

Design and Function of the Chip


When the Hall IC is exposed to a constant magnetic field of either polarity, the two Hall
elements will produce the same output signal. The difference is zero, regardless of the
absolute field strength. However, if there is a field gradient from one Hall element to the
other, because one element faces a field concentrating tooth and the other one a gap of
the toothed wheel, then a difference signal is generated. This signal is amplified on the
chip. In reality the difference exhibits a small offset which is corrected by the integrated
control mechanism. The dynamic differential principle allows a high sensitivity in
combination with large airgaps between the sensor surface and the gear wheel.
A Schmitt Trigger is used to digitize the conditioned signal. An open-collector output with
current sinking capability provides the output signal. Protection against overvoltage and
reverse polarity as well as against EMI are integrated and allow application in the hostile
environments found in the automotive industry.

Protection Internal Reference and Supply


Device
1
VS Vreg (3V)

Hall-Probes

Open Protection
Highpass- Schmitt- Collector Device
Amplifier Filter Trigger 2
Q

3 4
GND CF AEB01695

Figure 60
Block Diagram TLE 4921-3U

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Silicon Hall ICs

Method of Operation
The generation and evaluation of the difference signal can be explained with reference
to a typical application such as sensing a ferromagnetic gear wheel.

Gear Wheel

Hall Probe 1 Hall Probe 2

Signal
Processing
Circuitry S (N) Permanent
Magnet

N (S)
Output Signal

Magnet Wheel

S
N

Hall Probe 1 Hall Probe 2

Signal
AEA01590
Processing
Circuitry

Figure 61
Application as a Gear Wheel Sensor and as an Encoder Wheel Sensor

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Silicon Hall ICs

A permanent magnet mounted with either pole on the rear side of the IC produces a
constant magnetic bias field. The two Hall probes are spaced at 2.5 mm. If one cell faces
momentarily a tooth while the other faces a gap of the toothed wheel, the gear tooth acts
as a flux concentrator. It increases the flux density through the Hall probe and a
differential signal is produced. As the toothed gear wheel turns, the differential signal
changes its polarity at the same rate of change as from the tooth to the gap.
The maximum difference is produced by the tooth edge when the zero crossover comes
directly in the center of the tooth or gap. When the difference exceeds the upper
threshold ∆BRP, the output transistor of the TLE 4921-3U will turn OFF (VQ = HIGH).This
is the case when the tooth is sensed by the Hall probe 2 near pin 4 in Figure 61. As the
difference falls below the lower threshold ∆BOP, the transistor turns ON (VQ = LOW). This
is the case when the Hall probe 1 near pin 1 senses the tooth.
The integrated highpass filter regulates the difference signal to zero by means of a time
constant that can be set with an external capacitor. In this way only those differences are
evaluated that change at a minimum rate (depending on the capacitor value). The output
signal is not defined in the steady state. The accuracy that is produced will permit a small
switching hysteresis and therefore also a large airgap (up to 3.5 mm).

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Silicon Hall ICs

N (S)
S (N)
1 4
B1 B2

Wheel Profile Missing Tooth

Magnetic Field Difference Small Airgap


∆ B = B2-B1
Large Airgap

∆ B RP = 0.75 mT

∆ B HYS

∆ B OP = -0.75 mT

Output Signal
VQ

Operate point : B2 - B1 < ∆ B OP switches the output ON (VQ = LOW)


Release point : B2 - B1 > ∆ B RP switches the output OFF (VQ = HIGH)
∆ B RP = ∆ BOP + ∆ B HYS
The magnetic field is defined as positive if the south pole of
the magnet shows towards the rear side of the IC housing. AED01697

Figure 62
Sensor Signals Produced by a Toothed Gear Wheel

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Silicon Hall ICs

Gear Wheel, Sensing Distance and Angular Accuracy


A gear wheel is characterized by its modulus:
d d: pitch diameter
m = ---
z z: number of teeth
The space T from tooth to tooth, the pitch, is calculated by the formula T = π ⋅ m

T
Conversion DIN – ASA
m = 25.4 mm/p
d
AEA01260
T = 25.4 mm CP

DIN ASA
d diameter (mm) p diameter pitch p = z/d (inch)
z number of teeth PD pitch diameter PD = z/p (inch)
m module m = d/z (mm) CP circular pitch CP = 1 inch × π/p
T pitch T = π × m (mm)

Figure 63
Toothed Wheel Dimensions
The difference in induction is at its greatest when one Hall element faces a tooth and the
other one a gap. The spacing between the Hall elements on the IC is 2.5 mm, so the IC
can detect a difference from the modulus 1 upwards, the corresponding pitch being
3.14 mm. If the modulus is much greater than 3, or the wheels are irregular, there is a
risk of insufficient difference in induction over a longer period, meaning that the output
signal will be nondefined.
The maximum possible distance between the sensor and the gear wheel – as a function
of temperature, the modulus, the magnet and the speed – will be characterized by the
fact that just one impulse manages to appear at the output for each tooth/gap transition.
The following measurements are made with different magnet types:

Table 14
Magnetic Type SmCo5 Sm2Co17 NdFeB NdFeB
Size (in mm) 5 × 4 × 2.5 6×3×5 ø5×3 ø 7.9 × 2
B at d = 0.5 mm (in mT) 250 300 280 230

Data Book 99 2000-07-01


Silicon Hall ICs

AED02078
3.5
mm
3.0

2.5

2.0
Airgap

1.5

1.0
Sm 2Co17
SmCo5
0.5 NdFeB 7, 9*2
NdFeB 5*3
0.0
-50 0 50 100 150 ˚C 200
TA

Figure 64
Maximum Sensing Distance for a Gear Wheel with Modulus 1,5 as a Function of
Biasing Magnet
If the distance is reduced, a larger useful signal is produced. Therefore the switching
accuracy increases with which a Low/High transition of the sensor can represent an
angle of rotation of the gear wheel.

Filter Capacitor
The filter capacitor CF plays an important role in the correct function of the Hall IC. If an
application requires operating temperatures higher than 100 °C, ceramic capacitor types
(X7R) are recommended. The connections between the filter capacitor CF, the C pin and
the GND pin need to be as short as possible. Further recommendations are listed in one
of the following subsections.
A leakage current at the capacitor pin will cause a shift of the switching thresholds and
therefore spurious switching. The shift of the switching threshold is calculated as

IL × RC ( T )
∆ B m = ---------------------------
SC ( T )
where IL, SC and RC are the leakage current, the filter sensitivity to ∆B and the filter input
resistance as specified in the datasheet respectively.
Special attention has to be paid to the choice of the capacitor (high DC resistance) and
its assembly. Leakage currents may occur on the PCB between the connections or in a
defective capacitor and can be a source of sensor malfunction.

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Silicon Hall ICs

EMC: Injection of supply line transients (DIN 40839-1 and -2)


For the measurements with the TLE 4921-3U the test circuit shown in Figure 65 is used.
The filter capacitor CF = 470 nF is connected directly to pin 4, additionally a shunt
capacitor CS = 4.7 nF is placed in the supply line. A serial resistance of 300 Ω is used
(400 Ω for test pulse 5). Some applications do not allow such a high serial resistance,
because it causes an undesired supply voltage drop. With a smaller serial resistance in
the range of 50 − 150 Ω the following results are almost not affected, except the ones of
pulse 5. Due to its long duration up to 400 ms this so-called load dump pulse generates
high power levels to be dissipated in the Hall IC. Without a sufficiently large serial resistor
the IC would be destroyed. Therefore the minimum resistor size must be adapted to the
load dump requirements of the application or vice versa. Optionally a suppressor diode
can be placed in the supply line, eliminating the need for a large serial resistor.

RS
VS = 12/24 V
300 Ω (13.5/27 V)
1 (Pulse 5 : 400 Ω) RL
VS 2 kΩ
CS 4 TLE Q 2
C 4921-3U VOUT
4.7 nF
CF GND
470 nF 3

GND
AES02060

Figure 65
Circuitry for DIN 40839-1/-2 Test
The results obtained with the TLE 4921-3U are summarized in Table 15. The values in
parenthesis apply for 24 V battery voltage operation. Detailed results of the
measurements are available on request.

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Silicon Hall ICs

Table 15
Functional Status of TLE 4921-3U according to DIN 40839-1/-2 Test Levels
Test Pulse Functional Status according to Test Levels
I II III IV
1 C (C) C (C) C (C) C (C)
2 A (A) B (B) B (B) B (B) A/B: if t2 = 60 µs
3a C (C) C (C) C (C) C (C)
3b A (A) A (C) C (C) C (C)
4 C (C) C (C) C (C) C (C)
5 B (C) C (C) C (C) C (C/D) D: if t0 > 200 ms
6 C C C C
7 C C C C

EMC: Radiated Interference (DIN 40839-4)


This test is carried out in a TEM cell. The setup is described in Chapter 6.4
(Electromagnetic Compatibility in Automotive Application).
The PC-board, onto which the sensor is mounted, is optimized according the circuit in
the following subsection. The results of the TEM measurements with an optimized PCB
board are shown in Figure 66. It is seen that over the whole frequency range the
TLE 4921-3U performs without disturbance up to the maximum field of 160 V/m. More
details on the TEM measurements are available on request.

Data Book 102 2000-07-01


Silicon Hall ICs

Figure 66
Results of the Radiated Interference Test with the TLE 4921-3U

Data Book 103 2000-07-01


Silicon Hall ICs

Optimization of TLE 4921-3U PCB Layout for Improved EMI Performance, Three-
wire Configuration
Due consideration of the PC-board layout is a prerequisite for optimized EMI
performance of the TLE 4921-3U. The following recommendation is the result of EMI
measurements carried out on the device during in-house testing.

Figure 67
Optimized TLE 4921-3U PCB Circuit for Three-wire Operation
Component values:
CF = 470 nF High pass filter capacitor
CS = 4.7 nF Additional HF shunt (optional)
Rp = 0 − 330 Ω Forms with Cp a low pass filter in the supply line
Cp = 4.7 nF (against conductive coupling and fast interference pulses)
Rq = 33 Ω Serves with Cq to smoothen the falling edge of VSIGNAL, i.e. reduction
Cq = 4.7 nF of irradiated interference
RL = 330 Ω Load resistor

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Silicon Hall ICs

Optimization points in detail:


1. Ground
The reference point on the board is the GND pin of the device. In order to avoid
conductive interferences, all connections to this pin should be realized in a star
configuration. If this requirement is not fulfilled, the EM immunity will be reduced.
2. Connection of the filter capacitor
The connections between the filter capacitor CF, the C and GND pins have to be as
short as possible (ideally CF should be placed close to the device housing), taking into
account the above mentioned star configuration of CF to GND. If this is not possible, a
second smaller capacitor (e.g. 82 nF) between CF and TLE 4921-3U is recommended
in order to shorten the connection between CF and the corresponding pins. This
measure should be applied only if little space is available close to the Hall IC.
3. Groundscreen
In addition it is recommended to lay the GND connection of the filter capacitor out as
a groundscreen for the connection of the capacitor to the C pin.
4. Additional RF shunts
Ideally arranged RF shunts CS can further improve the EMI immunity.

The effect of the above listed optimization steps (with decreasing significance) can vary
according to the system (sensor, cable, control unit). Depending on the application, not
all the measures need to be applied.

Detecting Speed of Rotation


The output signal of the gear-tooth-sensor is rectangular. Each alteration of the switching
status represents a change from tooth to gap or vice versa. The duty cycle for a
rectangular tooth-wheel (e.g. modulus 2) and sensing distance of 1 to 2 mm is virtually
1:1.
Depending on the application the speed information will be required in digital form or in
analog form as a voltage.

Analog Evaluation
Speed control is the commonest task in classic control engineering. The controlled
variable that is taken for an analog controller (P, PI, PID) is a voltage proportional to the
speed. The first step in obtaining this speed proportional voltage is that the sensor output
signal is converted into a rectangular signal fixed ON-time and a variable OFF-time,
dependent on the speed, by an edge-triggered monoflop. In the second step the linear
average is formed. This, using a conversion factor, is directly proportional to the speed.

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Silicon Hall ICs

Vanalog = Vop × RC × T/60 × rpm

Operating voltage Revolutions per minute

Set monoflop time No. of teeth on wheel

A moving-coil meter is especially suitable for analog display of the speed. This is an ideal
averager above a lower cut-off frequency of typically 10 Hz.
If the speed-proportional voltage is processed electrically, the average value can be
formed by a lowpass filter.

Digital Evaluation
If the speed-proportional voltage is to be produced as a digital, numeric reading, or if
there is a microcomputer available in the system as a digital controller, the speed can be
computed very easily for these purposes.
The gear-wheel sensor is connected to the count input of a microcontroller (e.g. external
input of timer 0 on an 8051). The speed is detected by counting the HIGH/LOW
transitions of the sensor output in a defined time window Twindow. By careful definition of
this time window, the speed can be produced directly as an rpm figure without
conversion.

Counted pulses 60
Speed [ rpm ] = ----------------------------------------- with T window [ s ] = -------------------------------------------
T window Number of teeth

Example: A gear wheel with 15 teeth requires a time window of 4 s.


If one pulse is counted in the time window, this will correspond to 1 rpm.
This is at the same time the finest resolution that is possible.
Because of the high operating frequency of the microcontroller however, it is bothersome
to set long time windows. If you select a shorter time window, the count has to be
multiplied by a correction factor in the ratio of the ideal to the real time window. The
metering accuracy and resolution that are achieved can nevertheless only amount to this
factor at the maximum.
Example: Gear wheel with 15 teeth time → window 4 s.
Real time window 40 ms → correction factor 100.
If one pulse is counted in the set time window, this will correspond to 100 rpm.
If none is counted, the display will be zero.
It is seen that the lower metering limit is determined by the choice of time
window.

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Silicon Hall ICs

Detecting Sense of Rotation

With Logic
Detecting the sense of rotation is a very simple matter with two sensors. These sensors
should be arranged on the circumference of the tooth wheel so that their output signals
are offset 90 ° in phase. The switching sequence of the sensors is converted into a static
directional signal by an edge-triggered D-flipflop, because one sensor will switch earlier
than the other depending on the sense of rotation.
The output signal of the dynamic tooth-wheel sensor is only valid above a minimum
speed, this also applying to the direction signal that is obtained. So when a gear wheel
is braked and started again in the opposite direction, the output signals and the direction
signal about the standstill point are not particularly reliable.

With Software
The switching sequence can also be evaluated by a microcontroller and software. The
sensor signals are connected to two interrupt inputs. At the same time it is possible to
monitor the lower cut-off frequency by software. The sensor signals are not evaluated if
they go beyond the lower cut-off frequency.
The principle of detecting sense of rotation is illustred in Figure 68.
A proven application circuit for analog sensing of rotational speed and sense is shown
in Figure 69.

Data Book 107 2000-07-01


Silicon Hall ICs

Figure 68
Detecting Sense of Rotation with Two Gear-Wheel Sensors

Data Book 108 2000-07-01


Silicon Hall ICs

Figure 69
Application Circuit Rotational Speed/Rotational Sense

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Silicon Hall ICs

Signal Behaviour for different Dimensions of Toothed Gear Wheels


In order to give detailed information regarding to the signal behaviour for different gear
tooth dimensions, the main points that influence the performance of a sensor/toothed
wheel configuration are described below.
The following figures show the internal differential signal coming from two Hall elements,
receiving a direct information on how the dimensions influence the performance.
The differential signal increases with the ferromagnetic mass and therefore with the tooth
pitch T. If T is increased to more than 8 mm, the gradient becomes flat. Hence the
optimum rating is then between 5 and 8 mm (Figure 70).

Figure 70
Differential Signal as a Function of Pitch T
According to the definition the position dv = 0 mm is where the tooth of the wheel is
centered over the IC. Therefore at this position the differential signal is 0 (both Hall
elements are influenced by the same magnetic flux). At the position where one Hall
element faces a gap and the second element faces a tooth, the differential field has a
maximum (dv = 1.25 mm). If T equals 5 mm then the differential signal is sinusoidal
because the distance between the sensors is 2.5 mm = T/2 (see Figure 71).

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Silicon Hall ICs

Figure 71
Differential Signal for a Pitch T = 5 mm
If T/2 is smaller than 2.5 mm, the influence of the gaps decreases and the Hall elements
already detect the next tooth (Figure 72).

Figure 72
Differential Signal for a Pitch T = 3 mm

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Silicon Hall ICs

If T/2 is larger than 2.5 mm, the influence of the gaps increases and the Hall elements
do not detect the next tooth (Figure 73).

Figure 73
Differential Signal for a Pitch T = 8 mm
Figure 74 shows the influence of slanted teeth.

Figure 74
Differential Signal for Teeth with Different Slant

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Silicon Hall ICs

The differential signal for different tooth height Zh for T = 5 mm is shown in Figure 75.
Zh equal to 5 mm already produces a large amplitude. A further increasing of Zh only
leads to small improvements.

Figure 75
Differential Signal as a Function of Tooth Height, T = 5 mm
Of special interest, together with the influence of tooth geometry, is the signal behaviour
of the sensor for varying airgaps dA. in Figure 76 the differential signal of a toothed
wheel with T = 4 mm and dv = 1 mm is shown as a function of the effective airgap.

Figure 76
Differential Signal as a Function of Airgap dA for T = 4 mm and dv = 1 mm

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Silicon Hall ICs

A summary of the discussed points is shown in Figure 77:

Figure 77
Optimum Application Configuration for the Differential Sensors,
Dimensions in mm

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Silicon Hall ICs

6.7 Application Notes: Differential Hall IC TLE 4923

Applications
• Detection of rotational speed of ferromagnetic gear wheels
• Detection of rotational position
• Detection of rotational speed of magnetic encoder wheels
• Generation of trigger signals

Main Features
• Evaluation of very small magnetic field differences
• Large airgap in dynamic mode
• Low cut-off frequency
• Fully temperature compensated
• Reverse polarity protection
• Guarded against RF interference
• Wide temperature range
• Current interface

General Description
The TLE 4923 has a combination of two Hall cells, a differential amplifier and evaluating
circuitry, all on a single chip. Evaluating field difference instead of absolute field strength
means that disruptive effects, like temperature drifts, manufacturing tolerances and
magnetic environment are minimized. Further reduction in interference is obtained by the
dynamic evaluation of the difference signal using a highpass filter with an external
capacitor.
The IC is designed for use under aggressive conditions found in automotive applications.
A small permanent biasing magnet is required for sensing ferromagnetic gear wheels of
various shapes. Correct switching for even the smallest field differences between tooth
and gap is guaranteed. The typical lower switching frequency is about 10 Hz for a 470 nF
filter capacitor. The TLE 4923 is offered in an ultraflat package with three leads (P-SSO-
3-6).

Data Book 115 2000-07-01


Silicon Hall ICs

Design and Function of the Chip


When the Hall IC is exposed to a constant magnetic field of either polarity, the two Hall
elements will produce the same output signal. The difference is zero, regardless of the
absolute field strength. However, if there is a field gradient from one Hall element to the
other, because one element faces a field concentrating tooth and the other one a gap of
the toothed wheel, then a difference signal is generated. This signal is amplified on the
chip. In reality the difference exhibits a small offset which is corrected by the integrated
control mechanism. The dynamic differential principle allows a high sensitivity in
combination with large airgaps between the sensor surface and the gear wheel.
The TLE 4923 incorporates a current interface that enables transmission of the output
signal through the supply current. Protection against reverse polarity as well as against
EMI are integrated and allow application in the hostile environments found in the
automotive industry.

Protection Internal Reference and Supply


Device
1
VS Vreg (3V)

Hall-Probes

Highpass- Schmitt-
Amplifier Filter Trigger

2 3
GND CF AEB01896

Figure 78
Block Diagram TLE 4923

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Silicon Hall ICs

Method of Operation
The generation and evaluation of the difference signal can be explained with reference
to a typical application such as sensing a ferromagnetic gear wheel.

Gear Wheel

Hall Probe 1 Hall Probe 2

Signal
Processing
Circuitry S (N) Permanent
Magnet

N (S)
Output Signal

Magnet Wheel

S
N

Hall Probe 1 Hall Probe 2

Signal
AEA01590
Processing
Circuitry

Figure 79
Application as a Gear Wheel Sensor and as an Encoder Wheel Sensor

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Silicon Hall ICs

A permanent magnet mounted with either pole on the rear side of the IC produces a
constant magnetic bias field. The two Hall probes are spaced at 2.5 mm. If one cell faces
momentarily a tooth while the other faces a gap of the toothed wheel, the gear tooth acts
as a flux concentrator. It increases the flux density through the Hall probe and a
differential signal is produced. As the toothed gear wheel turns, the differential signal
changes its polarity at the same rate of change as from the tooth to the gap.
The maximum difference is produced by the tooth edge when the zero crossover comes
directly in the center of the tooth or gap. When the difference exceeds the upper
threshold ∆BRP, the output current turns low (“OFF” state). This is the case when the tooth
is sensed by the Hall probe 2 near pin 3 in Figure 82. As the difference falls below the
lower threshold ∆BOP, the ourput current turns high( “ON” state). This is the case when
the Hall probe 1 near pin 1 sense the tooth.
The integrated highpass filter regulates the difference signal to zero by means of a time
constant that can be set with an external capacitor. In this way only those differences are
evaluated that change at a minimum rate (depending on the capacitor value). The output
signal is not defined in the steady state. The accuracy that is produced will permit a small
switching hysteresis and therefore also a large airgap (up to 3.5 mm).

Data Book 118 2000-07-01


Silicon Hall ICs

N(S)
S(N)
1 3
B1 B2

Wheel Profile Missing Tooth

Magnetic Field Difference Small Airgap


∆ B = B2-B1
Large Airgap

∆ B RP = 0.75 mT

∆ B HY

∆ B OP = -0.75 mT

Output Signal
ΙS

Operate point : B2-B1< ∆ B OP switches the output ON high


Release point : B2-B1> ∆ BRP switches the output OFF low (
current (
∆ B RP = ∆ BOP + ∆ B HY
The magnetic field is defined as positive if the south pole of
the magnet shows towards the rear side of the IC housing. AED01900

Figure 80
Sensor Signals Produced by a Toothed Gear Wheel, Example TLE 4923

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Silicon Hall ICs

Filter Capacitor
The filter capacitor CF plays an important role in the correct function of the Hall IC. If an
application requires operating temperatures higher than 100 °C, ceramic capacitor types
(X7R) are recommended. The connections between the filter capacitor CF, the C pin and
the GND pin need to be as short as possible. Further recommendations are listed in one
of the following subsections.
A leakage current at the capacitor pin will cause a shift of the switching thresholds and
therefore spurious switching. The shift of the switching threshold is calculated as

IL × RC ( T )
∆ B m = ---------------------------
SC ( T )
where IL, SC and RC are the leakage current, the filter sensitivity to ∆B and the filter input
resistance as specified in the datasheet respectively.
Special attention has to be paid to the choice of the capacitor (high DC resistance) and
its assembly. Leakage currents may occur on the PCB between the connections or in a
defective capacitor and can be a source of sensor malfunction.

EMC: Injection of supply line transients (DIN 40839-1)


For the measurements with the TLE 4923 the test circuit as in Figure 81 is used. The
filter capacitor CF = 470 nF is connected directly to pin 3, additionally a shunt capacitor
CS = 4.7 nF is connected in the supply line. A load resistance RS = 180 Ω is used.

Two-wire-application

Line
VS
1 1
VS
3 CS
C 4.7 nF
CF GND
1 µF 2
VSIGNAL

RS

Sensor Mainframe

typical : R S = 180 Ω AES01899

Figure 81
Test Circuitry for DIN 40839-1 Test

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Silicon Hall ICs

Table 16
Functional Status of TLE 4923 according to DIN 40839-1 Test Levels
Test Pulse Functional Status according to Test Levels
I II III IV
1 C C C C
2 B B B B
3a C C C C
3b C C C C
4 C C C C
5 see Table 17

The load dump pulse 5 is investigated in more detail. The results are shown as a function
of the pulse amplitudes VS, the pulse duration td and the signal resistance RS:

Table 17
Functional Status of TLE 4923 according to DIN 40839-1 Pulse 5
VS / V td / ms RS / Ω Class COMMENT
45 400 180 C
50 400 180 C
55 400 180 C
58 400 180 E
60 200 180 C
60 300 180 E IS increases → destruction
60 300 180 E
65 100 180 E
65 400 330 C 800 ms recovery time
82 400 330 E
84 400 330 E
110 200 330 E IS increases → destruction

Also for the TLE 4923 the signal resitor size must be adapted to the load dump
requirements of the application or vice versa. Optionally a suppressor diode can be
placed in the supply line, eliminating the need for a large signal resistor.

Data Book 121 2000-07-01


Silicon Hall ICs

EMC: Injection of Capacitive Line Transients (DIN 40839-3)


The test setup is as described in Chapter 6.5. The Hall IC is actuated with a magnetic
coil (∆B = 5 mT @ f = 200 Hz) and the supply line has a length of 2 m. Again the test
circuitry in Figure 82 is used. Missing pulses are the malfunction criteria. For all pulses
and severity levels class A is achieved, i.e. no disturbance is measured. First spurious
switching effects are observed for voltages larger than ± 1000 V, well above the levels
of ± 60 V stated in the DIN standard.

EMC: Radiated Interference (DIN 40839-4)


This test is carried out in a TEM cell. The setup is described in Chapter 6.4
(Electromagnetic Compatibility in Automotive Applications). Again the test circuit in
Figure 82 is used. The Results of the TEM measurement are shown in Figure 82. The
TLE 4923 IC performs practically over the whole frequency range without disturbance for
differential fields down to 5 mT.

AED02549
250
V/m
Emax
TLE 4923
200

150

100

50

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 MHz 800
f

Figure 82
Results of the Radiated Interference Test with the TLE 4923

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Silicon Hall ICs

Optimization of TLE 4923 and Passive Circuitry for Improved EMI Performance
The following recommendation is the results of EMI measurements carried out on the
device during in-house testing. It is referred to the application and test circuit in
Figure 81.
Component values:
CF = 470 nF − 1 µF High pass filter capacitor
CS = 4.7 nF Additional HF shunt
RS = 100 − 200 Ω Signal resistor

Optimization points in detail:


1. Ground
The reference point is the GND pin of the device. In order to avoid conductive
interferences, all connections to this pin should be realized in a star configuration. If
this requirement is not fulfilled, the EM immunity will be reduced.
2. Connection of the filter capacitor
The connections between the filter capacitor CF, the C and GND pins have to be as
short as possible (ideally CF should be placed close to the device housing), taking into
account the above mentioned star configuration of CF to GND. If this is not possible, a
second smaller capacitor (e.g. 82 nF) between CF and TLE 4923 is recommended in
order to shorten the connection between CF and the corresponding pins. This measure
should be applied only if little space is available close to the Hall IC.
3. Additional HF shunts
Ideally arranged RF shunts CS can further improve the EMI immunity. A larger CS will
improve the RF performance.

Signal Behavior for Different Dimensions of Toothed Gear Wheels


Since the Hall probe spacing of 2.5 mm of TLE 4923 is identical to the one of
TLE 4921-3U, the investigations carried out with the TLE 4921-3U (see section
Application Notes) also apply to TLE 4923.

Data Book 123 2000-07-01


Magneto Resistors

7 Magneto Resistors

7.1 Fundamentals
Magneto resistors are magnetically influenced resistors of InSb/NiSb material which
work according to the Gauss effect. The charge carriers which flow through the
semiconductor material experience a sideways action in a traverse magnetic field by
virtue of the Lorentz force. The angle between the original current direction and that to
which it changes on the introduction of a magnetic field is known as Hall angle δ. It is
dependent on the electron mobility µ and on the magnetic induction B

tg δ = µ × B

For InSb the exceptionally high electron mobility of 7m2/Vs results in a Hall angle of
δ = 80° with B = 1 T. As opposed to Hall generators, the InSb crystal has needles of low
resistive NiSb alloyed into it which maintain an equal distribution of the charge carriers
throughout its cross section (Figure 83a, 83b). The lengthening of the paths of the
charge carriers with increasing magnetic field results in an increase in the resistance of
the magneto resistor which is independent of the polarity of the induction.

a) without magnetic field induction B = 0 b) with magnetic field induction B ≠ 0


(about 1T)

Figure 83
Course of the Current Flow in a Rectangular Slice of InSb Semiconductor with
Integral Conductive Needles of NiSb Acting as Short Circuit Straps
The dependence of the resistance on the induction is represented qualitatively in
Figure 84:

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Magneto Resistors

Figure 84
Dependence of magneto resistor resistance on induction. To a first order this can be
represented by the function RB = R0(1 + Kµ2B2) where K is a material dependent constant,
in this case approximately 0.85.

Figure 85
Section photograph through the magneto resistor material InSb/NiSb. The left hand
portion shows the density of the crystal needles through the material, the right hand
portion (displaced through 90°), shows the extension of the crystal needles along the
length of the material.

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Magneto Resistors

7.2 Concepts and General Data

7.2.1 Basic Resistance R0


The basic resistance R0 of a magneto resistor is the resistance of the semiconductor
system without any influencing magnetic field. It is determined by:
e) The conductivity of the InSb/NiSb, of which two doping grades are produced.
D–Material σ = 200 (Ωcm)–1 undoped
L–Material σ = 550 (Ωcm) –1

f) The meander path width; usually restricted to 80 µm max.


g) The meander path thickness; approx. 15 to 25 µm.
h) The total length of the active area, i.e. the induction sensitive meander path.
The tolerance of the basic resistance depends on the material homogeneity and on the
reproducibility of the geometric dimensions of the magnetoresistive system.

7.2.2 Resistance RB in a Magnetic Field


The resistance of a magneto resistor under the influence of a magnetic field is denoted
by RB.
It is determined by:
a) the basic resistance R0
b) the magnitude of the perpendicular component of the influencing magnetic field,
independent of polarity
c) the doping level.
In Figure 86 the relative resistance change RB/R0 with magnetic induction is shown for
the two base materials. The characteristic curves approximate to a quadratic function up
to about 0.3 Tesla, at higher fields they are asymptotically a straight line. The curves
shown in Figure 88a and 88b are recommended for use in working plots. However it
should be noted that magneto resistors placed in a homogenous magnetic field
experience an induction which is about 10% greater due to the concentrating effect of the
low permeability iron or ferrit substrates. The tolerance of the relative resistance
dependence is primarily dependent on the uniform distribution of the NiSb needles within
the bulk material and on the spread of doping. Higher doping levels of the basic material
reduce the inductance dependence of the magneto resistor resistance due to the
reduction of the electron mobility µ.
As only the perpendicular component of the magnetic field contributes to the increase in
resistance, an angularly incident magnetic field contributes only its perpendicular
component, which is proportional to the cosine of the angle of its incidence. Figure 87 for

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Magneto Resistors

example shows the reduction of the resistance increase with the incidence angle of the
magnetic field. Shown is D-material at 25 °C and B = 1T.

OHAX0122 OHAX0123
20 20
RB RB
R0 R0
D-Material

15 15

D L 10
10

5 5

0 0
0 0.5 1.0 T 1.5 -90 -60 -30 0 30 60 90
B ϕ

Figure 86 Figure 87
Resistance dependence RB/Ro in Dependence of the resistance
dependence on the magnetic induction B, characteristic RB/R0 on the incidence
for the various semiconductor doping angle of the magnetic field for D type
levels: D and L at TA = 25 °C material.

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Magneto Resistors

Figure 88a Figure 88b


Magneto resistor resistance R = f(B) for Magneto resistor resistance R = f(B) for
D-material (TA as parameter) L-material (TA as parameter)

7.2.3 TC Temperature Dependence of Magneto Resistor Resistance


The undoped magneto resistor material InSb/NiSb (D-material) has a negative
temperature coefficient. With increasing doping this can be turned into a positive
temperature coefficient. In any case the temperature dependence at various
temperatures is of varying magnitude.
Furthermore, there is a dependence of the temperature coefficient on the magnitude of
the magnetic induction acting on the magneto resistor. This dependence of the magneto
resistor resistance is represented in Figure 89a and 89b, where the magnetic induction
is taken as an independent variable. As the temperature dependence can be varied
according to the doping level, the distribution of this throughout the material is the
essential factor for the tolerance bands given in Table 18.
Table 18
R75 R75
(%) for B = 0 T (%) for B = 1 T
R25 R25
material min. mean max. min. mean max.
D 45 47 55 28 29 35
L 74 84 94 53 63 75

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Magneto Resistors

Figure 89a
Relative magneto resistor resistance RT/R25 = f(T) for D-material for various values of magnetic
induction B.

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Magneto Resistors

Figure 89b
Relative magneto resistor resistance RT/R25 = f(T) for L-material for various values of magnetic
induction B.

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Magneto Resistors

7.2.4 Middle Symmetry M


The middle symmetry of differential magnetoresistive sensors is defined as the
% difference of the single magneto resistors divided by the larger of the single
resistances.

R1 – R2
M = ------------------ × 100 % for (R1 > R2)
R1

In the data sheets, the middle symmetry is given for each differential magnetoresistive
sensor in the unbiased state.

7.2.5 Offset Voltage V0


The difference between each of the individual resistors in a differential magnetoresistive
sensor can also be given by the offset voltage V0. Figure 90 shows the measuring circuit.
Figure 91 shows the relation between the middle symmetry and the offset voltage.
The following is valid for the bridge circuit shown in Figure 90.

2 × V0 V IN ( R 1 – R 2 )
M = --------------------
- - × -----------------------
V 0 = -------
V IN 2 ( R1 + R2 )
-------- + V 0
2

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Magneto Resistors

Figure 90 Figure 91
Measuring circuit Correlation curve M = f(V0) relationship
between V0 and M with VB = 1 V

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Magneto Resistors

7.2.6 Voutpp Dependence on Intertooth Spacing


The usable signal that can be generated by a differential MR sensor is also dependent
on the intertooth seperation. Differential MRs are produced with intercenter spacing
between the active areas of:
FP 410 1.2 mm
FP 420 0.47 mm
FP 425 0.78 mm
FP 210
FP 212 } series 1.6 mm

The dependence of the possible attainable output voltage with the intertooth spacing of
the actuating gearwheel is principally shown in Figure 92.

OHAX0130

90
FP 420
Change in the Output Voltage

FP 425

λ lZ
50
lS
FP 212
L 100/D250
dS
FP 210 dS ~ λ /2
L 100/D250 l S <_ l Z

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 mm 10
Tooth period λ

Figure 92

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7.3 Construction of the Magneto Resistor

7.3.1 Magneto Resistor Systems


Indium antimonide and Nickel antimonide are produced as a semiconductor bar in a melt
process. The desired doping level is achieved by the addition of Tellurium. In a special
melt pulling process the Nickel antimonide is solidified in the form of needles within the
Indium antimonide, which are arranged parallel throughout the full length of the bar
(Figure 85). Within the component these needles represent the short circuit needles
which bring about the geometry dependent resistance effect. The conductivity of the
material is relatively high. For D-material σ = 200 (Ωcm)–1 and L-material
σ = 550 (Ωcm)–1.
To produce resistors in the range 10 – 500 Ω, the semiconductor must be reduced to the
smallest possible cross-section. The component is arranged as a meander path, so that
a semiconductor strip of the largest possible length and hence basic resistance is
obtained. For physical reasons (geometry effects of the resistance change) the width of
the strip is limited to about 80 µm. The basic resistance is therefore determined by
variations on the length and thickness of the meander path. The bars are sawn into slices
and then ground etched and polished to give semiconductor wafers of about 15 µm to
25 µm thickness. A standard photo litography technology then allows the etch formation
of the individual meanders (Figure 93).
The following resistivities can be achieved, depending on the area of the meander:
D-material 100 Ω/mm2 and L-material 40 Ω/mm2.

Figure 93
Various output layouts of form-etched semiconductor

These meanders of different shape are mounted either on a ferrite substrate or on


silicon. Whereas ferrit increases the magnetic induction, silicon based systems, although
showing a signal which is about 20% lower, have advantages in temperature

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Magneto Resistors

dependence of the middle symmetry (Figure 93a), Another feature of the silicon based
systems is the arrangement of the individual meanders on the substrate which generates
the two phaseshifted signals from one tooth, thus reducing the influence of the
mechanical tooth tolerances on the output signal.

Figure 93a
Identical meander structures of FP 410 mounted on silicon and ferrite substrate respectively
mounted on SmCo magnets (7×7×4 mm3).
Magnetic induction 0.35 T approx.

Two packing methods for MRs are currently used. In both cases the semiconductor
material is directly soldered on tinned copper fingers. For FP 212-types a stamped
copper leadframe is used (Figure 94a), whereas for the FP 4…-types an etched Copper-
/Kaptonfilm is in use. The latter type of package is known as micropack or TAB
(Figure 94b).

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Magneto Resistors

Figure 94a
A "Pill" construction

Figure 94b
"Micropack" construction

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Magneto Resistors

7.3.2 MR Types
The MRs are produced as either single or double resistor units. Double resistors are
particularly applicable as differential sensors when they are supplemented by two
additional resistors and operated in a bridge circuit.
The range of standard products offered is subdivided as follows:
Double Differential MRs in Micropack
FP 410 L 4×80 FM (on ferrite substrate)
FP 420 L 90 (on silicon substrate)
FP 425 L 90 (on silicon substrate)
Ferrite substrate using special leadframe
FP 210 L 100-22
FP 210 D 250-22
FP 212 L 100-22
FP 212 D 250-22

7.3.3 Magnetic Biasing


The construction of MRs with integral permanent magnets is useful not only in allowing
actuation by ferromagnetic target materials, but also from the improved output signal
level.
The change in resistance ∆R1 for small magnetic fields is very low due to the quadratic
dependence of the magneto resistor resistance. In addition, the polarity of the field is not
recognized so that the same change in resistance results from both negative and
positive magnetic induction Bst (Figure 95).
To obtain a greater change in resistance, hence a greater signal magnitude, the working
point of the characteristic can be moved from R0 to a steeper portion of the curve. This
is achieved by magnetically biasing the magneto resistor, e.g. by placing the magneto
resistor on a permanent magnet. The working point is thereby shifted to a value Rv0. The
effect of the influencing magnetic field Bst now causes a much higher change in
resistance ∆R1 (Figure 96).

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Magneto Resistors

Figure 95
Operating Magneto Resistor without Biasing Field

Figure 96
Operating Magneto Resistor with Biasing Field

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Magneto Resistors

7.4 Practical Applications


Many design engineers seem reluctant to use magnetic field sensitive semiconductors
simply because they have not had any experience with them. Just as in optical sensors
the magnetic field sensitive sensors are actuated in a non-contact arrangement.
Magnetic sensors however have many advantages over optical sensors in view of
resistance to contamination and non-degradation and also wider operating
temperatures. Compared to inductive sensors, magnetic sensors can operate from zero
speed to the GHz region. The following circuit examples are primarily intended to aid
initial experiments with magneto resistors.
Some magnetoresistive sensors are constructed with integral magnets so that they can
be actuated by either iron parts or permanent magnets.
The major application of these sensors is in non-contact gear tooth sensing, and in the
measurement of small displacements (≤ 1.5 mm). One interesting aspect is that the
magnitude of the output signal is independent of the operating frequency, hence
rotations from zero speed and upwards can be recorded.
The output waveform approximates to a sine wave, where the harmonic effect increases
with decreasing airgap. The table shows the effective output voltages for the basic output
form and for the first and second harmonics, for an FP 212 L 100 sensor with a 5 V
supply and actuated by a gearwheel as recommended (see Figure 97).

Table 19
Airgap Basic Output 1st Harmonic 2nd Harmonic
mm mV % mV % mV %
0.02 540 100 50 9 30 5.6
0.2 210 100 7 3.3 5 2.3
0.4 100 100 2 2.0 1 1.0
0.6 50 100 0.7 1.5 0.2 0.4

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Magneto Resistors

Figure 97

7.4.1 Open Magnetic Circuits


With open magnetic circuits the magneto resistors are subject to a biasing magnetic
field. The change in resistance however is brought about by deflecting the biasing field
with the aid of moving magnetically soft parts and not from external magnetic fields
(Figure 98).
The magnetoresistor (3) is glued onto a pole-piece (2) which in turn is glued onto a
permanent magnet. The magneto resistor therefore lies in the leakage flux Φv of the
biasing magnet. The magneto resistor resistance RB is thereby shifted into the steeper
portion of the characteristic RB = f(B) (Figure 98c) where the biased resistance value is
denoted by Rv. If a soft iron piece is moved over the face of the pole-piece then the
leakage flux Φv is increased and the resistance of the magneto resistor is increased by
∆R.

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Magneto Resistors

a) b) c)

4 Fe R B R B = f (B)
3
RB 2

1 ∆R
N N RV

S S R0
BV
ΦV ΦV B

1. Permanent magnet 3. Magneto resistor OHAX0141


2. Ferrite 4. Actuating iron part

Figure 98
Principle of the Open Magnetic Circuit

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Magneto Resistors

7.4.2 Detection of Sense of Rotation


Due to the construction of the double differential MR sensors when mounted on a
permanent magnet, it is ideally suited for use as an angular encoder and also to give
direction of rotation information. When actuated with a gearwheel as shown similar to
that in Figure 97 the output waveforms of Figure 99 can be obtained, which can be
processed to give the required information.

Figure 99

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Magneto Resistors

7.5 TAB Magneto Resistors

7.5.1 Overview

Type System Separation of System


FP 410 L 4×80 FM double differential single system: 0.62 mm
on ferrite substrate double system: 1.24 mm
FP 420 L 90 double differential single system: 0.472 mm
on silicon substrate double system : 0.236 mm
1)

FP 425 L 90 double differential single system: 0.786 mm


on silicon substrate double system : 0.393 mm
2)

7.5.2 Delivery
TAB MRs are delivered on reel with 900 to 1200 parts per reel or singular with 50 parts
per packing unit.

7.5.3 Processing

Punch Out
If delivery is made on reel, the customer has to punch out the parts according to the
spacing of the film. Perforation of the film is according to DIN 15851, sheet 2.

Soldering
The leads of the TAB film are plated with pure tin on the solder side.
The die temperature during soldering is limited to 200 °C. Soldering time should be
limited to 2 … 3 s.

1) System optimized for module 0.3; by the arrangement of the double system the generation of the phase shifted
signals is done with 1 tooth.
2) System optimized for module 0.5; by the arrangement of the double system the generation of the phase shifted
signals is done with 1 tooth.

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Magneto Resistors

Recommended Flux

Type Supplier
IC.106 W Multicore Löttechnik GmbH
Wuppertal
x 33 Multicore Löttechnik GmbH
Wuppertal
SM 351 F Alpha Grillo Lötsysteme GmbH
Duisburg-Hamborn

Magnetic Circuit
TAB MRs are delivered without magnets. If the MRs shall be magnetized by a permanent
magnet, SmCo and NdFeB-types are recommended because they show a high energy-
density.
The decrease of sensitivity of the MRs with increasing airgap MR versus magnet
demands for small and parallel airgaps.
The geometry of the magnet can be designed with the help of the following diagram:

Figure 100
Dependence of the magnetic induction B on the height of a quadric SmCo magnet.

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Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)

8 Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)

8.1 Introduction
The Giant Magneto Resistor (GMR) extends Infineon Technologies’ extensive program
of magnetic sensors, which previously consisted of magnetoresistors (InSb), analog
linear Hall sensors and Hall-ICs (Si).
Magnetic sensors are ideal for all kinds of contactless position registration (e.g. distance,
speed, annular speed, sense of rotation), and for contactless measurement of electrical
currents and power. They guarantee functional reliability even under harsh
environmental conditions like dirt and high temperature. These capabilities have
resulted in the widespread use of magnetic sensors in automotive and industrial
applications, and the variety of sensor types in the market is increasing continuously.
So why GMR sensors? GMR sensors overcome a weakness in conventional
magnetoresistors and Hall sensors, with their high sensitivity to air gap deviations
apparent in many applications. Since all these conventional magnetic sensors react to
the strength of the magnetic field, even tiniest distance variations between magnet and
sensor produce significant changes in the signal, which require considerable mounting
effort and complex signal conditioning to overcome.
The new GMR sensors, developed specially by Infineon Technologies for position
sensing, measure only the direction of an applied field, irrespective of its strength. This
allows very big air gaps as well as adjustment tolerances. This makes mounting much
simpler and more cost-effective for the user. Air gaps of up to 25 mm are possible,
bringing the advantages of magnetic sensing to completely new applications.
The next three chapters give an overview of the basics of the GMR effect, and the
structure and operation of the GMR sensor. A wide range of simple and highly effective
sample applications is outlined in Chapter 8.5.

8.2 GMR Basics


Towards the end of the 1980s, a magnetoresistance of more than 50% was discovered
in stacks of very thin layers of iron and chrome at low temperatures. Because these stacks
of layers (made up of iron and other magnetic metals) react with particular sensitivity to
magnetic fields, the scientific community called them Giant Magneto Resistors.
The thickness of the individual layers is in the order of a few nanometers (millionth part
of millimeter).
Non-magnetic copper separates the magnetic layers of iron and cobalt (see Figure 102).
This separation is so thin that the cobalt layers couple to form an artificial
antiferromagnet. The covering layers are made from soft magnetic iron and line up with
an external magnetic field, while the cobalt layers retain their hard magnetization.
The spins of the electrons in the covering layers also line up with the magnetic field. The
mean free path of electrons with spins parallel to the magnetization of the artificial

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Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)

antiferromagnet exceeds the thickness of the layer stack. Therefore these electrons are
rarely scattered. Electrons with antiparallel spin, on the other hand, strongly contribute
to the electrical resistance because they scatter more often inside the layer stack. The
electrons undergo fewer scattering processes if the soft and hard magnetic layers are in
line, and the resistance reaches its minimum. The maximum is reached at the opposite
orientation of soft and hard magnetic layers. The GMR effect is independent of the
direction of the current: Only the angle between the hard and soft magnetic layers
determines the total resistance of the system (see Figure 103).
Within a wide magnetic window - where the soft magnetic layers turn with an external
field while the hard magnetic layers remain unchanged - the resistance depends solely
on the direction of the magnetic field (saturation mode).
The GMR effectiveness ∆R / R0 decreases with increasing temperature due to thermal
stimulation of lattice oscillations and spin waves, firstly because the basic resistance R0
of the sensor increases, and secondly because the collective spin orientation is
undermined. The experiment shows a constant temperature coefficient.
N
S

Figure 101
Orientation of the Covering Layers in a Magnetic Field

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Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)

Magnetization by
External Magnetic Field

M
ϕ

Fe
Cu
Co AAF: Hard
Cu
Co
Magnetization
Cu
Co
Cu
Fe

Figure 102
Layer Stack: Iron Layers, Artificial Antiferromagnet (AAF) of Copper and Cobalt
Layers

6
∆R %
R0

0
0 90 180 270 Deg 360
Angle

Figure 103
Change of Resistance vs. Angle

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Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)

8.3 Structure
The ultra-thin layers, over which the antiferromagnetic coupling occurs, require state-of-
the-art sputtering technology. The system used by Infineon Technologies contains 11
layers with a total thickness of 25 nm. The magnetic cobalt layers and non-magnetic
copper separation layers form an artificial antiferromagnet. Soft magnetic iron layers
cover the antiferromagnet at the bottom and top.
Meandering current paths are etched out of the planar layers to provide a basic
resistance of more than 700 Ω (see Figure 104). The change ∆R / R0 due to the GMR
effect is more than 4%.

Figure 104
Full Bridge Chip GMR B6
A strong magnetic field aligns the artificial antiferromagnet and determines the hard
magnetization of the single current paths. Infineon Technologies offers GMR sensors
with two different layouts as single sensors and integrated bridges:

Table 20
Infineon Technologies GMR Sensors
Type Meander Magnetization Package
B6 1 full bridge / 2 antiparallel 2 + 2 0° 180° SMT(MW-6)
half bridges 180° 0°
C6 2 crossed half bridges 2+2 0° 90° SMT(MW-6)
180° 270°

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Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)

Half bridges consist of two serial resistors with antiparallel hard magnetization. The
sensor GMR B6 consists of two half bridges connected in parallel with opposite
magnetization, which can also be connected as one full bridge. The hard magnetizations
of the crossed half bridges of sensor GMR C6 are turned by 90°.

GMR B6 GMR C6

VY VZ VY Vz

Figure 105
Arrangement of Sensor Elements within the Integrated Bridge Chips
GMR B6: 2 antiparallel half bridges or 1 full bridge (- - -).
GMR C6: 2 crossed half bridges (arrows indicate the orientation of the
internal magnetization)

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Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)

8.4 Operation
The resistance of a GMR sensor as a measure for the applied field varies with the angle
between the hard internal magnetization and the soft magnetic covering layer (see
Figure 103) which follows the magnetic field with a Hysteresis below 2°. This variation
is registered as change in the voltage drop over a single sensor or a bridge. The signal
follows a cosine with an extended range of linearity.
The bridge sensors GMR B6 and C6 each consist of 4 single sensors integrated on the
chip. These 4 single sensors form two half bridges with different hard magnetization.
Each half bridge consists of two single sensors with antiparallel hard magnetization (see
Figure 106). The signal of a half bridge is the difference between bridge access Sens 2
and a symmetrical potential divider. It varies around zero.

a) b)

I I

Sens 1 Sens 1
Sens 2 V Sens 2 V

Figure 106
a) of a Half Bridge with a Potential Divider and
b) of a Full Bridge

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Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)

8.4.1 Bridge Circuitry


The resistance of single sensors in the applied field only varies by a few percent of the
full scale, while a bridge circuit provides a voltage which only corresponds to the change
in resistance without any offset. The voltage at the bridge accesses Sens 1 and Sens 2
(see Figure 106b/c) is evaluated directly or with amplification (see Figure 111)
Different orientations of the hard magnetization produce different phase relationships:
• The two signals of the crossed (90° rotated) half bridges of GMR C6 allow unequivocal
angle detection over the full circle (see Figure 107b).
• The full bridge consisting of two antiparallel half bridges (GMR B6) does not need
external resistors. The two half bridges operate oppositely so that their difference
doubles the output voltage (see Figure 107a).

a) b) AED02958
1 1
∆R )/2]

∆R )/2]

0.5 0.5
V4 V4
RO

RO
Bridge Voltage [(VO ∗

Bridge Voltage [(VO ∗

0 0
V1 V1
-0.5 -0.5

V1- V4
-1 -1
0 90 180 270 Deg 360 0 90 180 270 Deg 360
Angle Angle

Figure 107
Output Voltage of Half Bridges (V1, V4) and Full Bridge (V4 - V1) as a Function of
the Magnetic Field Orientation

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Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)

8.4.2 Spatial Arrangement


The full peak-peak signal appears as soon as the external magnetic field is strong
enough to rotate the soft magnetic detection layer. The working range extends as far as
field strengths which influence the hard magnetic layers and which irreversibly reduce
sensitivity.
Voltage ∆V

0 5 10 15 kA/m 20
Magnetic Field H

Figure 108
Maximum of Voltage Drop ∆V depending on the Strength of the Magnetic Field
Note: The voltage drop within a “magnetic window” of 5-15 kA/m is independent of
magnetic field strength: The GMR sensor only registers the direction of the
external field.
Thus the distance between magnet and sensor is irrelevant as long as the magnetic field
strength is within this window. As an example, Figure 109 shows the axial and lateral
distances at which 100%, 75% and 50% of the maximum signal are still reached for a
permanent magnet of samarium-cobalt with dimensions of 20 × 10 × 5 mm3. This reveals
an extraordinary air gap for magnetic sensors and huge spatial assembly tolerances.

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Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)

15

mm
>75% >50%
5 N
Lateral Distance

100%
0

-5 S

-10

-15
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 mm 35
Axial Distance

Figure 109
Relative Strength of the GMR Effect in the Environment of a Permanent Magnet of
Samarium-Cobalt with Dimensions 20 × 10 × 5 mm3

8.4.3 Temperature Effects


The voltage drop ∆V = ∆R × I in a bridge circuit is registered as the measure for the
GMR resistance change ∆R. The basic resistance R0 increases with temperature, and the
GMR effect ∆R decreases (see Chapter 8.2):
• Under constant voltage, the current I decreases due to the higher basic resistance.
This also reduces the measured voltage drop of the bridge.
• The degradation of the GMR effect ∆R reduces the measured voltage drop of the
bridge.
Both the basic resistance R0 and the GMR effect ∆R have linear temperature
dependence. This allows effective electronic temperature compensation by means of a
temperature-dependent supply, which is implemented via either a resistor with negative
temperature coefficient (NTC) or a negative impedance (NIC) (see Figure 110).
The bridge elements S1 to S4 are GMR sensors or fixed resistors. In the full bridge, all
4 elements are GMR sensors, where neighboring elements carry antiparallel
magnetization. In the half bridge circuitry two constant resistors replace the pair of
sensors S3 and S4 (see Figure 106).
The advantage of the NTC circuitry for temperatures below 100 °C is that a bigger
portion of the supply voltage drops in the GMR bridge, thus providing a higher output
signal.

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Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)

Note: Zero crossing of the bridge voltage forms a stable switching point independent of
temperature. Applications which only evaluate zero crossing can operate without
temperature compensation and are very cost-effective!

a) b) R2
5V 5V
3.9 kΩ
R1
-
NTC 68 kΩ
+
Rn = 330 Ω R1
B = 3575 K 330 Ω R3
OP:
LMC6494BEN 98 Ω
GMR GMR
Bridge Bridge
S1 S3 S1 S3

Sens 1 Sens 2 R4 Sens 1 Sens 2


3.3 kΩ
-
S2 S4 + S2 S4
R5
10 kΩ

Figure 110
Temperature Compensating Supply via
a) NTC Resistor or
b) Negative Impedance (NIC)

8.4.4 Signal Amplification


The bridge voltage can be amplified for further evaluations. A test amplifier (see
Figure 111) avoids feedback to the sensor. Trimmer T1 and resistors R2 and R3 control
the amplification of the potential difference ∆V at inputs Sens 1 and Sens 2:
VOUT = (1 + R2 / R3 + 2 × R2 / T1) × ∆V
The output voltage VOUT is additionally limited by the supply of the operational amplifiers.

Example
The complements according Figure 111 with T1 = 5 kΩ produce a minimum
amplification factor of 17.8. The bridge voltage ∆V = 200 mV of a half bridge results in
an output signal VOUT = 3.56 V.

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Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)

5V
T1
R1
1 kΩ 5 kΩ

R2 R3 R3 R2
2.5 V VOUT
12 kΩ 1 kΩ 1 kΩ 12 kΩ

D1 - -
+ +

∆V
Sens 1 Sens 2

Figure 111
Amplification Circuitry for the Bridge Voltage ∆V at Inputs Sens1 and Sens2
(D1: Z-Diode LM 4040 DIZ-2.5, OP: LMC6494BEN)

8.4.5 Magnetic Sources


The orientation of a magnetic field detected by the GMR sensor varies with linear or
annular motion of sensor or magnet. Permanent magnets in the form of bar magnets (see
Figure 101) and pole-wheels are used as magnetic sources, depending on the type of
motion, air gap dimensions and resolution needed.
Polewheels e.g. consist of a sequence of magnetic north and south poles along the
circumference.
A whole revolution of the polewheel produces a whole signal period for every pair of
magnetic poles. This transmission allows higher resolutions.
The arrangement of the sensor in relation to the polewheel determines the shape of the
output signal (see Figure 112, Table 21). A variety of signals is possible because the
shape of the magnetic field in space varies and because the sensor only registers the
components within the plane of the chip.

Data Book 158 2000-07-01


Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)

b' c'

a b
N S c d

Figure 112
Examples of Sensor Orientation and Magnetization (Arrow) in the Plane of a
Polewheel (a-d) and in Lateral Elongation of the Circumference (b’, c’)

Table 21
Shapes of Output Signals for Different Arrangements of the Sensor (see
Figure 112) with Magnetization in the Direction of the Arrow.
Surface Normal Magnetization Output Signal (approx.)
a Parallel axis of rotation Radial Sine
b Tangential Triangular
c Radial Tangential Rectangular
d Parallel to axis of rotation None
b’ Normal to axis of rotation Tangential Same as b
c’ Parallel to axis of rotation Tangential Same as c

The shape of the output signal can vary from a sine, through a triangle, to sequence of
sharp peaks depending on the requirements of an application. The rectangular shape
(see Table 21c) occurs when the field turns in a plane perpendicular to the sensor
(instead of turning in the same plane). Rotating the sensor out of the polewheel plane
around the circumference (b → b’, c → c’) retains the qualitative shape of the signal.
In some cases, polewheels with other patterns of magnetization may lead to favorable
solutions.

8.5 Applications
Infineon Technologies Giant Magneto Resistors are ideally suitable for a large number
of applications in the field of position sensing for linear and annular motion. They only
measure the direction of a magnetic field in a large saturation window, which allows very

Data Book 159 2000-07-01


Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)

big air gaps and huge adjustment tolerances. Permanent magnets in the form of dipole
bars or polewheels (see Chapter 8.4.5) are used as magnetic sources according to
specific needs.
Caution: A minimum distance between strong permanent magnets and GMR sensors
must be maintained at all times to avoid a degradation due to high fields at the
surface. The magnetic field on the surface of the GMR chip must not exceed
15 kA/m!

8.5.1 Absolute Angle Sensor


The GMR-Sensor varies its resistance according to the direction of the external
magnetic field, thereby providing an absolute angle sensor. The annular range and
resolution depend on the magnetic source (number of poles), on the type of GMR sensor
(single sensor, integrated bridge) and on the evaluation. The crossed half bridges of
sensor GMR C6 register the revolution of a dipole magnet unequivocally through 360°
(see Figure 113).
N
S

GMR C6

Figure 113
Revolution of the Magnetic Dipole over the GMR Sensor
The output signals of the half bridges (see Figure 107) are phase shifted by 90° and
allow the identification of 4 quadrants by simple comparison (see Figure 114). The
signal with most slope within the quadrant (V↑ in A and C, V→ in B and D) determines the
angle by means of linear interpolation (see Table 22), or preferably from values in a
table.

Data Book 160 2000-07-01


Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)

A B C D

Vthr

0 Vz

-Vthr

VY

0 90 180 270 360 Deg


Angle

Figure 114
Output Signals of Two Crossed Half Bridges (GMR C6) in the 4 Quadrants

Table 22
Signal Evaluation for Crossed Half Bridges GMR C6
Quadrant Condition Angle (linear approximation)
A V→ > Vthr 90° + V↑ × (45 °/ Vthr)
B V↑ > Vthr 180° - V→ × (45 °/ Vthr)
C V→ < -Vthr 270° - V↑ × (45 °/ Vthr)
D V↑ < -Vthr 360° + V→ × (45 °/ Vthr)

A voltage supply VIN = 5 V and a GMR-Effect ∆R / R0 > 4% produce a half bridge voltage of
at least 100 mV without further amplification. The crossing of the curves V→ and V↑
determines the limit Vthr = 100 mV/F2. An annular resolution of 2° corresponds to
180 positions in a complete circle or 45 positions per quadrant. This requires an
electrical signal resolution 100 mV/F2 /45 = 1.5 mV. This resolution of 1.5% full scale
may be limited further by temperature effects of approximately 0.1%/K. A compensation
circuit (see Figure 106) becomes necessary for temperature variations of more than
7 °C to ensure reliable signals.

Variants
A polewheel with n pole pairs extends the resolution by a factor n at the expense of
reducing the annular range to 360° / n.

Data Book 161 2000-07-01


Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)

The full bridge sensor GMR B6 only clearly resolves signals in a range of 180°, but it
provides double the output signal.

Examples
Gas pedal, steering wheel, seat position, flip phone, potentiometer.

8.5.2 Incremental Rotary Switch with Sense Recognition


A significant advantage of polewheel applications is the ease with which it is possible to
create a digital incremental rotary switch with sense recognition, using just one full
bridge sensor GMR B6 and a pair of operational amplifiers (see Figure 116). The
magnetic polewheel transmits the revolution and provides one pulse for every magnetic
pole (see Figure 117).

N S GMR B6

Figure 115
Incremental Rotary Switch
The mechanical arrangement consists of a rotating polewheel and the integrated full
bridge sensor GMR B6. The sensor is brought to a position where the magnetic field
turns in the sensor plane (see Figure 115). The two half bridge signals (V↑ , V→) of the
GMR full bridge, which have a phase shift due to their distance within the chip, are both
evaluated by a comparator (see Figure 116). The relative phase positions and signals
indicate the sense of rotation (see Figure 117).

Data Book 162 2000-07-01


Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)

VY
VZ

Figure 116
Double Comparator Circuitry

0 VY

~
~

0 VZ

N S N
Angle

Figure 117
Shifted Comparator Output of Two Half Bridges

Data Book 163 2000-07-01


Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)

Variants
The full bridge sensor GMR B6 can be used in different positions, e.g. in Figure 115 also
above the polewheel instead of to the right of the polewheel.
Caution: Variant d of Figure 112 should be avoided!

Examples
Rotational speed, sense of rotation recognition, incremental potentiometer, flow meter
for automotive and industrial applications.
Note: The application as an incremental rotary switch with sense recognition only
evaluates zero crossings. This makes it independent of temperature and distance
variations without the need for additional circuitry.

Data Book 164 2000-07-01


Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)

8.5.3 Contactless Rotary Switch for Household Equipment


Many devices are easily controlled by a central rotary switch. Single switch positions
represent functions such as different washing programs or radio channels. The
advantages of a GMR solution are long lifetime due to absence of wear and tear and
easy mounting. Logistics are also greatly simplified when rotary switches for various
applications only differ in the software used for the evaluating microcontroller.
The contactless rotary switch is a special case of absolute angle sensing (see
Chapter 8.5.1) with a fixed number of switching points. The sensor GMR C6 comprising
two crossed half bridges registers the absolute position of the rotary knob using a simple
bar magnet.

Figure 118
Starter Kit “Contactless Rotary Switch with GMR”

Note: A starter kit “contactless rotary switch with GMR” is available. It contains this
complete application with rotary knob, sensor, temperature compensation,
display and microcontroller including software. At the same time, the starter kit is
a development environment for the installed software.

Examples
Rotary switch for washing machine, drier, oven, video and audio systems.

Data Book 165 2000-07-01


Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)

8.5.4 Linear Sensor


Because it only registers the direction of the magnetic field, the resistance of the GMR
sensor varies with straight motion through the curvature of a dipole bar magnetic field.
The selection of the path, and the orientation of sensor and magnet determine the shape
of the output signal.
The measurement range can be extended as long as the strength of the magnetic field
remains in the saturation window (see Figure 109) of the sensor.

Variants
Rotation of the sensor orientation shifts the zero crossing of the bridge voltage.

Examples
Linear position sensing, longitudinal measurement in industrial applications, level
sensing (with magnetic swimmer).

GMR B6
H 200
mV
Bridge Voltage

0
Position

N S -200

Figure 119
Linear Motion of a GMR Sensor Through the Field of a Magnetic Dipole

8.5.5 Contactless Switch, Proximity Switch


The linear sensor (see Chapter 8.5.4) can easily be used as switch in slide-by mode.
The contactless switch consists of just a full bridge sensor GMR B6 and an operational
amplifier (see Figure 120). The output voltage VOUT of this comparator circuit only
indicates on which side of the switching point the magnet is located. The orientation of
the sensor determines the switching point: The bridge voltage is 0 V when the external
magnetic field is perpendicular to the internal sensor magnetization.

Examples
On/off switch, proximity switch, digital position sensing.
Note: Switching in the zero crossing of the bridge voltage is independent of temperature
effects.

Data Book 166 2000-07-01


Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)

GMR B6

VY - VZ
-
+ VOUT

Figure 120
Comparator Circuit for Proximity Switch Consisting of GMR B6 and an
Operational Amplifier
Voltage

0
VY - VZ Position

VOUT

Figure 121
Digital Comparator Output Signal VOUT Depending on Bridge Voltage (VY - VZ)

8.5.6 Position Sensor for Print Head


Printing devices which compose characters and pictures using single ink dots require
accurate control of the print head position at any time. Even unfavorable conditions like
pollution from ink fog do not affect the GMR sensor’s lifetime and reliability.
The guide bar of the print head receives consecutive magnetization of north and south
poles. The sensor GMR C6 with two crossed half bridges follows the motion of the print
head. This arrangement combines the principle of linear measurement (see
Chapter 8.5.4) with a large number of poles as in a polewheel (see Chapter 8.4.5).

Data Book 167 2000-07-01


Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)

The rough positioning takes place according to the number of voltage minima and
maxima induced by magnetic north and south poles, as for the incremental rotary switch
(see Chapter 8.5.2). The crossed half bridges allow accurate fine positioning within the
range of a pole pair (see Chapter 8.5.4).

Examples
Ink jet printers, fax.

Print Head

GMR C6

S N

Figure 122
Print Head Position Sensing

Data Book 168 2000-07-01


Giant Magneto Resistors (GMR)

8.6 Hysteresis

AED02729
1.6

1.4
30
1.2 90
120
1.0
Angle/

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
4 6 8 10 12 14 KA/m 16
H

Figure 123
Hysteresis of GMR Sensors as a Function of Angle of Rotation and Magnetic Field
Strength
The Hysteresis of the GMR Sensor is strongly depending on the angle of rotation and
the magnetic fieldstrength in the plane of the sensor.

Data Book 169 2000-07-01


Surface Mount Piezoresistive Silicon KP 202-A/AK
Absolute Pressure Sensor KP 203-A/AK

Preliminary

Features
• High sensitivity and linearity
• Fast response
• Very small dimensions
• Low cost
• Produced in qualified semiconductor
fabrication lines
• SMD housing P-DSOF-8-1
• Built in silicon temperature sensor

*)

*)

Type Marking Ordering Code Pressure Range Package


KP 202-A KP 202-A Q62702-K0429 0 … 60 kPa (0.6 bar) P-DSOF-8-1
KP 202-AK on request 0 … 60 kPa (0.6 bar) *)
KP 203-A KP 203-A Q62702-K0431 0 … 160 kPa (1.6 bar) P-DSOF-8-1
KP 203-AK on request 0 … 160 kPa (1.6 bar) *)

*)
This package is a future option for high volumes

Data Book 170 2000-07-01


KP 202-A/AK, KP 203-A/AK

Pin Configuration
1 Not connected
2 VS –
3 VOUT +
4 Not connected
5 Temperature Sensor, typ. R25 = 2 kΩ
6 VS + and Temperature Sensor
7 VOUT –
8 Not connected

N.C. 1 8 N.C.
N.C. 1 8 N.C.
VS _ 2 7 VOUT _ V _
S 2 7 Vout _
+ +
VS and Vout + VS and
VOUT + 3 6 3 6
Temp. Sensor Temp. Sensor
N.C. 4 5 Temp. Sensor N.C. 4 5 Temp. Sensor

EHA07304
EHA07367

KP 20x-A KP 20x-AK

Data Book 171 2000-07-01


KP 202-A/AK, KP 203-A/AK

Electric Network
Four piezoresistors form a bridge circuit, providing a very accurate and linear output
voltage, directly proportional to the applied pressure.

1 R (p) × R (p) – R (p) × R (p)


3 2 4
V OUT = V O + V FIN = V S × ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
[ R1 ( p ) + R2 ( p ) ] × [ R3 ( p ) + R4 ( p ) ]

with
R1 ( 0 ) ≅ R2 ( 0 ) ≅ R3 ( 0 ) ≅ R4 ( 0 ) ≅ RB

A temperature sensor chip RT, that is built in the housing, can be used to compensate
the temperature drift of the pressure sensor.

+
6
R1 R4

VS RT

_ R2 R3
2

_ Vout +
7 3 5
EHA07305

Sensor Schematic
Piezoresistors R1 … R4 denote the pressure sensitive resistors connected as a
Wheatstone bridge. RT is a KTY-series temperature dependent resistor with a positive
TC.

Data Book 172 2000-07-01


KP 202-A/AK, KP 203-A/AK

Absolute Maximum Ratings


Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
Supply voltage VS MAX 12 V
Overpressure1) pMAX 250 kPa
Burst Pressure pBURST kPa
KP 202-A, KP 202-AK 400
KP 203-A, KP 203-AK 800
Operating temperature range TOP – 40 … + 125 °C
Storage temperature range TSTG – 40 … + 125 °C
Mechanical shock survival 2000 g
1)
Overpressure is limited to pMAX, due to absorption of gas into the protective gel covering the sensor at higher
pressures. Abrupt decrease of pressure from values higher than pMAX to low pressures can cause in the gel to
rupture.

Electrical Characteristics
at TA= 25 °C and VS = 5 V unless otherwise specified
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
Pressure Range PN kPa
KP 202-A, KP 202-AK 0 – 60
KP 203-A, KP 203-AK 0 – 160
Bridge Resistance RB 4 6 8 kΩ
Sensitivity s mV/V × kPa
KP 202-A, KP 202-AK 0.24 0.44 0.74
KP 203-A, KP 203-AK 0.11 0.20 0.30
Full Scale Span (p = pN, VS = 5 V) VFIN mV
KP 202-A, KP 202-AK 72 132 222
KP 203-A, KP 203-AK 88 160 240
Offset signal VO – 25 – + 25 mV
p = p0
Linearity error (best fit straight line) FL % VFIN
p = p0 … pN
KP 202-A, KP 202-AK – ± 0.3 –
KP 203-A, KP 203-AK – ± 0.3 –
Pressure Hysteresis PH % VFIN
KP 202-A, KP 202-AK – – –
KP 203-A, KP 203-AK – ± 0.1 –

Data Book 173 2000-07-01


KP 202-A/AK, KP 203-A/AK

Temperature Characteristics
at T1 = 25 °C, T2 = 90 °C, T3 = 25 °C and VS = 5 V unless otherwise specified
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
1)
Temperature Coefficient of Span TCVFIN – – 0.17 - % K-1
Temperature Coefficient of Offset 1) TCV0 % K-1
KP 202-A, KP 202-AK – ± 0.01 –
KP 203-A, KP 203-AK – ± 0.01 –
Temperature Coefficient of Bridge TCRB – + 0.26 - % K-1
Resistance 2)
Temperature Hysteresis of Span 3) THVFIN % K-1
KP 202-A, KP 202-AK – ± 0.4 –
KP 203-A, KP 203-AK – ± 0.3 –
Temperature Hysteresis of Offset 3) THV0 % VFIN-1
KP 202-A, KP 202-AK – ± 0.3 –
KP 203-A, KP 203-AK – ± 0.3 –
1)
Change in value of TC VFIN or TCV between 25 °C and 125 °C relative to VFIN (25 °C)
2)
Change in RB between 25 °C and 125 °C relative to RB (25 °C)
3)
Change in V0 (25 °C) or VFIN (25 °C) after temperature cycle 25 °C → 125 °C → 25 °C relative to VFIN (25 °C)

Data Book 174 2000-07-01


KP 202-A/AK, KP 203-A/AK

Temperature Compensation
Cost-effective temperature compensation can be achieved using standard ohmic
resistors in combination with the built in temperature sensor.
With fixed values for RV and RL a temperature compensation error of the output signal
(span plus offset) of typical less then ± 1% is achieved in the range 10 °C to 40 °C (see
figure below).
A better temperature compensation is possible by measurement of the temperature
coefficients of the sensor. In this case RV is optimized as described in Chapter 3.10.
Alternatively an ASIC can be used for calibration and compensation.

RV

6
KP200 RT
5
R1 R4

VS RL

R2 R3

7 2 3
_ +
Vout Vout
_
EHA07306

Electrical Circuit for Temperature Compensation


Broken line denotes sensor assembly. RV and RL need to be added externally.

Data Book 175 2000-07-01


KP 202-A/AK, KP 203-A/AK

EHA07368
5
%
R V = 2200 Ω
3
R L = 1300 Ω
2
1
Drift

0 Span + Offset Span


-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-20 0 20 40 60 C 80
Temperature

Error Band of Typical Signal Drift after Temperature Compensation Using Fixed
Values for RV and RL
Using fixed resistor RV = 2200 Ω and RL = 1300 Ω. Graph shows typical results for
compensated span + offset signals.

P0 PN KP202-A/AK Pmax.
1000
mV
800 max. Sensitivity

600
Output Voltage

typ. Sensitivity
400

min. Sensitivity
200

-200
0 50 100 150 200 kPa 250
Pressure
EHA07390

Output Voltage for Nominal and Maximal Pressure Range KP 202-A, KP 202-AK

Data Book 176 2000-07-01


KP 202-A/AK, KP 203-A/AK

P0 Pmax.
500
mV
400
max. Sensitivity
300
Output Voltage

typ. Sensitivity
200

100 min. Sensitivity

-100
0 50 100 150 200 kPa 250
Pressure
EHA07369

Output Voltage for Nominal and Maximal Pressure Range KP 203-A, KP 203-AK

Data Book 177 2000-07-01


KP 202-A/AK, KP 203-A/AK

Package Outlines

P-DSOF-8-1
(Plastic Dual Small Outline Flat Package)

2.8 ±0.1
3˚ max

0.1±0.1

-0.05
0.2 +0.1
0.2

-0.05
R 0.55

0.8 +0.1

-0.05
0.4 +0.1
3.81
7±0.1

1.27

7 ±0.1
8.6 ±0.1
0.2

GMX05998
The package is made of a thermoplast housing and copper leadframe with NiPdAu
finish. The chip is glued into the premolded plastic package using silicone glue, gold-wire
bonded and covered with a protective gel.
For the products KP 20x-AK a cap is mounted on the housing.

Data Book 178 2000-07-01


KP 202-A/AK, KP 203-A/AK

*) Subject to change
(Plastic Dual Small Outline Package)

ø4
ø3.25

9.8
(13.6)

0.2 -0.05
(2.8)
+0.1
3.8 ±0.1

3.2
0.1±0.1

3.8 2.0
7.96 7.96

0.2
-0.05

R 0.55
0.8 +0.1

-0.05
0.4 +0.1
3.81
7±0.1

1.27

7 ±0.1
8.6 ±0.1
0.2 GMX09110

* This package is a future option for high volumes

Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”. Dimensions in mm

Data Book 179 2000-07-01


Surface Mount Piezoresistive Silicon KP 202-R/RK
Absolute Pressure Sensor KP 203-R/RK

Preliminary

Features
• High sensitivity and linearity
• Fast response
• Very small dimensions
• Low cost
• Produced in qualified semiconductor
fabrication lines
• SMD housing P-DSOF-8-2
• Built in silicon temperature sensor

*)

Type Marking Ordering Code Pressure Range Package


KP 202-R KP 202-R Q62705-K0424 0 … 60 kPa (0.6 bar) P-DSOF-8-2
KP 202-RK on request 0 … 60 kPa (0.6 bar) *)
KP 203-R KP 203-R Q62705-K0430 0 … 160 kPa (1.6 bar) P-DSOF-8-2
KP 203-RK on request 0 … 160 kPa (1.6 bar) *)
*)

*)
This package is a future option for high volumes.

Data Book 180 2000-07-01


KP 202-R/RK
KP 203-R/RK

Pin Configuration
1 Not connected
2 VS –
3 VOUT +
4 Not connected
5 Temperature Sensor, typ. R25 = 2 kΩ
6 VS + and Temperature Sensor
7 VOUT –
8 Not connected

N.C. 1 8 N.C.
N.C. 1 8 N.C.
VS _ 2 7 VOUT _ V _
S 2 7 Vout _
+ +
VS and Vout + VS and
VOUT + 3 6 3 6
Temp. Sensor Temp. Sensor
N.C. 4 5 Temp. Sensor N.C. 4 5 Temp. Sensor

EHA07304
EHA07367

KP 20x-R KP 20x-RK

Data Book 181 2000-07-01


KP 202-R/RK
KP 203-R/RK

Electric Network
Four piezoresistors form a bridge circuit, providing a very accurate and linear output
voltage, directly proportional to the applied pressure.

1 R (p) × R (p) – R (p) × R (p)


3 2 4
V OUT = V O + V FIN = V S × ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
[ R1 ( p ) + R2 ( p ) ] × [ R3 ( p ) + R4 ( p ) ]

with
R1 ( 0 ) ≅ R2 ( 0 ) ≅ R3 ( 0 ) ≅ R4 ( 0 ) ≅ RB

A temperature sensor chip RT, that is built in the housing, can be used to compensate
the temperature drift of the pressure sensor.

+
6
R1 R4

VS RT

_ R2 R3
2

_ Vout +
7 3 5
EHA07305

Sensor Schematic
Piezoresistors R1 … R4 denote the pressure sensitive resistors connected as a
Wheatstone bridge. RT is a KTY-series temperature dependent resistor with a positive
TC.

Data Book 182 2000-07-01


KP 202-R/RK
KP 203-R/RK

Absolute Maximum Ratings


Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
Supply voltage VS MAX 12 V
Overpressure1) pMAX 250 kPa
Burst Pressure pBURST kPa
KP 202-R, KP 202-RK 400
KP 203-R, KP 203-RK 800
Operating temperature range TOP – 40 … + 125 °C
Storage temperature range TSTG – 40 … + 125 °C
Mechanical shock survival 2000 g
1)
Overpressure is limited to pMAX, due to absorption of gas into the protective gel covering the sensor at higher
pressures. Abrupt decrease of pressure from values higher than pMAX to low pressures can cause in the gel to
rupture.

Electrical Characteristics
at TA= 25 °C and VS = 5 V unless otherwise specified
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
Pressure Range PN kPa
KP 202-R, KP 202-RK 0 – 60
KP 203-R, KP 203-RK 0 – 160
Bridge Resistance RB 4 6 8 kΩ
Sensitivity s mV/V × kPa
KP 202-R, KP 202-RK 0.24 0.44 0.74
KP 203-R, KP 203-RK 0.11 0.20 0.30
Full Scale Span (p = pN, VS = 5 V) VFIN mV
KP 202-R, KP 202-RK 72 132 222
KP 203-R, KP 203-RK 88 160 240
Offset signal VO – 25 – + 25 mV
p = p0
Linearity error (best fit straight line) FL % VFIN
p = p0 … pN
KP 202-R, KP 202-RK – ± 0.3 –
KP 203-R, KP 203-RK – ± 0.3 –
Pressure Hysteresis PH % VFIN
KP 202-R, KP 202-RK – – –
KP 203-R, KP 203-RK – ± 0.1 –

Data Book 183 2000-07-01


KP 202-R/RK
KP 203-R/RK

Temperature Characteristics
at T1 = 25 °C, T2 = 90 °C, T3 = 25 °C and VS = 5 V unless otherwise specified
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
1)
Temperature Coefficient of Span TCVFIN – – 0.17 - % K-1
Temperature Coefficient of Offset 1) TCV0 % K-1
KP 202-R, KP 202-RK – ± 0.01 –
KP 203-R, KP 203-RK – ± 0.01 –
Temperature Coefficient of Bridge TCRB – + 0.26 - % K-1
Resistance 2)
Temperature Hysteresis of Span 3) THVFIN % K-1
KP 202-R, KP 202-RK – ± 0.4 –
KP 203-R, KP 203-RK – ± 0.3 –
Temperature Hysteresis of Offset 3) THV0 % VFIN-1
KP 202-R, KP 202-RK – ± 0.3 –
KP 203-R, KP 203-RK – ± 0.3 –
1)
Change in value of TC VFIN or TCV between 25 °C and 125 °C relative to VFIN (25 °C)
2)
Change in RB between 25 °C and 125 °C relative to RB (25 °C)
3)
Change in V0 (25 °C) or VFIN (25 °C) after temperature cycle 25 °C → 125 °C → 25 °C relative to VFIN (25 °C)

Data Book 184 2000-07-01


KP 202-R/RK
KP 203-R/RK

Temperature Compensation
Cost-effective temperature compensation can be achieved using standard ohmic
resistors in combination with the built in temperature sensor.
With fixed values for RV and RL a temperature compensation error of the output signal
(span plus offset) of typical less then ± 1% is achieved in the range 10 °C to 40 °C (see
figure below).
A better temperature compensation is possible by measurement of the temperature
coefficients of the sensor. In this case RV is optimized as described in Chapter 3.10 .
Alternatively an ASIC can be used for calibration and compensation.

RV

6
KP200 RT
5
R1 R4

VS RL

R2 R3

7 2 3
_ +
Vout Vout
_
EHA07306

Electrical Circuit for Temperature Compensation


Broken line denotes sensor assembly. RV and RL need to be added externally.

Data Book 185 2000-07-01


KP 202-R/RK
KP 203-R/RK

EHA07368
5
%
R V = 2200 Ω
3
R L = 1300 Ω
2
1
Drift

0 Span + Offset Span


-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-20 0 20 40 60 C 80
Temperature

Error Band of Typical Signal Drift after Temperature Compensation Using Fixed
Values for RV and RL
Using fixed resistor RV = 2200 Ω and RL = 1300 Ω. Graph shows typical results for
compensated span + offset signals.

Data Book 186 2000-07-01


KP 202-R/RK
KP 203-R/RK

P0 Pmax.
1000
mV
800 max. Sensitivity

600
Output Voltage

typ. Sensitivity
400

min. Sensitivity
200

-200
0 50 100 150 200 kPa 250
Pressure
EHA07391

Output Voltage for Nominal and Maximal Pressure Range KP 202-R, KP 202-RK

P0 Pmax.
500
mV
400
max. Sensitivity
300
Output Voltage

typ. Sensitivity
200

100 min. Sensitivity

-100
0 50 100 150 200 kPa 250
Pressure
EHA07369

Output Voltage for Nominal and Maximal Pressure Range KP 203-R, KP 203-RK

Data Book 187 2000-07-01


KP 202-R/RK
KP 203-R/RK

Package Outlines

P-DSOF-8-2
(Plastic Dual Small Outline Flat Package)

2.8 ±0.1
3˚ max

0.1±0.1

-0.05
0.2 +0.1
0.2

-0.05
R 0.55

0.8 +0.1

-0.05
0.4 +0.1
3.81
7±0.1

1.27

7 ±0.1
8.6 ±0.1
0.2

GMX05998
The package is made of a thermoplast housing and copper leadframe with NiPdAu
finish. The chip is glued into the premolded plastic package using silicone glue, gold-wire
bonded and covered with a protective gel. The pressure vent hole in the rear side of the
package is 2.0 ± 0.3 mm in diameter. Finally the pressure port cap is mounted on the
housing.

Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”. Dimensions in mm

Data Book 188 2000-07-01


KP 202-R/RK
KP 203-R/RK

*) Subject to change
(Plastic Dual Small Outline Package)

ø4
ø3.25

9.8
(13.6)

0.2 -0.05
(2.8)
+0.1
3.8 ±0.1

3.2
0.1±0.1

3.8 2.0
7.96 7.96

0.2
-0.05

R 0.55
0.8 +0.1

-0.05
0.4 +0.1
3.81
7±0.1

1.27

7 ±0.1
8.6 ±0.1
0.2 GMX09110

*) This package is a future option for high volumes.

Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”. Dimensions in mm

Data Book 189 2000-07-01


Surface Mount Piezoresistive Silicon KP 205-A
Absolute Pressure Sensor

Preliminary

Features
• High sensitivity and linearity
• Fast response
• Very small dimensions
• Low cost
• Produced in qualified semiconductor
fabrication lines
• SMD housing P-DSOF-8-1
• Built in silicon temperature sensor

Type Marking Ordering Code Pressure Range Package


KP 205-A KP 205-A Q62705-K353 0 … 1000 kPa (10 bar) P-DSOF-8-1

Data Book 190 2000-07-01


KP 205-A

Pin Configuration
1 Not connected
2 VS –
3 VOUT +
4 Not connected
5 Temperature Sensor, typ. R25 = 2 kΩ
6 VS + and Temperature Sensor
7 VOUT –
8 Not connected

N.C. 1 8 N.C.

VS _ 2 7 VOUT _
+
VS and
VOUT + 3 6
Temp. Sensor
N.C. 4 5 Temp. Sensor

EHA07367

KP 205-A

Data Book 191 2000-07-01


KP 205-A

Electric Network
Four piezoresistors form a bridge circuit, providing a very accurate and linear output
voltage, directly proportional to the applied pressure.

1 R (p) × R (p) – R (p) × R (p)


3 2 4
V OUT = V O + V FIN = V S × ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
[ R1 ( p ) + R2 ( p ) ] × [ R3 ( p ) + R4 ( p ) ]

with
R1 ( 0 ) ≅ R2 ( 0 ) ≅ R3 ( 0 ) ≅ R4 ( 0 ) ≅ RB

A temperature sensor chip RT, that is built in the housing, can be used to compensate
the temperature drift of the pressure sensor.

+
6
R1 R4

VS RT

_ R2 R3
2

_ Vout +
7 3 5
EHA07305

Sensor Schematic
Piezoresistors R1 … R4 denote the pressure sensitive resistors connected as a
Wheatstone bridge. RT is a KTY-series temperature dependent resistor with a positive
TC.

Data Book 192 2000-07-01


KP 205-A

Absolute Maximum Ratings


Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
Supply voltage VS MAX 12 V
Overpressure1) pMAX 250 kPa
Burst Pressure pBURST kPa
KP 205-A 2000
Operating temperature range TOP – 40 … + 125 °C
Storage temperature range TSTG – 40 … + 125 °C
Mechanical shock survival 2000 g
1)
Overpressure is limited to pMAX, due to absorption of gas into the protective gel covering the sensor at higher
pressures. Abrupt decrease of pressure from values higher than pMAX to low pressures can cause in the gel to
rupture.

Electrical Characteristics
at TA= 25 °C and VS = 5 V unless otherwise specified
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
Pressure Range PN kPa
KP 205-A 0 – 1000
Bridge Resistance RB 4 6 8 kΩ
Sensitivity s mV/V × kPa
KP 205-A 0.036 0.052 0.080
Full Scale Span (p = pN, VS = 5 V) VFIN mV
KP 205-A 180 260 400
Offset signal VO – 25 – + 25 mV
p = p0
Linearity error (best fit straight line) FL % VFIN
p = p0 … pN
KP 205-A – ± 0.3 –
Pressure Hysteresis PH % VFIN
KP 205-A – ± 0.1 –

Data Book 193 2000-07-01


KP 205-A

Temperature Characteristics
at T1 = 25 °C, T2 = 90 °C, T3 = 25 °C and VS = 5 V unless otherwise specified
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
1)
Temperature Coefficient of Span TCVFIN – – 0.17 - % K-1
Temperature Coefficient of Offset 1) TCV0 % K-1
KP 205-A – ± 0.01 –
Temperature Coefficient of Bridge TCRB – + 0.26 - % K-1
Resistance 2)
Temperature Hysteresis of Span 3) THVFIN % K-1
KP 205-A – ± 0.2 –
Temperature Hysteresis of Offset 3) THV0 % VFIN-1
KP 205-A – ± 0.2 –
1)
Change in value of TC VFIN or TCV between 25 °C and 125 °C relative to VFIN (25 °C)
2)
Change in RB between 25 °C and 125 °C relative to RB (25 °C)
3)
Change in V0 (25 °C) or VFIN (25 °C) after temperature cycle 25 °C → 125 °C → 25 °C relative to VFIN (25 °C)

Temperature Compensation
Cost-effective temperature compensation can be achieved using standard ohmic
resistors in combination with the built in temperature sensor.
With fixed values for RV and RL a temperature compensation error of the output signal
(span plus offset) of typical less then ± 1% is achieved in the range 10 °C to 40 °C (see
figure below).
A better temperature compensation is possible by measurement of the temperature
coefficients of the sensor. In this case RV is optimized as described in Chapter 3.10.
Alternatively an ASIC can be used for calibration and compensation.

Data Book 194 2000-07-01


KP 205-A

RV

6
KP200 RT
5
R1 R4

VS RL

R2 R3

7 2 3
_ +
Vout Vout
_
EHA07306

Electrical Circuit for Temperature Compensation


Broken line denotes sensor assembly. RV and RL need to be added externally.

EHA07368
5
%
R V = 2200 Ω
3
R L = 1300 Ω
2
1
Drift

0 Span + Offset Span


-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-20 0 20 40 60 C 80
Temperature

Error Band of Typical Signal Drift after Temperature Compensation Using Fixed
Values for RV and RL

Data Book 195 2000-07-01


KP 205-A

Using fixed resistor RV = 2200 Ω and RL = 1300 Ω. Graph shows typical results for
compensated span + offset signals.

P0 PN Pmax.
500

Limited by gas absorption


mV

into the protective gel


400
max. Sensitivity

300
Output Voltage

typ. Sensitivity
200

min. Sensitivity
100

-100
0 200 400 600 800 kPa 1000
Pressure
EHA07370

Output Voltage for Nominal and Maximal Pressure Range KP 205-A

Data Book 196 2000-07-01


KP 205-A

Package Outlines

P-DSOF-8-1
(Plastic Dual Small Outline Flat Package)

2.8 ±0.1
3˚ max

0.1±0.1

-0.05
0.2 +0.1
0.2

-0.05
R 0.55

0.8 +0.1

-0.05
0.4 +0.1
3.81
7±0.1

1.27

7 ±0.1
8.6 ±0.1
0.2

GMX05998
The package is made of a thermoplast housing and copper leadframe with NiPdAu
finish. The chip is glued into the premolded plastic package using silicone glue, gold-wire
bonded and covered with a protective gel.

Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”. Dimensions in mm

Data Book 197 2000-07-01


Silicon Piezoresistive KPY 32-RK
Relative Pressure Sensor

Features
• Low pressure and temperature hysteresis
• Fast response
• High sensitivity and linearity
• Fatigue free monocrystaline silicon diaphragm
giving high load cycle stability
• High long term stability
• Provided for further fabrication, protection cap Similar to TO-8

Type Symbol Pressure Unit Ordering Code


Range
KPY 32-RK P0 … PN  … 0.06 bar Q62705-K266

Pin Configuration
1 − VIN
2 − VOUT
3 Not connected
4 Temperature sensor
(typ. R25 = 2 kΩ)
5 Temperature sensor
6 Shielding, to be connected
to + VIN
7 + VIN
8 + VOUT

Data Book 198 2000-07-01


KPY 32-RK

Absolute Maximum Ratings


Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
Pressure overload PMAX ± 0.6 bar
Operating temperature range TA − 40 … + 125 °C
Storage temperature range Tstg − 50 … + 150 °C
Supply voltage VIN 12 V

Electrical Characteristics
at TA = 25 °C and VIN = 5 V, unless otherwise specified.
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
Bridge resistance RB 4 − 8 kΩ
Sensitivity s 100.0 220.0 − mV/Vbar
Output voltage Vfin 30.0 66.0 − mV
Offset voltage V0 mV
P = P0 − 25 − + 25
Linearity error (best fit straight line) FL % Vfin
P = P0 ... PN − ± 0.3 ± 2.0
Pressure hysteresis PH % Vfin
P1 = P0, P2 = PN, P3 = P0 − ± 0.1 −

Electrical Characteristics
at T1 = 25 °C, T2 = 125 °C, T3 = 25 °C and VIN = 5 V, unless otherwise specified.
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
Temperature coefficient of Vfin TCVfin %/K
− 0.19 − − 0.11
Temperature coefficient of V0 TCV0 %/K
− 0.06 − + 0.06
Temperature coefficient of RB TCRB %/K
− + 0.095 −
Temperature hysteresis of V0; Vfin TH % v. Vfin
− 0.7 − + 0.7

Data Book 199 2000-07-01


KPY 32-RK

Package Outline

Similar to TO-8

Basic Component View on Chip

10 +0.6
3 -0.6 13.35 +0.05
3

4 2

15.3 +0.1

0.8 +0.1
ø2 +0.1

1
5 8
7
ø0.65 -0.1

6
1.5 ±0.1
3.6 max Bond Wire 0.8 +0.1
Loop
9.52
Component Delivery Form
21+0.5 2.85
ø5.1-0.2

1.9
18.2 ±0.3

9.52
5.7

10 ±0.5 17 ±0.3 GMT05798

Weight approx. 2.5 g

Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”.
Dimensions in mm

Data Book 200 2000-07-01


Silicon Piezoresistive KPY 33-RK
Relative Pressure Sensor

Features
• Low pressure and temperature hysteresis
• Fast response
• High sensitivity and linearity
• Fatigue free monocrystaline silicon diaphragm
giving high load cycle stability
• High long term stability
• Provided for further fabrication, protection cap TO-8-2

Type Symbol Pressure Unit Ordering Code


Range
KPY 33-RK P0 … PN 0 … 0.1 bar Q62705-K274

Pin Configuration
1 + VOUT
2 + VIN
3 Not connected
4 Temperature sensor
(typ. R25 = 2 kΩ)
5 Temperature sensor
6 Shielding, to be connected
to + VIN
7 − VOUT
8 − VIN

Data Book 201 2000-07-01


KPY 33-RK

Absolute Maximum Ratings


Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
Pressure overload PMAX 1.0 bar
Operating temperature range TA − 40 … + 125 °C
Storage temperature range Tstg − 50 … + 150 °C
Supply voltage VIN 12 V
..

Electrical Characteristics
at TA = 25 °C and VIN = 5 V, unless otherwise specified
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
Bridge resistance RB 4 − 8 kΩ
Sensitivity s 56.0 80.0 − mV/Vbar
Output voltage Vfin 28.0 40.0 − mV
Offset voltage V0 mV
P = P0 − 25 − + 25
Linearity error (Best fit straight line) FL % Vfin
P = P0 ... PN − ± 0.2 ± 0.5
Pressure hysteresis PH % Vfin
P1 = P0, P2 = PN, P3 = P0 − ± 0.1 −

Electrical Characteristics
at T1 = 25 °C, Ts = 125 °C, T3 = 25 °C and Vfin = 5 V, unless otherwise specified
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
Temperature coefficient of Vfin TCVfin %/K
− 0.19 − − 0.10
Temperature coefficient of V0 TCV0 %/K
− 0.05 − + 0.05
Temperature coefficient of RB TCRB %/K
− + 0.095 −
Temperature hysteresis of V0; Vfin TH % v. Vfin
− 0.7 ± 0.1 + 0.7

Data Book 202 2000-07-01


KPY 33-RK

Package Outline

TO-8-2

Basic Component View on Chip


12.7 ±0.05
8.8 ±0.5
3 -0.5 10.8 +0.02
-0.04

4 3
ø2 ±0.05

5 2
6 1
45˚±1
ø0.6 +0.02

1.5 ±0.1 7 8
-0.05

.05
±0
0.8
3.6 max Bond Wire 0.8

+0
.1
Loop
7.62
Component Delivery Form
23.95 -0.8 3.81

3.81

7.62
ø5

(15) 17.2 GMT05799

Weight approx. 3.3 g

Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”. Dimensions in mm

Data Book 203 2000-07-01


Silicon Piezoresistive KPY 42-A
Absolute Pressure Sensor KPY 46-A

Features
• Low pressure and temperature hysteresis
• Fast response
• High sensitivity and linearity
• Fatigue free monocrystaline silicon diaphragm
giving high load cycle stability
• High long term stability
• Pressure coupled to rearside of silicon diaphragm TO-8-3
• Built in silicon temperature sensor

Type Symbol Pressure Range Unit Ordering Code

KPY 42-A P0 … PN 0 … 0.6 bar Q62705-K204


KPY 43-A 0 … 1.6 Q62705-K162
KPY 44-A 0…4 Q62705-K164
KPY 45-A 0 … 10 Q62705-K166
KPY 46-A 0 … 25 Q62705-K168

Pin Configuration
1 Capillary tube
2 + VIN
3 − VOUT
4 Temperature sensor
(typ. R25 = 2 kΩ)
5 Temperature sensor
6 − VIN
7 + VOUT
8 Not connected

Data Book 204 2000-07-01


KPY 42-A
KPY 46-A

Absolute Maximum Ratings


Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
Pressure overload PMAX bar
KPY 42-A 6
KPY 43-A 10
KPY 44-A 16
KPY 45-A 30
KPY 46-A 40
Operating temperature range TA − 40 … + 125 °C
Storage temperature range Tstg − 50 … + 150 °C
Supply voltage VIN 12 V

Electrical Characteristics
at TA = 25 °C and VIN = 5 V, unless otherwise specified.
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
Bridge resistance RB 4 − 8 kΩ
Sensitivity s mV/
KPY 42-A 11.0 15.0 24.0 Vbar
KPY 43-A 5.6 8.8 12.5
KPY 44-A 4.0 6.0 9.0
KPY 45-A 1.8 2.6 4.0
KPY 46-A
Output voltage Vfin mV
KPY 42-A 33 45 72
KPY 43-A 45 70 100
KPY 44-A 80 120 180
KPY 45-A 90 130 200
KPY 46-A 110 150 250
Offset voltage V0 mV
P = P0 − 25 − + 25
Linearity error (Best fit straight line) FL % Vfin
P0 = P0 … PN KPY 42 … 46-A − ± 0.15 ± 0.35
KPY 46-A ± 0.15 −
Pressure hysteresis PH % Vfin
P1 = P0, P2 = PN, P3 = P0 KPY 42 … 46-A − ± 0.1 −

Data Book 205 2000-07-01


KPY 42-A
KPY 46-A

Electrical Characteristics
at T1 = 25 °C, T2 = 125 °C, T3 = 25 °C and VIN = 5 V, unless otherwise specified.
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
Temperature coefficient of Vfin TCVfin %/K
KPY 42-A − 0.19 − 0.15 − 0.12
KPY 43-A − 0.19 − 0.16 − 0.13
KPY 44-A − 0.19 − 0.17 − 0.14
KPY 45-A − 0.19 − 0.17 − 0.14
KPY 46-A − 0.19 − 0.17 − 0.15
Temperature coefficient of V0 TCV0 %/K
KPY 42-A − 0.05 − + 0.05
KPY 43-A − 0.03 − + 0.03
KPY 44-A − 0.03 − + 0.03
KPY 45-A − 0.03 − + 0.03
KPY 46-A − 0.03 − + 0.03
Temperature coefficient of RB TCRB %/K
KPY 42 … 46-A − + 0.095 −
Temperature coefficient of V0; Vfin TH % v. Vfin
KPY 42-A − 0.5 − + 0.5
KPY 43 … 46-A − 0.3 − + 0.3

Package Outline

TO-8-3
20 ±0.6
6-1 3.15 +0.05
ø1.05-0.1
ø11.6 max

ø12.9-0.3
ø0.9 -0.2

ø1.5

78
3.81
7.62

6 1
5 2
43
ø0.65-0.1
ø2.1-0.2

8±0.6 7.8-0.5
3.81

Weight approx. 3.2 g 7.62 GMX06796

Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”. Dimensions in mm

Data Book 206 2000-07-01


Silicon Piezoresistive KPY 41-R
Relative Pressure Sensor KPY 46-R

Features
• Low pressure and temperature hysteresis
• Fast response
• High sensitivity and linearity
• Fatigue free monocrystaline silicon diaphragm
giving high load cycle stability
• High long term stability
• Pressure coupled to rearside of silicon diaphragm TO-8-4
• Built in silicon temperature sensor

Type Symbol Pressure Range Unit Ordering Code

KPY 41-R P0 … PN 0 … 0.25 bar Q62705-K159


KPY 42-R 0 … 0.6 Q62705-K160
KPY 43-R 0 … 1.6 Q62705-K161
KPY 44-R 0…4 Q62705-K163
KPY 45-R 0 … 10 Q62705-K165
KPY 46-R 0 … 25 Q62705-K167

Pin Configuration
1 Capillary tube
2 + VIN
3 − VOUT
4 Temperature sensor
(typ. R25 = 2 kΩ)
5 Temperature sensor
6 − VIN
7 + VOUT
8 Not connected

Data Book 207 2000-07-01


KPY 41-R
KPY 46-R

Absolute Maximum Ratings


Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
Pressure overload PMAX bar
KPY 41-R 2
KPY 42-R 6
KPY 43-R 10
KPY 44-R 16
KPY 45-R 30
KPY 46-R 40
Operating temperature range TA − 40 … + 125 °C
Storage temperature range Tstg − 50 … + 150 °C
Supply voltage VIN 12 V

Electrical Characteristics
at TA = 25 °C and VIN = 5 V, unless otherwise specified.
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
Bridge resistance RB 4 − 8 kΩ
Sensitivity s mV/Vbar
KPY 41-R 16.8 24.0 32.0
KPY 42-R 11.0 15.0 24.0
KPY 43-R 5.6 8.8 12.5
KPY 44-R 4.0 6.0 9.0
KPY 45-R 1.8 2.6 4.0
KPY 46-R 0.88 1.2 2.0
Output voltage Vfin mV
KPY 41-R 21 30 40
KPY 42-R 33 45 72
KPY 43-R 45 70 100
KPY 44-R 80 120 180
KPY 45-R 90 130 200
KPY 46-R 110 150 250
Offset voltage V0 mV
P = P0 − 25 − + 25
Linearity error (Best fit straight line) FL % Vfin
P0 = P0 … PN KPY 41 … 45-R − ± 0.15 ± 0.35
KPY 46-R ± 0.15 −
Pressure hysteresis PH % Vfin
P1 = P0, P2 = PN, KPY 41 … 46-R − ± 0.1 −
P3 = P0

Data Book 208 2000-07-01


KPY 41-R
KPY 46-R

Electrical Characteristics
at T1 = 25 °C, T2 = 125 °C, T3 = 25 °C and VIN = 5 V, unless otherwise specified.
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
Temperature coefficient of Vfin TCVfin %/K
KPY 41-R − 0.19 − 0.13 − 0.09
KPY 42-R − 0.19 − 0.15 − 0.12
KPY 43-R − 0.19 − 0.16 − 0.13
KPY 44-R − 0.19 − 0.17 − 0.14
KPY 45-R − 0.19 − 0.17 − 0.14
KPY 46-R − 0.19 − 0.17 − 0.15
Temperature coefficient of V0 TCV0 %/K
KPY 41-R − 0.05 − + 0.05
KPY 42-R − 0.05 − + 0.05
KPY 43-R − 0.03 − + 0.03
KPY 44-R − 0.03 − + 0.03
KPY 45-R − 0.03 − + 0.03
KPY 46-R − 0.03 − + 0.03
Temperature coefficient of RB TCRB %/K
KPY 41 … 46-R − + 0.095 −
Temperature hysteresis of V0; Vfin TH % v. Vfin
KPY 41-R − 0.7 − + 0.7
KPY 42-R − 0.5 − + 0.5
KPY 43 … 46-R − 0.3 − + 0.3

Package Outline

TO-8-4 20 ±0.6
+0.05
6-1 3.15
ø1.05-0.1
ø11.6 max

ø12.9-0.3
ø1.5

78
ø0.9 -0.2

3.81
7.62

6 1
5 2
43
ø0.65-0.1
ø2.1-0.2

8±0.6 7.8-0.5
3.81
Weight approx. 3.2 g 7.62 GMX06819

Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”. Dimensions in mm

Data Book 209 2000-07-01


Silicon Piezoresistive ■ KPY 52-A
Absolute Pressure Sensor KPY 56-A

Features
• Low pressure and temperature hysteresis
• Fast response
• High sensitivity and linearity
• Fatigue free monocrystaline silicon diaphragm
giving high load cycle stability
• High long term stability
• Built in silicon temperature sensor Stainless Steel Package
• Media compatible stainless steel housing

Type Symbol Pressure Range Unit Ordering Code

■ KPY 52-A P0 … PN 0 … 0.6 bar Q62705-K211


■ KPY 53-A 0 … 1.6 Q62705-K177
■ KPY 54-A 0…4 Q62705-K179
■ KPY 55-A 0 … 10 Q62705-K181
■ KPY 56-A 0 … 25 Q62705-K183
■ not for new design

Pin Configuration
1 Capillary tube +
2
2 + VIN R B(P) R B(P)
3 − VOUT R T(T)
4 Temperature sensor VIN
(typ. R25 = 2 kΩ)
5 Temperature sensor
R B(P) R B(P)
6 − VIN _
6
7 + VOUT
8 Not connected _ VOUT +
7 3 4 5
EHS07025

Data Book 210 2000-07-01


KPY 52-A
KPY 56-A

Absolute Maximum Ratings


Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
Pressure overload PMAX bar
KPY 52-A 2
KPY 53-A 6
KPY 54-A 10
KPY 55-A 16
KPY 56-A 30
Operating temperature range TA − 40 … + 125 °C
Storage temperature range Tstg − 50 … + 130 °C
Supply voltage VIN 12 V

Electrical Characteristics
at TA = 25 °C and VIN = 5 V, unless otherwise specified.
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
Bridge resistance RB 4 − 8 kΩ
Sensitivity s mV/
KPY 52-A 11.0 15.0 24.0 Vbar
KPY 53-A 5.6 8.8 12.5
KPY 54-A 4.0 6.0 9.0
KPY 55-A 1.8 2.6 4.0
KPY 56-A 0.88 1.2 2.0
Output voltage Vfin mV
KPY 52-A 33 45 72
KPY 53-A 45 70 100
KPY 54-A 80 120 180
KPY 55-A 90 130 200
KPY 56-A 110 150 250
Offset voltage V0 mV
P = P0 − 25 − + 25
Linearity error (best fit straight line) FL % Vfin
P0 = P0 … PN
KPY 52… 55-A − ± 0.15 ± 0.35
KPY 56-A − ± 0.15 −
Pressure hysteresis PH % Vfin
P1 = P0, P2 = PN, P3 = P0 KPY 52 … 56-A − ± 0.1 −

Data Book 211 2000-07-01


KPY 52-A
KPY 56-A

Electrical Characteristics
at T1 = 25 °C, T2 = 80 °C, T3 = 25 °C and VIN = 5 V, unless otherwise specified.
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
Temperature coefficient of Vfin TCVfin %/K
KPY 52-A − 0.20 − − 0.12
KPY 53-A − 0.20 − − 0.13
KPY 54-A − 0.20 − − 0.14
KPY 55-A − 0.20 − − 0.15
KPY 56-A − 0.20 − − 0.15
Temperature coefficient of V0 TCV0 %/K
KPY 52-A − 0.03 − + 0.08
KPY 53-A − 0.03 − + 0.05
KPY 54-A − 0.03 − + 0.05
KPY 55-A − 0.03 − + 0.05
KPY 56-A − 0.03 − + 0.05
Temperature coefficient of RB TCRB %/K
KPY 52 … 56-A − + 0.095 −
Temperature hysteresis of V0; Vfin TH % v. Vfin
KPY 52 … 56-A − ± 0.2 −

Data Book 212 2000-07-01


KPY 52-A
KPY 56-A

Package Outline

Stainless Steel Package

8 ±0.6
0.7
ø19 -0.02
-0.05
4 ±0.5
8.9 -0.4 3.15 +0.05

ø1.05 -0.1
3.81

ø12.8 +0.1
ø17.6 ±0.05
78

ø1.5
ø2.1-0.2

7.62
6 1
5 2
ø0.65 -0.1

43

1.5 3.81
1.4 +0.2 7.62
Approx. 6
3.5 GMX06799

Weight approx. 15.0 g

Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”. Dimensions in mm

Data Book 213 2000-07-01


Silicon Piezoresistive ■ KPY 51-R
Relative Pressure Sensor KPY 56-R

Features
• Low pressure and temperature hysteresis
• Fast response
• High sensitivity and linearity
• Fatigue free monocrystaline silicon diaphragm
giving high load cycle stability
• High long term stability
• Built in silicon temperature sensor Stainless Steel Package
• Media compatible stainless housing

Type Symbol Pressure Range Unit Ordering Code

■ KPY 51-R P0 … PN 0 … 0.25 bar Q62705-K174


■ KPY 52-R 0 … 0.6 Q62705-K175
■ KPY 53-R 0 … 1.6 Q62705-K176
■ KPY 54-R 0…4 Q62705-K178
■ KPY 55-R 0 … 10 Q62705-K180
■ KPY 56-R 0 … 25 Q62705-K182
■ not for new design

Pin Configuration
+
1 Capillary tube 2
R B(P) R B(P)
2 + VIN
R T(T)
3 − VOUT
VIN
4 Temperature sensor
(typ. R25 = 2 kΩ)
5 Temperature sensor R B(P) R B(P)
_
6 − VIN 6

7 + VOUT _ VOUT +
8 Not connected 7 3 4 5
EHS07025

Data Book 214 2000-07-01


KPY 51-R
KPY 56-R

Absolute Maximum Ratings


Parameter Symbol Limit Values1) Unit
Frontside Rearside
Pressure overload PMAX bar
KPY 51-R 2 2
KPY 52-R 6 6
KPY 53-R 10 10
KPY 54-R 16 16
KPY 55-R 30 30
KPY 56-R 75 40
Operating temperature range TA − 40 … + 125 °C
Storage temperature range Tstg − 50 … + 130 °C
Supply voltage VIN 12 V
1) Frontside coupling applies pressure onto chip face.
Rearside coupling applies pressure through KOVAR® centre tube.

Electrical Characteristics
at TA = 25 °C and VIN = 5 V, unless otherwise specified.
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
Bridge resistance RB 4 − 8 kΩ
Sensitivity s mV/
KPY 51-R 16.8 24.0 32.0 Vbar
KPY 52-R 11.0 15.0 24.0
KPY 53-R 5.6 8.8 12.5
KPY 54-R 4.0 6.0 9.0
KPY 55-R 1.8 2.6 4.0
KPY 56-R 0.88 1.2 2.0
Output voltage Vfin mV
KPY 51-R 21 30 40
KPY 52-R 33 45 72
KPY 53-R 45 70 100
KPY 54-R 80 120 180
KPY 55-R 90 130 200
KPY 56-R 110 150 250
Offset voltage V0 mV
P = P0 − 25 − + 25

Data Book 215 2000-07-01


KPY 51-R
KPY 56-R

Electrical Characteristics (cont’d)


at TA = 25 °C and VIN = 5 V, unless otherwise specified.
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
Linearity error (Best fit straight line) FL % Vfin
P0 = P0 … PN
KPY 51 … 55-R − ± 0.15 ± 0.35
KPY 56-R − ± 0.15 −
Pressure hysteresis PH % Vfin
P1 = P0, P2 = PN, P3 = P0 KPY 51 … 56-R − ± 0.1 −

Electrical Characteristics
at T1 = 25 °C, T2 = 80 °C, T3 = 25 °C and VIN = 5 V, unless otherwise specified.
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
Temperature coefficient of Vfin TCVfin %/K
KPY 51-R − 0.20 − − 0.09
KPY 52-R − 0.20 − − 0.12
KPY 53-R − 0.20 − − 0.13
KPY 54-R − 0.20 − − 0.14
KPY 55-R − 0.20 − − 0.15
KPY 56-R − 0.20 − − 0.15
Temperature coefficient of V0 TCV0 %/K
KPY 51-R − 0.03 − + 0.08
KPY 52-R − 0.03 − + 0.08
KPY 53-R − 0.03 − + 0.05
KPY 54- R − 0.03 − + 0.05
KPY 55-R − 0.03 − + 0.05
KPY 56-R − 0.03 − + 0.05
Temperature coefficient of RB TCRB %/K
KPY 51 … 56-R − + 0.095 −
Temperature hysteresis of V0; Vfin TH % v. Vfin
KPY 51 … 56-R − ± 0.2 −

Data Book 216 2000-07-01


KPY 51-R
KPY 56-R

Package Outline

Stainless Steel Package


20 ±0.6
0.7 ø19 -0.02
-0.05
8 ±0.6
8.9 -0.4 3.15 +0.05

ø1.05 -0.1
3.81

ø12.8 +0.1
ø17.6 ±0.05
78

ø1.5
ø0.9 -0.2

7.62
6 1
5 2
ø0.65 -0.1

43
ø2.1-0.2

1.5 3.81
1.4 +0.2 7.62
Approx. 6
3.5 GMX06801

Weight 15.5 g

Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”. Dimensions in mm

Data Book 217 2000-07-01


Silicon Piezoresistive KPY 52-AK
Absolute Pressure Sensor KPY 56-AK

Features
• Low pressure and temperature hysteresis
• Fast response
• High sensitivity and linearity
• Fatigue free monocrystaline silicon diaphragm
giving high load cycle stability
• High long term stability
• Built in silicon temperature sensor TO-8-5
• Provided for further fabrication, protection cap

Type Symbol Pressure Range Unit Ordering Code

KPY 52-AK P0 … PN 0 … 0.6 bar Q62705-K205


KPY 53-AK 0 … 1.6 Q62705-K192
KPY 54-AK 0…4 Q62705-K194
KPY 55-AK 0 … 10 Q62705-K196
KPY 56-AK 0 … 25 Q62705-K198

Pin Configuration
1 Capillary tube
+
2 + VIN 2
3 − VOUT R B(P) R B(P)
R T(T)
4 Temperature sensor
(typ. R25 = 2 kΩ) VIN
5 Temperature sensor
6 − VIN R B(P) R B(P)
_
7 + VOUT 6
8 Not connected
_ VOUT +
7 3 4 5
EHS07025

Data Book 218 2000-07-01


KPY 52-AK
KPY 56-AK

Absolute Maximum Ratings


Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
Pressure overload PMAX bar
KPY 52-AK 6
KPY 53-AK 10
KPY 54-AK 16
KPY 55-AK 30
KPY 56-AK 75
Operating temperature range TA − 40 … + 125 °C
Storage temperature range Tstg − 50 … + 150 °C
Supply voltage VIN 12 V

Electrical Characteristics
at TA = 25 °C and VIN = 5 V, unless otherwise specified.
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
Bridge resistance RB 4 − 8 kΩ
Sensitivity s mV/
KPY 52-AK 11.0 15.0 24.0 Vbar
KPY 53-AK 5.6 8.8 12.5
KPY 54-AK 4.0 6.0 9.0
KPY 55-AK 1.8 2.6 4.0
KPY 56-AK 0.88 1.2 2.0
Output voltage Vfin mV
KPY 52-AK 33 45 72
KPY 53-AK 45 70 100
KPY 54-AK 80 120 180
KPY 55-AK 90 130 200
KPY 56-AK 110 150 250
Offset voltage V0 mV
P = P0 − 25 − + 25
Linearity error (Best fit straight line) FL % Vfin
P0 = P0 … PN
KPY 52 … 55-AK − ± 0.15 ± 0.35
KPY 56-AK − ± 0.15 −
Pressure hysteresis PH % Vfin
P1 = P0, P2 = PN, P3 = P0 KPY 52 … 56-AK − ± 0.1 −

Data Book 219 2000-07-01


KPY 52-AK
KPY 56-AK

Electrical Characteristics
at T1 = 25 °C, T2 = 125 °C, T3 = 25 °C and VIN = 5 V, unless otherwise specified.
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
Temperature coefficient of Vfin TCVfin %/K
KPY 52-AK − 0.19 − 0.15 − 0.12
KPY 53-AK − 0.19 − 0.16 − 0.13
KPY 54-AK − 0.19 − 0.17 − 0.14
KPY 55-AK − 0.19 − 0.17 − 0.14
KPY 56-AK − 0.19 − 0.17 − 0.15
Temperature coefficient of V0 TCV0 %/K
KPY 52-AK − 0.05 − + 0.05
KPY 53-AK − 0.03 − + 0.03
KPY 54-AK − 0.03 − + 0.03
KPY 55-AK − 0.03 − + 0.03
KPY 56-AK − 0.03 − + 0.03
Temperature coefficient of RB TCRB %/K
KPY 52 … 56-AK − + 0.095 −
Temperature hysteresis of V0; Vfin TH % v. Vfin
KPY 52-AK − 0.5 − + 0.5
KPY 53 … 56-AK − 0.3 − + 0.3

Data Book 220 2000-07-01


KPY 52-AK
KPY 56-AK

Package Outline

TO-8-5

Basic Component
20 ±0.6 View on Chip
8 ±0.6
4 ±0.6 12.7 ±0.1
4 3
ø2.1-0.2

ø10.92 -0.2 5 2
ø1.05 -0.1

6 1

.2
0.9

-0
7 8 45˚
ø0.65 -0.1

3.9 max
1

-0
.4
Bond Wire Loop

Component Delivery Form


7.62
42 -2
24 -0.8 3.81
ø5.1 -0.2

3.81

7.62
17.3 GMX05635

Weight approx. 4.1 g

Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”. Dimensions in mm

Data Book 221 2000-07-01


Silicon Piezoresistive KPY 51-RK
Relative Pressure Sensor KPY 57-RK

Features
• Low pressure and temperature hysteresis
• Fast response
• High sensitivity and linearity
• Fatigue free monocrystaline silicon diaphragm
giving high load cycle stability
• High long term stability
• Built in silicon temperature sensor TO-8-6
• Provided for further fabrication, protection cap

Type Symbol Pressure Range Unit Ordering Code

KPY 51-RK P0 … PN 0 … 0.25 bar Q62705-K189


KPY 52-RK 0 … 0.6 Q62705-K190
KPY 53-RK 0 … 1.6 Q62705-K191
KPY 54-RK 0…4 Q62705-K193
KPY 55-RK 0 … 10 Q62705-K195
KPY 56-RK 0 … 25 Q62705-K197
KPY 57-RK 0 … 60 Q62705-K199

Pin Configuration
1 Capillary tube +
2
2 + VIN R B(P) R B(P)
3 − VOUT R T(T)

4 Temperature sensor VIN


(typ. R25 = 2 kΩ)
5 Temperature sensor
R B(P) R B(P)
6 − VIN _
6
7 + VOUT
_ VOUT
8 Not connected +
7 3 4 5
EHS07025

Data Book 222 2000-07-01


KPY 51-RK
KPY 57-RK

Absolute Maximum Ratings


Parameter Symbol Limit Values1) Unit
Frontside Rearside
Pressure overload PMAX bar
KPY 51-RK 2 2
KPY 52-RK 6 6
KPY 53-RK 10 10
KPY 54-RK 16 16
KPY 55-RK 30 30
KPY 56-RK 75 40
KPY 57-RK 100 70
Operating temperature range TA − 40 … + 125 °C
Storage temperature range Tstg − 50 … + 150 °C
Supply voltage VIN 12 V
1) Frontside coupling applies pressure onto chip face.
Rearside coupling applies pressure through KOVAR® centre tube.

Electrical Characteristics
at TA = 25 °C and VIN = 5 V, unless otherwise specified.
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
Bridge resistance RB 4 − 8 kΩ
Sensitivity s mV/
KPY 51-RK 16.8 24.0 32.0 Vbar
KPY 52-RK 11.0 15.0 24.0
KPY 53-RK 5.6 8.8 12.5
KPY 54-RK 4.0 6.0 9.0
KPY 55-RK 1.8 2.6 4.0
KPY 56-RK 0.88 1.2 2.0
KPY 57-RK 0.47 0.67 1.0
Output voltage Vfin mV
KPY 51-RK 21 30 40
KPY 52-RK 33 45 72
KPY 53-RK 45 70 100
KPY 54-RK 80 120 180
KPY 55-RK 90 130 200
KPY 56-RK 110 150 250
KPY 57-RK 140 200 300

Data Book 223 2000-07-01


KPY 51-RK
KPY 57-RK

Electrical Characteristics (cont’d)


at TA = 25 °C and VIN = 5 V, unless otherwise specified.
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
Offset voltage V0 mV
P = P0 − 25 − + 25
Linearity error (Best fit straight line) FL % Vfin
P0 = P0 … PN KPY 51 … 55-RK − ± 0.15 ± 0.35
KPY 56/57-RK − ± 0.15 −
Pressure hysteresis PH % Vfin
P1 = P0, P2 = PN, P3 = P0 KPY 51 … 57-RK − ± 0.1 −

Electrical Characteristics
at T1 = 25 °C, T2 = 125 °C, T3 = 25 °C and VIN = 5 V, unless otherwise specified.
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
Temperature coefficient of Vfin TCVfin %/K
KPY 51-RK − 0.19 − 0.13 − 0.09
KPY 52-RK − 0.19 − 0.15 − 0.12
KPY 53-RK − 0.19 − 0.16 − 0.13
KPY 54-RK − 0.19 − 0.17 − 0.14
KPY 55-RK − 0.19 − 0.17 − 0.14
KPY 56-RK − 0.19 − 0.17 − 0.15
KPY 57-RK − 0.19 − 0.17 − 0.15
Temperature coefficient of V0 TCV0 %/K
KPY 51-RK − 0.05 − + 0.05
KPY 52-RK − 0.05 − + 0.05
KPY 53-RK − 0.03 − + 0.03
KPY 54-RK − 0.03 − + 0.03
KPY 55-RK − 0.03 − + 0.03
KPY 56-RK − 0.03 − + 0.03
KPY 57-RK − 0.01 − + 0.01
Temperature coefficient of RB TCRB %/K
KPY 51 … 57-RK − + 0.095 −

Data Book 224 2000-07-01


KPY 51-RK
KPY 57-RK

Electrical Characteristics (cont’d)


at T1 = 25 °C, T2 = 125 °C, T3 = 25 °C and VIN = 5 V, unless otherwise specified.
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
min. typ. max.
Temperature hysteresis of V0; Vfin TH % v. Vfin
KPY 51-RK − 0.7 − + 0.7
KPY 52-RK − 0.5 − + 0.5
KPY 53 … 57-RK − 0.3 − + 0.3

Package Outlines

TO-8-6

Basic Component View on Chip


20 ±0.6
8 ±0.6 12.7 ±0.1
4 3
ø2.1-0.2

ø10.92 -0.2

5 2
ø1.05 -0.1

6 1 2
-0.
0.9
7 8 45˚
ø0.65 -0.1

3.9 max
1-
0.4
Bond Wire Loop

Component Delivery Form


7.62
42 -2
24 -0.8 3.81
ø5.1 -0.2

3.81

7.62

17.3 GMX05634

Weight approx. 4.5 g

Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”. Dimensions in mm

Data Book 225 2000-07-01


Silicon Temperature Sensors KT 100 KTY 10-x
KT 110 KTY 11-x
KT 130 KTY 13-x
KT 210 KTY 21-x
KT 230 KTY 23-x
KTY 16-6 KTY 19-6

Features
• Temperature dependent resistor with positive temperature coefficient
• Temperature range – 50 °C to + 150 °C (– 60 F to 300 F)
• Available in SMD or leaded or customized packages
• Linear output
• Excellent longterm stability
• Polarity independent due to symmetrical construction
• Fast response time
• Resistance tolerances (R25) of ± 3% or ± 1%

SOT-23
Modified TO-92 TO-92 Mini SOT-23

KTY 16-6 KTY 19-6

Data Book 226 2000-07-01


KT- and KTY-Series Temperature Sensors

Standard Packages
Type Marking Ordering Code R25 min R25 max Package
(in Ω with Iop = 1 mA)
KT 100 KT 100 Q62705-K331 1940 2060 TO-92
KT 110 T1 Q62705-K332 1940 2060 TO-92 Mini
KT 130 T1 Q62705-K333 1940 2060 SOT-23 1)
KT 210 N1 Q62705-K334 970 1030 TO-92 Mini
KT 230 N1 Q62705-K335 970 1030 SOT-23 1)
KTY 10-5 KTY 10-5 Q62705-K110 1950 1990 TO-92
KTY 10-6 KTY 10-6 Q62705-K132 1980 2020 TO-92
KTY 10-62 KTY 10-62 Q62705-K71 1990 2010 TO-92
KTY 10-7 KTY 10-7 Q62705-K111 2010 2050 TO-92
KTY 11-5 T5 Q62705-K245 1950 1990 TO-92 Mini
KTY 11-6 T6 Q62705-K246 1980 2020 TO-92 Mini
KTY 11-7 T7 Q62705-K247 2010 2050 TO-92 Mini
KTY 13-5 T5 Q62705-K249 1950 1990 SOT-23 1)
KTY 13-6 T6 Q62705-K250 1980 2020 SOT-23 1)
KTY 13-7 T7 Q62705-K251 2010 2050 SOT-23 1)
KTY 21-5 N5 Q62705-K258 975 995 TO-92 Mini
KTY 21-6 N6 Q62705-K259 990 1010 TO-92 Mini
KTY 21-7 N7 Q62705-K260 1005 1025 TO-92 Mini
KTY 23-5 N5 Q62705-K262 975 995 SOT-23 1)
KTY 23-6 N6 Q62705-K263 990 1010 SOT-23 1)
KTY 23-7 N7 Q62705-K264 1005 1025 SOT-23 1)

Custom Packages
Type Marking Ordering Code R25 min R25 max Screw
(in Ω with Iop = 1 mA) Thread

KTY 16-6 none Q62705-K128 1980 2020 –


KTY 19-6M KTY 19M Q62705-K271 1980 2020 ISO M10x1
KTY 19-6Z KTY 19Z Q62705-K272 1980 2020 NPTF 1/8x27
Connector set for KTY 19 Q62901-B80
1)
Electrical contact between Pin1 and Pin2 (refer to package outlines drawing).

Data Book 227 2000-07-01


KT- and KTY-Series Temperature Sensors

Absolute Maximum Ratings


Parameter Symbol KT 1x0 KT 2x0 Unit
KTY 1x-x KTY 2x-x
Maximum operating voltage 1) Vopmax 25 V
TA ≤ 25 °C, t ≤ 10 ms
Maximum operating current Iopmax 5 7 mA
Peak operating current Iopp 7 10 mA
TA ≤ 25 °C, t ≤ 10 ms
Operating temperature range Top − 50 … + 150 °C
Storage temperature range Tstg − 50 … + 150 °C
1)
When the temperature sensor is operated with long supply leads, it should be protected through the parallel
connection of a > 10 nF capacitor to prevent damage to the sensor through induced voltage peaks.

Electrical Characteristics
Iop = 1 mA
Thermal Time Constant (τ); (63% of ∆T) τair (typ.) τoil (typ.) Unit
KT 100, KTY 10-x 40 4 s
KT 110, KT 210, KTY 11-x, KTY 21-x 11 1.5
KT 130, KT 230, KTY 13-x, KTY 23-x 7 1
KTY 16-6 40 4
KTY 19-6M/Z 40 4

Data Book 228 2000-07-01


KT- and KTY-Series Temperature Sensors

General Technical Data: KT- and KTY-Series Temperature Sensors


These temperature sensors are designed for the measurement, control and regulation
of air, gases and liquids within the temperature range of − 50 °C to + 150 °C. The
temperature sensing element is an n-conducting silicon crystal in planar technology. The
gentle curvature of the characteristic, RT = f (TA), is described as a regression parabola
in the following expressions.
The resistance of the sensor can be calculated for various temperatures from the
following second order equation, valid over the temperature range − 30 °C to + 130 °C.

R T = R 25 × ( 1 + α × ∆ T A + β × ∆ T A2 ) = f ( T A )
with: α = 7.88 10− 3 K− 1; β = 1.937 10− 5 K− 2

The temperature factor kT can be derived from this:

R
k T = -------T = 1 + α × ∆ T A + β × ∆ T A2 = f ( T A )
R 25

The temperature at the sensor can be calculated from the change in the sensors
resistance from the following equation, which approximates the characteristic curve.

α2 – 4 × β + 4 × β × k T – α
T =  25 + --------------------------------------------------------------------
- °C

2×β

Data Book 229 2000-07-01


KT- and KTY-Series Temperature Sensors

Table 1
Spread of the Temperature Factor kT
TA kT
°C min. typ. max.
− 50 0.506 0.518 0.530
− 40 0.559 0.570 0.581
− 30 0.615 0.625 0.635
− 20 0.676 0.685 0.694
− 10 0.741 0.748 0.755
0 0.810 0.815 0.821
10 0.883 0.886 0.890
20 0.960 0.961 0.962
25 1.0 1)
30 1.039 1.040 1.041
40 1.119 1.123 1.126
50 1.204 1.209 1.215
60 1.291 1.300 1.308
70 1.383 1.394 1.405
80 1.478 1.492 1.506
90 1.577 1.594 1.611
100 1.680 1.700 1.720
110 1.786 1.810 1.833
120 1.896 1.923 1.951
130 2.010 2.041 2.072
140 2.093 2.128 2.163
150 2.196 2.235 2.274

1) Normalising point

Data Book 230 2000-07-01


KT- and KTY-Series Temperature Sensors

Sensor Resistance RT = kT × R25 = f (TA) Sensor Resistance RT = kT × R25 = f (TA)


IB = 1 mA; Example: R25 = 2000 Ω IB = 1 mA; Example: R25 = 1000 Ω

Typical Dependence of Sensor Typical Dependence of Sensor


Resistance on Supply Current Resistance on Supply Current
Example: KTY 10-6 in oil at TA = 25 °C Example: KTY 21-6 in oil at TA = 25 °C

Data Book 231 2000-07-01


KT- and KTY-Series Temperature Sensors

Typical Deviation of Sensor Resistance Typical Deviation of Sensor Resistance


from the Basic Resistance R25 from the Basic Resistance R25
(IB = 1mA) Versus Supply Current (IB = 1mA) Versus Supply Current
Example: KTY 10-6 in oil at TA = 25 °C Example: KTY 21-6 in oil at TA = 25 °C

Typical Relationship of the Typical Relationship of the


Temperature Factor Temperature Factor

R
= f ( TA )
dR
= f ( TA )
1
kT = -----T-
R 25
TCT = ---- × -------T
RT dT A

Data Book 232 2000-07-01


KT- and KTY-Series Temperature Sensors

Definition of the Thermal Time constant


Thermal Time Constant τ τ=5s
∆TA = TA2 − TA1; τ = t1 − t0

Peak Current in Air Peak Current in Air


R25 = 2000 Ω; I×= f (TA) R25 = 1000 Ω; I×= f (TA)

Data Book 233 2000-07-01


KT- and KTY-Series Temperature Sensors

Package Outlines

Modified TO-92 KT 100


1 2
KTY 10-x

1.6 -0.1
5.2 -0.2 4.2 -0.2

0.5 ±0.2

5.2
1.5 +0.2

14.5 -1
0.6 +0.02
0.4 +0.05

2.54 0.4+0.05
GPD05636
Weight approx. 0.25 g

TO-92 Mini KT 110, KT 210


KTY 11-x, KTY 2x-x
2.1-0.2

1.7-0.2
1 2
1.9-0.2

10˚
(1.9)
0.928

0.5 ±0.1
14.1

0.4 ±0.1

0.9 ±0.1 0.2 +0.07


-0.03

Weight approx. 0.02 g

Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”. Dimensions in mm

Data Book 234 2000-07-01


KT- and KTY-Series Temperature Sensors

SOT-23 KT 130, KT 230


(Small Outline Transistor) KTY 13-x, KTY 23-x
1.1 max

2.9 ±0.1 0.1 max


B
A
3
+0.2

2.6 max

1.3 ±0.1
acc. to

10˚max
10˚max
DIN 6784
1 2
0.4 +0.1
-0.05 0.08...0.15
C
0.95
2˚... 30˚
1.9

0.25 M B C 0.20 M A
Weight approx. 0.01 g Pins 1 - 2: R25

Ni-plated Brass Tube Housing KTY 16-6


with Tefzel Isolated Leadwires ø3 ±0.15
12 ±0.5

ø1.1
100 ±5

1 2
abisoliert/
stripped
3 ±1

ø0.4
(Draht / wire AWG 26)
GPD05638
Weight approx. 0.07 g

Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”.
SMD = Surface Mounted Device Dimensions in mm

Data Book 235 2000-07-01


KT- and KTY-Series Temperature Sensors

Stainless Steel Housing, KTY 19-6M/Z


BSS303 (equiv. DIN 1.4305)

46 ±0.2
9 ±0.1 SW17
6 ±0.1 12 ±0.1 12
b

17

5
45˚

a
Plug-in socket
SW17 Spade terminals
A2.8x0.8
or NPTF 1/8x27
Ø3.8

DIN 46244
without hole
M10x1

13.5 3 30 ±0.2 GMX05639

Weight approx. 20 g

Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”. Dimensions in mm

Data Book 236 2000-07-01


Uni- and Bipolar Hall IC Switches for TLE 4905 G; TLE 4935 G
Magnetic Field Applications TLE 4935-2 G; TLE 4945-2 G

Bipolar IC

Features
• Temperature compensated magnetic performance
• Digital output signal
• For unipolar and alternating magnetic fields
• Large temperature range
• Protection against reversed polarity
• Output protection against electrical disturbances
SOT-89

Type Marking Ordering Code Package


TLE 4905 G 05 Q62705-K402 SOT-89
TLE 4935 G 35 Q62705-K404 SOT-89
TLE 4935-2 G 35 2 Q62705-K405 SOT-89
TLE 4945-2 G 45 2 Q62705-K403 SOT-89

TLE 4905/35/35-2/45-2 (Unipolar/Bipolar Magnetic Field Switches) have been designed


specifically for automotive and industrial applications. Reverse polarity protection is
included on-chip as is output protection against negative voltage transients.
Typical applications are position/proximity indicators, brushless DC motor commutation,
rotational indexing etc.

Data Book 237 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 G; TLE 4935 G
TLE 4935-2 G; TLE 4945-2 G

Pin Configuration
(top view)

Center of
2.25 ±0.2 sensitive area

1±0.2

1 2 3
AEP02150

Figure 1

Pin Definitions and Funtions


Pin No. Symbol Function
1 VS Supply voltage
2 GND Ground
3 Q Output

Data Book 238 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 G; TLE 4935 G
TLE 4935-2 G; TLE 4945-2 G

Circuit Description
The circuit includes Hall generator, amplifier and Schmitt-Trigger on one chip. The
internal reference provides the supply voltage for the components. A magnetic field
perpendicular to the chip surface induces a voltage at the hall probe. This voltage is
amplified and switches a Schmitt-trigger with open-collector output. A protection diode
against reverse power supply is integrated.
The output is protected against electrical disturbances.

Threshold
Generator

1 3
VS Q
Hall-
Generator

VS
VRef

Amplifier Schmitt-
Trigger
Output
2 Stage
GND AEB01243

Figure 2 Block Diagram

Data Book 239 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 G; TLE 4935 G
TLE 4935-2 G; TLE 4945-2 G

Functional Description Unipolar Type TLE 4905 (Figure 3 and 4)


When a positive magnetic field is applied in the indicated direction (Figure 3) and the
turn-on magnetic induction BOP is exceeded, the output of the Hall-effect IC will conduct
(Operate Point). When the magnetic field is reduced to a value smaller than the release
point, the output of the IC turns off (Release Point; Figure 4).

Branded Side
Ι

VQ
N

+ -
VS AES01231

Figure 3 Sensor/Magnetic-Field Configuration

BOP

BRP Induction

0
t
VQ

VQH

Output Voltage

VQL

t
AED01420

Figure 4 Switching Characteristics Unipolar Type

Data Book 240 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 G; TLE 4935 G
TLE 4935-2 G; TLE 4945-2 G

Functional Description Bipolar Type TLE 4935/35-2/45-2 (Figure 5 and 6)


When a positive magnetic field is applied in the indicated direction (Figure 5) and the
turn-on magnetic induction BOP is exceeded, the output of the Hall-effect IC will conduct
(Operate Point). The output state does not change unless a reverse magnetic field
exceeding the turn-off magnetic induction |BRP| is exceeded. In this case the output will
turn off (Release Point; Figure 6).

Branded Side
Ι

VQ
N

+ -
VS AES01231

Figure 5 Sensor/Magnetic-Field Configuration

BOP
0 Induction
t
BRP

VQ

VQH

Output Voltage

VQL

t
AED01421

Figure 6 Switching Characteristics Bipolar Type

Data Book 241 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 G; TLE 4935 G
TLE 4935-2 G; TLE 4945-2 G

Absolute Maximum Ratings


Tj = – 40 to 150 °C
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit Remarks
min. max.
Supply voltage VS – 40 32 V –
Supply voltage VS – 40 V t < 400 ms; ν = 0.1
Output voltage VQ – 32 V –
Output current IQ – 100 mA –
Output reverse current – IQ – 100 mA –
Junction temperature Tj – 40 150 °C –
Storage temperature Tstg – 50 150 °C –
Thermal resistance Rth JA 100 K/W –

Note: Stresses above those listed here may cause permanent damage to the device.
Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect
device reliability.

Operating Range
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit Remarks
min. max.
Supply voltage VS 4.0 24 V –
Junction temperature Tj – 40 150 °C –

Note: In the operating range the functions given in the circuit description are fulfilled.

Data Book 242 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 G; TLE 4935 G
TLE 4935-2 G; TLE 4945-2 G

AC/DC Characteristics
4.0 V ≤ VS ≤ 24 V; – 40 °C ≤ Tj ≤ 150 °C
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit Test Condition Test
min. typ. max. Circuit

Supply current I 1.6 – 5.0 mA 1


ISHigh – 2.5 – mA B < BRP 1
ISLow – 3.5 – mA B > BOP 1
Output saturation VQSat – 0.25 0.5 V IQ = 40 mA 1
voltage
Output leakage IQL – – 10 µA VQ = 18 V 1
current
Rise/fall time tr / t f – – 1 µs RL = 1.2 kΩ 1
CL ≤ 33 pF

Note: The listed characteristics are ensured over the operating range of the integrated
circuit. Typical characteristics specify mean values expected over the production
spread. If not otherwise specified, typical characteristics apply at Tj = 25 °C and
the given supply voltage.
Note: Moderate changes may occur during the development process or customer
discussion.

Data Book 243 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 G; TLE 4935 G
TLE 4935-2 G; TLE 4945-2 G

Magnetic Characteristics
4.0 V ≤ VS ≤ 24 V
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
TLE 4905 TLE 4935 TLE 4935-2 TLE 4945-2
unipolar bipolar latch bipolar latch bipolar
switch
min. max. min. max. min. max. min. max.

Junction Temperature Tj = – 40 °C
Turn-ON
induction BOP 7.5 19 10 20 15 27 –3 6 mT
Turn-OFF
induction BRP 5.5 17 – 20 – 10 – 27 – 15 –6 3 mT
Hysteresis
(BOP-BRP) ∆BHY 2 6.5 20 40 30 54 1 5 mT

Junction Temperature Tj = 25 °C
Turn-ON
induction BOP 7 18 10 20 14 26 –3 6 mT
Turn-OFF
induction BRP 5 16 – 20 – 10 – 26 – 14 –6 3 mT
Hysteresis
(BOP-BRP) ∆BHY 2 6 20 40 28 52 1 5 mT

Junction Temperature Tj = 85 °C
Turn-ON
induction BOP 6.5 17.5 10 20 13 26 –3 6 mT
Turn-OFF
induction BRP 4.5 15 – 20 – 10 – 26 – 13 –6 3 mT
Hysteresis
(BOP-BRP) ∆BHY 2 5.5 20 40 26 52 1 5 mT

Junction Temperature Tj = 150 °C


Turn-ON
induction BOP 6 17 10 20 12 25 –3 6 mT
Turn-OFF
induction BRP 4 14 – 20 – 10 – 25 – 12 –6 3 mT
Hysteresis
(BOP-BRP) ∆BHY 2 5 20 40 24 50 1 5 mT

Note: The listed characteristics are ensured over the operating range of the integrated circuit.
Typical characteristics specify mean values expected over the production spread. If not
otherwise specified, typical characteristics apply at Tj = 25 °C and the given supply voltage.

Data Book 244 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 G; TLE 4935 G
TLE 4935-2 G; TLE 4945-2 G

ΙS 1
VS VS
+
4.7 nF
- 2 TLE
RL GND
4905/35/35-2/45-2
CL
3
Q
ΙQ
AES01244

Unipolar Type TLE 4905 Bipolar Type TLE 4935


VQ VQ

VQH VQH

VQL VQL

0 B RP B OP B B RP 0 B OP B
B HY B HY AED01422

VQ

VQH

0.9 VQH

0.1VQH

t
tr tf AED01246

Figure 7 Test Circuit 1

Data Book 245 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 G; TLE 4935 G
TLE 4935-2 G; TLE 4945-2 G

Mainframe Line Sensor

1
VS VS

4.7 nF
2 TLE
1.2 k Ω GND
4905/35/35-2/45-2
4.7 nF
3
Signal Q

AES01247

Figure 8 Application Circuit

Data Book 246 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 G; TLE 4935 G
TLE 4935-2 G; TLE 4945-2 G

If not otherwise specified, all curves reflect typical values at Tj = 25 °C and VS = 12 V


Quiescent Current Difference Saturation Voltage versus
versus Temperature Output Current
AED01459 AED02919
1.0 1.2
∆Ι S VQ V
mA
∆ Ι S = Ι SLow - Ι SHigh 1.0 4.0 V <_ VS <_ 24 V
0.75 Ι Q = 40 mA
0.8

0.5 0.6 T j = 125 ˚C

0.4
0.25

0.2 T j = -40 ˚C

0 0
-40 0 50 100 150 ˚C 200 0 20 40 60 mA 100
Tj ΙQ

Quiescent Current versus TLE 4905 Operate-and Release-Point


Junction Temperature versus Junction Temperature
AED01249 AED02912
8 25
ΙS
4.0 V <_ VS <_ 24 V
mA B mT
VQ = High 20
6
B OPmax
15
B RPmax
4
VS = 24 V B OPtyp
10
B RPtyp
VS = 4.0 V
2 B OPmin
5
B RPmin

0 0
-50 0 50 100 C 200 -40 0 50 100 ˚C 200
Tj Tj

Data Book 247 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 G; TLE 4935 G
TLE 4935-2 G; TLE 4945-2 G

TLE 4935 Operate-and Release-Point TLE 4935-2 Operate-and Release-Point


versus Junction Temperature versus Junction Temperature
AED02913 AED02914
30 30
B 4.0 V <_ VS <_ 24 V
4.0 V <_ VS <_ 24 V mT
mT B OPmax
B
B OPmax 20
20 B OPtyp

B OPtyp B OPmin
10
B OPmin
10

0
-10
B RPmax
B RPmax
-10 B RPtyp
-20
B RPtyp B RPmin
B RPmin
-20 -30
-40 0 50 100 ˚C 200 -40 0 50 100 ˚C 200
Tj Tj

TLE 4905 Hysteresis versus Junction TLE 4945-2 Operate-and Release-Point


Temperature versus Junction Temperature
AED02915 AED02916
8 18
B 4.0 V <_ VS <_ 24 V 4.0 V <_ VS <_ 24 V
mT
mT B
12
6
B OPmax
6
B HYmax
B RPmax
B OPtyp
4 0
B RPtyp
B OPmin
B HYtyp
-6
B RPmin
2
B HYmin
-12

0 -18
-40 0 50 100 ˚C 200 -40 0 50 100 ˚C 200
Tj Tj

Data Book 248 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 G; TLE 4935 G
TLE 4935-2 G; TLE 4945-2 G

Package Outline

SOT-89 (SMD)
(Plastic Small Outline Transistor Package)
4.5
B
45˚
0.15
0.25 ±0.5 1.5 ±0.1 1.6 ±0.2
+0.2

10˚ max
acc. to

-0.15
2.75 +0.1
DIN 6784
2.5 ±0.1
4 ±0.25

1.0 ±0.2
0.15 M B
0.45 +0.2
-0.1 0.35 ±0.1
1.5

3
0.2 B

GPS05558
Package Information

d: Distance chip to upper side of IC


SOT-89: 1.05 mm
d

AEA02487

Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”.
SMD = Surface Mounted Device Dimensions in mm

Data Book 249 2000-07-01


Uni- and Bipolar Hall IC Switches for TLE 4905 L; TLE 4935 L;
Magnetic Field Applications TLE 4935-2 L; TLE 4945 L;
TLE 4945-2L

Bipolar IC

Features
• Temperature compensated magnetic performance
• Digital output signal
• For unipolar and alternating magnetic fields
• Large temperature range
• Protection against reversed polarity
• Output protection against electrical disturbances
P-SSO-3-2

Type Marking Ordering Code Package


TLE 4905 L 05 L Q67006-A9120 P-SSO-3-2
TLE 4935 L 35 L Q67006-A9112 P-SSO-3-2
TLE 4935-2 L 35 2 Q67006-A9143 P-SSO-3-2
TLE 4945 L 45 L Q67006-A9163 P-SSO-3-2
TLE 4945-2L 45 2 Q62705-K441 P-SSO-3-2

TLE 4905/35/35-2/45/45-2 L (Unipolar/Bipolar Magnetic Field Switches) have been


designed specifically for automotive and industrial applications. Reverse polarity
protection is included on-chip as is output protection against negative voltage transients.
Typical applications are position/proximity indicators, brushless DC motor commutation,
rotational indexing etc.

Data Book 250 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 L; TLE 4935 L;
TLE 4935-2 L; TLE 4945 L; TLE 4945-2L

Pin Configuration
(view on branded side of component)

Center of
sensitive area
2.08 ±0.15

1.35 ±0.15

1 2 3

VS GND Q
AEP01364

Figure 1

Pin Definitions and Functions


Pin No. Symbol Function
1 VS Supply voltage
2 GND Ground
3 Q Output

Data Book 251 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 L; TLE 4935 L;
TLE 4935-2 L; TLE 4945 L; TLE 4945-2L

Circuit Description
The circuit includes Hall generator, amplifier and Schmitt-Trigger on one chip. The
internal reference provides the supply voltage for the components. A magnetic field
perpendicular to the chip surface induces a voltage at the hall probe. This voltage is
amplified and switches a Schmitt-trigger with open-collector output. A protection diode
against reverse power supply is integrated. The output is protected against electrical
disturbances.

Threshold
Generator

1 3
VS Q
Hall-
Generator

VS
VRef

Amplifier Schmitt-
Trigger
Output
2 Stage
GND AEB01243

Figure 2
Block Diagram

Data Book 252 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 L; TLE 4935 L;
TLE 4935-2 L; TLE 4945 L; TLE 4945-2L

Functional Description Unipolar Type TLE 4905 (Figure 3 and 4)


When a positive magnetic field is applied in the indicated direction (Figure 3) and the
turn-on magnetic induction BOP is exceeded, the output of the Hall-effect IC will conduct
(Operate Point). When the current is reduced, the output of the IC turns off (Release
Point; Figure 4).

Branded Side
Ι

VQ
N

+ -
VS AES01231

Figure 3
Sensor/Magnetic-Field Configuration

BOP

BRP Induction

0
t
VQ

VQH

Output Voltage

VQL

t
AED01420

Figure 4
Switching Characteristics Unipolar Type

Data Book 253 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 L; TLE 4935 L;
TLE 4935-2 L; TLE 4945 L; TLE 4945-2L

Functional Description Bipolar Type TLE 4935/35-2/45 (Figure 5 and 6)


When a positive magnetic field is applied in the indicated direction (Figure 5) and the
turn-on magnetic induction BOP is exceeded, the output of the Hall-effect IC will conduct
(Operate Point). When a reverse magnetic field is generated, the output of the IC turns
off (Release Point; Figure 6).

Branded Side
Ι

VQ
N

+ -
VS AES01231

Figure 5
Sensor/Magnetic-Field Configuration

BOP
0 Induction
t
BRP

VQ

VQH

Output Voltage

VQL

t
AED01421

Figure 6
Switching Characteristics Bipolar Type

Data Book 254 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 L; TLE 4935 L;
TLE 4935-2 L; TLE 4945 L; TLE 4945-2L

Absolute Maximum Ratings


Tj = – 40 to 150 °C
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit Remarks
min. max.
Supply voltage VS – 40 32 V –
Supply voltage VS – 40 V t < 400 ms; ν = 0.1
Output voltage VQ – 32 V –
Output current IQ – 100 mA –
Output reverse current – IQ – 100 mA –
Junction temperature Tj – 40 150 °C –
Junction temperature Tj – 170 °C 1000 h
Junction temperature Tj – 210 °C 40 h
Storage temperature Tstg – 50 150 °C –
Thermal resistance Rth JA – 190 K/W –

Note: Stresses above those listed here may cause permanent damage to the device.
Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect
device reliability.

Operating Range
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit Remarks
min. max.
Supply voltage VS 3.8 24 V –
Junction temperature Tj – 40 150 °C –
Junction temperature Tj – 40 170 °C thresholds may
exceed the limits

Note: In the operating range the functions given in the circuit description are fulfilled.

Data Book 255 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 L; TLE 4935 L;
TLE 4935-2 L; TLE 4945 L; TLE 4945-2L

AC/DC Characteristics
3.8 V ≤ VS ≤ 24 V; – 40 °C ≤ Tj ≤ 150 °C
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit Test Condition Test
min. typ. max. Circuit

Supply current ISHigh – 3 7 mA B < BRP 1


ISLow – 4 8 mA B > BOP 1
Output saturation VQSat – 0.25 0.5 V IQ = 40 mA 1
voltage
Output leakage IQL – – 10 µA VQ = 24 V 1
current
Rise/fall time tr / tf – – 1 µs RL = 1.2 kΩ 1
CL ≤ 33 pF

Note: The listed characteristics are ensured over the operating range of the integrated
circuit. Typical characteristics specify mean values expected over the production
spread. If not otherwise specified, typical characteristics apply at Tj = 25 °C and
the given supply voltage.

Data Book 256 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 L; TLE 4935 L;
TLE 4935-2 L; TLE 4945 L; TLE 4945-2L

Magnetic Characteristics
3.8 V ≤ VS ≤ 24 V
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
TLE 4905 TLE 4935 TLE 4935-2 TLE 4945 TLE 4945-2
unipolar bipolar bipolar bipolar bipolar
latch latch switch switch
min. max. min. max. min. max. min. max. min. max.

Junction Temperature Tj = – 40 °C

Turn-ON
induction BOP 7.5 19 10 20 15 27 –6 10 –3 6 mT
Turn-OFF
induction BRP 5.5 17 – 20 – 10 – 27 – 15 – 10 6 –6 3 mT
Hysteresis
(BOP-BRP) ∆BHY 2 6.5 20 40 30 54 2 10 1 5 mT

Junction Temperature Tj = 25 °C

Turn-ON
induction BOP 7 18 10 20 14 26 –6 10 –3 6 mT
Turn-OFF
induction BRP 5 16 – 20 – 10 – 26 – 14 – 10 6 –6 3 mT
Hysteresis
(BOP-BRP) ∆BHY 2 6 20 40 28 52 2 10 1 5 mT

Junction Temperature Tj = 85 °C

Turn-ON
induction BOP 6.5 17.5 10 20 13 26 –6 10 –3 6 mT
Turn-OFF
induction BRP 4.5 15 – 20 – 10 – 26 – 13 – 10 6 –6 3 mT
Hysteresis
(BOP-BRP) ∆BHY 2 5.5 20 40 26 52 2 10 1 5 mT

Data Book 257 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 L; TLE 4935 L;
TLE 4935-2 L; TLE 4945 L; TLE 4945-2L

Magnetic Characteristics (cont’d)


3.8 V ≤ VS ≤ 24 V
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit
TLE 4905 TLE 4935 TLE 4935-2 TLE 4945 TLE 4945-2
unipolar bipolar bipolar bipolar bipolar
latch latch switch switch
min. max. min. max. min. max. min. max. min. max.

Junction Temperature Tj = 150 °C

Turn-ON
induction BOP 6 17 10 20 12 25 –6 10 –3 6 mT
Turn-OFF
induction BRP 4 14 – 20 – 10 – 25 – 12 – 10 6 –6 3 mT
Hysteresis
(BOP-BRP) ∆BHY 2 5 20 40 24 50 2 10 1 5 mT

Note: The listed characteristics are ensured over the operating range of the integrated
circuit. Typical characteristics specify mean values expected over the production
spread. If not otherwise specified, typical characteristics apply at Tj = 25 °C and
the given supply voltage.

Data Book 258 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 L; TLE 4935 L;
TLE 4935-2 L; TLE 4945 L; TLE 4945-2L

ΙS 1
VS VS
+
4.7 nF
- 2 TLE
RL GND
4905/35/35-2/45-2
CL
3
Q
ΙQ
AES01244

Unipolar Type TLE 4905 Bipolar Type TLE 4935


VQ VQ

VQH VQH

VQL VQL

0 B RP B OP B B RP 0 B OP B
B HY B HY AED01422

VQ

VQH

0.9 VQH

0.1VQH

t
tr tf AED01246

Figure 7
Test Circuit 1

Data Book 259 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 L; TLE 4935 L;
TLE 4935-2 L; TLE 4945 L; TLE 4945-2L

Mainframe Line Sensor

1
VS VS

4.7 nF
2 TLE
1.2 k Ω GND
4905/35/35-2/45-2
4.7 nF
3
Signal Q

AES01247

Figure 8
Application Circuit

Data Book 260 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 L; TLE 4935 L;
TLE 4935-2 L; TLE 4945 L; TLE 4945-2L

Quiescent Current versus Quiescent Current versus


Supply Voltage Junction Temperature
AED01248 AED01249
8 8
ΙS ΙS
mA VQ = High mA
VQ = High
6 6

4 T j = -40 ˚C 4
VS = 24 V

T j = 150 ˚C
VS = 4.0 V
2 2

0 0
0 5 10 15 V 25 -50 0 50 100 C 200
VS Tj

Quiescent Current Difference Saturation Voltage versus


versus Temperature Output Current

AED01459 AED01461
1.0 1.2
∆Ι S VQ V
mA
∆ Ι S = Ι SLow - Ι SHigh 1.0 3.8 V <_ VS <_ 24 V

0.75 Ι Q = 40 mA
0.8

0.5 0.6 T j = 125 ˚C

0.4
0.25
0.2 T j = -40 ˚C

0 0
-40 0 50 100 150 ˚C 200 0 20 40 60 mA 100
Tj ΙQ

Data Book 261 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 L; TLE 4935 L;
TLE 4935-2 L; TLE 4945 L; TLE 4945-2L

TLE 4905 Operate-and Release-Point TLE 4905 Hysteresis versus Junction


versus Junction Temperature Temperature
AED01424 AED01426
25 8
3.8 V <_ VS <_ 24 V B 3.8 V <_ VS <_ 24 V
B mT mT
20
6
B OPmax
B HYmax
15
B RPmax
4
B OPtyp
10 B HYtyp
B RPtyp

B OPmin 2
B HYmin
5
B RPmin

0 0
-40 0 50 100 ˚C 200 -40 0 50 100 ˚C 200
Tj Tj

TLE 4935 Operate-and Release-Point TLE 4935-2 Operate-and Release-Point


versus Junction Temperature versus Junction Temperature
AED01423 AED01640
30 30
B 3.8 V <_ VS <_ 24 V
3.8 V <_ VS <_ 24 V mT
mT B OPmax
B
B OPmax 20
20 B OPtyp

B OPtyp B OPmin
10
B OPmin
10

0
-10
B RPmax
B RPmax
-10 B RPtyp
-20
B RPtyp B RPmin
B RPmin
-20 -30
-40 0 50 100 ˚C 200 -40 0 50 100 ˚C 200
Tj Tj

Data Book 262 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 L; TLE 4935 L;
TLE 4935-2 L; TLE 4945 L; TLE 4945-2L

TLE 4945 Operate-and Release-Point TLE 4945-2 Operate-and Release-Point


versus Junction Temperature versus Junction Temperature
AED01425 AED02353
30 18
mT 3.8 V <_ VS <_ 24 V mT 3.8 V <_ VS <_ 24 V
B B
20 12

B OPmax B OPmax
10 6
B RPmax B RPmax
B OPtyp B OPtyp
0 0
B RPtyp B RPtyp
B OPmin B OPmin
-10 -6
B RPmin B RPmin

-20 -12

-30 -18
-40 0 50 100 ˚C 200 -40 0 50 100 ˚C 200
Tj Tj

Data Book 263 2000-07-01


TLE 4905 L; TLE 4935 L;
TLE 4935-2 L; TLE 4945 L; TLE 4945-2L

Package Outline

P-SSO-3-2
(Plastic Single Small Outline Package)

12.7 ±1

0.15max
4.06 +0.13 1.9max 1.52 ±0.05
3 +0.13

0.35x45˚
0.79

0.2 +0.1
0.4 ±0.05

23.8 ±0.5

1 -1
38 max.
1 3

6 ±0.5
1.27 ±0.25
9 +0.75
-0.5

18 ±0.5
Adhesive Tape
0.25 -0.15

Tape

GPO05358
6.35 ±0.4
12.7 ±0.3 4 ±0.3 0.5 ±0.1

Branded Side

Hall-Probe

d : Distance chip to upper side of IC


P-SSO-3-2 : 0.57 ±0.08 mm

AEA02510

Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”. Dimensions in mm

Data Book 264 2000-07-01


Dynamic Differential Hall Effect Sensor IC TLE 4921-3U

Bipolar IC

Features
• Advanced performance
• High sensitivity
• Symmetrical thresholds
• High piezo resistivity
• Reduced power consumption
• South and north pole pre-induction possible
• AC coupled P-SSO-4-1
• Digital output signal
• Two-wire and three-wire configuration possible
• Large temperature range
• Large airgap
• Low cut-off frequency
• Protection against overvoltage
• Protection against reversed polarity
• Output protection against electrical disturbances

Type Marking Ordering Code Package


TLE 4921-3U 21C3U Q67006-A9171 P-SSO-4-1

The differential Hall Effect sensor TLE 4921-3U provides a high sensitivity and a superior
stability over temperature and symmetrical thresholds in order to achieve a stable duty
cycle. TLE 4921-3U is particularly suitable for rotational speed detection and timing
applications of ferromagnetic toothed wheels such as anti-lock braking systems,
transmissions, crankshafts, etc. The integrated circuit (based on Hall effect) provides a
digital signal output with frequency proportional to the speed of rotation. Unlike other
rotational sensors differential Hall ICs are not influenced by radial vibration within the
effective airgap of the sensor and require no external signal processing.

Data Book 265 2000-07-01


TLE 4921-3U

Pin Configuration
(view on branded side of component)

Center of
sensitive area ±0.15
2.67

1.53

2.5
1 2 3 4

VS Q GND C
AEP01694

Figure 1

Pin Definitions and Functions


Pin No. Symbol Function
1 VS Supply voltage
2 Q Output
3 GND Ground
4 C Capacitor

Data Book 266 2000-07-01


TLE 4921-3U

Protection Internal Reference and Supply


Device
1
VS Vreg (3V)

Hall-Probes

Open Protection
Highpass- Schmitt- Collector Device
Amplifier Filter Trigger 2
Q

3 4
GND CF AEB01695

Figure 2 Block Diagram

Data Book 267 2000-07-01


TLE 4921-3U

Functional Description
The Differential Hall Sensor IC detects the motion and position of ferromagnetic and
permanent magnet structures by measuring the differential flux density of the magnetic
field. To detect ferromagnetic objects the magnetic field must be provided by a back
biasing permanent magnet (south or north pole of the magnet attached to the rear
unmarked side of the IC package).
Using an external capacitor the generated Hall voltage signal is slowly adjusted via an
active high pass filter with a low cut-off frequency. This causes the output to switch into
a biased mode after a time constant is elapsed. The time constant is determined by the
external capacitor. Filtering avoids aging and temperature influence from Schmitt-trigger
input and eliminates device and magnetic offset.
The TLE 4921-3U can be exploited to detect toothed wheel rotation in a rough
environment. Jolts against the toothed wheel and ripple have no influence on the output
signal.
Furthermore, the TLE 4921-3U can be operated in a two-wire as well as in a three-wire-
configuration.
The output is logic compatible by high/low levels regarding on and off.

Circuit Description (see Figure 2)


The TLE 4921-3U is comprised of a supply voltage reference, a pair of Hall probes
spaced at 2.5 mm, differential amplifier, filter for offset compensation, Schmitt trigger,
and an open collector output.
The TLE 4921-3U was designed to have a wide range of application parameter
variations. Differential fields up to ± 80 mT can be detected without influence to
the switching performance. The pre-induction field can either come from a
magnetic south or north pole, whereby the field strength up to 500 mT or more will
not influence the switching points. The improved temperature compensation
enables a superior sensitivity and accuracy over the temperature range. Finally
the optimized piezo compensation and the integrated dynamic offset
compensation enable easy manufacturing and elimination of magnet offsets.
Protection is provided at the input/supply (pin 1) for overvoltage and reverse polarity and
against overstress such as load dump, etc., in accordance with ISO-TR 7637 and
DIN 40839. The output (pin 2) is protected against voltage peaks and electrical
disturbances.

Data Book 268 2000-07-01


TLE 4921-3U

Absolute Maximum Ratings


Tj = – 40 to 150 °C
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit Remarks
min. max.
1)
Supply voltage VS – 35 30 V –
Output voltage VQ – 0.7 30 V –
Output current IQ – 50 mA –
Output reverse current – IQ – 50 mA –
Capacitor voltage VC – 0.3 3 V –
Junction temperature Tj – 150 °C 5000 h
Junction temperature Tj – 160 °C 2500 h
Junction temperature Tj – 170 °C 1000 h
Junction temperature Tj – 210 °C 40 h
Storage temperature TS – 40 150 °C –
Thermal resistance Rth JA – 190 K/W –
P-SSO-4-1
Current through input- ISZ – 200 mA t < 2 ms; v = 0.1
protection device
Current through output- IQZ – 200 mA t < 2 ms; v = 0.1
protection device

Electro Magnetic Compatibility


ref. DIN 40839 part 1; test circuit 1

Testpulse 1 VLD – 100 V td = 2 ms


Testpulse 2 VLD 100 V td = 0.05 ms
Testpulse 3a VLD – 150 V td = 0.1 µs
Testpulse 3b VLD 100 V td = 0.1 µs
Testpulse 4 VLD –7 V td ≤ 20 s
Testpulse 5 VLD 120 V td = 400 ms;
RP = 400 Ω
1)
Reverse current < 10 mA

Note: Stresses above those listed here may cause permanent damage to the device.
Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect
device reliability.

Data Book 269 2000-07-01


TLE 4921-3U

Operating Range
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit Remarks
min. max.
Supply voltage VS 4.5 24 V –
Junction temperature Tj – 40 170 °C –
Pre-induction B0 – 500 500 mT at Hall probe;
independent of
magnet orientation
Differential induction ∆B – 80 80 mT –

Note: In the operating range the functions given in the circuit description are fulfilled.

AC/DC Characteristics
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit Test Condition Test
min. typ. max. Circuit

Supply current IS 4.7 6.1 8.0 mA VQ = high 1


IQ = 0 mA
5.1 6.7 8.8 mA VQ = low 1
IQ = 40 mA
Output saturation VQSat – 0.25 0.6 V IQ = 40 mA 1
voltage
Output leakage IQL – – 10 µA VQ = 24 V 1
current
Center of ∆Bm –1 0 1 mT – 20 mT < ∆B < 2
switching points: 20 mT 1) 2)
(∆BOP + ∆BRP) / 2 f = 200 Hz
Operate point ∆BOP – – 0 mT f = 200 Hz, 2
∆B = 20 mT
Release point ∆BRP 0 – – mT f = 200 Hz, 2
∆B = 20 mT
Hysteresis ∆BHy 0.5 1.5 2.5 mT f = 200 Hz, 2
∆B = 20 mT
Overvoltage
protection at supply VSZ 27 – 35 V IS = 16 mA 1
voltage at output VQZ 27 – 35 V IS = 16 mA 1
Output rise time tr – – 0.5 µs IQ = 40 mA 1
CL = 10 pF

Data Book 270 2000-07-01


TLE 4921-3U

AC/DC Characteristics (cont’d)


Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit Test Condition Test
min. typ. max. Circuit
Output fall time tf – – 0.5 µs IQ = 40 mA 1
CL = 10 pF
Delay time3) tdop – – 25 µs f = 10 kHz 2
tdrp – – 10 µs ∆B = 5 mT
tdop - tdrp – 0 15 µs
Filter input RC 32 40 48 kΩ 25 °C ± 2 °C 1
resistance
Filter sensitivity to SC – –4 – mV/ – 1
∆B mT
Filter bias voltage VC 0.8 – 2.2 V ∆B = 0 1
Frequency f 4)
– 20000 Hz ∆B = 5 mT 2
Resistivity against ∆Bm – 0.1 – 0.1 mT F=2N 25)
mechanical stress ∆BHy – 0.1 0.1 mT
(piezo)
1)
Leakage currents at pin 4 should be avoided. The bias shift of Bm caused by a leakage current IL can be
IL × RC ( T )
calculated by:∆ B m = ----------------------------- .
SC ( T )
2)
For higher ∆B the values may exceed the limits like following | ∆Bm | < | 0.05 × ∆B |
3)
For definition see page 280.
4) 1
Depends on filter capacitor CF. The cut-off frequency is given by f = ---------------------------------- . The switching points are
2π × R C × C F
guaranteed over the whole frequency range, but amplitude modification and phase shift due to the 1st order
highpass filter have to be taken into account.
5)
See page 281.

Note: The listed characteristics are ensured over the operating range of the integrated
circuit. Typical characteristics specify mean values expected over the production
spread. If not otherwise specified, typical characteristics apply at Tj = 25 °C and
the given supply voltage.

Data Book 271 2000-07-01


TLE 4921-3U

V SZ ΙS
RP 300 Ω 1
VS RL

VLD VS ΙC
1) Ι Q , Ι QR
4 2
C Q
4.7 nF

V QSat , V QZ CL
VC GND
3

∆VC AES01696
1) RC =
∆Ι C

Figure 3 Test Circuit 1

1
VS
1 kΩ

4 2
VS C Q VQ
f min
f max
CF ∆ B OP
470 nF GND ∆ B Hy
3
AES01258

Figure 4 Test Circuit 2

Data Book 272 2000-07-01


TLE 4921-3U

Application Configurations
Two possible applications are shown in Figure 7 and 8 (Toothed and Magnet Wheel).
The difference between two-wire and three-wire application is shown in Figure 9.

Gear Tooth Sensing


In the case of ferromagnetic toothed wheel application the IC has to be biased by the
south or north pole of a permanent magnet (e.g. SmCO5 (Vacuumschmelze VX145) with
the dimensions 8 mm × 5 mm × 3 mm) which should cover both Hall probes.
The maximum air gap depends on
– the magnetic field strength (magnet used; pre-induction) and
– the toothed wheel that is used (dimensions, material, etc.; resulting differential field)

a centered distance
of Hall probes N
b Hall probes to
S
IC surface
L IC surface to
tooth wheel b
a
L

a = 2.5 mm
b = 0.3 mm
AEA01259

Figure 5 Sensor Spacing

T Conversion DIN – ASA


m = 25.4 mm/p

d
T = 25.4 mm CP
AEA01260

DIN ASA
d diameter (mm) p diameter pitch p = z/d (inch)
z number of teeth PD pitch diameter PD = z/p (inch)
m module m = d/z (mm) CP circular pitch CP = 1 inch × π/p
T pitch T = π × m (mm)

Figure 6 Toothed Wheel Dimensions

Data Book 273 2000-07-01


TLE 4921-3U

Gear Wheel

Hall Sensor 1 Hall Sensor 2

Signal
Processing
Circuitry S (N) Permanent Magnet

N (S) AEA01261

Figure 7 TLE 4921-3U, with Ferromagnetic Toothed Wheel

Magnet Wheel

S
N

Hall Sensor 1 Hall Sensor 2

Signal AEA01262
Processing
Circuitry

Figure 8 TLE 4921-3U, with Magnet Wheel

Data Book 274 2000-07-01


TLE 4921-3U

Two-wire-application

Line
VS
1 RL
VS
4 2
C Q
CF GND
470 nF 3
VSIGNAL

RS

Sensor Mainframe

for example : R L = 330 Ω


R S = 120 Ω AES01263

Three-wire-application

Rp
Line
VS
1 RL
VS
4 2
C Q VSIGNAL
CF GND
3 4.7 nF 4.7 nF
470 nF

Sensor Mainframe

for example : R L = 330 Ω


R P = 0 ... 330 Ω AES01264

Figure 9 Application Circuits

Data Book 275 2000-07-01


TLE 4921-3U

N (S)
S (N)
1 4
B1 B2

Wheel Profile Missing Tooth

Magnetic Field Difference Small Airgap


∆ B = B2-B1
Large Airgap

∆ B RP = 0.75 mT

∆ B HYS

∆ B OP = -0.75 mT

Output Signal
VQ

Operate point : B2 - B1 < ∆ B OP switches the output ON (VQ = LOW)


Release point : B2 - B1 > ∆ B RP switches the output OFF (VQ = HIGH)
∆ B RP = ∆ BOP + ∆ B HYS
The magnetic field is defined as positive if the south pole of
the magnet shows towards the rear side of the IC housing. AED01697

Figure 10 System Operation

Data Book 276 2000-07-01


TLE 4921-3U

Quiescent Current versus Quiescent Current versus


Supply Voltage Temperature
AED01698 AED01699
10.0 10.0
ΙS ΙS
mA Ι Q ON = 40 mA mA Ι Q ON = 40 mA

7.5 Ι S ON 7.5
Ι S OFF Ι S ON

Ι S OFF
5.0 5.0

2.5 2.5

Ι S diff

0 0
0 5 10 15 V 25 -50 0 50 100 ˚C 200
VS Ta

Quiescent Current Difference Quiescent Current versus


versus Temperature Output Current
AED01700 AED01701
1.0 10.0
∆Ι S ΙS
mA Ι Q ON = 40 mA mA VS = 12 V

0.75 7.5

Ι S ON
Ι S ON - Ι S OFF

0.5 5.0

0.25 2.5

0 0
0 5 10 15 V 25 0 10 20 30 mA 50
VS ΙQ

Data Book 277 2000-07-01


TLE 4921-3U

Saturation Voltage versus Temperature Saturation Voltage versus Output


Current
AED01702 AED01703
0.4 0.3
VQ VQ V
VS = 4.5 V Ta = 25 ˚C
V
Ι Q = 50 mA 0.2

0.3
0.1

0
0.2
-0.1

-0.2
0.1

-0.3

0 -0.4
-50 0 50 100 ˚C 200 -50 -30 -10 10 30 mA 50
Ta ΙQ

Saturation Voltage versus Supply Switching Points versus Preinduction


Voltage
AED01704 AED01705
0.4 2.0
VQ
Ι Q = 40 mA
V mT -80 mT < ∆B < 80 mT
Ta = 25 ˚C

0.3 1.5
BRP, (-B OP )

0.2 1.0

typ

0.1 0.5

0 0
0 5 10 15 V 25 -500 -250 0 mT 500
VS BO

Data Book 278 2000-07-01


TLE 4921-3U

Switching Induction versus Hysteresis versus Temperature


Temperature
AED01706 AED01707
2 3.5
Bm B m = ( B OP + B RP ) /2 B HY B HY = B RP - B OP
mT f = 200 Hz mT f = 200 Hz
max max
1 2.5

typ
typ
0 1.5

min min
-1 0.5

-2 0
-50 0 50 100 ˚C 200 -50 0 50 100 ˚C 200
Ta Ta

Minimum Switching Field versus Minimum Switching Field versus


Frequency Frequency
AED01708 AED01709
3.0 3.5
B min mT B min
C = 940 nF mT C = 940 nF
3.0
2.5

2.5
2.0

2.0
1.5
1.5

1.0 Ta = 170 ˚C
Ta = -40 ˚C 1.0

0.5 Ta = 25 ˚C 0.5 Ta = 150 ˚C

0 0
0.001 0.01 0.1 1 kHz 100 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 kHz 100
f f

Data Book 279 2000-07-01


TLE 4921-3U

Delay Time1) between Switching Threshold Delay Time1) between Switching Threshold
∆B and Falling Edge of VQ at Tj = 25 °C ∆B and Rising Edge of VQ at Tj = 25 °C
AED01711
AED01710 30
30
t drp µs B RP
t dop µs
BOP t drp
t dop 25
25

20
20

15
15
∆ B = 1.2 mT
∆ B = 1.2 mT
10
10
∆ B = 5 mT
5
5 ∆ B = 5 mT

0
0 0 5 10 15 kHz 25
0 5 10 15 kHz 25
f
f
1) 1)
Delay Time versus Differential Field Delay Time versus Temperature
AED01712 AED01713
30 30
t d µs t d µs f = 10 kHz
f = 10 kHz ∆ B = 2 mT
25 25

20 20

t d op
15 15

10 10

t d op t d rp

5 5
t d rp

0 0
0 20 40 60 mT 100 -50 0 50 100 ˚C 200
∆B Ta

1)
Switching points related to initial measurement
@∆B = 2 mT, f = 200 Hz

Data Book 280 2000-07-01


TLE 4921-3U

Rise and Fall Time versus Temperature Rise and Fall Time versus Output
Current
AED01714 AED01715
100 120
t ns t
90 ns
Ι Q = 40 mA Ta = 25 ˚C
100
80

70
80
60

50 60
tf
tr
40
tr
40
30
tf
20
20
10

0 0
-50 0 50 100 ˚C 200 0 10 20 30 mA 50
Ta ΙQ

Capacitor Voltage versus Temperature Switching Thresholds versus


Mechanical Stress
AED01716 AED01717
3.0 1.0
VC
V mT F
2.5 r = 0.5
0.9
∆ B RP ,(− ∆ B OP )

2.0

typ 0.8
max
1.5
min
0.7
1.0

0.6
0.5

0 0.5
-50 0 50 100 ˚C 200 0 1 2 3 N 5
Ta F

Data Book 281 2000-07-01


TLE 4921-3U

Filter Sensitivity versus Temperature Filter Input Resistance versus


Temperature
AED01718 AED01719
-5 RC 2
S C mV R C (25 ˚C)
VS = 12 V
mT
-4
1.5
typ
max
-3
min
1

-2

0.5
-1

0 0
-50 0 50 100 ˚C 200 -50 0 50 100 ˚C 200
Ta Ta

Delay Time for Power on (VS Switching


from 0 V to 4.5 V) tpon versus Temp.
AED02646
0.35
k ms
nF
0.30

0.25
max

0.20

min
0.15

0.10

0.05

0
-50 0 50 100 C 200
Ta

Data Book 282 2000-07-01


TLE 4921-3U

Package Outlines

P-SSO-4-1
(Plastic Single Small Outline Package)

5.38 ±0.05 12.7 ±1


0.2

0.15 max.
5.16 ±0.08 1 -0.1
1.9 max. 1x45˚ 0.25 ±0.05
1 max.
3.38 ±0.06
3.71 ±0.08

(0.25)

0.6 max. 0.2 +0.1


0.4 +0.05

23.8 ±0.5
38 max.

1 -1
1 4
1.27

6 ±0.5
9 +0.75
3.81
-0.5

18 ±0.5
Adhesive Tape
0.25 -0.15

Tape

GPO05357
6.35 ±0.4
12.7 ±0.3 4 ±0.3 0.5 ±0.1

Branded Side

Hall-Probe

d : Distance chip to upper side of IC


P-SSO-4-1 : 0.3 ±0.08 mm

AEA02712

Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”. Dimensions in mm

Data Book 283 2000-07-01


Dynamic Differential Hall Effect Sensor IC TLE 4923

Bipolar IC

Features
• Advanced performance
• Higher sensitivity
• Symmetrical thresholds
• High piezo resistivity
• Reduced power consumption
• South and north pole pre-induction possible
P-SSO-3-6
• AC coupled
• Digital output signal P-SSO-3-6
• Two-wire interface
• Large temperature range
• Large airgap
• Low cut-off frequency
• Protection against reversed polarity

Type Marking Ordering Code Package


TLE 4923 4923 B Q62705-K408 P-SSO-3-6

The differential Hall effect sensor TLE 4923 is compatible to the TLE 4921-3U, except
for having a 2-wire interface. The TLE 4923 provides high sensitivity, a superior stability
over temperature and symmetrical thresholds in order to achieve a stable duty cycle.
TLE 4923 is particularly suitable for rotational speed detection and timing applications of
ferromagnetic toothed wheels such as in anti-lock braking systems, transmissions,
crankshafts, etc. The integrated circuit (based on Hall effect) provides a digital signal
output with frequency proportional to the speed of rotation. Unlike other rotational
sensors differential Hall ICs are not influenced by radial vibration within the effective
airgap of the sensor and require no external signal processing.

Data Book 284 2000-07-01


TLE 4923

Pin Configuration
(top view)

Center of
2.67 sensitive area ± 0.15
1.53

2.5
1 2 3

VS GND C
AEP02039

Figure 1

Pin Definitions and Functions


Pin No. Symbol Function
1 VS Supply voltage
2 GND Ground
3 C Capacitor

Data Book 285 2000-07-01


TLE 4923

Protection Internal Reference and Supply


Device
1
VS Vreg (3V)

Hall-Probes

Highpass- Schmitt-
Amplifier Filter Trigger

2 3
GND CF AEB01896

Figure 2 Block Diagram

Data Book 286 2000-07-01


TLE 4923

Functional Description
The Differential Hall sensor IC detects the motion and position of ferromagnetic and
permanent magnet structures by measuring the differential flux density of the magnetic
field. To detect ferromagnetic objects the magnetic field must be provided by a back
biasing permanent magnet (south or north pole of the magnet attached to the rear
unmarked side of the IC package).
Using an external capacitor the generated Hall voltage signal is slowly adjusted via an
active high pass filter with low frequency cut-off. This causes the output to switch into a
biased mode after a time constant is elapsed. The time constant is determined by the
external capacitor. Filtering avoids aging and temperature influence from Schmitt-trigger
input and eliminates device and magnetic offset.
The TLE 4923 can be exploited to detect toothed wheel rotation in a rough environment.
Jolts against the toothed wheel and ripple have no influence on the output signal.
The on and off state of the IC are indicated by high and low current consumption.

Circuit Description (see Figure 2)


The TLE 4923 is comprised of a supply voltage reference, a pair of Hall probes spaced
at 2.5 mm, differential amplifier, filter for offset compensation, Schmitt-trigger, and a
switched current source.
The TLE 4923 was designed to have a wide range of application parameter
variations. Differential fields up to ± 40 mT can be detected without influence to
the switching performance. The pre-induction field can either come from a
magnetic south or north pole, whereby the field strength up to 500 mT or more will
not influence the switching points1). The improved temperature compensation
enables a superior sensitivity and accuracy over the temperature range. Finally,
the optimized piezo compensation and the integrated dynamic offset
compensation enable easy manufacturing and elimination of magnet offsets.
Protection is provided at the input/supply (pin 1) for reverse polarity.

1)
Differential bias fields exceeding ± 20 mT, e. g. caused by a misaligned magnet, should be avoided.

Data Book 287 2000-07-01


TLE 4923

Absolute Maximum Ratings


Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit Remarks
min. max.
Supply voltage VS – 181) 24 V
Capacitor voltage VC – 0.3 3 V
Junction temperature Tj 150 °C 5000 h
Junction temperature Tj 160 °C 2500 h
Junction temperature Tj 170 °C 500 h
Junction temperature Tj 190 °C 4h
Storage temperature TS – 40 150 °C
2)
Thermal resistance Rth JA 190 K/W
1)
Reverse current drawn by the device < 10 mA
2)
Can be reduced significantly by further packaging process, e. g. overmolding.
The device is ESD protected up to 2 kV (HL test procedure)

Note: Stresses above those listed here may cause permanent damage to the device.
Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect
device reliability.

Operating Range
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit Remarks
min. max.
Supply voltage VS 4.5 18 V
Junction temperature Tj – 40 190 °C
Pre-induction B0 – 500 500 mT At Hall probe;
independent of
magnet
orientation
Differential induction ∆B – 40 40 mT

Note: Unless otherwise noted, all temperatures refer to junction temperature.


In the operating range the functions given in the circuit description are fulfilled.

Data Book 288 2000-07-01


TLE 4923

AC/DC Characteristics
The device characteristics listed below are guaranteed in the full operating range.
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit Test Condition Test
min. typ. max. Circuit

Supply current IS 3.1 4.1 5.3 mA 1


8.1 10.5 13.6 mA 1
Supply current Ison - Isoff 5.0 6.4 8.3 mA 1
difference
Supply current ratio ISON / 2 2.4 3 1
ISOFF
Center of switching ∆Bm – 0.5 0 0.5 mT ∆B = 2.0 mT, 2
points: f = 200 Hz,
(∆BOP + ∆BRP) / 2 – 40 °C < Tj ≤
150 °C 1) 2)
Center of switching ∆Bm – 0.7 0 0.7 mT ∆B = 2.0 mT, 2
points: f = 200 Hz,
(∆BOP + ∆BRP) / 2 150 °C < Tj <
190 °C 1) 2)
Hysteresis ∆Bhy 1 1.5 2.2 mT ∆B = 2.0 mT, 2
f = 200 Hz 3)
Current rise time tr 0.5 µs 2
Current fall time tf 0.5 µs 2
Delay time4) tdop 25 µs f = 10 kHz, 2
tdrp 10 µs ∆B = 5 mT
tdop - tdrp 15 µs
Filter input resistance RC 35 43 52 kΩ 25 °C ± 2 °C 1
Filter sensitivity to ∆B SC 8.5 mV/ 25 °C ± 2 °C 1
mT
Filter bias voltage VC 1.6 2.0 2.4 V ∆B = 0 1
Frequency f 5)
10000 Hz ∆B = 5 mT 2
Resistivity against ∆Bm – 0.1 0.1 mT F=2N 2
mechanical stress ∆BHy – 0.1 0.1 mT
(piezo)6)

Data Book 289 2000-07-01


TLE 4923

AC/DC Characteristics (cont’d)


The device characteristics listed below are guaranteed in the full operating range.
Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit Test Condition Test
min. typ. max. Circuit
Power Supply VPSRR 10 V VS modulated 27)
Rejection Ratio with VPSRR,
(PSRR) fPSRR = 10 kHz,
tr,fPSRR = 1 µs,
∆B = 0,
only 1 transition
may occur
1)
For ∆B values larger than ± 10 mT this value may exceed the limits as follows: | ∆Bm | < | 0.05 × ∆B |
2)
Leakage currents at pin 3 should be avoided. The bias shift of Bm caused by a leakage current IL can be
IL × RC ( T )
calculated by: ∆ B m = --------------------- . See also the typical curves on page 300.
SC( T )
3)
Differential pre-induction (e.g. by magnetic misalignment) has to be smaller than 20 mT.
4)
For definition see Figure 6.
5) 1
Depends on filter capacitor CF. The cut-off frequency is given as f = ---------------------------------------- . The switching points
2 × π × RC × CF
are guaranteed over the whole frequency range, but amplitude modification and phase shift have to be taken
into account due to the 1st order highpass filter.
6)
For definition see Figure 7.
7)
For definition see Figure 5.

Note: The listed characteristics are ensured over the operating range of the integrated
circuit. Typical characteristics specify mean values expected over the production
spread. If not otherwise specified, typical characteristics apply at Tj = 25 °C and
the given supply voltage.

Data Book 290 2000-07-01


TLE 4923

V SZ ΙS
RP 180 Ω 1
VS

1)
VLD VS ΙC
3
C
4.7 nF

VC GND
ΙC
2

∆VC AES01897
1) RC =
∆Ι C

Figure 3 Test Circuit 1

1
VS

3 C
VS

CF
1 µF GND
2
AES01898

RS
180 Ω

Figure 4 Test Circuit 2

Data Book 291 2000-07-01


TLE 4923

18 V

V PSRR

8V

tr tf
AED02488

Figure 5

∆B t drp : Delay Time between ∆ B = ∆ B RP


∆ B RP and Ι S LOW to HIGH transient

∆ B OP

t dop : Delay Time between ∆ B = ∆ B OP


t drp t dop and Ι S HIGH to LOW transient
ΙS
AED02509

Figure 6 Definition of Delay Times (switching points related to initial


measurement @∆B = 2 mT; f = 200 Hz)

F = 2N
r = 0.5 ± 0.05 mm

IC

4 x d = 1.5 AEA02508

Figure 7 Setup for Piezo Measurements

Data Book 292 2000-07-01


TLE 4923

Application Notes
Two possible applications are shown in Figure 10 and Figure 11 (Toothed and Magnet
Wheel).
Two-wire application is shown in Figure 12.

Gear Tooth Sensing


In the case of ferromagnetic toothed wheel applications the IC has to be biased by the
south or north pole of a permanent magnet (e.g. SmCo5 (Vacuumschmelze VX170) with
the dimensions 8 mm × 5 mm × 3 mm) which should cover both Hall probes.
The maximum air gap depends on:
– the magnetic field strength (magnet used; pre-induction) and
– the tooth wheel that is used (dimensions, material, etc.; resulting differential field).

a centered distance N
of Hall probes
b Hall probes to S

IC surface
L IC surface to b

tooth wheel a
L

a = 2.5 mm
b = 0.3 mm
AEA01259

Figure 8 Sensor Spacing

T Conversion DIN – ASA


m = 25.4 mm/p
d T = 25.4 mm CP
AEA01260

DIN ASA
d diameter (mm) p diameter pitch p = z/d (inch)
z number of teeth PD pitch diameter PD = z/p (inch)
m module m = d/z (mm) CP circular pitch CP = 1 inch × π/p
T pitch T = π × m (mm)

Figure 9 Tooth Wheel Dimensions

Data Book 293 2000-07-01


TLE 4923

Gear Wheel

Hall Sensor 1 Hall Sensor 2

Signal
Processing
Circuitry S (N) Permanent Magnet

N (S) AEA01261

Figure 10 TLE 4923, with Ferromagnetic Toothed Wheel

Magnet Wheel

S
N

Hall Sensor 1 Hall Sensor 2

Signal AEA01262
Processing
Circuitry

Figure 11 TLE 4923, with Magnet Wheel

Data Book 294 2000-07-01


TLE 4923

Two-wire-application

Line
VS
1 1
VS
3 CS
C 4.7 nF
CF GND
1 µF 2
VSIGNAL

RS

Sensor Mainframe

typical : R S = 180 Ω AES01899

Figure 12 Application Circuit

Data Book 295 2000-07-01


TLE 4923

N(S)
S(N)
1 3
B1 B2

Wheel Profile Missing Tooth

Magnetic Field Difference Small Airgap


∆ B = B2-B1
Large Airgap

∆ B RP = 0.75 mT

∆ B HY

∆ B OP = -0.75 mT

Output Signal
ΙS

Operate point : B2-B1< ∆ B OP switches the output ON high


Release point : B2-B1> ∆ BRP switches the output OFF low (
current (
∆ B RP = ∆ BOP + ∆ B HY
The magnetic field is defined as positive if the south pole of
the magnet shows towards the rear side of the IC housing. AED01900

Figure 13 System Operation

Data Book 296 2000-07-01


TLE 4923

If not otherwise specified, all curves reflect typical values at Tj = 25 °C and


VS = 12 V.
Supply Current and Supply Current Minimum Switching Field versus
Difference versus Supply Voltage Frequency
AED02473 AED02475
12 1.2
mA mT
ΙS Ι SON B min T j = 190 C
10 1.0

T j = 150 C
8 0.8
T j = 25 C
Ι SON Ι SOFF T j = -40 C
6 0.6

Ι SOFF
4 0.4

2 0.2

0 0
0 5 10 15 20 V 25 1 10 100 1000 Hz 10000
VS f
Supply Current and Supply Current Mean Value of Switching Induction
Difference versus Temperature
AED02474 AED02476
12 1.2
mA mT
ΙS Ι SON ∆B m
10 1.0

8 0.8

Ι SON Ι SOFF
6 0.6

Ι SOFF
4 0.4
∆B OP ∆B RP
∆B m =
2
2 0.2 f = 200 Hz
typ
0 0
-40 0 40 80 120 C 200 -40 0 40 80 120 C 200
Tj Tj

Data Book 297 2000-07-01


TLE 4923

Hysteresis versus Temperature Delay Time1) versus Temperature


AED02477 AED02479
1.6 8
mT µs t dop
∆B HY td 7
1.4
typ t drp
6
1.2
∆B HY = ∆B RP ∆B OP 5
f = 200 Hz
1.0 4

3
0.8
2
0.6
1

0.4 0
-40 0 40 80 120 C 200 -50 0 50 100 150 C 200
Tj Tj

Delay Time1) versus Differential Field Rise and Fall Time versus Temperature
AED02478 AED02480
6.0 140
µs f = 10 kHz
ns
td 5.9 t
120
5.8 tf

5.7 100
tr
5.6
80
5.5
t dop
60
5.4

5.3 40
5.2
t drp 20
5.1

5.0 0
0 2 4 6 8 mT 12 -50 0 50 100 150 C 200
∆B Tj

1)
Switching points related to initial measurement
@∆B = 2 mT, f = 200 Hz

Data Book 298 2000-07-01


TLE 4923

Capacitor Voltage versus Temperature Filter Input Resistance versus


Temperature
AED02481 AED02483
2.5 60
kΩ
VC V RC
50
2.0
typ typ
40
1.5

30

1.0
20

0.5
10

0 0
-50 0 50 100 150 C 200 -50 0 50 100 150 C 200
Tj Tj
Filter Sensitivity versus Temperature Delay Time tpon for Power ON versus
Temperature
AED02482 AED02484
0 0.8
mV/mT ms/nF t pon = k C F (nF)
S C -2 k 0.7
-4 max.1)
0.6
-6
typ
-8 0.5
VS = 12 V
-10 0.4

-12
0.3 min.1)
-14
0.2
-16

-18 0.1

-20 0
-50 0 50 100 150 C 200 -50 0 50 100 150 C 200
Tj Tj
1)
Calculated values for minimum and maximum filter
resistance, C F at room temperature.

Data Book 299 2000-07-01


TLE 4923

Threshold Shift versus Filter Leakage

AED02485
8
mT
∆B m 7

+190˚C
3 +100˚C
+25˚C
-40˚C
2

0
0 20 40 60 80 MΩ 100
RC

Data Book 300 2000-07-01


TLE 4923

Package Outlines

P-SSO-3-6
(Plastic Single Small Outline Package)
5.16 ±0.08

0.15 max.
5.38 ±0.05 12.7 ±1 1 -0.1
0.2
1.9 max. 1 x 45˚ 0.25 ±0.05

1.2 ±0.1
1 max.

0.87 ±0.05 0.2 +0.1


0.65 ±0.1
3.71 ±0.08
3.38 ±0.06

(0.25)

0.6 max. 1.9 max.

23.8 ±0.5
0.4 ±0.05 1.67 ±0.05

1 -1
38 max.
1 2 3

6 ±0.5
+0.75
3.81 9 -0.5

18 ±0.5
Adhesive Tape
0.25 -0.15

Tape
6.35 ±0.4 4 ±0.3 0.5 ±0.1
12.7 ±0.3 GPO05960

Branded Side

Hall-Probe

d : Distance chip to upper side of IC


P-SSO-3-6 : 0.30 ±0.08 mm

AEA02920

Sorts of Packing
Package outlines for tubes, trays etc. are contained in our
Data Book “Package Information”. Dimensions in mm

Data Book 301 2000-07-01


Differential Magnetoresistive Sensor FP 210 D 250-22

Version 2.0

Features
• High operating
temperature
• High output voltage
• Robust cylindrical
housing
• Biasing magnet build in
• Signal amplitude
independent of speed
• Easily connectable

Typical Applications
• Detection of speed
• Detection of position
• Detection of sense of
rotation
• Angle encoder
• Linear position sensing

Dimensions in mm

Type Ordering Code


FP 210 D 250-22 Q65210-D250-W5

The differential magnetoresistive sensor FP 210 D 250-22 consists of two series coupled
D-type InSb/NiSb semiconductor resistors. The resitance value of the MRs, which are
mounted onto an insulated ferrite substrate, can be magnetically controlled. The sensor
is encapsuled in a plastic package with three in-line contacts extending from the base.
The basic resistance of the total system in the unbiased state is 2 × 250 Ω. A permanent
magnet which supplies a biasing magnetic field is built into the housing.

Data Book 302 2000-07-01


FP 210 D 250-22

Absolute Maximum Ratings

Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit


Operating temperature TA – 40 / + 140 °C
Storage temperature Tstg – 40 / + 150 °C
Power dissipation1) Ptot 400 mW
Supply voltage2) VIN 7.5 V
Insulation voltage between VI > 100 V
terminals and casing
Thermal conductivity GthA ≥5 mW/K

Electrical Characteristics (TA = 25 °C)

Nominal supply voltage VIN N 5 V


Total resistance, (δ = ∞, I ≤ 1 mA) R1-3 1000…1600 Ω
Center symmetry3) (δ = ∞) M ≤ 10 %
Offset voltage4) V0 ≤ 130 mV
(at VIN N and δ = ∞)
Open circuit output voltage5) Vout pp > 1100 mV
(at VIN N and δ = 0.2 mm)
Cut-off frequency fc > 20 kHz

Measuring Arrangements
By approaching a soft iron part close to the sensor a change in its resistance is obtained.
The potential divider circuit of the magneto resistor causes a reduction in the
temperature dependence of the output voltage VOUT.

1) Corresponding to diagram Ptot = f(TA)


2) Corresponding to diagram VIN = f(TA)
3) R1 – 2 – R2 – 3
M = ---------------------------- × 100% for R1-2 > R2-3
R1 – 2
4) Corresponding to measuring circuit in Fig. 2
5) Corresponding to measuring circuit in Fig. 2 and arrangement as shown in Fig. 1

Data Book 303 2000-07-01


FP 210 D 250-22

1. Digital Revolution Counting


For digital revolution counting, the sensor should be actuated by a magnetically soft iron
toothed wheel. The tooth spacing should correspond to about twice the magneto resistor
intercenter spacing (see Figure 1).
The two resistors of the sensor are supplemented by two additional resistors in order to
obtain the sensor output voltage as a bridge voltage VOUT. The output voltage VOUT
without excitation then is 0 V when the offset is compensated.

Figure 1
Schematic Representation of a Toothed Wheel actuating an FP 210 D 250-22
Figure 2
Measuring Circuit and Output Voltage VOUT Waveform

Data Book 304 2000-07-01


FP 210 D 250-22

2. Linear Distance Measurement


To convert small distances into a proportional electric signal, a small soft iron part of
definite width (e.g. b = 1.8 mm) is moved over the face of the sensor.
Proportional signals for distances up to 1.5 mm can be obtained in this way. The
sinusoidal output signal gives a voltage proportional to distance in the zero crossover
region (see Figure 3).

Figure 3
Arrangement for Analogue Application
Maximum supply voltage
versus temperature
VIN = f(TA), δ = ∞

Data Book 305 2000-07-01


FP 210 D 250-22

Output voltage (typical) versus Output voltage (typical) versus


temperature VOUTpp = f(TA), δ = 0.2 mm airgap VOUTpp = f(δ), TA = 25 °C
VOUTpp at TA = 25 °C ^= 100% VOUTpp at δ = 0.2 mm ^= 100%

Total resistance (typical) Max. power dissipation


versus temperature versus temperature
R1-3 = f(TA), δ = ∞ Ptot = f(TA), δ = ∞

Data Book 306 2000-07-01


Differential Magnetoresistive Sensor FP 210 L 100-22

Version 2.0

Features
• High operating
temperature
• High output voltage
• Robust cylindrical
housing
• Biasing magnet build in
• Signal amplitude
independent of speed
• Easily connectable

Typical applications
• Detection of speed
• Detection of position
• Detection of sense of
rotation
• Angle encoder
• Linear position sensing

Dimensions in mm

Type Ordering Code


FP 210 L 100-22 Q65210-L100-W4

The differential magnetoresistive sensor FP 210 L 100-22 consists of two series coupled
L-type InSb/NiSb semiconductor resistors. The resistance value of the MRs, which are
mounted onto an insulated ferrite substrate, can be magnetically controlled. The sensor
is encapsulated in a plastic package with three in-line contacts extending from the base.
The basic resistance of the total system in the unbiased state is 2×100 Ω. A permanent
magnet which supplies a biasing magnetic field is built into the housing.

Data Book 307 2000-07-01


FP 210 L 100-22

Absolute Maximum Ratings

Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit


Operating temperature TA – 40/ +140 °C
Storage temperature Tstg – 40/ +150 °C
Power dissipation1) Ptot 400 mW
Supply voltage2) VIN 7.5 V
Insulation voltage between VI > 100 V
terminals and casing
Thermal conductivity GthA ≥5 mW/K

Electrical Characteristics (TA = 25 °C)

Nominal supply voltage VIN N 5 V


Total resistance, (δ = ∞, I ≤ 1 mA) R1-3 220…400 Ω
Center symmetry3) (δ = ∞) M ≤ 10 %
Offset voltage4) V0 ≤ 130 mV
(at VIN N and δ = ∞)
Open circuit output voltage5) Vout pp > 1000 mV
(VIN N and δ = 0.2 mm)
Cut-off frequency fc > 20 kHz

Measuring Arrangements
By approaching a soft iron part close to the sensor a change in its resistance is obtained.
The potential divider circuit of the magneto resistor causes a reduction in the
temperature dependence of the output voltage VOUT.

1) Corresponding to diagram Ptot = f(TA)


2) Corresponding to diagram VIN = f(TA)
3) R1 – 2 – R2 – 3
M = ---------------------------- × 100% for R1-2 > R2-3
R1 – 2
4) Corresponding to measuring circuit in Fig. 2
5) Corresponding to measuring circuit in Fig. 2 and arrangement as shown in Fig. 1

Data Book 308 2000-07-01


FP 210 L 100-22

1. Digital Revolution Counting


For digital revolution counting, the sensor should be actuated by a magnetically soft iron
toothed wheel. The tooth spacing should correspond to about twice the magneto resistor
intercenter spacing (see Figure 1).
The two resistors of the sensor are supplemented by two additional resistors in order to
obtain the sensor output voltage as a bridge voltage VOUT. The output voltage VOUT
without excitation then is 0 V when the offset is compensated.

Figure 1
Schematic Representation of a Toothed Wheel actuating an FP 210 L 100-22
Figure 2
Measuring Circuit and Output Voltage Vout Waveform

Data Book 309 2000-07-01


FP 210 L 100-22

2. Linear Distance Measurement


To convert small distances into a proportional electric signal, a small soft iron part of
definite width (e.g. b = 1.8 mm) is moved over the face of the sensor.
Proportional signals for distances up to 1.5 mm can be obtained in this way. The
sinusoidal output signal gives a voltage proportional to distance in the zero crossover
region (see Figure 3).

Figure 3
Arrangement for Analogue Application

Maximum supply voltage


versus temperature
VIN = f(TA), δ = ∞

Data Book 310 2000-07-01


FP 210 L 100-22

Output voltage (typical) versus Output voltage (typical) versus


temperature VOUTpp = f(TA), δ = 0.2 mm airgap VOUTpp = f(δ), TA = 25 °C
VOUTpp at TA = 25 °C ^= 100% VOUTpp at δ = 0.2 mm ^= 100%

Total resistance (typical) Max. power dissipation


versus temperature versus temperature
R1-3 = f(TA), δ = ∞ Ptot = f(TA), δ = ∞

Data Book 311 2000-07-01


Differential Magnetoresistive Sensor FP 212 D 250-22

Version 2.0

Features
• High output voltage
• High operating temperature
• Robust plastic housing
• Signal amplitude is speed
independent
• Biasing magnet build in
• Marking green

Typical applications
• Detection of speed
• Detection of position
• Detection of sense of
rotation
• Angle encoder
• Linear position sensing

Dimensions in mm

Type Ordering Code


FP 212 D 250-22 Q65212-D2504

The differential magnetoresistive sensor FP 212 D 250-22 consists of two series coupled
magneto resistors (D-type InSb/NiSb semiconductor resistors whose value can be
magnetically controlled) which are mounted onto an insulated ferrite substrate. The
sensor is encapsulated in a plastic package and has three connecting terminals. The
basic resistance of the total system is 2 × 250 Ω. A permanent magnet which supplies a
biasing magnetic field is fixed on the base of the sensor.

Data Book 312 2000-07-01


FP 212 D 250-22

Absolute Maximum Ratings

Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit


Operating temperature TA – 40/ + 140 °C
Storage temperature Tstg – 40/ + 150 °C
Power dissipation1) Ptot 450 mW
Supply voltage2) VIN 10 V
Insulation voltage between VI > 60 V
terminals and magnet
Thermal conductivity GthA ≥5 mW/K
(when soldered)

Electrical Characteristics (TA = 25 °C)

Nominal supply voltage VIN N 5 V


Total resistance, (δ = ∞, I ≤ 1 mA) R1-3 1000…1600 Ω
air gap (δ = ∞)
Center symmetry3) (δ = ∞) M ≤ 10 %
Offset voltage4) V0 ≤ 130 mV
(at VIN N and δ = ∞)
Open circuit output voltage5) Vout pp > 1100 mV
(at VIN N and δ = 0.2 mm)
Cut-off frequency fc > 20 kHz

Measuring Arrangements
By approaching a soft iron part close to the sensor a change in its resistance is obtained.
The potential divider circuit of the magneto resistor causes a reduction in the
temperature dependence of the output voltage VOUT.

1) Corresponding to diagram Ptot = f(TA)


2) Corresponding to diagram VIN = f(TA)
3) R1 – 2 – R2 – 3
M = ---------------------------- × 100% for R1-2 > R2-3
R1 – 2
4) Corresponding to measuring circuit in Fig. 2
5) Corresponding to measuring circuit in Fig. 2 and arrangement as shown in Fig. 1

Data Book 313 2000-07-01


FP 212 D 250-22

1. Digital Revolution Counting


For digital revolution counting, the sensor should be actuated by a magnetically soft iron
toothed wheel. The tooth spacing should correspond to about twice the magneto resistor
intercenter spacing i.e. 2× 1.6 mm (see Figure 1).
The two resistors of the sensor are supplemented by two additional resistors in order to
obtain the sensor output voltage as a bridge voltage VOUT. The output voltage VOUT
without excitation then is 0 V when the offset is compensated.

Figure 1
Schematic Representation of a Toothed Wheel actuating an FP 212 D 250-22
Figure 2
Measuring Circuit and Output Voltage VOUT Waveform

Data Book 314 2000-07-01


FP 212 D 250-22

2. Linear Distance Measurement


To convert small distances into a proportional electric signal, a small soft iron part of
definite width (e.g. b = 1.8 mm) is moved over the face of the sensor.
Proportional signals for distances up to 1.5 mm can be obtained in this way. The
sinusoidal output signal gives a voltage proportional to distance in the zero crossover
region (see Figure 3).

Figure 3
Arrangement for Analogue Application

Maximum supply voltage


versus temperature
VIN = f(TA)

Data Book 315 2000-07-01


FP 212 D 250-22

Output voltage (typical) versus Output voltage (typical) versus


temperature VOUTpp = f(TA), δ = 0.2 mm airgap VOUTpp = f(δ), TA = 25 °C
VOUTpp at TA = 25 °C ^= 100% VOUTpp at δ = 0.2 mm ^= 100%

Total resistance (typical) Max. power dissipation


versus temperature versus temperature
R1-3 = f(TA), δ = ∞ Ptot = f(TA), δ = ∞

Data Book 316 2000-07-01


Differential Magnetoresistive Sensor FP 212 L 100-22

Version 2.0

Features
• High output voltage
• High operating temperature
• Robust plastic housing
• Biasing magnet build in
• Signal amplitude is speed
independent
• Marking silver

Typical Applications
• Detection of speed
• Detection of position
• Detection of sense of rotation
• Angle encoder
• Linear position sensing

Dimensions in mm

Type Ordering Code


FP 212 L 100-22 Q65212-L1004

The differential magnetoresistive sensor FP 212 L 100-22 consists of two series coupled
magneto resistors (L-type InSb/NiSb semiconductor resistors whose value can be
magnetically controlled) which are mounted onto an insulated ferrite substrate. The
sensor is encapsulated in a plastic package and has three connecting terminals.
The basic resistance of the total system is 2 × 100 Ω. A permanent magnet which
supplies a biasing magnetic field is fixed on the base of the sensor.

Data Book 317 2000-07-01


FP 212 L 100-22

Absolute Maximum Ratings

Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit


Operating temperature TA – 40 / + 140 °C
Storage temperature Tstg – 40 / + 150 °C
Power dissipation1) Ptot 450 mW
Supply voltage2) VIN 10 V
Insulation voltage between VI > 60 V
terminals and magnet
Thermal conductivity GthA ≥5 mW/K
(when soldered)

Electrical Characteristics (TA = 25 °C)

Nominal supply voltage VIN N 5 V


Total resistance, (δ = ∞, I ≤ 1 mA) R1-3 220…400 Ω
Center symmetry (δ = ∞) 3)
M ≤ 10 %
Offset voltage 4) V0 ≤ 130 mV
(at VIN N and δ = ∞)
Open circuit output voltage5) Vout pp > 1000 mV
(VIN N and δ = 0.2 mm)
Cut-off frequency fc > 20 kHz

Measuring Arrangements
By approaching a soft iron part close to the sensor a change in its resistance is obtained.
The potential divider circuit of the magneto resistor causes a reduction in the
temperature dependence of the output voltage VOUT.

1) Corresponding to diagram Ptot = f(TA)


2) Corresponding to diagram VIN = f(TA)
3)
R1 – 2 – R2 – 3
M = ---------------------------- × 100% for R1-2 > R2-3
R1 – 2

4) Corresponding to measuring circuit in Fig. 2


5) Corresponding to measuring circuit in Fig. 2 and arrangement as shown in Fig. 1

Data Book 318 2000-07-01


FP 212 L 100-22

1. Digital Revolution Counting


For digital revolution counting, the sensor should be actuated by a magnetically soft iron
toothed wheel. The tooth spacing should correspond to about twice the magneto resistor
intercenter spacing i.e 2 × 1.6 mm (see Figure 1).
The two resistors of the sensor are supplemented by two additional resistors in order to
obtain the sensor output voltage as a bridge voltage VOUT. The output voltage VOUT
without excitation then is 0 V when the offset is compensated.

Figure 1
Schematic Representation of a Toothed Wheel actuating an FP 212 L 100-22
Figure 2
Measuring Circuit and Output Voltage VOUT Waveform

Data Book 319 2000-07-01


FP 212 L 100-22

2. Linear Distance Measurement


To convert small distances into a proportional electric signal, a small soft iron part of
definite width (e.g. b = 1.8 mm) is moved over the face of the sensor.
Proportional signals for distances up to 1.5 mm can be obtained in this way. The
sinusoidal output signal gives a voltage proportional to distance in the zero crossover
region (see Figure 3).

Figure 3
Measuring Arrangement for Analogue Application

Maximum supply voltage


versus temperature
VIN = f(TA)

Data Book 320 2000-07-01


FP 212 L 100-22

Output voltage (typical) versus Output voltage (typical) versus


temperature VOUTpp = f(TA), δ = 0.2 mm airgap VOUTpp = f(δ), TA = 25 °C
VOUTpp at TA = 25 °C ^= 100% VOUTpp at δ = 0.2 mm ^= 100%

Total resistance (typical) Max. power dissipation


versus temperature versus temperature
R1-3 = f(TA), δ = ∞ Ptot = f(TA), δ = ∞

Data Book 321 2000-07-01


Contactless Potentiometer FP 310 L 100

Version 2.0

Features
• Devoid of friction and
abrasion at contact
point
• No electrical contact
noise
• Insensitive to
contamination,
moisture ingression,
corrosion and
vibration
• Low operating torque
• Long lifetime

Typical Applications
• Angular encoder
• Electric vehicles

Dimensions in mm

Type Ordering Code


FP 310 L 100-30 Q65310-L100-U30
FP 310 L 100-75 Q65310-L100-U75

The contactless potentiometer comprises a GaAs Hall effect sensor actuated by two
permanent magnets which are mounted on the end of the potentiometer spindle. The
device is complete with supply voltage stabilisation and series connected output
amplifier. Two measuring ranges are offered, 0 … 30° and 0 … 75°, and the output is
given as a current of 0 … 20 mA linearly proportional to the angle of rotation.
Temperature compensation circuitry is also included.

Data Book 322 2000-07-01


FP 310 L 100

Absolute Maximum Ratings

Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit


Operating temperature TA – 25 / + 70 °C
Supply voltage VIN 15 V
Supply current IIN 75 mA

Electrical Characteristics (TA = 25 °C)

Linear angle of rotation Φ


FP 310 L 100-30 0 … 30 deg.
FP 310 L 100-75 0 … 75 deg.
Output signal for corresponding angle IOUT 0 … 20 mA
of rotation
Load resistance RL 0 … 500 Ω
Temperature error in the range – ±3 % FS
– 25 °C … + 70 °C
Linearity FL
FP 310 L 100-30 ≤±1 % FS
FP 310 L 100-75 ≤±2 % FS
Hysteresis – ≤±1 % FS
Sense of rotation (looking onto shaft) – clockwise –

Mechanical Ratings

Required torque Md 0.2 typ. Ncm


Max. perm. compressive axial force Fa compr. 10 N
Max. perm. tensile axial force Fa tens 3 N
Max. perm. radial force Fr 10 N
Max. perm. speed n 3000 min-1
Cycles (life) L 108 –

Data Book 323 2000-07-01


Contactless Potentiometer FP 312 L 100
Version 2.0

Dimensions in mm
Features Typical Applications

• Devoid of friction and abrasion at Angular encoder
contact point • Electric vehicles

• No electrical contact noise


• Insensitive to contamination, moisture
ingression, corrosion and vibration
• Low operating torque
• Long lifetime

Type Ordering Code


FP 312 L 100 Q65312-L100-U
This potentiometer comprises differential MR, driven by a magnet with no amplifier. At
the output, the resistance change can be used as a signal. On applying the operating
voltage a sinusoidal voltage results at the output, which is not temperature-
compensated. With the aid of external circuitry this signal can be amplified, temperature-
compensated and adapted for various applications.

Data Book 324 2000-07-01


FP 312 L 100

Absolute Maximum Ratings

Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit


Operating temperature TA – 25 / + 70 °C
Supply voltage VIN 8 V
Supply current IIN 30 mA

Electrical Characteristics (TA = 25 °C)

Linear angle of rotation Φ 75 deg.


Output signal for corresponding angle VOUT approx. 40 % of VIN
of rotation
Total resistance Rtot approx. 850 Ω
Load resistance RL > 50 kΩ
Temperature error in range – non-compensated –
– 25 °C…+ 70 °C
Linearity FL ≤ ± 2.5 % of VOUT
Hysteresis – ≤±1 % of VOUT

Mechanical Ratings

Required torque Md 0.2 typ. Ncm


Max. perm. compressive axial force Fa compr. 10 N
Max. perm. tensile axial force Fa tens 3 N
Max. perm. radial force Fr 10 N
Max. perm. speed n 3000 min-1
Cycles (life) L 108 –

Data Book 325 2000-07-01


Double Differential Magneto Resistor FP 410 L (4 x 80) FM
Version 2.0

Dimensions in mm

Features Typical Applications


• Double differential magneto resistor • Incremental angular encoders
on same carrier • Detection of sense of rotation
• Accurate intercenter spacing • Detection of speed
• High operating temperature range • Detection of position
• High output voltage
• Compact construction
• Available in strip form for automatic
assembly

Type Ordering Code


FP 410 L (4 × 80) FM Q65410-L80E (taped)
FP 410 L (4 × 80) FM Q65110-L80F (singular)

Data Book 326 2000-07-01


FP 410 L (4 x 80) FM

The double differential magneto resistor assembly consists of two pairs of magneto
resistors, (L-type InSb/NiSb semiconductor resistors whose resistance value can be
magnetically controlled), which are fixed to a ferrite substrate. Contact to the magneto
resistors is achieved using a copper/polyimide carrier film known as Micropack.
The basic resistance of each of the magnetic resistors is 80 Ω. The two series coupled
pairs of magnetic resistors are actuated by an external magnetic field or can be biased
by a permanent magnet and actuated by a soft iron target.

Data Book 327 2000-07-01


FP 410 L (4 x 80) FM

Absolute Maximum Ratings

Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit


Operating temperature TA – 40 / + 175 °C
Storage temperature Tstg – 40 / + 185 °C
Power dissipation1) Ptot 1000 mW
Supply voltage2) (B = 0.3 T) VIN 8 V
Thermal conductivity mW/K
–attached to heatsink Gth case ≥ 20
–in still air Gth A 2

Electrical Characteristics (TA = 25 °C)

Basic resistance R01-3 110…220 Ω


(I ≤ 1 mA; B = 0 T) R04-6
Center symmetry3) M ≤6 %
Relative resistance change RB/R0
(R = R01-3, R04-6 at B = 0 T) > 1.7 –
B = ± 0.3 T4)
B=±1T >7
Temperature coefficient TCR
B=0T – 0.16 %/K
B = ± 0.3 T – 0.38 %/K
B=±1T – 0.54 %/K

1) Corresponding to diagram Ptot = f(Tcase)


2) Corresponding to diagram VIN = f(Tcase)

3) R 01 – 2 – R 02 – 3
M - × 100% for R01-2 > R02-3
= -------------------------------
R 01 – 2

R 04 – 5 – R 05 – 6
M - × 100% for R04-5 > R05-6
= -------------------------------
R 04 – 5

4) 1 T = 1 Tesla = 104 Gauss

Data Book 328 2000-07-01


FP 410 L (4 x 80) FM

Max. power dissipation versus Maximum supply voltage


temperature versus temperature
Ptot = f(T), T = Tcase, TA VIN 1-3, 4-6 = f(T), B = 0.3 T

Typical MR resistance Typical MR resistance


versus temperature versus magnetic induction B
R01-3, 4-6 = f(TA), B = Parameter R01-3, 4-6 = f(B), TA = 25 °C

Data Book 329 2000-07-01


Double Differential Magneto Resistor FP 420 L 90 B
Version 2.0

Incl. lacquer-cover

0.2 max.
0.2 max.
(0.13)
0.045
0.025
<-0.1

E
(0.33)

// 0.4 E

3.3
A
3.1
1.76
C
1.56
0.55 0.239 0.55 1...6 pin connection
0.45 0.233 0.45 1 4
0.04 C 0.2 A
D B R 1-2 B R4-5
0.65
0.55

1 4 2 5
1.1 1.1
1.2 1.2

4)
2.96
2.76
3.75
3.55
4.2
4.0

2 5
R 2-3 B R5-6
3 6
2)
3 6
0.475 3)
(0. 0.2 B
8) 0.469
0.04 D
5.55
1)
Punching- 5.45
points 6.2
6.0
1)
If delivery as tape, seperate at punching-points.
2)
6 fingers on both sides free of lacquer
3)
Center-distance between the Diff.-Systems.
Approx. weight 0.2 g GPX06896

Dimensions in mm
Features Typical Applications
• Double differential magneto resistor on one carrier • Incremental angular encoders
• Accurate intercenter spacing • Detection of sense of rotation
• High operating temperature range • Detection of speed
• High output voltage • Detection of position
• Compact construction
• Available in strip form for automatic assembly
• Optimized intercenter spacing on modules
m = 0.3 mm
• Reduced temperature dependence of offset
voltage

Data Book 330 2000-07-01


FP 420 L 90 B

Type Ordering Code


FP 420 L 90 B Q65420-L90-B (singular)
FP 420 L 90 B Q65420-L90-B1 (taped)

The double differential magneto resistor assembly consists of two pairs of magneto
resistors, (L-type InSb/NiSb semiconductor resistors whose resistance value can be
magnetically controlled), which are fixed to a silicon substrate. Contact to the magneto
resistors is achieved using a copper/polyimide carrier film known as TAB.
The basic resistance of each of the magneto resistors is 90 Ω. The two series coupled
pairs of magneto resistors are actuated by an external magnetic field or can be biased by
a permanent magnet and actuated by a soft iron target.

Data Book 331 2000-07-01


FP 420 L 90 B

Absolute Maximum Ratings

Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit


Operating temperature TA – 40 / + 175 °C
Storage temperature Tstg – 40 / + 185 °C
Power dissipation1) Ptot 800 mW
Supply voltage (B = 0.2 T, TA = 25 °C) VIN 8 V
Thermal conductivity
–attached to heatsink Gthcase 20 mW/K
–in still air GthA 1.5 mW/K

Electrical Characteristics (TA = 25 °C)

Nominal supply voltage (B = 0.2 T)2) VINN 5 V

Basic resistance R01-3 160…280 Ω


(I < 1 mA, B = 0 T)
Center symmetry3) M ≤3 %
Relative resistance change RB/R0 –
(R0 = R01-3, R04-6 at B = 0 T)
B = ± 0.3 T4) > 1.7
B=±1T >7
Temperature coefficient TCR
B=0T – 0.16 %/K
B = ± 0.3 T – 0.38 %/K
B=±1T – 0.54 %/K

1) T = Tcase
2) T = Tcase, T < 80 °C
3) R 01 – 2 – R 02 – 3
M - × 100% for R01-2 > R02-3
= -------------------------------
R 01 – 2
R 04 – 5 – R 05 – 6
M - × 100% for R04-5 > R05-6
= -------------------------------
R 04 – 5
4) 1 T = 1 Tesla = 104 Gauss

Data Book 332 2000-07-01


FP 420 L 90 B

Max. power dissipation versus Maximum supply voltage


temperature versus temperature
Ptot = f(T), T = Tcase, TA VIN = f(T), B = 0.2 T

Typical MR resistance Typical MR resistance


versus temperature versus magnetic induction B
R01-3, 4-6 = f(TA), B = Parameter R01-3, 4-6 = f(B), TA = 25 °C

Data Book 333 2000-07-01


Double Differential Magneto Resistor FP 425 L 90
Version 2.0
Incl. lacquer-cover

0.2 max.
0.2 max.
(0.13)
0.045
0.025
<-0.1

E
(0.33)

// 0.4 E
3.3
A
3.1
2.06
C
1.86
0.55 0.396 0.55 1...6 pin connection
0.45 0.390 0.45 1 4
0.04 C 0.2 A
3)
D B R 1-2 B R4-5
0.65
0.55

1 4 2 5
1.1 1.1
1.2 1.2

2)
2.96
2.76
3.75
3.55
4.2
4.0
2 5
R 2-3 B R5-6
3 6
3 6
0.789 3)
0.2 B
0.783
(0.

0.04 D
8)

5.55
1)
Punching- 5.45
points 6.2
6.0
1)
If delivery as tape, seperate at punching-points.
2)
6 fingers on both sides free of lacquer
3)
Center-distance between the Diff.-Systems.
Approx. weight 0.2 g GPX06897

Dimensions in mm
Features Typical Applications
• Double differential magneto resistor on one carrier • Incremental angular encoders
• Accurate intercenter spacing • Detection of sense of rotation
• High operating temperature range • Detection of speed
• High output voltage • Detection of position
• Compact construction
• Available in strip form for automatic assembly
• Optimized intercenter spacing on modules
m = 0.5 mm
• Reduced temperature dependence of offset
voltage

Data Book 334 2000-07-01


FP 425 L 90

Type Ordering Code


FP 425 L 90 Q65425-L90 (singular)
FP 425 L 90 Q65425-L0090E001 (taped)

The double differential magneto resistor assembly consists of two pairs of magneto
resistors, (L-type InSb/NiSb semiconductor resistors whose resistance value can be
magnetically controlled), which are fixed to a silicon substrate. Contact to the magneto
resistors is achieved using a copper/polyimide carrier film known as TAB.
The basic resistance of each of the magneto resistors is 90 Ω. The two series coupled
pairs of magneto resistor are actuated by an external magnetic field or can be biased by
a permanent magnet and actuated by a soft iron target.

Data Book 335 2000-07-01


FP 425 L 90

Absolute Maximum Ratings

Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit


Operating temperature TA – 40 / + 175 °C
Storage temperature Tstg – 40 / + 185 °C
Power dissipation1) Ptot 800 mW

Supply voltage (B = 0.2 T, TA = 25 °C) VIN 8 V


Thermal conductivity
–attached to heatsink Gthcase 20 mW/K
–in still air GthA 2 mW/K

Electrical Characteristics (TA = 25 °C)

Nominal supply voltage (B = 0.2 T)2) VINN 5 V

Basic resistance R01-3 160 – 280 Ω


(I < 1 mA, B = 0 T)
Center symmetry3) M ≤3 %

Relative resistance change RB/R0 –


(R0 = R01-3, R04-6 at B = 0 T)
B = ± 0.3 T4) > 1.7
B=±1T >7
Temperature coefficient TCR
B=0T – 0.16 %/K
B = ± 0.3 T – 0.38 %/K
B=±1T – 0.54 %/K

1) T = Tcase
2) T = Tcase, T < 80 °C
3) R 01 – 2 – R 02 – 3
M - × 100% for R01-2 > R02-3
= -------------------------------
R 01 – 2
R 04 – 5 – R 05 – 6
M - × 100% for R04-5 > R05-6
= -------------------------------
R 04 – 5
4) 1 T = 1 Tesla = 104 Gauss

Data Book 336 2000-07-01


FP 425 L 90

Max. power dissipation versus Maximum supply voltage


temperature versus temperature
Ptot = f(T), T = Tcase, TA VIN = f(T), B = 0.2 T

Typical MR resistance Typical MR resistance


versus temperature versus magnetic induction B
R01-3, 4-6 = f(TA), B = Parameter R01-3, 4-6 = f(B), TA = 25 °C

Data Book 337 2000-07-01


Hall Sensor ■ KSY 10

Version 2.0

Features
• High sensitivity
• High operating temperature range
• High linearity
• Low offset voltage
• Low TC of sensitivity and internal
resistance
• Plastic-encapsulated miniature
package

Typical Applications
• Detection of speed
• Detection of position
• Detection of diaphragm position in
pressure pickup cans
• Magnetic field measurement at
permanent magnets
• Magnetic field measurement at
magnetic yokes for current
determination
• Magnetic field measurement in dc
motors for contactless commutation Dimensions in mm

Type Ordering Code


■ KSY 10 Q62705-K38
■ not for new design

The position sensor KSY 10 is an ion-implanted Hall generator made of mono-crystalline


GaAs material. It is enclosed in a tubular plastic package with four tags.
When operating the sensor with a constant supply current, the output Hall voltage is
directly proportional to the magnetic field acting upon the sensor. This sensor is
outstanding for its high inductive sensitivity and very low temperature coefficient.

Data Book 338 2000-07-01


KSY 10

The Hall sensor’s active area is approx. 0.2 mm × 0.2 mm. It is placed approx. 0.35 mm
below the plastic surface of the front side and is concentric towards the adjusting
marking on the rear. The chip carrier is non-magnetic.
The position sensor KSY 10 is particularly suitable for sensing the position of magnets
and of softmagnetic material, resp., if the sensor itself is mounted on a magnet.

Absolute Maximum Ratings

Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit


Operating temperature TA – 40 / + 150 °C
Storage temperature Tstg – 50 / + 160 °C
Supply current I1 7 mA
Thermal conductivity1) Gth A ≥ 2.8 mW/K

Electrical Characteristics ( TA = 25 °C)

Nominal supply current I1N 5 mA


Open-circuit sensitivity KB0 170…230 V/AT
Open-circuit Hall voltage V20 85…130 mV
I1 = I1N, B = 0.1 T
Ohmic offset voltage2) VR0 ≤ ± 25 mV
I1 = I1N, B = 0 T
Linearity of Hall voltage FL
B = 0…0.5 T ≤ ± 0.2 %
B = 0…1 T ≤ ± 0.7 %
Supply and Hall-side internal resistance R10, 20 900…1200 Ω
B=0 T
Temperature coefficient of the TCV20 approx. –0.05 %/K
open-circuit Hall voltage
I1 = I1N, B = 0.2 T
Temperature coefficient of the internal TCR10, R20 0.1 … 0.18 %/K
resistance
B = 0.2 T

1)
Thermal conductivity chip-ambient when soldered, in still air
2) Offset voltage selection upon request

Data Book 339 2000-07-01


KSY 10

Open-circuit sensitivity KB0 Internal resistance R20


versus temperature versus temperature referred to R20 at
referred to KB0 at TA = 25 °C TA = 25 °C, Parameter: Flux density B

Internal resistance R20 Max. permissible supply current I1


versus magnetic field referred to R20 at versus temperature TA
B = 0 T and TA = 25 °C

Data Book 340 2000-07-01


Hall Sensor KSY 13

Version 2.0

Features
• High sensitivity
• High operating temperature
• Low offset voltage
• Low TC of sensitivity and
internal resistance
• Plastic miniature package
SOT 143 for surface
mounting (SMT)

Typical Applications
• Digital speed sensors
• Digital position sensors
• Commutatorless DC motors

Dimensions in mm

Type Marking Ordering Code


KSY 13 (E 7502) S 13 Q62705-K209 (taped on 18-cm reel)

The position sensor KSY 13 is an ion-implanted Hall generator made of mono-crystalline


GaAs material. Enclosed in a miniature package (SOT 143), it is suitable for surface
mounting (SMT).
If the sensor is operated with a constant supply current, the output Hall voltage is directly
proportional to a magnetic field acting upon the sensor. This sensor is outstanding for its
high magnetic field sensitivity and very low temperature coefficient.
The active area of the GaAs chip is approx. 0.2 mm × 0.2 mm and is placed approx.
0.3 mm below the plastic surface of the package. The chip carrier is softmagnetic.

Data Book 341 2000-07-01


KSY 13

Absolute Maximum Ratings

Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit


Operating temperature range TA – 40 / + 150 °C
Storage temperature range Tstg – 50 / + 160 °C
Supply current I1 7 mA
Thermal conductivity1) Gth A ≥ 2.7 mW/K

Electrical Characteristics (TA = 25 °C)

Nominal supply current I1N 5 mA


Open-circuit Hall voltage V20 95…145 mV
I1 = I1N, B = 0.1 T
Ohmic offset voltage VR0 ≤ ± 20 mV
I1 = I1N, B = 0 T
Supply and Hall side internal resistance R10, 20 900…1200 Ω
B=0 T
Temperature coefficient of the TCV20 approx. –0.05 %/K
open-circuit Hall voltage
I1 = I1N, B = 0.2 T
Temperature coefficient of the internal TCR10, R20 approx. %/K
resistance + 0.1…0.18
B = 0.2 T

1)
Thermal conductivity chip-ambient when mounted on alumina ceramic 15 mm × 16.7 mm × 0.7 mm

Data Book 342 2000-07-01


KSY 13

Open-circuit Hall voltage V20 Max. permissible supply current I1


versus temperature versus temperature TA
referred to V20 at TA = 25 °C

Data Book 343 2000-07-01


Hall Sensor KSY 14

Version 2.0

Features
• High sensitivity
• High operating temperature
• Small linearity error
• Low offset voltage
• Low TC of sensitivity and
internal resistance
• Ultra-flat plastic miniature
package
• Low inductive zero component
• Package thickness 0.7 mm
• Connections from one side of
the package

Typical Applications
• Current and power
measurement
• Magnetic field measurement
• Control of brushless DC motors
• Rotation and position sensing
• Measurement of diaphragm
Dimensions in mm
• Movement for pressure
sensing

Type Marking Ordering Code


KSY 14 14 Q62705-K227

The KSY 14 is an ion-implanted Hall sensor generator in a mono-crystalline GaAs


material, built into an extremely flat plastic package (SOH). It is outstanding for a high
magnetic sensitivity and low temperature coefficients. The 0.35 × 0.35 mm2 chip is
mounted onto a non-magnetic leadframe.

Data Book 344 2000-07-01


KSY 14

Absolute Maximum Ratings

Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit


Operating temperature TA – 40 … + 175 °C
Storage temperature Tstg – 50 … + 180 °C
Supply current I1 7 mA
Thermal conductivity GthA ≥ 1.5 mW/K
soldered, in air GthC ≥ 2.2 mW/K

Electrical Characteristics (TA = 25 °C)

Nominal supply current I1N 5 mA


Open-circuit sensitivity KB0 190 … 260 V/AT
Open-circuit Hall voltage V20 95 … 130 mV
I1 = I1N, B = 0.1 T
Ohmic offset voltage VR0 ≤ ± 20 mV
I1 = I1N, B = 0 T
Linearity of Hall voltage FL
B = 0…0.5 T ≤ ± 0.2 %
B = 0…1 T ≤ ± 0.7 %
Input resistance B=0 T R10 900 … 1200 Ω
Output resistance B=0 T R20 900 … 1200 Ω
Temperature coefficient of the TCV20 ∼ – 0.03 … – 0.07 %/K
open-circuit Hall voltage
I1 = I1N, B = 0.1 T
Temperature coefficient of the internal TCR10, R20 ∼ 0.1 … 0.18 %/K
resistance
B=0 T
Change of offset voltage within the ∆VR01) ≤2 mV
temperature range
Inductive zero component A2 2) 0.16 cm2
I1N = 0
Noise figure F ∼ 10 dB

1)
AQL: 0.65
2)
With time varying induction there exists an inductive voltage Vind between the Hall voltage terminals (supply
current I1 = 0):
Vind = A2 × dB/dt × 10-4 with V(V), A2 (cm2), B(T), t(s)

Data Book 345 2000-07-01


KSY 14

Connection of a Hall Sensor with a Power Source


Since the voltage on the component must not exceed 10 V, the connection to the
constant current supply should only be done via a short circuit by-pass. The by-pass
circuit-breaker shall not be opened before turning on the power source, in order to avoid
damage to the Hall sensor due to power peaks.

Polarity of Hall Voltage

Data Book 346 2000-07-01


Hall Sensor KSY 16

Version 2.0

Features
B 2.9 ±0.1 2˚ ... 30˚
• Hall sensor on Cu-leadframe 1.9 1.1 max
for SMT-technology, MW-6 0.6 +0.1
-0.05 0.08 ... 0.15
package A

0.1 ±0.3
• High sensitivity 6 5 4

10˚ max
2.6 max
• High temperature range

1.3 ±0.1
10˚ max
• Small linearity error
• Low offset voltage 1 2 3
• Low TC of sensitivity 0.2 0.35 ±0.15
resistances 0.1 max
+0.1
• This Hall sensor combines 0.3 -0.05
0.25 M B 0.20 M A
the avantages of non-
magnetic leadframe and SMT
Reflow soldering
capability 0.8
0.3 %TTVS\[IMKLXK
Typical Applications
4MR'SRJMKYVEXMSR
• Rotation and position sensing
 ,EPPZSPXEKIXIVQMREPW
1.2
3

• Current and power  7YTTP]GYVVIRXXIVQMREPW


0.9

measurement
• Magnetic field measurement 0.5
• Control of brushless DC 0.45 GPW06957
motors
Dimensions in mm

Type Marking Ordering Code


KSY 16 s16 Q62705-K338

The KSY 16 is an ion-implanted Hall sensor in a monocrystalline GaAs-material, built


into an SMT package (MW-6). It is outstanding for a high magnetic sensitivity and low
temperature coefficients. The 0.35 × 0.35 mm2 chip is mounted onto a non-magnetic
leadframe. The active area is placed approx. 0.45 mm below the surface of the package.

Data Book 347 2000-07-01


KSY 16

Absolute Maximum Ratings

Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit


Operating temperature TA – 40 … + 150 °C
Storage temperature Tstg – 50 … + 160 °C
Supply current I1 7 mA
Thermal conductivity1) GthC ≥ 2.2 mW/K

Electrical Characteristics (TA = 25 °C)

Nominal supply current I1N 5 mA


Open-circuit sensitivity KB0 190 … 260 V/AT
Open-circuit Hall voltage V20 95 … 130 mV
I = I1N, B = 0.1 T
Ohmic offset voltage VR20 ≤ ± 20 mV
I = I1N, B = 0 T
Linearity of Hall voltage
B = 0…0.5 T FL ≤ ± 0.2 %
B = 0…1 T FL ≤ ± 0.7 %
Input resistance B=0 T R10 900 … 1200 Ω
Output resistance B=0 T R20 900 … 1200 Ω
Temperature coefficient of the TCV20 ∼ – 0.03 … – 0.07 %/K
open-circuit Hall voltage
I1 = I1N, B = 0.1 T
Temperature coefficient of the internal TCR10, R20 ∼ 0.1 … 0.18 %/K
resistance
B=0 T
Change of offset voltage within the ∆VR0 ≤2 mV
temperature range2)

Connection of a Hall Sensor with a Power Source


Since the voltage on the component must not exceed 10 V, the connection to the
constant current supply should only be done via a short circuit by-pass. The by-pass
circuit-breaker shall not be opened before turning on the power source. This is to avoid
damage to the Hall sensor due to power peaks.

1)
Thermal conductivity chip-ambient when mounted on alumina ceramic 15 mm × 17 mm × 0.7 mm
2)
AQL: 0.65

Data Book 348 2000-07-01


Hall Sensor KSY 44

Version 2.0

Features
• High sensitivity
• High operating temperature
• Small linearity error
• Low offset voltage
• Low TC of sensitivity
• Specified TC of offset voltage
• Low inductive zero component
• Package thickness 0.7 mm
• Connections from one side of the
package

Typical Applications
• Current and power measurement
• Magnetic field measurement
• Control of brushless DC motors
Rotation and position sensing
• Measurement of diaphragm
• Movement for pressure sensing

Dimensions in mm

Type Marking Ordering Code


KSY 44 44 Q62705-K265

The KSY 44 is a MOVPE1) Hall sensor in a mono-crystalline GaAs material, built into an
extremely flat plastic package (SOH). It is outstanding for a high magnetic sensitivity and
low temperature coefficients. The 0.35 × 0.35 mm2 chip is mounted onto a non-magnetic
leadframe.

1)
Metal Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxy

Data Book 349 2000-07-01


KSY 44

Absolute Maximum Ratings

Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit


Operating temperature TA – 40…+ 175 °C
Storage temperature Tstg – 50…+ 180 °C
Supply current I1 10 mA
Thermal conductivity GthA ≥ 1.5 mW/K
soldered, in air GthC ≥ 2.2 mW/K

Electrical Characteristics (TA = 25 °C)

Nominal supply current I1N 7 mA


Open-circuit sensitivity KB0 150…265 V/AT
Open-circuit Hall voltage V20 105…185 mV
I1 = I1N, B = 0.1 T
Ohmic offset voltage VR0 ≤ ± 15 mV
I1 = I1N, B = 0 T
Linearity of Hall voltage FL
B = 0…0.5 T ≤ ± 0.2 %
B = 0…1.0 T ≤ ± 0.7 %
Input resistance B=0T R10 600…900 Ω
Output resistance B=0T R20 1000…1500 Ω
Temperature coefficient of the TCV20 ∼ – 0.03 %/K
open-circuit Hall voltage
I1 = I1N, B = 0.1 T
Temperature coefficient of the internal TCR10, R20 ∼ + 0.3 %/K
resistance, B = 0 T
Temperature coefficient of ohmic offset TCVR0 ∼ 0.3 %/K
voltage, I1 = I1N, B = 0 T
Inductive zero component, I1N = 0 A21) 0.16 cm2
Switch-on drift of the ohmic offset dV02) ≤ 0.3 mV
voltage I1 = I1N, B = 0 T ∆V03) ≤ 0.1 mV
Noise figure F ∼ 10 dB

1)
With time varying induction there exists an inductive voltage Vind between the Hall voltage terminals (supply
current I1 = 0):
Vind = A2 × dB/dt × 10-4 with V(V), A2 (cm2), B(T), t(s)
2)
dV0 = V0(t = 1s) – V0(t = 0.1 s)
3)
∆V0 = V0(t = 3min) – V0(t = 1 s)

Data Book 350 2000-07-01


KSY 44

Connection of a Hall Sensor with a Power Source


Since the voltage on the component must not exceed 10 V, the connection to the
constant current supply should only be done via a short circuit by-pass. The by-pass
circuit-breaker shall not be opened before turning on the power source, in order to avoid
damage to the Hall sensor due to power peaks.

Polarity of Hall Voltage

Data Book 351 2000-07-01


Hall Sensor KSY 46

Version 2.0

Features
B 2.9 ±0.1 2˚ ... 30˚
• High sensitivity 1.9 1.1 max
• Small linearity error 0.6 +0.1
-0.05 0.08 ... 0.15
• Low offset voltage A

0.1 ±0.3
• Low TC of sensitivity 6 5 4

10˚ max
2.6 max
resistance

1.3 ±0.1
10˚ max
Typical Applications 1 2 3

• Current and power 0.2 0.35 ±0.15


measurement 0.1 max
+0.1
0.3 -0.05
• Magnetic field measurement 0.25 M B 0.20 M A
• Control of brushless DC
motors Reflow soldering %TTVS\[IMKLXK
• Rotation and position sensing 0.8
0.3 4MR'SRJMKYVEXMSR
• Measurement of diaphragm
 ,EPPZSPXEKIXIVQMREPW
 7YTTP]GYVVIRXXIVQMREPW
1.2
3
0.9

0.5
0.45 GPW06957

Dimensions in mm

Type Marking Ordering Code


KSY 46 s46 Q62705-K330
Packing: Taped on 18 cm reel, 3K parts per reel, date code on the label.
The KSY 46 is a MOVPE1) Hall sensor made of monocrystalline GaAs-material, built into
a SMT package (MW-6). The sensor is outstanding for its high magnetic field sensitivity
and its very low temperature coefficients. While the sensor is operated with constant
current, the output Hall Voltage is directly proportional to a magnetic field acting
prependicular to the surface of the sensor. The 0.35 × 0.35 mm2 chip is mounted onto a
non-magnetic leadframe.
1) Metal Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxy

Data Book 352 2000-07-01


KSY 46

Absolute Maximum Ratings

Parameter Symbol Limit Values Unit


Operating temperature TA – 40 … + 150 °C
Storage temperature Tstg – 50 … + 160 °C
Supply current I1 10 mA
Thermal conductivity, soldered GthC ≥ 2.2 mW/K
in air GthA ≥ 1.5 mW/K

Electrical Characteristics (TA = 25 °C)

Nominal supply current I1N 7 mA


Open-circuit sensitivity KB0 150 … 265 V/AT
Open-circuit Hall voltage V20 105 … 185 mV
I1 = I1N, B = 0.1 T
Ohmic offset voltage VR0 ≤ ± 15 mV
I1 = I1N, B = 0 T
Linearity of Hall voltage
B = 0…0.5 T FL ≤ ± 0.2 %
B = 0…1.0 T FL ≤ ± 0.7 %
Input resistance B=0T R10 600 … 900 Ω
Output resistance B=0T R20 1000 … 1500 Ω
Temperature coefficient of the TCV20 ∼ – 0.03 %/K
open-circuit Hall-voltage
I1 = I1N, B = 0.1 T
Temperature coefficient of the internal TCR10, R20 ∼ 0.3 %/K
resistance
B=0T
Temperature coefficient of ohmic offset TCVR 0 ∼ 0.3 %/K
voltage
I1 = I1N, B = 0 T
Switch on-drift of the ohmic offset dV01) ≤ 0.3 mV
voltage ∆V02) ≤ 0.1 mV
I1 = I1N, B = 0 T
Noise Figure F ∼ 10 dB

1)
dV0 = | V0 (t = 1 s) - V0 (t = 0.1 s) |
2) ∆V0 = | V0 (t = 3 min) - V0 (t = 1 s) |

Data Book 353 2000-07-01


KSY 46

Connection of a Hall Sensor with a Power Source


Since the voltage on the component must not exceed 10 V, the connection to the
constant current supply should only be done via a short circuit by-pass. The by-pass
circuit-breaker shall not be opened before turning on the power source. This is to avoid
damage to the Hall sensor due to power peaks.

Data Book 354 2000-07-01


Giant Magneto Resistive Position Sensor GMR B6
Version 2.0

This angle sensor is based on the Giant Magneto Resistive (GMR) technology.
It is outstanding for the huge tolerances it offers to the user in assembly.

Features
• GMR sensor in SMD package B 2.9 ±0.1 2˚ ... 30˚
• Sensitive to the direction, 1.9 1.1 max
not to the intensity of the 0.6 +0.1
-0.05 0.08 ... 0.15
magnetic field A

0.1 ±0.3
• Constant TC of basic 6 5 4

10˚ max
2.6 max
resistance R and magneto

1.3 ±0.1
10˚ max
resistance ∆R
1 2 3
Applications
0.2 0.35 ±0.15
• Rotation and linear sensing 0.1 max
with large airgaps +0.1
0.3 -0.05
0.25 M B 0.20 M A
• Angle encoders
• Contactless potentiometers
• Incremental encoders Reflow soldering
0.8
0.3
Pin Configuration
Directions of internal
6 3
magnetization
1.2
3

R2 R4
0.9

1 4
0.5
R1 R3
0.45 GPW06957

2/5
OHS00429 Dimensions in mm

6, 3 supply
5 (= 2) ground
1, 4 GMR bridge access

Type Marking Ordering Code


GMR B6 B Q62705-K5004

Data Book 355 2000-07-01


GMR B6

The GMR B6 is an angle sensor based on sputtered metallic multilayer technology.


4 resistors are monolithically integrated on 1 chip. They can be used as a fullbridge or,
if 2 external resistors are added, as 2 halfbridges. The outstanding feature of this
magnetic sensor is the fact, that it is sensitive to the orientation of the magnetic field and
not to its intensity as long as the field is in a range between 5 … 15 kA/m. This means,
the signal output of this sensor is independent of the sensor position relative to the
magnet in lateral, axial or rotational direction in the range of several millimeters.
Optimum results are achieved by using magnetic targets like permanent magnets or
magnetic pole-wheels. There is no need for a biasing magnet! Due to the linear change
of both, basic and field dependent part of the resistance vs. temperature, simple and
efficient electronic compensation of TC (R, ∆R) is possible.

AED02956
1
N

∆R )/2]

0.5
S

V4
RO
Bridge Voltage [(VO ∗

0
V1
-0.5

V1- V4
-1
GMR B6 0 90 180 270 Deg 360
Angle

Figure 1
Output Voltage of Half Bridges (V1, V4) and Full Bridge (V4 - V1) as a Function of
the Magnetic Field Orientation

Data Book 356 2000-07-01


GMR B6

Maximum Ratings
Parameter Symbol Value Unit
Operating temperature TA – 40 … + 150 °C
Storage temperature Tstg – 50 … + 150 °C
Supply voltage V1 7 V
Thermal conductivity GthC A >4 mW/K
Magnetic field1) Hrot < 15 kA/m
1)
larger fields may reduce the magnetoresistive effect irreversibly

Characteristics (TA = 25 °C)


Parameter Symbol Value Unit
Nominal supply voltage V1N 5 V
Basic resistance R0 > 700 Ω
Magnetoresistive effect ∆R/R0 >4 %
Hrot = 5 ... 15 kA/m
Output signal fullbridge @ V1N = 5 V VOUT > 200 mV
Offset voltage @ V1N = 5 V |V0| <8 mV
Temperature coefficient of TCR0 + 0.09 … + 0.12 %/K
basic resistance
Temperature coefficient of TC∆R – 0.12 … – 0.09 %/K
magnetoresistance
Temperature coefficient of TC∆R/R0 – 0.27 … – 0.23 %/K
magnetoresistive effect

Application Hints
The application mode of the GMR position sensor is preferably as a bridge or halfbridge
circuit. In every case this type of circuit compensates for the TC of the resistance value
R0. To compensate for the TC of the GMR effect ∆R/R0, if there is the necessity, is left to
the application circuit and can be done for example with a NIC circuit. When operated
over a complete 360° turn, a total signal of ≈ 20 mV/V is achieved at 25 °C with a
halfbridge. The output signal is doubled to of ≈ 40 mV/V when a fullbridge circuit is used.
In the case of linear position sensing, the electrical circuit remains unchanged.

Data Book 357 2000-07-01


GMR B6

Output Voltage Degradation (typical) at Magnetoresistive Effect (typical) versus


high Temperature Operation Temperature ∆R/R0 = f(TA)
AED02953 AED02959
100 120
% TA = 105 ˚C %
TA = 125 ˚C 110
99

Magnetoresistive Effect (normalized)


Output Voltage (normalized)

100
98

90

97
80

96
70

TA = 150 ˚C
95 2 60
10 103 h 104 -50 -10 30 70 110 ˚C 150
Operation Time T

Basic Resistance (typical) versus


Temperature R0 = f(TA)
AED02954
120

110
Resistance (normalized)

100

90

80
-40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 ˚C 150
T

Data Book 358 2000-07-01


Giant Magneto Resistive Position Sensor GMR C6
Version 1.0
Preliminary

This angle sensor is based on the Giant Magneto Resistive (GMR) technology.
It is outstanding for the huge tolerances it offers to the user in assembly.

Features
• GMR sensor in SMD package B 2.9 ±0.1 2˚ ... 30˚
• Sensitive to the direction, 1.9 1.1 max
not to the intensity of the 0.6 +0.1
-0.05 0.08 ... 0.15
magnetic field A

0.1 ±0.3
• Providing both sine and 6 5 4

10˚ max
2.6 max

1.3 ±0.1
cosine signals from 1 chip

10˚ max
• Constant TC of R and ∆R
1 2 3
Applications 0.2 0.35 ±0.15
• Rotation and linear sensing 0.1 max
+0.1
with large air gaps 0.3 -0.05
0.25 M B 0.20 M A
• Angle encoders
• Contactless potentiometers
Reflow soldering
• Incremental encoders 0.8
0.3
Pin Configuration*
3
1.2
3

Directions of internal
magnetization
0.9

A 1 4 B 0.5
0.45 GPW06957

Dimensions in mm
2 5

3, 5 (= 2) supply *) Beware: This is the correct pin configuration. The pin configuration
of GMR application note (10.98) is not actual anymore.
1, 4 GMR bridge access
6 not connected

Type Marking Ordering Code


GMR C61) C Q62705-K5005
1)
GMR technology is qualified, GMR C6 is in qualification.

Data Book 359 2000-07-01


GMR C6

The GMR C6 is an angle sensor based on sputtered metallic multilayer technology.


4 resistors are monolithically integrated on 1 chip. Providing two halfbridges, if
2 external resistors are added. The outstanding feature of this magnetic sensor is the
fact, that it is sensitive to the orientation of the magnetic field and not to its intensity as
long as the field is in a range between 5 … 15 kA/m. This means, the signal output of
this sensor is independent of the sensor position relative to the magnet in lateral, axial
or rotational direction in the range of several millimetres. Optimum results are achieved
by using magnetic targets like permanent magnets or magnetic pole-wheels. There is no
need for a biasing magnet! Due to the linear change of both, basic and field dependent
part of the resistance vs. temperature, simple and efficient electronic compensation of
TC (R, ∆R) is possible.

AED02957
1
N

∆R )/2]

0.5
S

V4
RO
Bridge Voltage [(VO ∗

0
V1
-0.5

-1
GMR C6 0 90 180 270 Deg 360
Angle

Figure 1 Output Voltage of Half Bridges (V1, V4) as a Function of the Magnetic
Field Orientation

Data Book 360 2000-07-01


GMR C6

Maximum Ratings
Parameter Symbol Value Unit
Operating temperature TA – 40 … + 150 °C
Storage temperature Tstg – 50 … + 150 °C
Supply voltage V1 7 V
Thermal conductivity GthC A >4 mW/K
Magnetic field 1) Hrot < 15 kA/m
1)
larger fields may reduce the magnetoresistive effect irreversibly

Characteristics (TA = 25 °C)


Parameter Symbol Value Unit
Nominal supply voltage V1N 5 V
Basic resistance R0 > 700 Ω
Magnetoresistive effect ∆R/R0 >4 %
Hrot = 5 ... 15 kA/m
Output signal halfbridge @ V1N = 5 V VOUT > 100 mV
Offset voltage per halfbridge |V0| <8 mV
@ V1N = 5 V
Temperature coefficient of TCR0 + 0.09 … + 0.12 %/K
basic resistance
Temperature coefficient of TC∆R – 0.12 … – 0.09 %/K
magnetoresistance
Temperature coefficient of TC∆R/R0 – 0.27 … – 0.23 %/K
magnetoresistive effect

Application Hints
The application mode of the GMR position sensor is preferably as a bridge or halfbridge
circuit. This circuit compensates for the TC of the resistance value R0. To compensate
for the TC of the GMR effect ∆R/R0, if there is the necessity, is left to the application circuit
and can be done for example with a NIC circuit. When operated over a complete 360°
turn, two total signals of > 20 mV/V are achieved at 25 °C with two halfbridges. In the
case of linear position sensing, the electrical circuit remains unchanged, also providing
two phaseshifted signals (i.e.sine and cosine).

Data Book 361 2000-07-01


Packing and Handling Instructions

Direction of Unreeling

TAB: FP 410 L;
FP 420 L; FP 425 L

AL-nap-tape for TAB

Backside
Leader tape start of reel and
end of reel approx. 1.5-2.0 m length.

Frontside of die

Backside of die visible Leader tape

Metal reel

Direction of unreeling
TAB: FP 410L, FP 420L, FP 425L
OHA00266

Figure 1

Data Book 362 2000-07-01


Packing and Handling Instructions

Metal Reel for TAB

Figure 2

Data Book 363 2000-07-01


Packing and Handling Instructions

Handling of TAB Magneto Resistors

Mounting and magnet:


• while using tweezers, grip the parts on the ferrite or silicon, not on the kapton frame;
• assure that the surfaces are clean, especially free of particles; (sometimes the use of
adhesive foil is helpful for the removal of particles from the magnet);
• the Magneto Resistor must be glued parallel onto the surface of the magnet;
recommended glue: Epotek 353 ND by Polytek;
• the use of vacuum tweezers is possible only with demagnetized magnet.

Soldering:
• recommended flux: FSW 32 by Alpha Grillo;
• soldering by hand: 260°C max. / 2 sec max.;
• hot bar soldering: 320°C max. / 0.5 sec max.;
• reflow soldering: 235°C max. / 3 sec max..

Casting:
• recommended resin: ES 4323 by Dexter Hysol, a high filled resin;
• recommended casting procedure:
– partial casting;
– partial hardending;
– degasing (optimum conditions depending on volume, contact supplier of resin);
– complete casting;
– complete hardening.

General
• every material used in assembly must have a glass transition point TG above the
highest temperature applied to the part.

Leadforming of Hallsensors
• No force is induced into the plastic encapsulation
• Only 1 leadforming procedure per part
• Minimum distance from the plastic encapsulation to the bending point is 2 mm
• The maximum bending angle is 90°
• The minimum bending radius is 0.5 mm

Data Book 364 2000-07-01


List of Types in Alphanumerical Order

Type Marking Ordering Code Page


Connector Set for KTY 19 − Q62901-B80 226
(Splash-proof)
FP 210 D 250-22 – Q65210-D250-W5 302
FP 210 L 100-22 – Q65210-L100-W4 307
FP 212 D 250-22 – Q65212-D2504 312
FP 212 L 100-22 – Q65212-L1004 317
FP 310 L 100-30 – Q65310-L100-U30 322
FP 310 L 100-75 – Q65310-L100-U75 322
FP 312 L 100 – Q65312-L100-U 324
FP 410 L (4 × 80) FM – Q65410-L80E (taped) 326
FP 410 L (4 × 80) FM – Q65410-L80F (singular) 326
FP 420 L 90 B – Q65420-L90-B (singular) 330
FP 420 L 90 B – Q65420-L90-B1 (taped) 330
FP 425 L 90 – Q65425-L90 (singular) 334
FP 425 L 90 – Q65425-L0090E001 (taped) 334
GMR B6 B Q62705-K5004 355
GMR C6 C Q62705-K5005 359
KP 202-A KP 202-A Q62702-K0429 170
KP 202-AK KP 202-AK on request 170
KP 202-R KP 202-R Q62705-K0424 180
KP 202-RK KP 202-RK on request 180
KP 203-A KP 203-A Q62702-K0431 170
KP 203-AK KP 203-AK on request 170
KP 203-R KP 203-R Q62705-K0430 180
KP 203-RK KP 203-RK on request 180
KP 205-A KP 205-A Q62705-K353 190
KPY 32-RK – Q62705-K266 198
KPY 33-RK – Q62705-K274 201
KPY 41-R KPY 41 R Q62705-K159 207
KPY 42-A KPY 42 A Q62705-K204 204
KPY 42-R KPY 42 R Q62705-K160 207
KPY 43-A KPY 43 A Q62705-K162 204
KPY 43-R KPY 43 R Q62705-K161 207

Data Book 365 2000-07-01


List of Types in Alphanumerical Order

Type Marking Ordering Code Page


KPY 44-A KPY 44 A Q62705-K164 204
KPY 44-R KPY 44 R Q62705-K163 207
KPY 45-A KPY 45 A Q62705-K166 204
KPY 45-R KPY 45 R Q62705-K165 207
KPY 46-A KPY 46 A Q62705-K168 204
KPY 46-R KPY 46 R Q62705-K167 207
■ KPY 51-R 0,250 Q62705-K174 214
KPY 51-RK – Q62705-K189 222
■ KPY 52-A 0,6 Q62705-K211 210
KPY 52-AK – Q62705-K205 218
■ KPY 52-R 0,6 Q62705-K175 214
KPY 52-RK – Q62705-K190 222
■ KPY 53-A 1,6 Q62705-K177 210
KPY 53-AK – Q62705-K192 218
■ KPY 53-R 1,6 Q62705-K176 214
KPY 53-RK – Q62705-K191 222
■ KPY 54-A 4 Q62705-K179 210
KPY 54-AK – Q62705-K194 218
■ KPY 54-R 4 Q62705-K178 214
KPY 54-RK – Q62705-K193 222
■ KPY 55-A 10 Q62705-K181 210
KPY 55-AK – Q62705-K196 218
■ KPY 55-R 10 Q62705-K180 214
KPY 55-RK – Q62705-K195 222
■ KPY 56-A 25 Q62705-K183 210
KPY 56-AK – Q62705-K198 218
■ KPY 56-R 25 Q62705-K182 214
KPY 56-RK – Q62705-K197 222
KPY 57-RK – Q62705-K199 222
■ KSY 10 – Q62705-K38 338
KSY 13 S13 Q62705-K209 (taped) 341
KSY 14 14 Q62705-K227 344

Data Book 366 2000-07-01


List of Types in Alphanumerical Order

Type Marking Ordering Code Page


KSY 16 s16 Q62705-K338 347
KSY 44 44 Q62705-K265 349
KSY 46 s46 Q62705-K330 352
KT 100 KT 100 Q62705-K331 226
KT 110 T-1 Q62705-K332 226
KT 130 T-1 Q62705-K333 226
KT 210 N-1 Q62705-K334 226
KT 230 N-1 Q62705-K335 226
KTY 10-5 KTY 10-5 Q62705-K110 226
KTY 10-6 KTY 10-6 Q62705-K132 226
KTY 10-62 KTY 10-62 Q62705-K71 226
KTY 10-7 KTY 10-7 Q62705-K111 226
KTY 11-5 T-5 Q62705-K245 226
KTY 11-6 T-6 Q62705-K246 226
KTY 11-7 T-7 Q62705-K247 226
KTY 13-5 T-5 Q62705-K249 226
KTY 13-6 T-6 Q62705-K250 226
KTY 13-7 T-7 Q62705-K251 226
KTY 16-6 − Q62705-K128 226
KTY 19-6M KTY 19M Q62705-K271 226
KTY 19-6Z KTY 19Z Q62705-K272 226
KTY 21-5 N-5 Q62705-K258 226
KTY 21-6 N-6 Q62705-K259 226
KTY 21-7 N-7 Q62705-K260 226
KTY 23-5 N-5 Q62705-K262 226
KTY 23-6 N-6 Q62705-K263 226
KTY 23-7 N-7 Q62705-K264 226
TLE 4905 G 05 Q62705-K402 237
TLE 4905 L 05 L Q67006-A9120 250
TLE 4921-3U 21C3U Q67006-A9171 265
TLE 4923 4923 B Q62705-K408 284
TLE 4935 G 35 Q62705-K404 237

Data Book 367 2000-07-01


List of Types in Alphanumerical Order

Type Marking Ordering Code Page


TLE 4935 L 35 L Q67006-A9112 250
TLE 4935-2 G 35 2 Q62705-K405 237
TLE 4935-2 L 35 2 Q67006-A9143 250
TLE 4945-2 G 45 2 Q62705-K403 237
TLE 4945 L 45 L Q67006-A9163 250
TLE 4945-2 L 45 2 on request 250

■ not for new design

Data Book 368 2000-07-01


List of Ordering Codes in Alphanumerical Order

Ordering Code Type Marking Page


on request KP 202-AK KP 202-AK 170
on request KP 203-AK KP 203-AK 170
on request KP 202-RK KP 202-RK 180
on request KP 203-RK KP 203-RK 180
on request TLE 4945-2 L 45 2 250
Q62702-K0429 KP 202-A KP 202-A 170
Q62702-K0431 KP 203-A KP 203-A 170
■ Q62705-K38 KSY 10 – 338
Q62705-K71 KTY 10-62 KTY 10-62 226
Q62705-K110 KTY 10-5 KTY 10-5 226
Q62705-K111 KTY 10-7 KTY 10-7 226
Q62705-K128 KTY 16-6 − 226
Q62705-K132 KTY 10-6 KTY 10-6 226
Q62705-K159 KPY 41-R KPY 41 R 207
Q62705-K160 KPY 42-R KPY 42 R 207
Q62705-K161 KPY 43-R KPY 43 R 207
Q62705-K162 KPY 43-A KPY 43 A 204
Q62705-K163 KPY 44-R KPY 44 R 207
Q62705-K164 KPY 44-A KPY 44 A 204
Q62705-K165 KPY 45-R KPY 45 R 207
Q62705-K166 KPY 45-A KPY 45 A 204
Q62705-K167 KPY 46-R KPY 46 R 207
Q62705-K168 KPY 46-A KPY 46 A 204
■ Q62705-K174 KPY 51-R 0,250 214
■ Q62705-K175 KPY 52-R 0,6 214
■ Q62705-K176 KPY 53-R 1,6 214
■ Q62705-K177 KPY 53-A 1,6 210
■ Q62705-K178 KPY 54-R 4 214
■ Q62705-K179 KPY 54-A 4 210
■ Q62705-K180 KPY 55-R 10 214
■ Q62705-K181 KPY 55-A 10 210
■ Q62705-K182 KPY 56-R 25 214

Data Book 369 2000-07-01


List of Ordering Codes in Alphanumerical Order

Ordering Code Type Marking Page


■ Q62705-K183 KPY 56-A 25 210
Q62705-K189 KPY 51-RK – 222
Q62705-K190 KPY 52-RK – 222
Q62705-K191 KPY 53-RK – 222
Q62705-K192 KPY 53-AK – 218
Q62705-K193 KPY 54-RK – 222
Q62705-K194 KPY 54-AK – 218
Q62705-K195 KPY 55-RK – 222
Q62705-K196 KPY 55-AK – 218
Q62705-K197 KPY 56-RK – 222
Q62705-K198 KPY 56-AK – 218
Q62705-K199 KPY 57-RK – 222
Q62705-K204 KPY 42-A KPY 42 A 204
Q62705-K205 KPY 52-AK – 218
Q62705-K209 (taped) KSY 13 S13 341
■ Q62705-K211 KPY 52-A 0,6 210
Q62705-K227 KSY 14 14 344
Q62705-K245 KTY 11-5 T-5 226
Q62705-K246 KTY 11-6 T-6 226
Q62705-K247 KTY 11-7 T-7 226
Q62705-K249 KTY 13-5 T-5 226
Q62705-K250 KTY 13-6 T-6 226
Q62705-K251 KTY 13-7 T-7 226
Q62705-K258 KTY 21-5 N-5 226
Q62705-K259 KTY 21-6 N-6 226
Q62705-K260 KTY 21-7 N-7 226
Q62705-K262 KTY 23-5 N-5 226
Q62705-K263 KTY 23-6 N-6 226
Q62705-K264 KTY 23-7 N-7 226
Q62705-K265 KSY 44 44 349
Q62705-K266 KPY 32-RK – 198
Q62705-K271 KTY 19-6M KTY 19M 226

Data Book 370 2000-07-01


List of Ordering Codes in Alphanumerical Order

Ordering Code Type Marking Page


Q62705-K272 KTY 19-6Z KTY 19Z 226
Q62705-K274 KPY 33-RK – 201
Q62705-K330 KSY 46 s46 352
Q62705-K331 KT 100 KT 100 226
Q62705-K332 KT 110 T-1 226
Q62705-K333 KT 130 T-1 226
Q62705-K334 KT 210 N-1 226
Q62705-K335 KT 230 N-1 226
Q62705-K338 KSY 16 s16 347
Q62705-K353 KP 205 A KP205-A 190
Q62705-K402 TLE 4905 G 05 237
Q62705-K403 TLE 4945-2 G 45 2 237
Q62705-K404 TLE 4935 G 35 237
Q62705-K405 TLE 4935-2 G 35 2 237
Q62705-K408 TLE 4923 4923 B 284
Q62705-K0424 KP 202-R KP 202-R 180
Q62705-K0430 KP 203-R KP 203-R 180
Q62705-K5004 GMR B6 B 355
Q62705-K5005 GMR C6 C 359
Q62901-B80 Connector Set for − 226
KTY 19 (Splash-proof)
Q67006-A9112 TLE 4935 L 35 L 250
Q67006-A9120 TLE 4905 L 05 L 250
Q67006-A9143 TLE 4935-2 L 35 2 250
Q67006-A9163 TLE 4945 L 45 L 250
Q67006-A9171 TLE 4921-3U 21C3U 265
Q65210-D250-W5 FP 210 D 250-22 – 302
Q65210-L100-W4 FP 210 L 100-22 – 307
Q65212-D2504 FP 212 D 250-22 – 312
Q65212-L1004 FP 212 L 100-22 – 317
Q65310-L100-U30 FP 310 L 100-30 – 322
Q65310-L100-U75 FP 310 L 100-75 – 322
Q65312-L100-U FP 312 L 100 – 324

Data Book 371 2000-07-01


List of Ordering Codes in Alphanumerical Order

Ordering Code Type Marking Page


Q65410-L80E (taped) FP 410 L (4 × 80) FM – 326
Q65410-L80F (singular) FP 410 L (4 × 80) FM – 326
Q65420-L90-B1 (taped) FP 420 L 90 B – 330
Q65420-L90-B (singular) FP 420 L 90 B – 330
Q65425-L0090E001 (taped) FP 425 L 90 – 334
Q65425-L90 (singular) FP 425 L 90 – 334

■ not for new design

Data Book 372 2000-07-01