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Construction, Operation, inspection, and Maintenance
of Steam Boilers, urith 310 Typical Steam Eng1:neer' 8
E xamination Questions and A nswers

BY 1\
S iter I n.wetoT Commis.ioned by the National B oard of B oiler a,14
P re8Stlre V •• sel T1187)eclor8, and by Code States; Licen8ed Chicf
I'iJngill.eer; .If ,mhcr of l.hc Am rican Society of
M echa1lical En(lineer.

IjSIWiI£s ,..gwaCf NO. ..



·tf~1 !F ' FAO
nSHERIE:5 ~ CT NO. 70

p]UN ·r.~ o IN 'l'RE UN I'l'ED 8TA'J'Ek OF A Mlil ltl O....

All rights reserved. Thi s buuk, or

par/8titercoj,11Iaynotbe r e1JrOnIl Cfd
in any jorl'~ without per "H8.~io1t of
the pubi-ishel's

22 23 24 25 - MP - 10 9 87

The purpose' of thiR book i. to supply a modern handbook
sp cializing on boilers and boiler equipment.
The chapter on construction should be of especial int.erest. to
thr cadet boil",!, inspector, to the operating engi neer illterestrd in
li cense examinations, and to t hose wishing to know mOl" of
standard shop practices. Methods arc shown for calculating
safe pressures for many types of boiler.
Succreding chapters drs('l'ibp inHtallation, design, and dis-
tinct.ive featurr,.; of a widp vari<,ty of boiler from the common firt--
tube' t.ypes to t he high-pressure steam j.wm·ratOJ·s in t.hi~ country
ILnd abroad.
A on appliances and auxiliaries att.f'mpts j,o give thr
reader a picture of qllipment ne('rRRary for saff', economical
boiler operation. This is followed by a chapter on plant manage-
ment, which includ H persollnrl problems, wag~' incentives, and
hourly shift Rchedulrs usrd in many plants. The concluding
chaptrr covers many opprt1iing problems of a wide varirt,y of
equipment and t heir pl'actic:al .olutions.
An effort has been mad to make the text sufficiently non-
technical to benefit the man I:ltarting at the foot of the ladder and
yet contain information that will interest and be of value to t he
man at the top.
The questions and answers at the end of many chapters are
based on each common type of boiler and the plant equipment,
described in the chapt,PT. They are typical of tho e asked in
examinations for firem >n's, engineers', and boiler inspectors'
licenses by various states. The author disapproves of so-call!'d
"trick" questions, but some, reprrsentative of t hose occasionally
asked, are included.
The author grat,efully acknowledges the generous cooperation
of the many manufacturers and individualR who have aide.d in
the preparation of this book.
In addition to the photographs whose sources are acknowledged
throughout the pages, greatly appreciated data have been

received from the American Iron and Steel Institute; thE' Bab-
cock and Wilcox Co.; Besler Systems; Brown, Boveri & Co.
Ltd.; Cleaver-Brooks Co.; Combustion Engineering Company,
Inc.; Crane Co.; The Dow Chemical Company; E lliott Com-
pany, Fostpr Wheeler Corporation; E. KE'pJer Company; Lukens
Steel Company; Morehf'ad Manufacturing Company; Riley
Stoker Corporation; Siemens, Incorporated; and from Vitkovice
MinE's, Steel and Iron Works, Corp.
Special ment.ion is made of the courtesies extended by Powel',
F. A. Annett and S. A. Tucker, associate editors, and L. N.
Rowley, assistant editor; and by FredE'ri ek G. St.raub, R '!search
Associate Professor of Chemical E nginpE' ring, University of
Illinois; Paul R. Sidler, E lecLl'i al Engineer; Arthur ,J. H erseb-
mann , agent in United States for Vit ko"i ce Mines, Strel and IrOIl
Work. , Corp.; and E. R Doherty, an authorit y 011 s(;eam-hoi!pt'
design and inspection .
March, J 940.
PREFACE . . . . .. . V


QUESTIONS AN!) ANSWERS . . . . . . . . . . . . 47



Qm<:S'rlONS AND ANSWEJ~S . . . . 138


EUROPEAN . . . . . 141

QUESTIONS ANI> ANSWERS . . . . . . 217

BOlLER-PLANT MANAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . 222



ApPENDIX 2, MA'l' glUALS . 318
ApPENDIX 3, BOIL E R S CAI,}e. 328

INDEX . . .. . . . 343

A or a area
A.S.M.E. Am ri<',u1 Society of Mechanical Euginccr~
A.S.T.M . American Socict,y for Materials
B.D. blowdoll'll or blowback as applied to safety valve operation
B.P. bursting pr('~sure
l3.t.n . British thermal unit
B.w.g. BirminghalJJ wire gage
C carbon
C " ,,0118(11.U\,
Gil. calcium
°C. degn'!' "entigrade
,!c. cubit! {'entimeLer
c.i. cast iron .
em. centimeter
CO carbon monoxide
CO, carbon dioxide
COdl', t.he A.S.M.E. Power Boil~r Code
eu. cubit·
Cu copp r . cross-sectional area, in square inches unless otherwise stated
d diameter of ltn opening unless otherwise defined
D diameter of a shell or drum
E Youl1g's modultls of clasti 'ily = unit "tress dividc,d 1,.1' ullit
~traiu (29,000,000 for at,eel)
eff. efficiency
KL. clu."tic limit
ali' . degree Fahrenhcit
F.B. firebox qUldit,y a8 IlppJied to Blecl
]i'e iron
fig . flange qUlllity as applied;O steel
F.S. factor of safpty
ft. foot
gal. gallon
gr. pcr gal. grain por gallon (concentration)
g. per min. gallon per minut,e flow
H hydrogen
H,O W!.Ltcr
hp . hors(>.power
hr. hour
H .R.T. hoiler horizontal-ruturo tubular boijpr
B.S. wat,er h(>a t iug ~ lIrface

Ld. inside diameter

in. inch
k a constant.
kg. kilogram
kva . kilovolt-amperes
k\\'. kilowatt
I, radius to which conc'av(' head is dished
'01' T, length, in in c h t'~, unl ess otherwise ~pecilicd
Ih . pound
lflax. rn axinlunl
Mg magnl'siuI1l
MgSO , mngnesillm 8ulphl1tp.
m,i . malleable iron
min. ruinimum
min. minllt<'
mm. millimeter
Mn manganese
N nitrogen
11 numher of rivets in singl e sbear
N numbpr of rivets in double sboar
NaOH sodium bydroxide
NaSiO , sodi um silicILtc
Ni nickel
0 " oxygen
o.d. outside di.Lmeter
o.h . open hearth
OIl hydroxide
oz. ounce
1) pitch , in inches, usually of a series of hol es
r phosph orus
p maximum allowabl e workinp; pressurc
pH hydrogen ion cOI1(,entra.tion or fi uIC'asur(' of nlkalinity or
acidity of water (7 is "('utl',,l, p;rp"tf'r 1Iin)l 7 iH allmline,
below 7 is acid )
p.p.1l1 parts per million concentration
preM •. nb •. a bsolutc pressure above a pf'11ert vacu ur", poullcls pCI'
squarE' inr.h . (14.7 at soa level)
pt. pint
qt. quart
R radius, in inches, unless otherwiso specifit'd
T.p .m. revolutions per minut'!
s unit stress, in pounds per squarc inch
l< shearing streHs, single shear, pounds per square iueh
S total stress on cn t.irc cross-sect.ional Itrea
S shearing stress, double shear, pounds per ~4""rc ill ch
.e unit compres~ivc stress
'!IOC . second
ABBRl!:I'lA'l'lONS A ND SY,\ fBOLS ,\1

Si s ili con
SiO, silica
SO. sulphat.(:'
sq . square
st.el. standard
I t.hi ckness, in in ehes, un less o t.h(ml'ise stated
'1' th i ckll CS~ , in s ix(c('nths or flIl inrh
temp. tcrnpcmtul'C
T .S. tensile s tr('flp;t h
\' vanadium
v:r. boii('1' vcrticni t ubullll' hoiler
w.i. wrougjJl iron
yd. ynrd
y .]>. yield point
pel' cent

Steam Boilers and Stresses.-The potential loss of lil e and

damage to property caused by the explosion of a stean, boiler
have been brought to public attention frequently in news
account . Pictures of Huch di sasters are Hhuwn and causes and
preventives discussed in detail later in this book.
Boiler failures are preventable; and, as every failure involves
stress, a working knowledge of tresses should be had by all con-
cerned with steam-builer operation , design, inspection, 01
Internal Pressure vs. Stresses.- The caus of stresses in
steam boilers should be understood before an attempt is made to
calculate or analy ze t hem.
Internal pressure is the first cause to consider. The American
measure of steam pressur is in units of pounds per square inch
a read on the pressure gage; it i, above the pressure of the
atmosphere (14.7 lb. pe:' sq, in. at sea level), This unit mea ure-
ment is kno 'ffi as "gage pressure." In some operation formulas
and tables, absolute pr' ssure is used. This means the pressure
in pounds per square inch above a perfect vacuum, that is, the
gage pressure plus approximately 14.7 at sea level.
The foregoing facts relate to unit pressure, that is, t he force
acting on 1 sq. in. If t he area of a surface in a steam boiler is
20 in. square and if it is exposed to a steam pressure of 50 lb.
per sq. in., the total pressure, or load, on that surface will be
20 X 20 X 50 = 20,000 lb. Thus, it is easily seen that the
total pressure acting on a large exposed area may r.ause a tre-
mendous load, even with a comparatively low unit pressure.
Also, this example makes clear t he fallacy in feeling that there.
is no danger possible with a low-pressure boiler.

Effects of Shape.-Turning from the last example, one might

consider a span of plate 20 in. long and Y2 in. thick, subjected to a
uniformly di tributed load of 20 tons. Obviously, the bending
tendency would be considerable; yet U-in. plate is common for
pressures of up to 200 lb. per sq. in. However, if the plate is not
part of a cylindrical or "dished" shape, it is essential to provide
braces at frequent intervals, as pointed out in a later section.
Otherwise, the plate might buckle and fail under the combined
bending and tensile stresses.
The effect of shape is of immense importance to the strength
and bracing requirements of a boiler. It is a well-known law of
science that pressure of a fluid eXf'rt.· itself in an equal amount

60 w

Flo. l.- Lollgitudin"l vo. circumferential ske".ca imposed o n" cyliudrical ehell by
internal prossuro.

in every direction. Following this law, an irregularly shaped

vessel subjected to internal pressure always tends to be forced
into a perfect spherical shape. The first tendency of an oval-
shaped drum or shell would be -to cLange its cross-sectional shape
to a true circle.
With regard to these facts, one may look at a fiat bead of a
ves el operated at above very low internal pressure and see that
bracing i u ed. However, if a semispherical or dished head is
used, the bracing is di pensed with. Heads for high-pressure
boilers are practically always dished or elliptical in form. No
braces are required for these beads.
Longitudinal vs. Circumferential Stresses.- Interna) pressure
in a cylindrical shell closed at each end tends to burst the ves el
along two distinct axes.
First, the total pressure acting on the shell tends to cause
rupture along a longitudinal axis AlA, (Fig. 1). The total

pressure acting on the heads tends to cause fracture of the shell

around its circumference, as at B 1•
The :tress at AIA2 is always exactly twice the stress at B J •
This statement is proved by considering t he total pressure
acting on t.he strip ABeD, which is 30 in. X ] in. = 30 sq. in.,
in the example shown. On the assumption of a pressure of
100 lb. per sq. in., the total pressure on this strip will be
30 X 100 = 3,000 lb. This strip was a factor of the stress along
the longitudinal axis; so let us consider the sam factor on a
cOlTesponding area affecting the stress of the circumferential axis.
The same strip is projected down the head for 30 in. A triangle
ADD is formed. The area of t his is Yz the base AD times the
altitude AD, or Yz X 30 = 15 sq. in.; and the total pressure is
15 X 100 = 1,500 lb., which is one-half the Same unit, of longi-
tudinal stress.
With regard to the~e facts, a rule for boiler construction
requires that a circumferential joint should be at least (but not
necessarily more than) one-half the strength of a longitudinal
joint in a cylindrical shell.
Other Causes of Stresses.- The methods of calculating funda-
mental boiler stresses caused by the load of internal pressure arc
not difficult to follow. These stresses may be predetermined
within a reasonable margin, and they are quite thoroughly
A few boiler-plant designers apparently aTe blind to the fact
that stres es are often imposed on a boiler part from causes other
than preSRU1·e. It would be well, t herefore, for the student
engineer to be aware of theile caURCS.
One of the most common stress s in operation, aside from the
pressure load, is call sed by expansion due to heat.
Steel boiler pJate tends to expand 0,0000065 in. per in. of
length per degree Fahrenheit rise in temperature. TbiR figure
is the co ffi cient of linear expansion. If t he bottom section of a
boiler sheH 18 ft. long were exposed to the products of combustion
that cause the temperature to rise from 80 to 600°F., it would
expand (600 - 80) X 18 X 12 X 0.0 565 = 0.73 in., nearly.%: in.
If the free expansion of the lDetal is resisted, a combination
of stresses is set up. In the foregoing example, parts of the
boiler submerged in water are subje ·ted to lower temperatures
1I.nd do not expand so much. These parts are often under the

additiunal tensile load imposed by the parts that tend to expand

to a greater extent.
Boilers should be constructed to withstand thjs load safeJy.
However, the designer cannot always foresee extreme negligence
in operation. of the boiler, discussed in later
sections, may cause expansion to exceed all predetermined allow-
ances, and a dangerou. condition may develop.
All boil rs expand or olongat.e to a certain degree when t he
temperature iR increased. If care iR not taken to leave sufficient
clearance between t.he boiler and the brick or st.eel supporting
structure, scriollR stresses may he Ket up (. ee hap . IX) .


FIo. 2.- (a) Cylinder r upture. (b) projected ..rea exposed to pre88ur .

Still anothcr manner in which additional stresses may be

caused in a boiler i failure or settling of a structural supporting
member. Stable foundations and structural upport are of
extreme importanc .
Further stresses may be Ret up by improper operating condi-
tions. These are discussed later.
Calculation of Bursting Pressure (B.P. ) Along Longitudinal
Axis.-In Fig. 2b, the pressure may be considered a acting on a
plane surface made up of an infinite number of horizontal com-
ponents. These are illustrated in step numbered 1 to 16 upward
and 17 to a2 downward. The tendellcy of trus total pres ure
acting in these directions to rupture a cylindrical vessel along the
sections AB and OD in Fig. 2a is resisted by the tensile strength
of the materiAl in these sections.
However, the total pressure tending to burst the cylinder is
not the Bum of the total pressur acting upward and the t.otal

pressure acting downward. One directional force is activo,

whereas the opposite directional force is considered an anchor;
otherwise, equilibrium would not exist, and motion would be
Let us assume, then, that the cylinder (Fig. 2a) is made of
steel boiler plate having a T.B. of 55,000 lb . per sq. in. Let us
assume further that the cylilld ' r is ~ in. thick by 10 ft. long and
that the inside diameter i · 30 in. Then , the total pressure
t.ending to burst the cylinder is
P X l Xd
wht're P = pressure, in pound::; per sq ua re inch.
l = lengt h, in inche .
d = inside diameler, in in cheR.
The" force" resisting t.he bUl'sting of the cylinder will be the
unit tensile strength of t he mat-erinl times its cross-sectional
area, or
T .8. X 2 X t X I
Billce the equation mu. t be " in halanr'e" at t hc bur~ting point ,
Iha t is, since the internaJ load must just reach the ultimate'
~t rellgth of the cylinder,

Pld = '1' .8. X 2 X tX 1

l is canceled ou t, leaving
Pd = T .B. X 2 X t
We are interested in just what pressure causes the cylinder to
burst , the other values being known i therefore, transposing, We'
p = T .B. X 2 X t
or, substituting for the given example,

P -_ 55,000 X
30 2 X 0.5 -_ 1,833 Ib . pel.sq.
. 'm.

The formula above ma.y be simplified omewhat. by dividing

both numerator and denominator by 2 and substit.uting R in
the denominator, as d/2 = radius.

Then we have
p = T .S. X t (1)
• R
which is the foundation of the formula for calculating the safe
pressure of a boiler shell.
From Figs. 3a and 3b, it is obvious that failure will occur
at the weakest part. If the cylinder is not seamless and has a
ri veted or welded joint along its longi t udinal axis, t his seam is
considered to be t he wc'. akest part (unless t here is a, defect in
the cylinder).

/ /00 %
, - strength

(0) (b)
FlO. 3. - (a) Seaml es" cylinder; (b) cyUn der with longi t ud iml] seam .

In calculating the bursting pressure of t he riveted shell the

l:iame formula is used, but t he weakness of t he seam is t aken into
account. The strengt h of a unit length of this seam is compared
with t he same uuit lengt h of solid plate, and t,he result expressed
in percentage of strength, efficiency. This is included in t h ·
formula ; therefore,
p = T .S. Xt X % (2)
Factor of Safety (F.S.).- So far we have been dealing with
bursting pressures. Knowledge of this factor is necessary, but
the safe working pressure is also of prim interest,
The factor of safety i that figure which divided into the
bursting pressure gives the maximum safe working pressure.
It is the ratio between the two values.

Looking back at the sample of the 30-in. seamless cylinder,

we see that its safe working pressure, based on an F.S. of 5,
will be 1 833/ 5 = 366 lb. per sq. in.
It is of ext reme importance that the stresses set up in operation
should not at,tain t l1f' yi eld point (Y.P.). Thus, based on II
factor of 5 for the B.P. 1,833 lb. per sq. in. , the elastic limit
should be reached at a pl'P ' . ure of not under 916 lb. per 'lq. in. ,
('1',S.) / 2, und 366 lb. per sq. in. i~ assumed to be a safe operating
pressure- ba~cd on tlH' ('onRt.ruction of the seamless shell.
The factorR of 'afety required by law vary slightly under
different types of construction, but 5 is the usual value for new
The fuctor of safety completes the basic boilel'-presllure formuln
(1), and it is added to the denominator.

p = T.S. X t X % (3)
F .S. X R*

where P = max. safe working pressure based on shell or dl'llm

construction and the longitudinal scam.
Lowest Factors of Safety.- In Massachusetts, for longi tudi-
nally lap-riv t.ed boil(~ rs with llbell or drum exposed to product-R
of combustion the following speeifications apply.

Age, years .... 1- 10 11- 15 16-20 21- 25

incroasc not less than 0.5
--- --- --- every 5 years thcrCILfter
Min. F.S ..... 5 .5 .5 5.75 6

Minimum F.S. is 5 for all other boilers operating up to 700°F.

The A.S.M.E. Power Boiler Code as adopted by many states
lists the maximum stress allowed for boilers operating at over
700°F. These values are used in place of 'r.S. i F.S. in formula
(3). The F.S. actually remains 5, but the tensile strength of the
plain carbon steel fall s off rapidly at elevated temperatures.
For comparison, the following table shows factors of safety
based on the original tensile strength and equivalent to the re 'ults

• R - greatest inside radius in multicourse hoilers. If a oourse is

tapered, tho mean radius is used.

of diminishillg tensile strength . The maximum allowable stress

T.S. / F.S. is shown , also.

Tempera ture, of. 700 750 800 850 900 950

- - - --- - - - ------
F.S. 55,000 5 5.5 6 .875 8. 15 10 .0 13 .75
- - - - - - - - - - - ---
T.S. 5~ 000 11 .000 10,000R. OOO (i. n o 5,500 4 ,000
F.S. iJ ,
- ------- --- - -
F.S. 75,000 I 5 5. 76 7 .-!2 9 .05 12 .5 18. 75
--- - - - - - - - - -_- ---
T.S. 75 000 15 ,000 13 ,000 10 , 200 8 , 300 6 , 000 4, 000
F.S. '
F.S. 55,000 = mill. F.S. equivalent to allowable stress for st eel having it
min . 1'.S. of 5.5,000 lb. per sq. in .
F.S. 75.000 = min . F .S. equi vlli ent to allowable stress for Rtocl having a
min . '1'.S. of 75,000 lb. p f' r sq. in.
Example.- A ·t e.LlTl hoil er shell 48 in. di ameter is mlLde of open-heal·th
(o.h.) firebox steel having a 1'.8. of .1)5,000 lb. per sq. in . Th e pl a te is % in .
thick, and the longi tudinal seam hus an effi cim}('y of 94.2 pPr cent. What
are the Qursting pr SSUTe and t h saf worklng pressure of t he shell? This
boiler does not operate at the foregoing elevated temperatures.
Using formul a (2) and Bubstit ut ing, we have

•o _ 55,000 X 0.625
24- X 0.94-2 = 1,349 Ib . per sq. lU.
. B.P ,

Dividing by tbe F.B. 5, w e find tbat tbe safe working pressure of the shell
will b 269 Ih. per sq. in . If it is desired to ob tain the maximum allowable
working pressur . without calculat ing the bursting pressure, formula (3) may
be used.
It should be remembered that all examples for safe working
pressures give a value that is based on the construction only.
Often the condition of the boiler may be such that a lower
maximum pressure is essential for safety. The condition should
be determined by an authorized boiler insp ctor, and his recom-
mendations should be followed. Typical calculation methods
for deteriorated vessels are mentioned in Chap. IX.
Riveted Seams.- The five most common types of riveted seam
are shown in Figs. 4 to 8.
The single-lap-riveted seam is used largely for circumferential
Reams or for straight seams in stayed plates. It has seldom been
used in late years for the longitudinal seam of a steam boiler,
although it was not uncommon during the last century.

The double-lap-riveted seam i. lIsed for oircumferential seamR

of large-diameter boilers. With the follovving exceptions, this
type of scam may be used for the longitudinal seam.
Practically all codes in this country prohibit lap-riveted longi-
tudinal seams (either single or double) for boiler drums or hells
in excess of 36 in. diameter or for t hm,f' to be operatE'd at OVE'I'
100 lb. per sq. in.
The major cli ~advan tage of a lap-riveted longi tudinal seam is
that the plate is " lapped "; t hus, the drum or shell doe. not form
a true circle. A certain degree of bending stress may occur
along the lap of the seam when the shell is subj ect.ed to pressure.
Tllis causes a stress concentration that eventually may result
in fatigue and cracking of the plate, thus producing a disastrous
boiler explo ion.
About the only "advantages" of the lap-riveted 'eam are low
cost, simpli cit.y, minimum width of Rpace, and minimum total
thi ckness wher the seam iRexpo,;ed 1.0 Ow fireR, ItH in girth seams
of Home fire-t.ube boilerR.
In th butt-riveted scam, the edges of the shell plate butt
together so that the shell or drum is formed into a t rue circle.
A butt strap (strip of boiler pla1,e) iR riveted on t he inside and
outside of the shell or drum along the abutting edges to form t.hf'
Ream. This is called a "butt-and-double-. trap joint"
The outer butt strap is usually narrower t han the inside strap
(see Figs. 6 to 8), and with good re.ason, for calking of the edgeR
of the outside butt strap is much more satisfactory when the
row of rivets nearest to t he calking edge has a comparatively
close pitch. Calking a plate or str&p edge adjacent to a long
rivet pi tch tends to spring the plate, and it may be difficult to
make it tight against leakage. Th · )uter row of rivets passes
through the 8hl-'II and the in ide strap only, a slightly stronger
joint thus resulting because the great.>r pitch in the outer rows
brings up the over-all strengt h, owing to the greater strength
of the plate between more widely spaced rivet holes compared
with t.he localized shearing and crushing stresses at I-'.ach rivet
hole in the unit of length selected. This unit is usually equal
to the greatest pitch.
Efficiency of Riveted Seams.- The follovving term'3 are IIp.ed
in the formulas for th various types of riveted seam '
T.S. = tensile strength fJtampea on the plate.

P = pitch of rivets in row having rivets spaced farthe t.

t = plate thickness, in inches.
d = diameter of rivet hole, in inches.
a = area of rivct hole, in square inches.
S = I:!trengLh of rivet in single shear (44,000 lb. per sq. in.
for 10w-carboIl steel rivets).
S = st.rellgth of rivet in double shear (88,000 lb. pel' sq. in.
for low-carbon steel rivets).
n = number of rivets in single shear in section of joint
used for calculation (P).
N = numb I' of rivets in double shear in section of join u!'<ed
for calculatioll (P).
c = crushing Rtrength of boiler plate (95,000 lb. per sq. in.
for flange and firebox Rteel, 120,000 lb. per sq. in.
for alloy steel).
The net section is the plate between the P rivets, area of rivet
hole being d ducted.

Single-lap-riveted Seams (Ree Fig. 4).-

1. P X tXT .S. = trengt,h of the solid plat.e.

2. (P - d) X tXT . . = st.rength of nE't section.
3. n X 8 X a = strength of one rivet in l:iingle shear (n = 1).
4. n X t X d X c = cruRhini-i:!trength of t,he plat.e in front of
one rivet (n = 1).

The strength of the solid plate, step J, its considered 100 pel'
cent. Then, the weakest value as found by step 2, 3, 01' 4 is
used in the following ratio, X being the
efficiency of the seam in percentage, ba:;ed
on the weakest part: 100 is t.o X, as
strength of solid plate is t,o strength of
wcakcRt. part,
100 strength of solid plate
X = strength of weakest part
x _ 100 X strength of weakest part
- strength of solid plate

The foregoing proportion or equation is used for finding the

efficiency of any type of riveted seam.

p - 2 ~ in., t = ~in., ,j, = J ~ 6 in ., T .S. = 55,000 lb. per sq. in .

a = 0.690, b - 44,000, c = 95,000 lb. per sq. in .
Find the efficiency of a single-Iap-rivet.ed seam of the foregoinR specifi-

1. P X t X T .S. = 2.5 X 0.5 X 55,000 = 68,700

2. (P - d) X t X T.S. = (2.5 - 0.9375 ) X 0.5 X 55,000 = 43,000
3. n X s X a = 1 X 44,000 X 0.690 = 30,350
4. n X d X t X c = 1 X 0.9375 X 0.5 X 95,000 = 44,500

Simlc step 3 is the weak eat in tllis CR.SC,

X = 100 X 30,350 _ 442 en

68,750 . /0

Double-lap-riveted Seams (Circumferential or Longitudinal).

The method of calculation and the sequence
of steps in determining the efficiency of the +',
double-lap-riveted seam (see Fig. 5) are-
exactly the same as for the single-lap-riveted
seam. The only variation is in step 3,
where n = 2 instead of 1, for the number
of rivets in ingle shear; and in step 4,
where n = 2 in tead of 1, for the number of Flo. 5. -Douhlo lap.
rivets tending to crush the plate.
Example.-A longitudinal scam is double-lap-riveted and has 3 in.
pitch, %-i n. plate having a T .S. of 55,000 lb. per sq. in., and J ~ 6-in.-
diameter rivet holes; 8 = 44,000, and c - 95,000. Find the efficiency of this

T.S. = 55,000, P = 3, t - %, d = 0.8125, a - 0.519

1. P X t X T.S. = 3 X 0.375 X 55,000 = 61,875
2. (P - d ) X t X T.S. = 2.1875 X 0.375 X 55,000 = 45,000
3. n X 8 X a - 2 X 44,000 X 0.519 = 45,600
4. n X d X I X c - 2 X 0.8125 X 0.375 X 95,000 = 58,000

I A slide rule has been used and may be used in calculations of problems
involving measurement, though it cannot be used in arithmetic problems.
Accuracy within much closer than 2 per cent is unnecessary, for this is the
usual limit of accuracy in practical measurements in many linear dimensions.

Sinee step 2 is the weakest"

45,000 X 100 _ 7290/,

61,875 . 0

Butt Joints with Straps of EquaJ Width (Chain-riveted).-

Tht' ealculat.ion of t.his typ of seam is carried out as for a lap
joint, except. that the rivets are in
double shear and S is used as 88,000,
instead of 8 = 44,000. The efficiencies
are oft.en higher than for lap seams, and
there arc no restrictions for the use of
these scams a long as they ar' not
exposed to high-temperature gases.
Butt and Double Strap (Unequal
Width), Double-riveted.-This joint
FlU. G.- Uouble "tnip d()u- (Rt'e Fig. 6) usually haRasomewhat high-
ble butl.
cr effici ency than a lap-riveted Seam.
H ere one find , several additional steps in calculating the seam
effici epcy, for there are more possible combinations of failure of
the joint.
1. Strength of the R(:'etion of Aolid plat.e equal to P in length.

P X t X '1'.8.
2. Strength of the net section of plate, I'ivd holes in t.lw outer
row being deducted.
(P - d) X t XT . '.

3. ,t,rengt,h of all rivets in shear, two dOli hie and one single
N X SX.a+nXsXo
4. Strength of the net section of plate in the inner row, plus
strength of outer rivet in single shear.
(P - 2d) X t X T.S. +n X 8 Xa
5. t rength of the net section of plate in the inner row, ylus
cnlshing st.rength of the strap in front of the outer rivet.
(P - 2rl) X t X T .R. +n X b X d Xc.

OTE: Tb e st.rap is considered in crushing, rather tban tibf' plR t,e, for t,h~
$trap is not so thick,
6. Crushing strength of the plate in front of the inner row
rivets plus the crushing strength of the strap in front of the
outer rive!..
NOTE: The plate is considered in crushing at the inner row, rather thnll
the straps, for the combined tpickness of two straps exists at, this point,.

7. Crllshing strength of the plate in front of the inner row
rivets plus the shearing 8t.rength of the outer rivet.
Example.-A longitudin al ~eam iH hlltt Ilnd douhlr strap, double riveted.
IIJld has 5 I y 2 ~ in. pitch, '].16 in, thick shell plate, f.nd 55,000 lb. p T sq. in,
T,S'i butt st raps lire eacb ~i 6 in . thick, a nd rivt't hol os % in. diam~t,er.
Find the efficiency.
]. 5 X 0.4375 X 55,000 = 120,313
2. (5 - 0.75) X 0.4375 X 55,000 = 102,000
3. 2 X 88,000 X 0.442 + 1 X 44,000 X 0.442 = 97,300
4. (5 - J .5) X 0,4375 X 55,000 + 1 X 44,000 X 0.442 = 103,500
5, (5 - 1.5) X 0.4375 X 55,000 + J X 0,75 X 0.3125 X 95,000 = J06,S(W
6. 2 X 0.75 X 0,4375 X 95,000 + 1 X 0.75 X 0,3125 X 95,000 = 84,612
7. 2 X 0.75 X 0.4375 X 95,000 + 1 X 44,000 X 0.442 = 81,600
81,600 X 1~ = 6800/,
120,313 . 0

Butt and Double Strap (Straps of Unequal Width) Triple-

riveted.- The efficiency of this seam
(see Fig. 7) is found exactly as is that
or the double-riveted seam in the last
example. The only difference in the
nalculations is that there are a larger
numher of rivet holes in the unit,
length P.
ElI:ample.-A triple-riveted butt-and-
double strap seam has a. pit~h of 7 by 3~ in.
The plate is ~ in. thick and hlUj a T.S. of FIG. 7.-Double strap triple
55,000 lh. per sq. in, The rivet-hole diam- butt.
cter is 1%6 in., and the strap thickness is % in. Find the effiojenc~·.
1. trength of unit section of solid plate equal in length t.o P.
7 X 0.5 X 55,000 = 192,500

2. Strength of net section of plate between rivet, boles of outer row.

(7 - 0.9375) X 0.5 X 55,000 ~ 166,500
3. Strength of all rivets in shear, four double and onl) single.

4 X 88,000 X 0.690 +1 X 44,000 X 0.690 = 273,400

4. Strength of net sect.ion of plate, between rivet holes of 8l'l:ond row pluB
shearing strengt,h of outer rivet, (single shear).
(7 - 2 X 0.9375) X 0.5 X 55,000 + 1 X 44,O()O X 0.690 ~ 171,300
5. Strength of net B('etion of pl>l(,1) b(~ twee n rivet I1OIe8 of R",:ond row plus
crushing strength of strflp ill front. of outer rivet.
(7 - 2 X 0.9375) X 0.5 X 55,000 +1X 0.9375 X 0.375 X 95,000 =
6. Crushing strength of plate or strap in fron t, of lLU rivets.
4 X 0.9375 X 0.5 X 95,000 +1 X 0.9375 X 0.375 X 95,000 = 211,400

7. Crushing strength of plate in front, of inner two rows of rivets plUM

shearing strength of rivet.

4 X 0.9375 X 0.5 X 95,000 + 1 X 44,000 X 0.690 = 208,300

166,500 X 100 _ 865 01
192,500 . /0

Butt and Double Strap (Straps of Unequal Width), Quadruple-

riveted.-Two additional steps are
necessary in calculating the efficiency
of this type of joint (see Fig. 8),
which, if properly designed, has an
efficiency of over 90 per cent.
Example.-A quadruple-riveted butt-aod-
double-strap joint has a rivet pitch of 15 in.
in the outer row. The plate is % in. thick
and has a T .S. of 55,000 lb. per sq. in. Tb
rivet-hole diameter is 1 in., and the butt-
strap thickness is '116 in. What is the
1<'10. .- Double .trap Quad-
1. Strength of unit section of solid plate
ruple butt.
equal in length to P.

15 X 0.625 X 55,000 = 515,600

2. Strength of net section of plate between rivet holes of outer row.

(15 - I) X 0.625 X 55,000 - 481,250


3, Strength of all rivets in shear; eight, double and three single,

8 X 88,000 X 0.7854 +3 X 44,000 X 0.7854 = 655,000

4.. Strength of nct seM.i(ln of plate between rivet holes of se<,onrl row, pluH
sbclJ.ring strength of outer rivet (~i!lgl l' Hhcar).
(15 - 2 X J ) X 0.625 X 5ii,Ooo +I X 44,000 X 0,7854 - 481,450
5. Strength of net section of plat£' hetween rivet holes of third row, plus
shearing strength (s injl;l<, ) of two rivets in second and one in outer row.
(J5 - 4 X 1) X 0.625 X 55,000 +3 X 44,000 X 0.7854 = 482,000
6. Strength of net section of plate botwecn rivet, holes of second row I plus
<>n1shing strength of strap in front of outer rivet"
(15 - 2 X 1) X 0.625 X 55,000 +J X 1 X 0.4375 X 95,000 = 488,430
7. Strength of net section of plate between rivet holes in tlte third ro\\,
plus crushing strength of the stmp in frollt. of two ,·iv('t.s in the second and
one in the outer row .
(15 - 4. X 1) X 0.625 X 55,000 +3 X J X 0.437fi X 95,000 = 502,300
8. Crushing strength of the plate or strap in front of all rivets.

Plate Strap
8"5("(x Oji25" ')(95~OOO + nd"'X'O:'437K'x"'iiKooo - fi99,ISO

9. Crushing strength of the plate in front of the third and fourth rOw
rivets, plus the shearing (single) strength of the three rivets in t.hp outer two
8 X 1 X O.62fi X 95,000 +
3 X 44,000 X 0.7854 = 578,670
481,250 X 100 = 933 01
515,600 . 10

Preparation of Plate for Riveted Seams.- Figures 9 and 10

show views of boiler plate in the proceAR of manufacture. T1H'
plate mill shown is the largest in the world. Its capacit.y is
plate 198 in. wide. In it can be rolled a plate 25 ill . thick by
84 in. wide by 84 in. long, such a plate weighing over 50,000 lb.
Preparation of the boiler plate for a riveted seam is important.
In order to facilitate proper calking, the edges of the boiler
plate, heads, and straps are beveled to an angle of not less than
70 deg. to the plane of the plate. The edges are then planed,
milled, or chipped back to a depth of not less than one-fourth
the thickness, but in no case Ie than 71l in" the latter require-
ment ensuring that the edge of the plate which lI.t'e di t.ol'ted

and stressed by the shearing process will be r moved. Figure

] 1 show8 a plat.e planer preparing the edges of a boiler plate in
this manner.
Before a riveted seam can be made tight against leakage, the
exposed edges or the plate must be calked. A blunt-nosed,

FfG. 9. -Rolling mill for making steel plate. This is a 206-in. mill, the largest.
in the worl d. It can handl ingots weighing up to 90.000 lb. lind is d"ivan by "
20,OOO-horsopower duplex, twin tandem compound steam engine. Tbe plate
shown is finished eX(' pt for straightening to remove t he wavilless ; and lay-i nl'
out and .h Ming tl) Rio". (Courtay, Luke118 Stefl ('amra1l1/.)

chisel-like calking tool is used to up et the edge of the exposed

plate slightly against its companion plate, making a tight metal-
to-metal seam.
Rivet holes are often drilled (Fig. 12), but they may be
punched to within 78 in. of full diam ter for plate not over
.%6 in. thick or to within ~ in. of full diameter for plate exceed-

ing 916 in. thickness. 1 However, punching of holes is not

allowed by the A.S.M.E. Code if th plate thickness exceed!>
% in. thickness. This requirement is to ensure that residual
stresses will not be set up in the plate surrounding the rivet
holes. After the plates and straps have the rivet holes punched,

Fla. lO. -The same rrdU as shown in Fig. Q. This particular photograph shows
a slab in proccs" of hnvinll scale removed by meuns of salt. It may b seen us it
is thrown onto the slab. (Courtes y, Luke", Steel CompallY.)

they are held tog ther in position by tack bolts and the holeil
drilled or reamed to full size.
Whenever two or more plates are tacked together for drilling
or reaming holes, it is important that the plates should be sepa-
rated for removal of all chip or burrs before final riveting.
The location of the rivet holes is specified thoroughly by the
Code. Paragraph P-183 of the A.S.M.E. Power Boiler Code
reads in part:
I Though "subpunching" of rivet holes is a requirement in many states,
recent fatigue tests on riveted seams indicate that ther is little or noiliing
gained thereby.

.- A plate planer shown removing a chip from the calking cdge of a

boiler plate. (CourtCllY, Riley Stoker Corp .)

FIG. 12.- Multiple drill having a capacity of fiftY-BOven l>i' 6-in. drills shown
drilling rivet holee in a boiler plate. (CourtUf/, Raey Stoker Corp.)

On longitudinal joints of all types of boilers and ou circumferential

joints of drums having heads which are not supported by tubes or
through stays, the distance from the centers of rivet holes to the edges
of plates, except ril'et holes in the ends of butt straps, 'hall not be Ie s
than l H and not more than P ;; times the diameter of the rivet boles,
this distance to be measured from the center of the rivet holes to the
calking edge of the plate before calking.

FIG. 13,-Bull riveter. A hydraulically operated gun shown driving a rivet.

in the longitudinal scam of a drum for .. watertuoo boiler. (Courteal/. Riley
Stoker Corp.)

The diameter of a rivet hole is usually ']16 in. plus the thickness
of the plate in sixteenths of an iuch. Thus a %-in. plate would
be likely to have lU s-in. rivet holes. The rivet diameter, before
driving, is VI 6 in. less than that of the rivet hole , except wher>
machined rivets are u ed. Thus, a difference of 732 in. is CUB'

tomary. The length of the rivet should be . ufficient to allow

the rivet body to fill the hal completely and to form a head at
least as strong as the body.
The usual procedure in riveting is to use tapered pin ' (drift
or barrel pins) to line the bole up. The holes should line up
closely enough so that undue Rledging will not be neces ary.
Then tack bolts are placed in scattered locations along the seam
to hold the plat.'" together. A rivet, is driven on each side of a
tack bolt b fore remoyiug the bolt. Though pneumatic riveting

FIG. 14.-- .'\ planer preparing the odges of boiler plate for welding of longitudinal
aeams. (Courtc81/ , Comlru«tion Enuin.eering Co ., Inc.)

machines must be ret:;Q1·ted to where construction make ' it

impo. sible to use other means, the bull riveter (a hydraulically
operated unit) is used in most cases (Fig. 13) and is preferable,
for it can maintain full pressure on the rivet until cooled below
red heat.
Fusion Welding.-Fusion welding for boiler (lOn truction may
be defined as the method of forming a s am by joining tbe abut-
ting edges of boiler plate by application of heat and a weld metal
in a molten state. No mechanical rolling or forging of the joint
is utilized. Figure 14 shows the plates for a high-pressure boiler
drum being prepared for weldinCl;.

Very complete specifications are listed in the A.S.M.E. Code;

it is sufficient here to say that this type of seam is quite common
for all pressures but that it must be subjected to trcss relieving
and radiographic examination. Figure 15 shows an H.R.T.
boiler with all welded seams being X-rayed.
The weld metal must meet spccifications for physical and
chemical properties if a satisfactory joint is to be produced.

FlO. IS.- Examining weI dod soamB of an H.R.T. boilor by mOanS of X-ray.
(Co1trte8'Y, Eri City Iron Work8.)

Stress relieving consists in slowly raising the temperature of

the weld and plate in the vicinity of the weld to as much above
llOO°F. as possible without causing distortion. This tempera-
ture is maintained for 1 hr. per in. of thickness, and the vessel
is then allowed to cool in still air. Stress relieving is required
to relieve the residual tresses set up in the vicinity of the seam
by cxpansion and contraction from the localized heat of welding.
A furnace is generally used for the stress relieving of boiler drums
(Fig. 16).
The radiographic examiuation is made by the X-ray or gamma-
ray method (Figs. 17(a) and (b», which have b n found satiR-

factory and nondestructive methods in discovering such defects

as lack of fu sion, voids, slag, porosity, and cracks in thicknesses
up to 5J.i in.
A hydrostatic and a hammer test are applied to the welded
vessel on completion of stre.'Js relieving and radiographic examina-
tion. While waLeI' pressure of 1Yz times the de ign pressure i
maintained , the hell or drum is struck sharply with a hammel',
about every 6 in. along each side of the welded seam. The

FIG. 16.-A (urnt,ce for stros! reli eving welded boiler drums and pressure vesscls
(CclUrte8,), t:nmhu.'i"n Enyineeriny Co., I nc.)

weight of the hammer should be ] lb. for ' 0 in. in arum thickne~s
up to a limit of 10 lb. Following the hammer test, the hydro-
static pressure is rai 'ed to twice the design pressure and held
there while the seams are examined for leaks or other visible
Any defect in the weld ·xceeding standards prescribed by
the A.. M.E. Code requires chipping out, rewelding, and a second
stress relieving and radiographic examination. This is followed
by a hydrostatic test as described.
A boiler joint, welded, stress-relieved, and tested according
to Code specifications, is allowed an efficiency of 90 per cent.

Drums with Ligaments.-A ligament con ists of one or more

rows of holes in a drum or . hell. This construction is used for
watertube boilers having tubes expand d into t he drum. Both

FlO. 17.- (a) Crack in welded Ream of 3~-in. boiler plate as shown by radio-
graphic film. (b) Radiographic pioture of same H otion of sonm as in Cal, afte r'
chipping out defective 8cction and rewelding. (Courtesy, Comb"stio1l Engineer-
ing Co., Inc .)

the cross-drum and the bent-tub type of watertub boiler have

tube ligaments that play an important part in calculating the
maximum safe pressure for the drum.
'rhe efficiency of a ligamep.t is found as follows:

Wbere the pitch between the tube boles is equal (Fig. 18),
the efficiency is equal to
where p = pitch,
or longitudinal di st~nceR between holes, in
d = tube-bole diame1,er, in inches.


If the pitch of th ~ tub holes is unequal (Fig. 1!J), a unit longi-

tudinal length in which all the unequal pit ches aI'€' incluued
should be selected. Then ,
P - nd
- -p- = eff. of tbe ligament,

where P = length selected to include all variaiiom; in pitches in

d = tube-hole diameter, ill inches.
n = number of tube bol s in a longitudinal line in the
selected length.
The A.S.M.E. Code cover" methods of finding efficienoy of
~iiagonalligaments by means of charts.
The effioiency of the usual t ube ligament is quite low, usually
35 to 50 per cent. For thi ' reason, it is an unnecessary expense
to provide a longitudinal riveted seam of high efficiency in these
In calculating the maximum safe working pressure for the
drum of a boiler having a ligament, two distinct step are neces-
sary. (1) The pressure is cll-Iculated as based on the longitudinal

riveted seam, by formula (3). (2) The ligament efficiency is

determined, and substituted in the same formula in place of the
riveted-scam efficiency. Here an important point comes up.
Often the ligament is strengthened by riv ting a reinforcing strap
or doubling plate over the t.ube-hole section. The tube holes
are cut through the entire section; thus, although the efficiency
of the ligament is not increa. ed because the tube spacing remains
unchanged , the thickness is increased. Therefore, in using 'tep 2
of this formula to determine th(' ligament efficiency, the combined
thicknes.· of the drum and any doubling plate at t.he ligament

" • _ -4i6 c! when expand-


• ed In fo hole.
" Tubes equally spqced_
Oouble srrop, _ \ 8j."aparf lonqifuC/iml/y
double rive 'fed --.... ~
/ongifudinal -----Ooubling plate
seam 720/0
, (t)

Frr.. 20.- Lig(lI11Clll wiLh doubling plnt,o.

are used as t. If no doubling plate is used, the drum thickneRR

at the ligament i used aR t, as in step 1.
Another method of increasi ng the strength of the ligament iR
to make the drum in two longitudinal halv .. with two longitudi-
nal seams. One half will be somewhat thinner than the other
half that contains the ligament. The edge of the thicker half
are machined down to the same thickness as that of the other for
abutting edgcs of the longitudinal seam. Here, calculations
for pressure are made exactly as for the doubling plate, and the
thickneu; of the heavier plate in the ligament section is used as
t when step 2 of formula (3) is used. The thickness of the
lighter section is used as tin tep 1 of formula (3) to calculate the
pressure as based on the con. truction of the longitudinal riveted
o welded seam.

Example.-A bent-tube boiler has 8, mud drum 48 in. diameter and ~ in

thick. The T.S. is 55,000 lb . per sq. in. The longit udinal seam has an
efficiency of 72 per cent. The tube holes are 4716 in. diameter and equally
pitched 8X in. apart. A 72-in. doubling plate is riveted to t he drum over
the ligament (Fig. 20). Find the maximum safe working pressure.
The efficiency of the ligament will be

8.25 - 4.0625 = 50701
8.25 . /0

Using formula (3) t.o find the pressure based on t h~ longi tudinal seam, w~

1. P -- -
55,000 X 0.75 X 0.72 _ 2 '-11
- 24 X .5 - .,. , I. per
Rq. Ill.

Using formula (3) to find t h!, pressurr bnsecl on the tube ligament, we hit""

2. P =- 55,000 X (0.75
2~ -
+ 0.5) X 0.507
- ~
. per sq.

s step 1 resulted ill the lower pressure, this is the maximum

sufe pressure for this drum. 11 should be noticed that, had i1.
not be n for the doubling plate, etep 2 would have resulted in lL
valu less than wOlll d step 1, and a much lower pres. ure would
be the safe limit.
In drums where a longitudinAl row of tube holes bas a compara-
tively low ligament efficiency, say under 55 per ()ent, there is no
point in having a longi1,udinal riveted seam that is much stronger.
As long as a lap seam is not used for over 100 lb. per sq. in work-
ing pressure or 36 in. drum diameter, the expense of a triple- 0)'
quadruple-riveted butt joint is not wa1'l'anted. Thu, since a
butt-and-double-st,rap seam of but moderate strength is desired ,
~t raps of equal width may be cbosen. Single or double riveting
is generally used, and the rivet pitch of all rows is the same.
This is sometimes termed "chain riveting." Massachu etts,
hO'Never, requires at least two rows of rivets on each side of the
butt, and tb us single-riveted butt joints are not permitted on
Massachusetts Standard boilers. In welded drums, however,
the Code specification or fusion welding remain the same
regardless of ljgament effioiency, and the efficienoy of the longi-
tudinal seam remains at 90 per oent.

Staying of Tube-sheet Segments.-In the H.R.T. boiler, the

segment of the t ube sheets above the top row of tubes require
staying. For this, there are three common methods. In a boiler
of this type that does not exceed 36 in. diameter or 100 lb. per
sq. in. working pressure, structural Hhapes ,'uch as angle irons
or channel irons may be ri"f'ted to the segment. Th outstand-
ing legs are proportioned to ha,,,(' sufficient strengt.h in bending
to resist the prCRsur load.
For boilers exceeding 36 in. diameter or 100 lb. per sq. ill.
working pressurf', 1he flat segment of i h(' tube sheets requires
Rtaying eit her by dia!!:onal stay~ he1 ween th tube sheet and shell

FlO. 21.-Scully diagonal stay as usod for staying the fiat segment of the head,
.. bove tubes, in borizontal fire-tube boilers. (Courteey, Erie City Iron Work • .)

or by through-stays running the entire length of the boiler.

The former are usually preferable, for they leave more room
inside the boil r for cleaning and inspection. The through-
stays may make it quite difficult foJ' a workman OJ' an inspector
1.0 move around ov · r the tubes in the boiler.
There arc three general types of diagonal E'tay: the Huston,
the MacGregor, and the Scully (Fig. 21) . It is important to
have them all under tension, and this effect is accomplished as
tollows: The tube sheets are marked and drilled for the "crow-
foot" of the stays before riveting up. Each stay then has its
crowfoot tack bolt d to the tube sheet. The holes in the "palm"
of the stay are located on the shell. The stays are then removed,
and the shell is drilled about U2 in. farther from the tube sheet
than the marks. The stays then have their crowfeet riveted
t.o the tube sheets or heads. In order that the holes in the stay

palms shall line up with the .%2-in. ofi&ct holes in the shell, the
stays are heated to expand them this amount. While hot, the
palms are riveted, and, on cooling, the stays contract enough to
provide proper tension. Some shop do not take the trouble to
heat the stay t o line up the boles but "stretch" the stay into
position with a driftpin.
(12-V threatls per inch, a rea of ~1 6-in. telltale holes being deducted)

N ct cross-scc-
Allowa ble load
Size of stay bolts, Outside dia.m eter tional !l rca of
at 7,500 lb. stress
in. of stay bolt, ill . bottom of thread ,
per sq. ill.
less 0.0276 sq. in.
------- -- -
~ 0 .7500 0.21l1 1 ,953
1~6 0 .8125 0 .324 2,425
:l-B 0 .8750 0 .391 2,935
1716 0 .9375 0.467 3,498
1 1.0000 0 .548 4 ,105
1316 J .0625 0 .635 4, 765
" 1~ 1.1250 0 .728 5,455
1~6 1 .1875 0 .827 6,205
IX 1.2500 0 .933 6,993
171 G 1.3125 J .045 7,833
1 ~8 1 .3750 1.163 8 ,71 8
I 1.285
9 ,640
Mo t codes allow 11. lllaximum st.ress of 7,500 lb. PCI' sq. ill . on stay bolt.~ .
Multiply liN ttr<'1l. by 7,500 for moximum allowll.hle load .

The diagonal tays arl:' Rtrrtched into position before t he

tubes are inRtalled in the boilrr. III order t.o prevent. diAtortion
of the head through the tp.nRion of t.he Rt ays, one or more heavy
;:,te I bars ar clamped across the tube sheet as a beam, t he
tube sheet thus being held against the tension of the stays until
some of the tubes are installed. This beam i known as a
" strongback."
The first step in calculating the pressur for whjch a head
egment is brac d is to find the area that requires bracing.
As specified by the A.S.M.E. Code, this area is that segm nt
enclo ed by a base of a horizontal line 2 in. above the top row of
tubes and a semicircular perimeter at a distance d from and

parallel to the inside of the shell (Fig. 22). Calculation of d

is by the following methods, specified by the Code, and the
larger resuJt is used in calculating thE' area of the segment :
(1) The outside radius of the tube-sheE't Aangr, but not more than
E'ight times its thickness. (2) Five times th e tubc-Rheet thickness
in sixteenth of an inch, divided by the t;quare root of the maxi-
mum working preSRure in pounds pel' square inch. This dis-
tance d is often assumed as 3 ill. ; a table of Regmcnt areas for
boilel's of various sizes is given 1Il the A.S.M.E. Power Boiler
Code book, with 3 in . for d.

--------- b
/ : ; Segm(mf fo ' '1_
L~t}._b~"§!PXf!...d_ __ .::~
1<'10 . 2:l.-Area to stay a bove tubes in H.R.T. boilor . Front tuoo shoet of
hol'izon tal fit'c-tube boiler.
NOTIt: TJw "egmt.>nt ubove the tul1f'fII 0 11 Illt' rpl\r I IIIit' ~ht'f't u ll lu~ll y rNlu irNt id('utit'nl
~tllyjl}g .

The dist,allCE' d bfling determined , it is nece sary to have two

more measuremeotl'l for the calculation of the area t.o he stayed.
H = maximum distance, in iocheFl, between the top row of
tubes and the ion.e r suda('c of the shell in a perpendicu-
lar line at the center line of the boiler.
R = radius of the tube sheet , in inche .
4(H - d _- 2)2 2(R - d)
Area to be stayed = 3 H _ d _ 2 - 0.60

The unit stress allowed in a weldle .' diagonal sLay varieH

slightly under different codes and according to the angularity

and size. The angularity of the braces is frequently made 80

that 8,550 lb. per sq. in. stress may be allowed.
Example.-An H.R.T. boiler is 72 in. in diameter. The ma.ximum dis-
tance from the t ubes to the upper inside surface of the shell is 25 in. Both
the front and rear t ube sheets a re stayed above the tubes hy 18 l-in.-diameter
weldless diagonal stays, each having a net cross-sectional area (minimum)
of 0.785 in. What is t he safe pressure on the tube-sheet segments? Assum e
d '" 3 in.

A 4{25 - 3 - 2)2
= 2 36 - 3) _ 0608
3 25-3-2'
A = 875 eq. in.
The total load on 18 braces will be A, the area in square inches, times Lh"
pressure per square inch acting on this area. The resistance to this load is
the total number of squa re inches of brace metal t imes its maximum allo\\"-
able uni t stress, or 18 X 0.785 X 8,550.

875 X P ~ 18 X 0.785 X 8,550

P - 18 X 0.785 X 8,550 138 1b .
875 - ~ . p er sq. m .

The staying of the section of the t ube sheet below t he tube~

of H.R.T. and similar boilers is usually effected by through-to-
head stays. These stays are "spooled off " at the rear tube sheet
(Fig. 23). The fron t ends of the through-to-head stays-
usually two in number-pass through the front tube sheet with
inside and outside nuts and washers. They are usually made
tight against leakage by grommets or soft metallic packing of
various types beneath the outside nuts and washers.
The reason why the rear ends of the stays do not pass through
the rear t ube sheet but are spooled off inside is that the heat
of t,he fire would damage the nuts and t hreaded ends.
If a flanged-in manhole is provided below the tubes in the
front tube sheet, the stiffening effect of the Bange is sufficient
to allow 100 sq. in. deduction from the area to be stayed. How-
ever, if through-to-head stays are used, the full-sized stays
required to brace the rear tube sheet must be used (unJess
diagonal stays between the bottom of the rear tube sheet and
the shell supplement the smaller through-to-head stays that
would be sufficient to brace the front segment), for no deduc-
t.ion in area to be braced is permitted for the rear tube sheet.

( liak AlJglfl irons
?Il Through- fo -head braces / Brace eye_-/"'T;{~ riveted io
b=1=b==~=========--====='i5':iiTIl? rllar l ube-
_ I she¢.
Fronf end of each brace (usually fwo braces) i-(" / ~
upsef and fhreaded, fJasslng fhrough fran I - Brace ~
fube-sheelon each side of manhole, tube -sheet pin-'-r
supported by braces w/fh a washer and ........-- Ir'-
nu t Inside and oufslde on each brace

FIG. 23.-H.R.T. hoiler bracinlt.

__ __

---- II" --,..l "Sfee/ ring shrink
I f"if
Shaded areas represenf
m efal removed I Olmens/ons g/ven are ror
parf/cular example only

Showing RosiNono'"
manhofe rrame //
,,"/'0 ----t, ---.0. . . . ,"
dveiholes inre-
sp'ed to longifl/din - I
/ 0 .
0 "\
0 1 neufral a x is / 0 0 \
I \

_____ [0 Long;Ndcb~/~~ ol._

FlO. 24.-F1aDgod manhole frame ,

Calculation of Manhole Reinforcement.- In cutting a manhole

in the shell of a boiler, it ilS necessary to compensate for the metal
removed. This is done by installing a manhole frame.
ThE' minimum-size elliptical manhole permitted by t he
A. .M.E. Code i ] 1 by 15 in. In cutting the Rhell for a frame
having an opening of t.his size, the shorter dimension if' placed
along tbe longitudinal axis of the boiler so that, less frame matE'"
rial wi ll b required for replacement in this weaker dir('C'tional
In c'onsidering a crosR-Rectional plane of (he boiler shell plate
in the virinity of a manhole "cutout" (Fig. 24), it. is necessary
t.o find the ( nrea of met 801 removed , including rivet boles,
and to rrovidc a manhole frame having Itli equal cro"R-F'~ct, ion81
area in thr samE' planc.
AlRo, the shearing strength of the rivets on cach side of tbe
longitudinal center line must at least equal the (ensile st rength
of the plate removed. An important feat.ure should be kept ill
mind at this point: At, {.h e front and rear of (he mauholc frame, i ' one rivet placed on the longit,udinal center line. If the
Rhell rupture,' along this line, it will tear tbrough t.heRe two rivet
holeR, leaving the rivets intact. These two rivets have no value
in sh ar hut are used merely for tightness against, leakage. Tbus,
t.wo ext.ra riv(>t~ Itr requir d in addition t,o the calculated
Greater shell thickness is required in th boilers of larger onsequrntly, a larger number of manhole-frame
rivets will be necessary to give a shear strength equal to the total
tensile trength of It cutout of increased thickness. The A.S.M.E.
ode requires that, two row, of rivets shall be used for manhole
frames in boiJer Rhell" over 4 in. diameter, so that, with the
larg r number of rivrts used, the pitch of the rivet holes will
not be so small t', hat, a, low-efficiency rivet-bole ligament is
The calculation of the manhole problem will be best understood
by referring to Fig. 24 in connection with the following example,
Example.- An 11- by IS-in. manhole frame is to be installed in a shell
~ in. thiok having a T.S. of 55,000 lb. per sq. in. The cutout for this frame
is assumed to be 17 in. longitUdinally. A double row of 1!)16-in. rivets is
to be used. (1) What are t,he required thickness a.nd width of the frame?
(2) How many Tivets are necessary?

FIG. 25.-FirsL spinning oporation fOI" flanged fwd dished hend shown in Fig. 26.
(CQurt esy, Luken. SteP{ ComlJulIY.)

FrG. 26.-Final spinning operation on Il Banged and dished head. While the
partioular head shown is not used Jor 0. boHer, the operation is similar. The head
shown has finished dimen8ioll.8 204~ in. outside diameter. by 1% in. thick, and
weighed 21,000 lb. (Courtoey, LukeM Sted Company.)

The removed from the shell is shown in the shaded areas, and iM
]7 X 0.5 + 4 X 0.9375 X 0.5 '" 10.375 sq. in. Let us selcct a framE>
W = 9 in. wide. (Unless given in a problem, either the length or the
thickness must be assumed.) Then both sides will have a total length for
the cross-sectional area (C.8.a.) oi 18 in., and the required thickness will be
10.375/ 18 = 0.576 in.
Now, as 10.375 sq. in. of shell plate WIIS removed, this represents a total
T.S., of 10.375 X 55,000 = 570,625 lb. Since the strength of rivet metal in
single shear is 44,000 lb. per sq. in. 570,025 / 44,000 = 12.97 sq. in. of rivets
in single shear is required in each side of the center lille, for one side is con-
sidered as an ancbor whereas the oth r side actively resists failure. Then,
because 1 ~ a-in. rivets arc to be used and the area of one rivet is 0.690,
12.97/ 0.690 = 18.7, or 19 rivets are required OIl each side, plus the 2 in the
neutral axis; or a total of 19 X 2 + 2 = 40 rivets is required.

Dished Heads.-The ends of drums of most conventional

type watertube boilers are closed with a dished-out head. Fig-
ures 25 and 26 show the , pinning operations in the fabrication
of a dished and a flanged head. The shorter the radius of the
curvature, that is, the nearer the dish apPl'oacheR a semispherical
shape of reduced radius, the greater will b~) the resist.ance to
internal pr0RSUT'e. Conversely, the A.S.M.E. Code specifies
that the radius shall not be greater than the diameter of the shell
or drum to which the head is attached-otherwise, the head
requires bracing.
A formula for detcrmining the maximum afc working pressure
of a blank unstayed dished head is
p = T.S. X t

where P = maximum safe pressure, in lb. per sq. in.

T.S. = tensile strength of the head.
t = thjckness, in inches.
L = inside radius to which the head is dished.
Example.- A h ad is ~ in. thiok and dished to a radius of 42 in. The
T.S. is 70,000 lb. per sq. in. What is the safe working prossure?

P = 70,000 X 0.5
4.165 X 42 ~
200 lb .
. p r sq. m.

If a manhole is installed in a dished head, it is necessary to

increase the thickness, as found by transposing and solving for t
in the fonnula above. by at least 15 per cent, but in no C88e

by less than 78 in. in order to comply with A.S.M .E. Code

A blank semiellipsoidal head is allowed to be somewhat lighter
by the Code if the depth of the head is not less than one-fourth
of its inside diameter (i .d.). Then the thickness must not bc
less than that required for a seamless shell of equal diameter.
The curve and scale shown in Fig. 27 are of value in determin-


,..... 80 24 "chord
..... 70
~ 60
'S 50
~ 30
20 0 I 2
" 3 4
Height of BumpCb)
FIo. 27.-Radiu8 gage for dished heads.

ing the radius of the dish. The formula used in plotting the
curve was

where R = radius to which head is dished.

a = one-half chord of great circle.
b = height of dish corresponding t.o chord.

The dished head is considered as a section of hollow dI=here, and

any con venient chord of a great circle may be taken. In this
particular ease, a 24-in. chord was chosen. With a gage as
shown, t he mf'asurements may be taken qui ckly and accurately.
By referring to t he eurve, t he radius of t hf' dish may be asily
determined . A direct. reading scale may be madf' from reference
to tbe curve, but a standard 6-in. scale and use of t be curve will
be satisfactory usually.
Suspension of Boiler by Lugs or Brackets.- P aragraph P-325a
and b of the A.S.M .E. Power Boiler Code rcad ~ :

Lugs or h angers, when used t o support Q, boiler of any ty pe, shan bl:'
properly fitt d to the surfaces to which th ey are attached.
Where it is impracticable to use rivets, studs wi th not less tha n
10 threads per inch may be used . In computing the shearin g Btre~scs ,
the area at th e bottom of th e thread shall be used. The shearing and
crushi ng strcssc on t he rivets or studs used for attachin g t he lug or
brackets shall not exceed 8 por cent of the strength given in Pars. P-15
and 1'-10.

The allowable shearing stress givell in P a r . P-l6 of t hr

A.S. M.E. Po wer Boiler Code is 44,000 and 88,000 lb. per sq. in.
for carbon-steel rivets in single ,·hear and in double shear,
rCRpectively. Tbese are the values used in alculaLing efficiencies
of rivet.ed seams; but, as ment.ioned in Par. P-325 of t he same
Code book, 8 per cent of t hese valueR is t he maximum allowable
stress for the rivets us d in the hangers or brackets.
The ode limi t, t he number of rivets in t he same longitudinal
line to two in eacb banger or bracket; and , in boilers over 72 in .
diameter, t he circumferential distance between the top and
bottom rivet of any hanger is to be not less than 12 in. After
a bracket or hanger of the proper curvature and size is supplied
and t be rivet holes are located as specified by the Code, it
becomes important to know how many rivets of a given size are
required to support the boiler without exceeding the allowable

Example.-ABsume that a horizontal boiler full of water haa n total

weight of 30 tons. Four hangers are to be used with ~-in. rivet holes driJIed
through the hangers and boiler shell. How many rivets are required in each
hanger to meet Code specifications?

On the assumption that steel rivets are used, the rivets are in single shear ,
and the maximum allowable stress = 44,000 X 0.08 = 3,520 Jb. per sq. in.
The load on each hanger will be (30 X 2,000)/4 = 15,000 lb.
Then, since the cross-sect,ional area of a %-in. rivet hole is 0.601 sq. in.,
15,000/ (3,520 X 0.601) = 7.08; th refore, eight rivots would be used in
each hanger, arranged in two circumferential rows of four each or staggered
so that not more than two per hanger would fall in the same longit.udi nal

The A.S.M.E. Code requirements for method of Retting an

H.R.T. boiler are mentioned briefiy below. For more complete
details, refer to Pars. P-323 and P-324 of the A.S.M.E. Power
Boiler Code.
Horizontal-return t,ubular boilers not exceeding 54 in. diametel
and 14 ft. in length may be supported either by the outside
suspended type of setting or by not less than four steel 01' cast-
iron (c.i.) brackets. If the boiler exceedR the foregoing Rizes but
is not over 72 in. diamflter, it may be suspended , 01' rest on not
less than eight steel 01' caRt-iron brackets, set in pairs-foul'
on each side. All H.R.T. boilers ovcr 72 in. diamcter should bf'
supported by t,ll (' outside suspended type of R('
Th reaRon for thesf' requirements is tha.t expf'rienc(' haH
inclicated maximum practical "eights on brick walk Excessiv(~
loading of a wall i bound (,0 produce trouble aHer a period of
lime. Settling, bulging, and cracking of the wall" may throw
serious stres e,' onto the piping and the boiler it::;elf. In a no))-
Code state, one case occurred of an H.R.T. boiler larger thaI'
the foregoing limit' which was supported by the brick walls.
The walls collapsed whil th boiler was in operation, the stearn
piping and the blowdowll piping tIm breaking, and the boiler
fell onto the furnace fioor. uch major accidents may be
prevented by adhering to the Cod . peeification .
Bracing and Staying.- The first point to remember in all prob-
lems dealing with bracing or staying is that the stress set up in a
stay is due to the unit pres me in pounds per square inch acting
on the area of plate supported by that stay. This total pressure
is resisted by t he int mal rC"istance of the brace (unit stress)
times the net area of the brace. These facts are the basis for
all bracing formulas.
Enmple.-A section of plate 10 by 10 in. resists a stellm pressure of
JOO lb. per sq. in. The plate is stayed by two braces having Ii net crolll'-

sectional area of 1 sq. in. each. What is the resulting stress lIet up in the
braces? The total pressure is 10 X 10 X 100 = ]0,000 lb., and the total
brace area supporting this load is 2 X 1 = 2 sq. in. Therefore,
\0,000/ 2 - 5,000 lb. unit stress set up in the bra.ces by the 100 lb. per sq. in.
steam pressure.
From this exa.mple comes the formula


8-. -
A xP

where P = pressure, in pounds per square inch.

A - area supported by the brace or braces.
n <= number of braces Bupporting this area.
a - net c.s.a. of ~ach brace.
8 = resulting unit stress in the bra-ce or braces.
If the definition of s is changed to "allowable streBll," then th definition
of P will be the maximum aUowable working pressure, based on the strength
of the braces, and

., (4)

where P .. maximum allowable pressure based on bracing

Example.-A section of plate 10 by 10 in . is stayed by three stays, each
having a net croSB-sectional area of 0.8 sq. in. The maximum allowable
unit stress is to be 7,500 lb. What is the maximum safe steam pressure?

P - 3 X 10
0.8 X 7,500 ISO Ib .
X 10 - . per sq. m.

Stay Bolts and Staying Furnace against Collapse.- Thc

furnace sheets of a boiler and of other internally fired boilers
l-:lUst resist the pressure on the external surfaces that tends to
cause collapse. This collapsing tendency is resisted either by
the stiffncsR of the furnace or by staying it to the shell with
stay bolts.
A furnace not exceeding 38 in. outside diameter (o.d.) may be
self-supporting and the use of stays may be eliminated provided
that the thickness of the furnace is sufficient for necessary stiff-
ness and that the span of furnac length is not too great.
The A.S.M.E. Power Boiler Code, in Par. P-240, gives the
following two formulas for self-supporting, unstayed circular
furnaces not over 471 diameters in length.

When the length of the furnace does not exceed 120 times the
thickness of the furnace sheet,

p = 51 5
[(18.75 X T) - (J .03 XL))

where the length exceeds 120 times the thickness of the plate.
4,250 X '/"
p = L X D

where P = maximum allowable working pressure, in pounds per sq uare

D = outside diameter of furnace, in incbes.
L = total length of furnace between centers of head rivet :eams
(not length of a section), in inches.
T = thickness of furnace walls, in sixteenths of an incb .
~----Aclam.son ring--- --
. - ",
No.1 - No.2

A.a.M .E. Code rul",,'

d at. t + M in . before driving.
No.1. ltadiu. not Ie.. tban 3 X I .
No.2. not I... tban 3 X d.
No. 3. not 1_ tban d.
No.4. at 1.... t ~ in.
FlO. 28.-Adum8on-type lurnaoe.

The reader should consult the Code for mor complete specifica-
tions for unstayed furnaces, for it gives details not permitted by
the space or intent of this boo .
If a furnace does not meet requirements for an unstayed unit,
one of the following three methods of support may be used.
1. A corrugated furnace may be used (Fig. 50). A common
type of corrugated furnace is known as a. "Morrison" furnace.

It may be used in p.ithel' vertical tubular or horizontal types of

firebox boiler such as the Scotch Marine.
2. The AdamRon ring if; a device used to stiffen a circular
Furnari:' against collapse under external pressure. It is used
primarily in horizontal furnaces, for sediment, might lodgE' on the
fiangeR on the watel' side if it, were im,talled in a vertical axis
which causes overheating. Figure 28 shows a c1'oss- ectional
view of an Adamson-ring joint and the A.S.M.E. ode specifica-
tions for proportionH. Th e Code formula for calculating the
maximum ISafc working pressure 011 a furnace subjl'cted to
extcrnal pre:>sure and braced by Adll.mson rings is

p = 5;°[(18.75 X '1') - (1.03 XL)]

where P = maximum safe pressure, in pounds per square inch.

D = outside diameter of furnace, in inches.
L = distallce of furnare between AdamRon rings.
T = thickness of furnace sheet, in sixteen t hs of an inch.
Example.-A furnace is 36 in. o.d . and ha.s 42-iu. sectious betweeu
Adamson rings. The furn.ace sheet is % in. thick. What is the maximum
allowable pressure?

p = 5;66 [(18.75 X 6) - (1.03 X 42)1 = 110 lb. per sq. in.

3. Stay bolt.. may br used to stay the furnace to the outside

sheil or wmpper sheet, (Fig. 29). The size and the pitch of the
stay bolts have much to do with the maximum allowable pressure
on the boiler. The.A .S.M .E. ode allow a maximum stress of
7,500 lb. per sq. in. on wcldle s, steel stay bolts.
It \v:ill be noted in Fig. 29 t.hat the ends are upset slightly
so that. the area of the stay bolt at the root of the thread will
not be less than that of the body. However, some stay bolts
are made without upsetting the ends; thus, in calculating the
net area, th diameter at the root of the thr aris should be used.
Upset ends of tay bolts should be annealed in v1'der to reduce
any tendency toward brittleness. The length of the stay bolt
must be 'uch that at least two t hreads extend over the plates.
The ends are then riveted OVAr.
Stay bolts sometimes break because of furnace-sheet expansion
and contraction; the point of breakage is u ually near the inside

surface of the shell. Telltale holes ar r~quir d in stay bolts

not over 8 in. long, for these bcits are considered Ie s flexible
and more susceptible to breaknge t han t he longer bolts. The
telltale hole i.s at least U G iiI diameter and is drilled in from

Ourside sheer
FlO. 29 .-BTlLcing by stay bolt.

the outside to a depth at least Yz in. past the inner [surface of

the plate or, if the stay boH is reduced ill diameter, 1,0 at least Yz
in. beyond this reduction. It is obviot18 1hat, when the st.ay
bolt cracks halfway through its C1·O. 'S sf-ct.ion, leakage t.hrough the
telltale hole should give ·warning.

o o o
Note: Area "A" Is supported by i"ofa staybolf
areach corner, so one sfotybolf '{I the center of
this area would be of' equivalenr stren(Jth
FlO. aD.-Area s upported by stay bolt.

Stay bolts are allowbd a maximum unit stress of 7,500 lb. per
sq. in. The size of the stay bolt must b sufficient to enable it,
safely to withstand the load imposed by the pressure (Fig. 30).
It will be seen readily from Fig. 30 that the area enclosed by

the two pi(,ches less the area of t.he tay-bolt hole, as shown in
t.he dotted line, is supported by one stay bolt.
Enmple.- One-inch stay bolts are pitched 5 in. between horizontal
rows by 6 in. between vertical rows. A ~ 6-in. telltale hole is drilled in
clLch stay bolt. What is t,he maximum allowable pressure based on the
Ht.rength of tbe stlLy bolts?
From the ta.ble giving net area.s of stay bolts ( 28) the net cross-
sectional area of each stay bolt is 0.548 sq. in. By formula (4),
p n X a X8
- A
P - 1(5X X
0.548 X 7,500
6) _ 0.548 =
1391b .
. por sq. m.

Note that the minimum cross-sectional area of the stay bolt is deducted
from t.he product of the pitches to get A .
In order to obtain the diameter at the root of the threads of a stay bolt
having 12 sharp V threads per incb, subtract 0.1443 from the outside
diameter. The area at the root of the threads is then, of course, the root
diameter squared times 0.7854.

To turn to factors limiting the pitch, it should be understood

that a stayed plate may be considered as a beam supported at
each end. Each stay bolt is a support, and the plate, as a loaded
beam, tends to bend between the supports. Thus, with a close
pitch, the plate is quite stiff. As the pitch increases, the resist-
ance of the plate to bending under pressure load decreases.
The A.S.M.E. Code requires that fiat-plate furnaces shall be
stayed with the proper- 'ized stay bolts having a maximum
pitch in any direction of p in incbes, as given in their formula

p = n (5)

where p = pitch, in inches.

o = 112 when the furnace sheet is not over 316 in. thick.
o= 120 if the plate exceeds this thickness.
T = furnar·p.-sheet thickness, in sixteenth of an inch.
P = maximum allowable working pressure.
E.u.mple.-ln the previous example, the maximum safe pressure of
139 lb. per sq. in. based 00 the strength of the stay bolts should be checked
t.o see whether or Dot the maximum pitch is within the allowable limit,s for

the stiffness of the plate. Assume a furnace-sheet thickness of ~ in.

Substitute in the foregoing formula.

~1l2 X 6'
p - J39
- 5.a9 in. max. pitch

Here it will be seen that the 6-in. pitch is too much for la9 lb. per sq. in.,
and therefore the formula should be transposed and the maximum safe
preBBure for the 6-in. pitch calculated.

p _ CT'.
112 X 6' .
p ~ -- 6'- = 112 lb. per sq. m.

In circular furnaces that do not exceed 38 in. o.d., the A.S.M.R

Code permits a maximum circumferential pitch of 1.05 X P a!'
found in formula (5). The vertical or longitudinal pitch in
these furnaces should not exceed that found as L in the following
Code formula :

= [220 X T2J2
where L = pitch, in inches.
T = furnace-sheet thickness, in sixteenths of an inch.
P = maximum allowable working pressure, in pounds per
square inch.
R = outside radius of the furnace, in inches.
The A.S.M.E. Code allows the longitudinal pitch to equal the
circumferential pitch in case the result as found by this formula
calls for a lower value. If the outside diameter of a circular
furnace exceeds 38 in., the maximum pitch in either a circum-
ferential or longitudinal direction should not exceed 1.05 X p
as found in formula (5) .
Steam Domes.-A dome is constructed usually on the top of
locomotive fire-tube boilers, and is optional on other types of
fire-tube boiler, to insure sufficient room for dissociation of much
moisture from the steam. Comparatively dry steam should

• This formula and a. complete list of constants for this formula given
in Par. P-l99. A.S.M.E. Power Boiler Code.

l\ 1887

re ult. The steam locomotive is a familiar type of boiler fitted

with a steam dome.
A brief summary of the A.S.M.E. Code requirements follows:
If the inside diameter of the dome is 24 in . 01' over, its longitudinal
:::eam should be butt and double strap, fusion-welded according
to boiler-seam specifications, or the dome may be seamless.
These domes should be double-riveted to the shell.
In domes less than 24 in. i.d., the longitudinal seam may be
lap-riveted and the dome may be single-riveted to the shell if
lhe producl of Lhe diametel' times the maximum working pres-
sUl'e in pounds per sq11are inch does not exceed 4,000, and F.S. = 8.
On fire-tube boilers the dome diameter should not exceed the
i:!hf'I1 diameter times 0.6 ullle::; " it is properly stayed to the shell.
The maximum 'ize may th 'n be 0.8 of the fih II diam leI'.
The neutral sheet is that, part. of the shell lying within the
uome flange (see Fig. 4] ). Because both surfaces of the neutral
sheet. ar under equal pressure, this section of the boiler shell iR
not consiu red to be direcLly stressed by effects of pressure. A
drain hole shou ld be drilled in the lowest part, of the neutral
sheet on each side 1:10 that condensat will not collect thero and
possibly eause corrosion.
Boiler Tubes.- Three common methods of boiler-tube fabl'i-
eation are used. (1) The seamless tube is pierced bot and drawn
to size. (2) The lap-welded (forge-welded) tube consists of
metal strip ("skclp") curved to tubular shape with the lon-
gitudinal edges overlapping. Heat is appli d and t he joint
forg -welded. (3) The electric-resistance butt-welded tube is
form>d like tbe second type; but, as its name implies, the joint
i<; butt-welded.
It is considered good practice by some to place the weld on
IV Ided tub s away from the radiant heat of t he fire. Tub for
bent-tube typ boilers are bent usually by machine (Fig. 31).
The diameter of boiler tubes always refers to nominal outside
diameter. 1
Tube Ends: Expanding, Flaring, Beading.-Practically all
boiler tubes have the ends expanded into the t ube hole of t he
shell or drum. This is to make the tube tight against leakage
a nd to give it a firm grip on the t ube hole so that the tube may
have II. definite holding 01' staying effect.
1 Pipe dia.meter refers to nominal inside diameter.

The edges of the tube holes are chamfered about 716 in. after
the holes are drilled so that there will be no sharp edges to cut
into the tube when it is expanded.
Tube holes arc fini hed 732 in. larger in diameter t han the
outside diameter of the boiler t ube, except in the tube sheet of
fire-tube boilers. Through this, {,ubes must be drawn during
retubing, and therefore its holes a re fini shed H6 in. larger in
diameter su as to permit a tube that is coated with seale to be
removHd without dumage to the t.ube sheet.

FlO. 31.- Boilor-tube bending nllwhine used for prepul'ing tube. for many t.ypes of
w"lcrtubc bniler.. (ClIl/rt esy. Rilty Stoker ClI'rp. )

Several types of expander are available. A common typl'

makes use of three rolls which fit, into the tube end. A tapered
mandrel is fitted between the rolls. The mandrel is revolved
and driven in, in alternate steps until the external sUl'face of thl'
tube end is expanded securely against the edge of the tube
hole (see Chap. IX).
Thick drums may be counterbored in order to have a reason-
ably narrow circumferential strip of tube to expand. The
diameter of the counterbore should be sufficient t.o allow for
flaring the tube end according to requirements.

The counterbore may be either from .;he inside or from the

outside. When a drum of a watertube boiler has tubes expanded
in its upper side, it is best practice not to use the outside counter-
bore, for pockets for soot would thus be formed.
For watertube boilers the t ubes and nipples should extend
through 1;IH' tube hole X to 7i in. and be flared to at least ~ in.
larger than the tube-hole diameter.
FirC'-tube boilers have the tube ends exposed to heat and
product,s of combustion, and therefore the tube ends might
soon be burned off if they were flared . In these boiler. the tube
endH !;Lre driven hack into a bead after expanding the tubes, in
order to prot,ect them against overheating, although the bead
cloes not increasp the holding power of t he tube appreciably.
Stamping a Completed Boiler.- A11 identifying stamp on a
power boiler is required hy many st,ates and municipalitie...
Th A.S.M.E. Rtandard form of stamping is sufficient for thp
boiler to pas:; ruleR and regulations for eonst ruction in prac-
tically all sections of t.his country. This stamp consi. t8 of thl'
A.. M.E. symbol above thp. manufae.tmer's serial number, th~
manufacturer's nam or approved abbreviation , thp maximu:n
pressure for which th boiler was built, the water Rurfaee
in square fe t, and the year built.
The additional stamp "National Board " followed by a serial
number often appears. This stands for the National Board of
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors. It i. an enforcement
body for the A.S.M.E. Power Boiler Code, and a copy of the
manufacturer's constructional data is filed with this board
under the serial number. The National Board stamp indicates
1hat. the hoiler is of A.S.M.E. standard constructiOl: and that its
('onstruct,ion was followed in the shop by a qualified inspector.
On horizontal fir -tube boilers (externally fir d) the stamping
i4hould be in the middle of the front tube sheet, above the top
row of tubes. On horizontal fire-tube boilers of the firebox type,
the stamping should be located above the center or right-hand
furnace or above a handhole at the furnace end. On vertical
fire-tube boilers the ·tamping should be located over the furnace
door. Watertube boilers have the stampiDg on the drum heads
above the manhole flange.
It is very important when purchase or relocation of a boiler is
contemplated to ascertain the boiler laws of the tate concerned .
GEN EN AL ('()NS7'/{(/('TIO'" A N I) S1'RESS C/il,CULA TIONS 4,
Many states I'(~quirp filing a sppril1l rOl'm and followin~ a c[pfillite
procedure before rei a boiler.
Questions and Answers
1. A 32-in.-diameter drum is U in. thick fOT 2251h. per sq. in. steam pres-
sure. The t.ensil e strength of the plate is 55,000 lb. per sq. in. What joint
efficiency is required?
Am. Assume an F.8. of 5, and transpose the formula

p '" ('1'.8. XI X %).

(R XF.8.)
= P X R X F.S. _ 225 X 16 X 5 _ 0 (lr.r. 65
% '1'.8. X I 55,000 X 0.5 - . vi) or .5%

2. A ~- in . plat,e is Rupportc:>d by stay bolts :1i in. diameter at the root of tIlt'
thread and pit,ohed 5 by 6 in. Will t,his support 200 lh. p<>r Aq. ill. steam
pressure? Explain the method.
Anb. Net cross-sect.ional area of 3ij-in. stl'Y bolt. = 0.419 sq. in. 'fbt'
area of plate supported by this bolt is (5 X 6) - 0.419 - 29.581. Ii I'
maximum unit stress of 7,50(, lb. per sq. in. is "lInwed,

0.419 X 7,500
29.1)8 1 =
]0"1I Ih • pflr .
Aq. 1Il . max. AII OWIL hIe preSRIITl'

lIy (:Illculatinp; thl' ,L1lnwllblc pr\lA~m(' bn.Red Oil the platp st ifTn esH,

P = 120 X s'
6i = 213 I),. per sq. in. mlLx. 1L110l",.I>I .. preRHIII·(·.

(Here, poor design may be suspected. The stay bolt is much to() lilJ,l ,'
for the safe pressure based on the plate stiffness; that is, an lmll('C('"~,"· 1I .1 ·
thick pIa te has been used. )
3. A }1o-in. plate is to carry 150 lb. per sq. in. What is the maxillllllll
allowable pitch of stay bolts?
Ans. 112150
X 7 "" 6 .03 i
p - D.

4.. (a) A boiler drUID is 40 in. diamet,er; tensile strength is 55,000 Ih. per
sq. in., plate thickness U in., factor of safety 5. What is the Ili axillllllll Hafe
working pressure? (b) If the pressure is increased 10 per 'ont, what i~ tllIl
F.8.? (c) li corrosion cause a general reduction in thickness of 7!1 ill ,
what is the maximum safe pressure?
Am. (a) (No data Ilore given for the longitudinal seam, and so tIlls must,
be a8Bumed . In such cases the method is checked for being correct, fOI
the answers will vary according to the assumption.) Assume a quadruple-
riveted butt-IInd-doubJe-strap longitudinal seam having an efficiency of
94.0 peT cent. Then,

P -
55,000 X 0.5 X 0.94 258 Ib .
20 X 5 - . per sq. m.

(b) 258 X 1.10 = 284 lb. per sq. in . T ransposing the formula and solving
for the factor of Bufety, we h l1 ve

F .S. = 55.00020XX0.5 X 0.94 = 4."6

284 v

(c) A red uction in t hilOknpss of 7B in. wiJI be 25 per cent, which will leave
75 per oPnt of the solid plate. Since this i below the effi cien cy of the
longitudinal ""ali (94.0 per "ent.), t he maximum safe pressure should be
r(~dl:ced ItS follows:

P = 55,000 X 0.375 X j .0 = 206

20 X 5

6. Name three kinds of Ilugl!' brar!' (for segment of tube sheet over t ubes
ill H.H.. T. boilers not px(~eed ing 36 ill. diameter or JOO lb . per SCJ. ill. mfLx i-
mllm pre[;sure).
A n.. Angle iron s, channelu'ons, T irons.
6. In a boiler sho jJ, wl:y should you exltmin(' pUll chiogs from rivet holes in
boiler plat.e?
A 1IS. To sec if t he allowable tolerances worc exceeded . If t he plate docs
not. ~c()ed X G in. thickness, t he holes may b e pun ched to within U in. of fu n
diameter. If the plate exceeds ~ I G in. t hickn ess, the holes may be punch ed
not over 3i in. less t h!Ln full size.
7. How aro tube holes made?
Ans. They may be punched to not over ~ in. leas than finished diameter
IlllU finished 1..j lluLchining. They are ofien cut wit h a. pilot drill anrl l'otating
8. How far ~honl d the calking edge of a longit.udinal Bcam be f rom the
(lentcr of t he nen l'Pst row of rivets?
A1I.. Not les~ than l ~ or mo re than J % X ri,'et-hole diameter.
9. (a) How mueh larger than a flJ'e t ube maY.!:'Hl tube hol e be? (II) Row
much hll'g~r for a water tub!'?
An. . (a ) l,<J2 ill. lIlrgr r diameter at th!' fif(l cnd. Yt G in. at. the opposite
('nd. (b) 732 in . for iiber end.
10. How are the ellos of s hell pIn.tes, and butt. straps, formed for the longi-
t udmal seam?
Ans. They should bd formed by rolling or pressing, and not by blows.
11. What is the required size of the pin in double shear, passing through
the eye of tht'ough-to-head braces, below the tubes of an H .R.T. boiler?
Am. At loast 75 per cent, of t he net. cross-sectional area of th body.
12. (a) A steam drum 36 ill. diam eter, X 6 in. thiok and of 55,000 lb. per
sq. in. T .S. has a longit udinal seam, double-lap-riveted and having 71.5 per
cent efficiency. This drum has a ligament with an efficiency of 42 per cent.
What is the maximum safe pressure? (b) Assume the same drum has a
<toubls-riveted butt-and-double-strap longb llrlinA.l Realn havin c: a.n crficiency
"r 82 per cent. Also, assume that a ;!i-in. dvublrng plate is riveted over the
li~alllent. What is the tnll.xDtl1lm safe pressuret

A 718. (a) Assuming a factor of safety of 5,

55 ,000 X 0.4375 X 0.42 1121b .

18 X 5 = . per sq. m.

But over 100 lb. per sq. in. is not allowed on a lap seam, so the pressure woule.'
be limited to 100 lb. per sq. in.

(b) 1. P. -- 55,000 X180.4375

X 5
X 0.82 = 219 lb .
. per sq. lll.
2 P = 55,000 X (0.4375 + 0.375) X 0.42 = 208 lb . .
. 18 X 5 . per sq. m.

Since the latter value is the lower, this is the maximum safe pressur('.
lS. What are the maximum- and minimum-size openings for a blowdown
cormoction in a power boiler?
A7Is. Maximum, 2~ in. Mininlum, 1 iu.
14. (a) When may cast-iron headers be used? (b) When UHty mall eable-
iron headers be usee!?
Ans. (a) If the prc~surc does not exceetl J(j0 lb. per sq. in. "nd (,he ('ross-
sectionrd area falls wit.hin 11 7- by 7-ill. rectangle. (b) If the prcss ur~ dol'S
not exceed 350 lb. per sq . iu., and t.he cross-sectional are•• falls wit hiull 7- hy
7-in. rectangle.
16. What objection is then' t.o shell pJates of all H.R.T. boiler exceedinj!.
% in. 11t the girth sealTIS, !Iud whnt sho uld be don' if thl'Y do?
Am. The combined thickness of me!.al 1t (.he Scalfl might cause thu ur'
side to overheat and crack. It is requir d that plates over % in. thick he
machined down to 110(. ovor ~ j 6 in. wit,b a radius at least I in. al the edge of
machining at girth RcaIDS.
16. What is the limit (.0 a shell or drum of uniform thickness being truJy
circu lar?
Ans. One per cent, based on difference b etween inside alld outside
17. How should tubes be expanded whon there is a reinforcing plate?
A7I8. If the plate is calked on the outBid , the tub(~~ ~hould be expandrtl
into both the shell and reinforcing plat(lB 80 that the tubes will aid in holding
both together.
18. When maya lap-riveted longitudinal Beam be used in a shell over 36 in.
Am. When the shell is in II section stay-bolted as a furna e sheet.
19. What are t,hree major requirements of weld !nuta! for boilers?
A 718. (1) A tensile strength not less than that of tho bailor plate. (2) A
minimum elonglttion of 20 per cent in 2 in. (3) A specific gravity of at
least 7.8.
20. (a) What is of extreme importanc . in external observation of a finished
wold ? (b) Why?
Ans. (a) That there shall be no valleys or grooves at the center or edges
(undercutting) of the weld. (b) A groove causes a "notch" effcet and
stress concentration that may result in cracking. Also, the flill tili 'kness 01
plate may not be attain d in the weld.

21. What is the minimum corner radius for an unstayect dished hell.d!
Ans. Not less t.han three limos the thinkneBB when measured on the con-
cave side, but lD no case less than 6 per cent of the inside dtameter of the sheJl
or drum to which the bead is to be attached.
22. How much may the knuckle of a dished head be thinned in forming?
A.ns. Not over 10 pCI' cent.
23. Is any motal removed in calking a seam?
AtM. The ttmount is negligible.
24. Are all tubes in a bent-tub boiler flared?
Ans. No. A few ill the bottom of t he upper drum~ are usually beaded to
provide for drainage. A few in the top of the lower drums ore li.kewiHe
hettded to prevent air pocketing when the boiler is being filled .
25. When is 1\ manhole required in the front tube sheet below the tu hes in
ILR.T. boilers?
Ans. When th!NJoilcr is 48 i.n. diamct,or or larger.
26. When is a manhole required a.bov!' the tuhes of a horizontal fire-tube
Ans. If externally fir d, for boilers 40 in . diameter or over j if internally
fired, for hoilers 48 in. diameter or over.
27. (a) Whl1t, is tho minimum fl\ce width of a manhole flango for a gasket
bearing surfare? (b) What eO\lld bo done if the flange were only :h' 6 in .
A 118. (a) I (6 in . (b) A steel ring is sbrunk OHto the fll1nge, and t no
double face mMhined 'for a hearing $urfl\ce.
28. 1'\ame four ways of supporting a circular furnace subjected to externfl l
An8. It lUay be (1) self-supporting, (2) stay-bolted, (3) corrugated, or (4)
equipped with Adamson rings.
29. How does tho fiber run in boiler plate when the shell is completed?
Am. It, runs circumIerentially, in the long axis of the plate as it waR
30. How is a circular manhole plate 17 in. o.d. placed in a forged drulll
with a IS-in. manhole in the head?
Am. The manhole plato is placed in tbe drum before the ends are tapered
to finiahed shape, for at that time the opening in the head is much larger
th"n 17 in.
For information on the following questions and answers, refer to Appendix .
31. What is a laminated boiler plate?
A 118. One that contains a stratum of slag, rolled in by accident.
32. What harm does a lamination do?
Am. It is an insulator that prcvents free conduction of heat. If the
plate i~ in a high-temperature zone, a blister may result due to overheating
of the plat,e on the fire sid of the lo.mination.
33. What type nnd grade of steolnre required for boiler plates under pres-
Attre (non-alloy, non-hi gil-tensile-strength steel)?
Am. Open-hearth firebox steel if the plate is to be • .:posed to the
productls of combustion. Open-hearth fio.nge steel if not.
U. Is the actual tensile strength stamped on the plate?

Ana. Not nece8!!arily. The actual tensile strength may be anywhere

between 55,000 and 65,000 lb . per sq. in., but the plate is stamped 55,000 lb.,
the minimum of the lO,OOO-lb. range. If the plate fell slightly below
55,000 lb. per sq. in. T.S., it would be stamped 45,000.
811. What is mill scale, and what harm does it do?
Ana. It is an iron oxide scale formed on the surfaces of a plate when,
after rolling at high temperatures, it is exposed to the air. It may be a
cause of plate deterioration in boiler sorvi 'e, for it may promote and localize
lI6. Where can the exact tensile strength be fo(wd?
Ana. From the mill test report.
S7, What else doeb the mill test report show?
Am. The thickness; the chemical properties; other required physical
J,lroperties, namely, elongation and yield point; the man ufacturer's name;
and the heat and slab numbers.
88. Wll9.t are t he two major chemical Hteps ill tho manufacture of steel
from ore?
A ?IS. (1) To remove oxygen from the ore in producing pill: iron. (2) To
remove excess carbon from the pig or cast iron to produce steel.
89. How does steel differ from cast iroh?
Am. The carbon content is much lower, the tensile strength is much
higher, and the ductility auel resistance to shock load OLr' higher.
40. Briefly, how il' excess carbon removed from iron t,o forlll steel?
Am. By blowing air thr')ugh the molten iron . Th~ oxygen ill the air
unites with the carbon by cOillbustion.
41. Describe briefly the open-heart.h method of steelmaking.
ATI8. A common method is the Siemens-Martin process. The steel to be
refined is placed in an open bowl with two ports on diametrically opposite
sides. Air anel a gas having a high carbon content enter under pressure
from the ports on one side. These gases unite and burn at high temperatures
at the surface of the steel, aoci the products of combustion pass out through
the opposite ports. P U ports are refractory lined ; thus, the exhaust ports
soon attain a high temperature. Periodically during the refining process,
the Bow through the ports is reversed 80 that the hot refractory may preheat
incoming air and gas. Combustion temperature at the surface of the molten
iron burns out carbon, sulphur, and impurities.
'2. What are the advantages of the open-hearth method?
Am. A better quality of steel is obtained because internal oxidation ill
at a minimum. Also, from the manufacturer's viewpoint, less steel is
48. How is t he highest quality steel produced?
Ana. By the electric-furnace method , owing somewhat to more accurate
control and to a minimum of oxidizing factors.
U. Why is not the electric-furnace method always used f
Am. Because the expense of manufacture by this method is grenter.
46. How is the carbon (C) content controlled to meet specificatioWl?
Ana. The ca.rbon Ilnd impurities are almost completely burned out
dunng j,h!' romhll~tion.refining process. The correct proportion of ":lroon

a nd other clements t hen IS added before pouring. A ladle analysis deter-

mines the co rrect cont ent.
46. Wha t are the A.S. M. E . Codc requirements for chemical properties of
open-heart h firebox and flange steel?
An8. For open-hearth firebox steel tho maximum carbon content for
plat es not over % in . thick is 0.25 pcr cent, and for plat es ovor X in. thick
0.30 per cen t; t he maxin1um phosphorus (P) conten t for steel made by the
.~cid method is 0.04 per cent, a nd for steel made by tbe basic method 0.035
per cent; the maximum Hulphur (S) conl,cll t, is 0.04 per cent..
For opon- hear th fl a nge steel, the maximum manganese (MD ) content is
0.80 per cent ; t he maxim um phosphorus cool,ent if t he s teel is l'1ade by t hr
acid met,hod is 0.05 pel' cent ; if the steel is made by the basic, method , it
is 0.04 per cent ; and tho ID.1ximulll sulphur con tent is 0.05 per cent.
47. What is t he minimum y ield point, required for st,eel of eit her flangc'
.lr fll'ebtlX grade?
An8. One-half the tensil e strength.
48. lIow mu ch below specifi ed j,hiekness may It boiler plat.e be roll ed .md
Rtill be accepta ble?
An.. 0.010 in.
49. Where anc! how shall a boil er plate be stamped ?
Ans. In at .Ieast t wo pll1cc!8 not I C88 t han 1 ft. from t he edges should be
t he. .manufactur r'R name or label, t he test number, t he type of steel, !lnd
th!' lowest, tonsil e strengt.h of t he 10,000-lb. rlInl!;tl. This is usually 55,000
lb. for open-heart h fireboll stc I in Code st a tes.
60. WIlI1t is thc tensiJ(' strength of a H -m .-thick boil er pl ELte 'r
An8. Two assum ptions !lrc necessary: (J ) Assum e the uni ~ T.S. of the
IU 'lteriaJ t.o be 55,000 lb . per sq. in. (2) Assum e a uni t strip 1 in. \vide .
Then, 1 X 0.5 X 55,000 = 27,500 Ih. strengt h.
61. What determines the hardn ess of steel?
A ns. Th e carbon con tent, the alloy eontcnt, and the grain structure
oft en due to heat t reatment .
62. How may grl1in structure a nd hardness be changed?
Am. By heat treatment at temperatures above t he lower critical point.
63. What are the major differences between cast iron and malleable
Ana. Malleable iron is more ductile. It will withstand safely a con-
siderably greater shock load than cast iron. It possesses a higher tensil e
64. How is malleable iron made?
A n. . By annealing cast iron at abou t ] 700°F. for several days to a week.
66. What is crystallization in regard to failure of a piece of steel?
Am. ThL~ is a misnomer for fatigue cracking. The original crystalline
structure is not changed by mechanical action. It is only changed by
heating to above the lower critical temperature, which is about l3OQ°F. for
low-carbon steel.
63. An increase in carbon content of steel increases the tensile strength
up to certain limi ts. Why, then, is the carbon content limited in boiler-
plate specifications?

A nB. Because high-carbon steel is less ductile.

67. What arc ductility and malleability?
Ans. These terms are practiCll.lly synonymous. Tbey describe tbo
ability of a material to withstand a comparative degree of deformation
without failure or impairment of its strength or other physical properties.
68. What is the common measure of ductility?
An8. Tho percontage elongation as found in makillg a test of tellsilc
69. What is hardness?
AnN. )t is the proporty of a mntcriaj to rCl;ist surface deformation OD
applic>Ltion of an ext.ernal force.
60. What is b rittl~.Dess?
A1Is. It is the tenden cy of !l material to frnct,urtl on "'JlpJi clttion of Hhock
61. Is there any definit.e rchtion between hardn es~ and brit,t lcneIlS?
Ans. Usuall y not. For eXllmple, some of 1.h· 60-cllllcd "white" !Il('blb
nrp quite brittle hut soft.
62. ls there any definit,e rehLtion between hardn ess and toughnC'sB '?
Arl8. Usually not. Toughness is a physical property enabling!l. Ilmll'ri,d
to with ,tand deformation as weU £IS Itbrasion- sucll as is required for I he
t.eeLb of a power dredge.
63. "hiLt Itr~ fatigu and fatigue failure?
An~ . FMigue is "tiring" of the metal. It is the breaking through of the'
crystalli~ c grain or fibrous structure of 11 mal,cril11 after a llllJ1lh('r of Rl,res.<
npplicatic.ns or stress reversals. Flltigue endurance u; Lhe >l.bility of "
material t.o withst.and a great number of stress appl ications or rever"nls
without, fn.ilure .
64. In ;vhaL direction does the fiber run in plates of f~ boiler, and do e.~ it
make any difference?
Ana. The fiber rUllS in the direction in which the plate is roUed-usuaUy
parallel to its longest dimension. In fabricntion the fiber runs cil'clirtl-
ferentiall y, because the longest dimension of the plate is usually required in
t his direction, and also to keep the greatest tensile loaa on the plate in the
same direction as the so-called" fibrous" structure.
66. How much does a piece of boiler plnte 12 by J2 by J in. weigh?
Ans. Tbe average weight of steel boiler plate is 0.28 lb. per cu. in .; therc-
[ore, 12 X 12 X 1 X 0.28 = 40.3 lb.
66. How would you tell wrougbt iron (W.I.) from steel ?
Ana. Wrought iron is o[ much greater fibrous structure than steel. It
a Sp'lt is poHsh d on the surface of the motal with a fi le or emery cloth, the
fibrous structu rc can usually be seen. Sparking the motu.! on an emery wheel
will show a reddish spark from wrought iron, and an exploding
spark from steel.
67. What is the minimum specific gravity required by the Code for weld
m etal?
Am. 7.80.
68. What is the m8Jcimum carbon content of steel plate to be fU8ion-

Am. 0.35 per cent.

89. What should be the minimum thiokness of boiler plate?
Ana. One-fourth inch if unstayed.
70. What materia.l should be used for mud drums?
Ana. Wrought iron or cast steel.
71. What materia.l should be used for stay bolts?
Ana. Iron or steel, meeting Code specifications.
72. May cast iron be used for water-Jeg or doorframe rings?
Ana. No. Wrought iron or cast steel is required. l\.1so, open-hearth
boiler plate may be used and fabricated into a fianl:ed construction as 1\


General Details.- The H.R.T. boiler (Fig, . 23 and 32) has
been used more widely, probably, t han any other one typ of
fire-tube boiler for pre 'sures up to about 175 lb. per sq. in. and ill

FIo. 32.-El.R.T. boiler in susponded setting. Flush-front type of front aroh

setting. (Court.oy. Erie City Iron Works. )

sizes up to about 250 boiler hp. The inherent reasons for these
limitations are that the diameter of the shell increases with
capacity in order to accommodate a larger number of tubes.
The thickness of the shell must be increased for higher pressures,
or for greater diameters at the same pressure. Practicallimita-
tions for diameter are about 96 in. and about % in. fol' shell

thickr.ess. Greater shell thickness than this may lead to diffi-

cultie::; in fabrication and operation.
Advantages.-A number of the advantages of this type of
boiler are listed below:
1. Its cost is comparatively low.
2. It meets most requirements for installation in existing space
with low headroom.
3. Circulation is simple and positive at all its practical rating .
4. Frequently, the ordinary run of feed water needs but simple
5. Tube replacement is a comparatively easy matter.
6. Its setting may be modified r.asily to meet requirements of
most fuels.
7. The tubes arc all the same size; thus, one tube for a spare
wi ll fit as a replacement for any tube in the boiler.
Disadvantages.- The characterir-;tics of this type of boiler
that may be disadvantageous under certain conditions are:
1 In practice, it is unable to carry very high overloads without
damage to the boiler by overheating.
2. It has certain limitations as to pressure and capacity.
3. The proportionately small area of heating surface exposed
to radiant heat limits the efficiency and flexibility of heat absorp-
4. Exposure of the shell to radiant heat ma~T lead to bulging
(de cribed in a later ection) under certain adverse conditions.
Gas Flow.- The flow of products of combustion is shown by
the small arrows in Fig. 34. The gases sweep back along the
sides and bottom of the shell, entering the rear ends of the tubes,
then frontward through th tubes where they exit at the smoke-
box at the front end.
Setting.- In Chap. I, most of the construction and setting
details peculim: to the H.R.T. boiler have been described in an
attempt to confine the majority of general constructional cal-
culations and details of all boilers to that chapter. In following
the H.R.T. boiler through its erection and installation in the
boiler plant, it will be remembered that it is supported in one of
two ways, depending upon its size.
Allowance should be made for expansion of the shell, that is,
its unrestricted elongation caused by bringing it up to operating
temperature.'3. Restriction of expansion may cause serious
stresses; it may be pro0.uced in several ways. If the boiler if;
suspended from overhead cross girders, the longitudinal expan-
sion will be practically unoppo ed (Fig. 32). However, if the
boiler is supported by brackets on the brick walls, it is important
that the points of contact do not prevent, free mov ment. The
proper installation places the front brackets stationary, the rear
brackets resting on roll ers of short lengths of %- OT I-in. ste!"]
pipe, free expansion thus being allowed. Flat steel beRTin"

iron arch bar

..., (0)
/"ip Tor holding
arch brick
/Fusible plug
" Arch hClr~

~~ftt~~~~,.... ,/

Section of rear end of H.R.T

boil~r showing rear arch
FIO . 33.

plates are used under all points of bracket contact so as not to

concentrate the total bracket load on a small area of brickwork
but to distribute it over sufficient area on the brick to result
in a conservative uni t load pressure.
Rear Arch.~Clearance betw ,en the upper part of the rear
tube sheet and the brickwork of the rear ll,rch is important;
otherwise, damage to either the boiler or the arch will result
from expansion. A clearance of about 1 in. is provided usually,
and it is sealed gastight with a heat-resistant, semi plastic sub-
stance such as asbestos rope. This rear arch serves to divert

the flow of hot gases into the real' ends of th tubes and to prevent
the area of the tube sheet located above the water level from being
contacted by the hot gases.
The arch should come low enough (,0 protect th tube sheet in
the steam space, but it should allow sufficient clearance above
the top row of tubes at the middle to permit installation of a
fusible plug.
The rear arch is supported uRually by Reveral c.i. arch bars
(Figs. 33a and 33b).
Side Walls.- The boiler side walls are usually of red brick. An
air space is provided sometimes betweell these walls and the
furnace firebriok walls. The important point, is for the furnace-
lining walls to be anchored to the side wall" flO that the lining will
not collap e. The furnace lining may be of firebrick or of fire
clay installed in plastic form and baked hard. The lining is
carried up with a clearance for the "closing-in-line" with the
boiler shell (Fig. 33b). Here again, a semiplastic, heat-resiRtant
material is used to allow for free expansion of the boiler without
abr~sion of the shell. A v ry important purpose of this cloRing-
in-line is to prevent the hot gases from coming in contact, with
the lugs or brackets, longitudinal seams, or any part of the boiler
at or above t he lowest safe water Ie el where damage by over-
heating might occur.
Thus, the front of the H.R-T. boiler may be considered
anchored, whereas the boiler is free to expand to the rear,
unrestricted on both sides or at t he rear end.
Pitch.-The H.R-T. boiler should be installed with a pitch of
1 or 2 in. to the rear to allow any s diment that settles to work
toward the roar, wher it may be removed t.hrough the blowdown
line. If sediment coll cts on the bottom of the shell and is not
removed or if accumulations of loose scale collect, overheating of
the shell may occur and serious damage may result.
The one exception to the rule for pitching toward the rear will
he found in a few installations that burn su pended fuels (pul-
verized coal, oil, or gas) at high ratings. The most intense
heat is at the rear of the setting (Fig. 34). Here, difficulties
may be experienced from overheating of the blowdown line.
Such installations may be changed so that the boiler will pitch
toward the front. A blowdown connection is installed at the
hont end.
If the boiler is pitched toward the rear, its pitch ma.y be
measured by damming the lower half of the rear end of a tube
with clay and filling the tube with water until it just starts to

Blow- /,..-
down '

FIC . 34.- H.R.T. boil or purpoRcly pitched to front.

overflow at the front end. The depth of the water is then

measured at the rear end to secure the pitch.
Buckstays.- Buckstays are a valuable means of strengthening
and prolonging the life of the side walls when the boiler is mounted
rc: Groufed wifh concrete befween
bucksfCfj'S em&( si&(e-walls., /

, 1 Tle-rod-

4'-6/1 ..... ~ .. - I

- '- Bucksta,y roofe&( In 'concrete floor

FlO. 35.-Buckstay installation on a.R.T. boiler.

on bracket resting on open walls. The weight of the boiler

full of water tends to cause the walls to bulge and buckle out-
ward. If this condition continues and is unresisted, serious

cracks may develop in the walls and they may collapse ulti-
mately. Buckstays Me cast-steel or cast-iron columns set in
pairs, one on each side of the boiler, and spaced every 4 to 6 ft.
along the length of the side wallR (Fig. 35). The bases of these
buckstays hould be buried at least 3 in. in the concrete floor and
the upper ends should extend slightly above the top of the boiler.
A tie rod with a turnbuckle should connect the top ends of each
pair of buckstays, tying them toget,her rigidly across the boiler
Battery.-When two Or more H.R.T. boilers are installed in
battery and supported by the brick walls, it is not unusual for
the division wail (the wall between and supporting t.wo boilers)
to become overloaded as it deteriorate!'>. This eff ct, may result
in gradual decomposit.ion and crushing of the brick or bulging

" Boiler shell

Blowdown pad,'
81owdown pipe----
FIG. 36.

of the wall. The foundation of the wall may settle, too. The
result is that one or bot,h boilers supported by the wall will
" roll" or set.tle on one side.
This condition may he checked by a level across the top of the
tub s or across two straightedges or lengths of pipe in the front
('nds of two tubes in the same horizontal row. Even a slight
settling may be serious, for the distance is muhjplied in the stearn
piping from the boiler. S rious stresses may be set up in thE'
pipe or fittings, and failure under pressure may reBult. Chronic
troubles with gasket leakage in the main stearn lines are often
an advance warning of this trouble.
Blowdown Connection.-The blowdoWD pip carulOt be merely
screwed into the shell, for there would not be a sufficient number
of threads in contact to give proper support. Instead, a pad is
riveted to the bottom of the sh 11, and the blowdoWD pipe is
screwed into this pad (Fig. 36).
The minimum size of blowdown pipe for boilers over 10 hp.
(100 sq. ft. of heating surface) houJd be 1 in. A minimum size
of % in. is permitted by most states for boilers of less than tbis

Rize. The maximum-size blowdown pipe in any case should be

272 in.
The blowdown pipe of the H.R.T. boiler is carried through a
cast-iron pipe sleeve in the rear or ide wall with a clearance of
~ to 1 in. all around to allow for expansion. If the boiler settles
I~n appreciable amount, the clearance will become unequal.
In 'evere cases, the clearance on one side or the top or bottom
may disappear, and the blowdown pipe will be pre sed against the
brickwork. Here, too, severe stresses in t he pipe may result in
failure. The clearance space is usually sealed gastight, wit.h a
plastic refract-ory,

M-Fronf encl
of' boiler
Or.Y-sheet-- ,

Firing clocr:
FlO. ::l7.- Flush-front Betting for H.R.T. boiler.

Flanged connections should not be used in the parts of blow-

down piping exposed to products of combustion, for overheating
of the flanges would result.
Front Setting.- The H.R.T. boiler may be seL either in the
overhanging (Fig. 34) or in the flush-front setting (Fig . 32 and
37). The smokebox usually consists of an extension of the shell.
The bottom of this is known then as the "dry sheet," for the
front tube sheet is flanged outward in such cases and the cir-
cumferential riveted seam is not in contact with water. With
the flush-front boiler, this seam is protected against overheating
by the front firebrick arch. If this arch collapses, it is important
to shut the boiler down at once, for otherwi 'e the bottom of
the riveted seam would soon burn off, with serious results. If
the front tube sheet flanges inward, this effect would not occur,
for the inside heans of the rivets are in COIl tact with boiler water.

Suspension.-When the H.R.T. boiler is suspended from

overhead structure, buckstays are usually unnecessary. Most
of the load is removed from the side walls, and thus their life
may be prolonged greatly.
Sometimes the rear end of the boiler is suspended from each
end of an overhead cross girder, which is in turn suspended
from its cenier by a ingle suspension rod to overhead structure.
This cross girder is known as an " equalizer, " and it eliminates
unequal Rupport if the founda tion settleR, lightly.
Circulation.- The circulation of water in the H.R.T. boiler at
operating t.cmperatUl'eR is aR follows: ThE' radian t heat of the fire
on the shell causes t h water to rise around each Ride of the shell;
since thE' t ube temperature is somewhat less, the water t hen
return s downward betw en the tubes. Also, t here is some
differenee in circulation at differ nt longitudinal locations. The
hot, gases enter t.he real' ends of the t ubeR, and, as th gases
progreRR toward the fron t, orne of the heat is absorbed by the
boiler \Va t er. Although the temperature of th e gases at the rear
ends may be over lOOO°F., the exit temperature at the front end
may be 500°F. Thus, t he circulation in a longitudinal axis
will t,end to riRe between the tubes at t he rear end of the boiler
and to be downward at t he front end.
Restri cted circula tion in t he H .R.T. boiler is uncommon,
though it is pORRible if extremely heavy scale deposits build up
and block the spac b tween t ubes. In such cases, it is probable
that damage would occur to the boiler by overheating due to
restricted circulation in th e affected parts.
Manholes and Handholes.- The A.S.M.E. Code specifies in
Par. P-25 that Ie all boilers or parts thereof must be provided
with suitable manhole, handhole, or other inspection openings fol'
examination or clearung, except special types of boiler where such
openings are manifestly not n ed ed or used. . . . "
A manhole is required in the upper part of the shell or head of
an H.R.T. boiler over 40 in. diameter. A handhole above the
tubes will suffice for very mall boilers.
H the boiler is 48 in. diameter or larger, a manhole is required
in the front head below the tubes. A manhole or handhole is
required at this location in smaller boilers. When a handhole
is u ed in the froni bead below the tubes, it is preferable to
provide also a handhole in the reer h~e.C below t.he tubes-whether
required by a local code or not. Elimination of this rear handhole
may cause considerable difficulty in cleaning the lower internal
surfaces of the shell.
Feed-water Inlet.-The feed wlJ,ter should enter through the
upper part of the shell or front head, and it, should discharge
clear of any riveted seam or part of
t.he boiler exposed to radiant heat or
high temperatures.
If tbe boiler i over 40 in. diameter,
a manhole is provided above the tubes.
Then the feed piping flhould enter
through a boile:- bushing (Fig. 38).
An internal feed pipe should discharge
t h(' water approximately t,hree-fifths
the lengt.h of the boiler from t.he
hottest end-usually from the front- Fro. 38.-Showing prinCJiple of
;<0 that solidI' in th feed water will boiler bushing.
!lot ue precipitated onto the hot shell plate at the front, where
overheatiug and damage might resu lt.
Fusible Plug.- A fusible plug (see Chap. VI) is required by
!<ome codeR. The proper location is ncar the vertical center line
of the rear tube sheet, not less than 1 in. above the top row of
tubeR. Care should be taken witb any alterations to the rear
Ill'ch lest the fire side of the fusible plug should be isolated from
the products of combustion.
Rating.- The conventional means of rating an H.R.T. boiler
ilS according to its heating surface. Most authorities accept the
·tandard of 10 sq. ft. of water heating urface per boiler horse-
power. The water heating surface of tbis type of boiler is taken
as one-half t he area of the shell plus the total area of all tubes,
based on their inside diameter,· plus two-thirds thc area of the
rear tube. heet minus the aggregate area of the tube holes. The
area of the front tube sheet may be neglected, for the gas tem-
perature is usually too low to cause much evaporation at this
Thus, if L = length, in inches, of the boiler sbell exposed to
the products of combustion,

• Some boiler manufacturers use the outside wh ther tbe (uhf' ie
fire- or watertube.

D = shell diameter, in inches,

N = number of tubes,
1 = length of tubes, in inches,
d = i.d. of the tube, in inches,
H .B. = water heating surface,
= (LX~7rD)+(NXdX 7r Xl)+(0.5236D2_-NXO.7854d2).
H .B. 144
One-tenth of this reAult will be the boiler hOJ'Aepower at 100 per
('cnt rating. The evaporation equivalent, of a boiler horsepower,
34.5 lb. of Ateam per hour with feed wItter at 2l2°F., may be
exceeded by forcing the boiler at a higher rating than that found
by ihe heating surface stl1.nclard , but about, 125 to 150 per cent
is t he usual practical limi tation for this type of boiler. Forcing
t.he outPllt. at Il,bove t.his point may re. ult in difficulties.

Flo. 3ll.- Modern steam loccmotive. (Courte.tlll. The Baldu'in T..oco"wt:i~.

Worka. )

A great many horizontal firebox boilCl's are modifications of the
railroa.d locomotive (Figs. 39 and 40). Although thi type of
• See cha.rts for determining hea.ting surface in Appendix.


boiler may be ideal for a mobile power plant, a for rail service,
it has some limitations in stationary service. These points are
mentioned in the follomng sections.
Advantages.-l. It may be constructed at a reasonably low
2. Its comparative compactness per unit of capacity mak es it
ideal for a portable unit or for use with low headroom.
3. Absence of practically all blickwork and masonry reduces
eost of installation.
4. It is semiportable because of item 3. 11, may be moved
!\ud set up readily in different locations.
5. Tube replacement is a comparatively easy matter.
6. All tubes may be the same size; thus, one spare tube \dl
replace any tube that may fail.
Disadvantages. -For certain l'equiremen ts:
1. Some water space are difficult to clean.
2. The shape and dimensions of the firebox are set by t,he boiler
design and cannot be changed to meet the requirements of
different fuels.
3. Omng partly to item 2, the maintenance costs may be high!'!'
than for the H.R.T. boiler.
4. Owing again partly to item 2, the over-all efficiency of the
boiler may not be so great with high ratings as for some othe!'
5. There arc practical constructional limits for pres ure and
rapa<:ity which may not meet requirement. t
6. Exposure of the firebox plates to radiant heat may lead to
bulging under certain adverse conditionR.
7. In practice, it is UnAble to carry high overloads ,vithoui
being d mag d by overheating.
Gas Flow.- The flow of gases in the locomotive boiler is
straight through the tubes alld out. Unless quite long t ube are
used, the gas exit temperature may be comparatively high at
high ratings with resultant loss in efficiency.
General Details.-A study of Fig. 41 should be made to become
familiar mth the names of the different sheets of boiler plate used
in constructing the locomotive boiler. It is customary in con-
structing the looomotive boiler to rivet or weld the firebox
1 The maximum pressure for which these boilers are manufaotured com-
monly is about 300 lb. per sq. in. at this time.

!, ~cE: ,~ ~c~ t/c 1

~'" 0
:} I , V).g~~
'<-Q '" C
~ q


"_ w
cu ::l
"_<n _g..



~ ~ "~"
~ ">cu_ a

13 0
I... +cj"

~ el

------ {;

sheets- namely, the furnace side sheets, furnace front Rheet.

furnace tube sheet, and crown sheet--and then to rivet the
wrapper sheet and mud ring to this firebox assembly. The
various courses of t.he barrel are then riveted. Last of all, the
barrel assembly and the furnace assembly are riveted together,
and the smokebox tube sheet is installed.
Much confusion exists among operating engineers and others as
to which end of the locomotive boiler is th front. Of course,
raill"Oaders insist that thc front end is that cnd which lead!; the
train. However, when the Jo('omotive boiler is set up for

Mucirlng "
Wafer/eg --~ Furnace ",
wrap'per -
sheet ~
FIG. 42.- 'Vuter-log bottom. fimbox-lYlJe boiler •• '" lld rinlt style.

Furnace ;' Wafer/eg

I urnaceJ}I 0 u f sllJe or
'-Ogee flange _-
FIG. 43.- 1\-ater-Ieg bottom firebox-type boilers. ogee .tyle.

stationary service, tbe stationary engineer may term thc firing

end the front. In order to eliminate confusion, the author
believe it best to cIa sify the ends as th~ "smokebox end" and
the" fi ebox end."
The flat sbeets of the firebox are stay-bolted for support against,
collap e, and the crown sheet is supported by radial or girder
stays, as described in Chap. I.
Water Leg.- The water space between the outside sheets and
the firebox sheets is known as the" water leg," as used on all
horizontal or vertical firebox boilers which have this type of
furnace construction. The inner and the outer sheets are
fastened together at the bot.tom by either a mud ring or an
"ogee" flange (Figs. 42 and 43). The former is more expensive
but is usually more satisfactory, for it is easier to keep clean.
An inherent disadvantage of the ogee flange is that the breathing
action due to expansion and contraction of the furnace may
cause fatigue (see Glossary of Boiler Terms) and cracking.
Future construction will possibly flange the inner and outer
sheet together and bu tt-weld them.
Furnace-mouth Construction.- The furnace mouth may be
constructed with the outside- and inside-door sheets flanged
together, overlapping and riveted, or flanged together and
butt-welded. A cast- or wrought-steel doorframe ring may
be inserted between the unflanged sheets and riveted in
place. Or both sheets may be flanged outward and riveted
("sucker-mouth ") .
Domes.-Con truction of the steam dome has been descri beu
in Chap. I.
Most locomotive boilers are equipped with a steam don1(-
becauf<1:' the steam space and the water surface are limited and
more space for t he-) steam flow to disengage drops of water is
deRirablc. An addit,ional servir.e for the steam dome in railroad
service i,' to house the throttle valve. The t.eam dome is HsualJy
im;talled with it" vertical seam on one of the two long sides of
the dome--this, of course, on one side of the boiler shell. Thu ~,
the longitudinal seam of the dome will not have to be fiangf'd
so sharply.l
Setting.- The stationary locomotive boiler is practically
self-supporting. Usually the firebox end reRts on a brick 01'
r;oncrete floor, supporting that end of the boiler by the mud
ring. A cast-iron cradle under the bart' I rests on the floor, also.
It is important to protect the furnace sheet from overheating
at the mud ring. Also, the bottom few inches of the water leg
may become filled with sediment, and that area, too, should
be protected.
In hand-fired installations, the grate is well above this zone.
But with mechanical firing a firebrick wall should be built up
about 6 in. above the mud ring on all sides of the firebox.
If a thermosiphon arch (shown in firebox, Fig. 40) is used
in the firebox, a firebrick bailie extends one-half to two-thirds of
the way up on these arch tubes to cause the hot gases to make two
I Additional domes other than steam domes are used on railroad loco-

motive boilers for sand storage and other pUlJ>ose$.


passes in the firebox, turbulence being thus produced and com-

bustion aided.
Circulation.-The thermosiphon arch is an important factor in
eliminating sluggish circulation in the throat of the boiler. As
the water is heated, it sweeps upward in the throat and side
water legs and back into the barrel. In the barrel, water rises
between the tubes, then courses downward against the cooler
sides of the barrel, returning through the throat to complete
the cycle.
Manholes and Handholes.-If the diameter of the barrel
exceeds 48 in. , a manhole is required above the tubes. Often
a removable bolted dome head takLs the place of a manhole.
Brass washout plugs usually 2 in. in diameter are often used
instead of handholes. The proper location for either is as fol-
lows: One near each lower corner of the water leg (four); one in
the door sheet or wrapper sheet in line with th crown; one in
the smokebox tube sheet below the tubf's; and, if possible, one
near th throat sheet. These openings are required for inspection
purpose$. as well as for wa, hing out the boiler and should no t
be used as pipe connections.
Piping Connections.- The main , team line and the safety-valve
nozzle are located on the dome if this is provided; otherwise,
they are on the top of the barrel.
The blowdown line should be connected to the lowest part of
the water leg. It is usually in the throat sheet.
The upper connection to the water column is tied into the top
of the door sheet or of the wrapper sheet The lower connection
should be tapped into the water leg not less than 18 in. above
the mud ring. If it were nearer to the bottom, sediment accumu-
lations might block the line and lead to a false water-level
indication. !
The lowest visible part of the water glass hould be not less
than 3 in. above the highest part of the crown sheet. It is
extr mely important that this should be checked carefully by
measurement before starting a fire in a newly installed boiler.
If the floor is level, the elevation of each of these two points may
be measured, the floor being used as a common base.
The feed-water pipe should not discharge into the wa.ter leg or
directly above the crown sheet. The former condition results
1 This is true with all water-lei or firebox types of boiler.
in the severe stressing of the furnace sheet exposed to radian~
heat on one side and the chilling effe ·t of feed water on the other.
In the second instance, solids in the feed water may be precipi-
tated onto the crown sheet and result in scale formation and
8ludge accumulation-an exceedingly dangerous condition at
this point.
Fusible Plug.-A fusible plug (see hap. VI), should be
installed at the highest part of the crown sheet. Thi plug should
be of the outside type, projecting through at least 1 in. Regard-
less of the fact that such a plug is not required in some statei'
the author is convinced of the mgency of following thi rule for
locomotive firebox boilers.
In most boilers, if the water level accidentally drops several
inche: below the gage glass, the worst that usually happens i'
leaky tube ends or failure of several tubp.s. However, in the
firebox boiler, such an occurrence bares the 'rown sheet and a
di9astrous explosion may result. The cost of installing and
maintaining a fusible plug is well worth while for providing warn-
ing of the approach of this condition.
Welded-in Tubes.-It is not un common to increase the heat-
ing surface of this type of boiler by use of a large number of small
tubes (or "flues" as they are k own in railroad nomenclature).
If the tubes do not exeeed 1,Y2 in. diameter, the A.S.M.E. Code
permit!! the tube sheet to be chamfered or recessed to not less
than the t ube thickne s. The t.ubes may then be expanded and
welded in this recess to the tube sheet. In order to protect them
from burning off, the tube ends should not extend more that1
% in. beyond the tube sheet.
Rating.- Tlle heating surface of til locomotive boiler is the
sum of t.he area of all furnace sheets above the grate line, thermo-
siphon t ubes (if u ed), the CroWD she t, all fire tubes, and the
area of the firebox tube sheet minus t he area of the tube holes.
The area of t.he smokebox tube sheet is disregarded usually.
One-tent.h of the total area in square feet equals the rated boiler
The Economic-type boiler (Fig. 44) is an adaptation of the
H.R.T. boiler, giving somewhat greater heating surface per
sqnare foot of floor spac. An added a.dvantage i that th

required amount of brickwork is much less since the boiler is

self-supporting in its special casing. The rear end is supported
by an iron cradle under t he shell. The boilers of this type may
be shipped as a unit with furnace walls held in position by a
permanent steel casing. The construction principles, piping
connections, and circulation are essentially t he same as those of

FIG. 44.-Economic boiler. A 2-pa88 fira-tube boiler . (Passes refer to direction

of gas flow .) (CourtcslI. Erie Cily I ran Works .)

t he H.R.T. boiler. Al 0, the practical limitations for pre sure

and capacity are ·imilar.
Because the rear cour e of t he shell plate is oval-shaped, thf~
Hat surface on each side requires bracing as a stayed surface.
This requirement is met by through-braces passing between
horizontal rows of tubes from side to side. The ends of these
brace are riveted over. The pitch and size of these braces
calculated by the same method as for diagonal stays in an H.R.T.
boiler (see Chap. I), except that a stress of 9,500 lb. per sq. in.
is permitted in these cross braces, for they arC' somewhat stronger
in a "direct pull" than in a diagonal position.
In the Economic boiler, the fusible plug, jf used, is located jn
the rear head. If the distance between the top row of tubes and
the top of the shell is over 13 in., the fusible plug should be at
least 2 in. above the top row of tubes. Other-wise, it may be
located not 10lyer than the upper part of the top row of tubes.
TLere are numerOl.S boilers of the horizontal firebox type that
arc adaptations and combinations of the locomotive and Eco-
nomic types. Many of these are built for a maximum pressure
of 15 lb. per sq. in. and are used for heatillg service primarily.
The firebox sh ets are sl,ayed as in the locomotive type. Weld-
ing is used often for installing stay 1>olts and in attaching the
upper part of the water lrgs to the shell. This welding is not
required to be radiographically examined or to be stres '-relieved,
for the de. ign and service are lirnited to a maximum of 15 lb.
per sq. in. Most code requirc such boil I'S to be subj cted to a
hydrostatic presRure of 60 lb. P CI' sq. in. and to a hammer test
along the wC'lcl('n Reams before the boiler is Rt,amped.
The vertical fire-tube boiler is used where floor space is at a
premium and the pressure and capacity requirements come 'within
the scope of t hiR typ of boiler.
Types.- Thcl'<> are four general types of boiler that come under
this clas ification. They are tbe Rt,andaJ'd straight-shell type
(Fig. 45) the Manning (Fig. 46), the tapered-courRe (Fig. 47),
and the submerged-head (Fig. 48).
Tbe Manning and the tapered-caUl's type provide 11 greater
grate area and furnace volume, which permit somewhat better
combustion efficiency.
The submerged-bead type w s developed to prevent overheat-
ing of the upper ends of the tubes, which are in the steam spac
in the standard vertical fire-tube boiler. Overheating and dam-
age result sometimes when the latter boiler is forced or too hot a
fire maintained when starting up. A low fire is es entia] until

steam generation starts. Then the upper enns of the t.ubes may
be "cooled" by steam.
Capacities and Pressures.-The maximum practical capacity
of the vertical tubular boiler i about 300 boiler hp., and t he
maximum usual pressure is in the neighborhood of 200 lb. pel'
sq. in. The higher capacities are obtained generally oy use of
a large number of ~mall diameter tubeR.

Fla. 45. FlO. 46. Flo. ·17.

FlO. 45.-Stl'aight-shell v rtioal tuhulul' I oiler. (Courte81/, Int ornational ErtOi-
n.erino Work., ]nc.)
FIo. 46.-Manning hailer. (OlJurt BY , l11.l.ernational Enoinecri'IO Works, I1Ic.)
Fla. 47.- Tapored-ooul's· vertioal tubular boiler. (CourtCBI/, International
E1Ioi"ecrino Works, 1no.)

1. Thc cost of construction is comparatively low.
2. A minimum area of floor space is required.
3. The tubes are all th sam size, one tube for a spare being
thus suffioient for any repla ement.
4. The boiler is seU-contained, requiring litt] or no brickwork.
5. The boiler is semiportable because of item 4. It can be
moved and set up readily in dH'fer nt locations.
1. Limitations as to capacity and pressur may not meet
reqnirement .
FIIlE-7'1 HIl' ROlLER. 75
2. The internal furnace has fixed dimen ions which cannot be
altered to meet requirements for a change in fuel. (Brick exten-
sions-"Dutch ovena"-may overcome this disadvantage to a
certain extent.)
3. Limitations in furnace volume
make operation at ratings of over
about 125 p r cent impractical.
4. A comparatively high heac1-
room is required.
5. With the straight-shell type of
boiler, tube maintenance may be
high un d e r abnormal operating
Gas Flow.-The products of com-
bustion are not turned by bnffleR in
these boilers but pass straight up
through the t ubes to the flue OJ'
Blowdown Connection and the
Water Leg.-At least one blow-
down connection at least 1 in. diam-
eter, but not over 2)1' in. , should
be provided in t he lowest part of
the water leg. The shell is rein-
forced at the point of connection,
usually with a riveted pad, 1'0 as (.0
provide t he proper numb J' of
threads for th blowdown pipe.
The water leg i an ideal poin t T .}"IG. 4 .-Submorgod-buad \ ' .
fu'o-tu be boiler. The upper
for sludge to settle, and any ac- tube sh oet is below tho normal
level. «('0"rl.• 81/. Jame.
cumulation that builds up to the Lwater ofTd &: Co.)
area exposed to the fire usually
causes overheating and serious damage to the furnace sheet.
For this reason, it is well to provide at least two blowdown con-
nections in the larger diameter boilers. These connections
should be at widely separaten points so as to provide th most
effective means of sediment removal.
Sometimes an endless chain i installed in the bottom of the
water leg. When the boiler is opened for cl aning and the hand-
hole plates are removed. this chain is pulled around t.o r.onvey

the sludge and loose :-;eale to t,he handholes where it may be

The of the water leg is closed by either a mud ring or
an ogee flange as in the locomotive and ot her firebox boilers. The
mud ring is slightly more expensive but is the preferred construc-
tion. The ogee construction was banned by the Massachusetts
Boiler Code for many years because it. was considered susceptible
to crar-king.
Flanged-together and welded const.ruction may be general
practice in the future.
The riveted seam at the bottom of the water leg should be pro-
tected by several courses of firebrick which should extend about
4 to 6 in. above the seam. An additional pmpose of this brick-
work is to protect the furnace sheet from overheating due to any
sediment that may not be removed by the blowdown and that.
may accumulate between the cleanout periods.
Circulation.-The water against t he furnace sheet rises and
then passes up between the tubes. Since the shell (alt hough
usually .insulated) is exposed to room temperature, this is t he
cooler surface and the water circulates downward againRt the
shell of the boiler.
R striction of circulation in the water leg is possible if heavy
scale or sludge deposits build up. Serious damage may then
Manholes and Handholes.- A manhole in straight shell-type
boilers is rare. However, there are some tap red-course boilers
in which the middle course of the shell is tap red to a larger
diametcr to obtain greater furnace sizc, as in the Manning boil er.
There is considerabl space between the shell and t he lower part
of tb tnhes, and a manhole may be provided in the shell just
above th level of the crown sheet.
If the boiler is not Ie s t han 24 in. diameter, seven hand holes
are required for cleaning and inspection purposes. Three of
these are equally spaced in the shell at the lower part of the water
leg, three are spaced equally at the level of the crown sheet, and
one is located in the shell near the water line or opposite the fusi-
ble plug if one is used.
If the boiler is under 24 in. diameter, it should have a handbole
at the level of the crown sheet and two handboles or threaded
washout plugs at t,he lower pa rt of t he J g.
Some of the smallest size boilers are built without any water
leg; that is, the furnace is bricked in around the lower tube sheet. I
In this case, a handhole near the water line is substituted for
t.he one at the crown-sheet level.
Submerged-head-type boilers require at least two handhole6
in the shell at the level of th e upper tube sheet in addition to the
aforementioned Dumber, unless the boiler is les t han 24 in.
diameter. In this case, one handhole at the same level will
Feed-water lnlet.- The proper location for the feed-water
eOlmection iR in (he sh IJ at least 12 in. above the level of the
crown sheet. The exception to t his rule is that, for small boilers
with tuhes less than 4 n. long, the feed-water connection may be
one-fourth the length of t he tube above the crown-sheet, level.
DiHcharge of thE' feed water through the shell into the water leg
should not be t,olpratec.l, for the bot furn ace sheets would thereby
be Rtressed severely owing to temperature extremes. Localized
corrosion might result, also.
Fusible Plug.- The fu sible plug, if used, is of the out ide type
and is screwC'd into a tube in the outside row, not; lower than
one-third the height of the tubc. This tube !:lbould be extra
heavy so that four full thrcads will be in fuJI contact. The fusible
plug iH made aecessible by n. handbole opening.
Rating.- The heating surface is the sum of the areas of the
furnace sheet above the fire lin e, th Cl'O"wn sheet minus the total
area of all tub holc,~, and the total arca of all tub s up to tbe
level of the middle gage cock. The boiler horsepower at, 100
per cent rating i on e-tenth of t he heating sur-face.
Water-column Connections.- The upper connection from
the water column is tapped into t he upper part of the Abell.
The lower conneetion should b made to the shell at lea, t 6 ill .
below the lowest safe water I vel, but not lower than 18 in. above
the mud ring. The latter restliction is to prevent t he possibility
of this line becoming blocked with sediment accumulations in the
water leg.
The lowest safe water level is not Jess than one-tbird the height
of the tube above the croWD sheet. The lowest visible part,

J Boilens of this type have the lower tube sheet flanged in 80 that the
riveted 8f!8Jn will be protect ed against, overheating.

of the gage glass should be at least 2 in. above this elevation.

In order to take advantage of the maximum practical amount
of tube heating surface, it is customary to locate the middle of
the gage glass about two-thirds the height of the tubes.
Steam Outlets.- The safety-valve nozzle and steam-line
nozzle are connected to the upper part of the shell by riveting or
fusion welding (according to the A.S.M .E. Code requirements) .
Most codes require that the safety valve hould be installed on
an independent connection, and hence the two nozzles.
Because of its compactne ·s, t he Scot,eh boiler was developed
primarily for marine service, although in lat.e years t,be t rend iH

FIG. 49a.- Scokh marine boiler. Longi tudinal seotion . (Courte.lI, The Hodoe
Boiler Work•. )

towards watertube boilers at sea. Stationary practice bas

developed a so-called" dry-back" type boiler in which the stay-
bolted rear combustion chamber is replaced by brickwork.
Figures 49a, 49b and Fig. 50 show the Scotch marine and the
Scotch dry-back boilers, respectively.
1. A rrunimum of space is required.

2. A minimum amount of brickwork is required, especially for

the marine type.
3. The required headroom is comparatively low.
4. The tubes are all the same size, one spare sufficing for any
1. Because of the large diameter, there are sometimes som~
circulation diffieuJt,ies when starting up.

FIG. 49b.- Scotch marine boilol'. Half front olevation Illld cross soction through
furnace. (Courtesy. 'i'he BodO" Boiler Work •. )

2. The internal furnaces are of fixed dimension, and alteration

to mett requirements of fuel changes is not po sible wit.hout
bllilding a brick extension (Dutch oven).
3. Some of the internal surfa 'es are difficult of access during
cleaning or inspecting.
4. There is a practical limit, for capacity and pressure that
may not satisfy requirements.
5. The maximum portion of heating surface--the tubes-i '
hidden from the radiant heat of the fire, the efficiency being thus

limited as compared with that of high-capacity wat.crtube

General Construction.-Methods of calculating stresses and
pressures bave been described in Cbap. I.
The Scotch boiler is internally fired. The furnaces are usually
braced against collapse by corrugations, although the Adamson-
, ype furnace is sometimes used. Tbe plain circular furnace i
!Jot u 'ed except for moderate diameter and pressure.
Owing to the limitation in furnace volume, it is not uncommon
to use a Dutch oven in burning suspended fu els (gas, oil, or
pulverized coal).
The dry-back Scotch boiler is quite Rimilar to the H.R.T. with
the exception of th e internal furnace, and it differs from the wet-

Fla. 50.- Leffel 'cotc b Boilor-Portable (a Dry-back type) the circulating tube
oonnecting the top and bottom of the corrugated furnace should be noted. This
i8 used in those Leffel uni ts of 50 H .P . and larger to faciJitu,!o circulation , thus
increasing efficiency and eliminatinj:: alup:gi sb circulation below the furnaoe.
(Court.SII. The Jame8 Leffel ,f' Company.)

back marine type in that the gas flow is diverted back into the'
rear end of the tubes by a brick arch instead of a crown sheet.
The Scotch bruler may be by far the largest, in diameter of any
fire-tube boiler, being built up to about 15 ft. diameter. Since
the area of the segment of heads above the tubes is large, diagonal
stays are usually preeluded because of the great number that
would be required. Instead, it is customary to use a smaller
number of head-to-head through-stays of 2 to 3 in. diameter.
In boilers of large diameter, it is the praotice to use more than
one furnace. Two, three, or even four furnaces are used in the
large boiler of this type.
Gas Flow.- The path of the products of combustion is simple.
It passes to the rear through the furnace or furnaces to the rear
combustion chamber. H ere the flow is turned hack by the rear
arch or crown sheet into the t ube' where the flow is to the front
and out into the smokebox and the stack breeching.
Setting.-The Scotch boiler is elf-supporting. The bottom
of the shell rests in two or more cast-il'on cradles. The dry-back
type require a firebrick lining in the rear combustion chamber
and a firebrick arch. The wet-btLck marine type may dispense
with all brickwork exeept a small bridge wall in t he furnaces to
support the rear of grates when used.
There j . a pitch of 1 to 2 in. to t he rear so that sediment may
work back to th bJowdowll for removal.
P iping Connections.- The blowdown line is connected by
screwing into a riveted pad on the bottom of the shell near the
lower end.
The steam and safety-valve nozzles are on the top of the sheU,
as with other horizon tal fire-tube boiler. It is sometimes con-
sidered ~est to have t he stenm outlet at the front, for the hottest
gases entering the l'ear ends of t he tubeR cl),use the most violent
ebullition of steam bubbles at the rear. Since the water surface
at the front end is somewhat calmer, it is claimed by some t hat
drier steam results.
The feed-water pipe enters through a boiler bushing at the
upper front part of the shell or through the top of the front head
as in the R.R. T. boiler. It discharges near the middle or is
carried down below the furnace by an illternal pipe.
The water-column connect.ions are the same as in t he H.R.T.
boiler, the team line being connected from the top of the front
head or shell and the water connection from the lower part.
The lowest safe level for the lowest visible part of the gage
glass is 3 in. above the highest part of the crown sheet for the
wet-back marin!> type of boiJer. For the dry-back type, it if'
3 in. above the top row of tubes.
Circulation.- The water rises between the tubes, usually
faster at the rear half than in front. Because the shell plates are
exposed to room temperature, the water travels downward
alongside the shell and completes the cycle.
Owing to the large diameters of some of these boilers, it is
difficult to bring the water up to steaming temperature in a cold

boiler in less than 24 hr. or even longer. Forced circulation is

sometimes resorted to, a pump piped up to the upper and lower
parts of the boiler being used. This method cuts down the
warming-up time without causing excessive temperature stresses.
Manholes and Handholes.- If the boiler is over 48-in. diam-
eter, the A.S.M.E. Code requires a manhole above the tubes in
the shell or heads. If the boiler is large enough to afford access,
&. manhole is provided in the front head above and below the
furnaces. Otherwise, large-size handholes (4 by 6 in.) are used
at these points. Handholes or manholes are also provided in the
front head between the furnace and the shell. With the wet-
back marine type, a handhole or handholes should be installed
in the rear head near the bottom of th water leg.
Fusible Plug.- A fusibl e plug should be used with the w t-back
type whether required by local codes or not; for if the water level
drops and exposes the crown sheet, dangerOUR failure may reRult .
The fusible plug should be oi the outside type, screwed into thp
higheRt part of the crown Aheet and projecting through at least,
1 in.
The fu ible plug is not, flO important for the dry-back boilN
although it is required by t he MaRsachusett Boiler Code. If
used, it is located in the middle of the rear head not Ie. s than 1 in.
above the Lop row of tubes.
Rating.- The water heating :;wiace of the wet-back marine
type is tb sum of the furnace-. beet areas (usualJy secured from
the manufacturer) , all rear combustion-chamber sheets, minu"
the aggregate area of the tube and furnace holes from the rear
head, and the total area of all tubes.
The water heating sUiface of the dry-back type is the ar a
of the furnaces, plus two-thirds the area of the rear head, exclud-
ing the tube and furnace holes, and the total areu of all tubes.
As with other boilers, the rated boiler horsepower is one-tenth
the water heating urface.
A recent adaptation of the Scotch boiler is the Oilbilt boiler
(Fig. 51). This boiler is constructed specially for oil burning.
By use of the baffles shown, it diverts the gases in four passes.
The path of water circulation in this boiler is directly upward
from the bottom and around the furnace, with downward circula-
tion around the sides of the ahell. The internal furnace is of
the Adamson-ring type for small sizes. Larger sizes use a single
rolled corrugation to allow for expansion. The upper drum is
used to supply dry steam at all ratings.
The results of a complete t.est on one of these units appear in
Chap. IX. The high gas velocity through the multiple passes
makes high ratings possible with very good operating efficiency.

Fro. 51.-0ilhilt boiler.

Questions and Answers


7S. Why, inRLcad of through-to-head stays, are diagonal staya not used
below t,hc t.ubes, as above tho tubes, to brace the tube sheet? .
Am. Because there is USUI\lly insufficient room for the proper number
without placing them too close together or using sizes larger than is prac-
t.ical. Also, they would tend to hold 10080 scale and sludge and prevent its
free movement to the blowdown.
74. How much space should there be in front of the boiler in planning
Am. Sufficient room for replacement of tubes.
76. If on looking in the furnace the bottom of the shell is found to be
bulged, what should be done?
Am. The boiler should be shut down immediately and then inspected
by lin authorized boiler inspector. His recommendations should be followed
before returning the boiler to service.
'16. Why are boilers over 72 in. diameter required to be supported by the
outside-suspension type of setting?
Am. Because the weight of the larger boilers may be in excess of the safe
load on brickwork. Crushing or buckling of the walls might result from the
load of a large boiler full of water.

TV. What are two dangerous condit ions offered by a weakened rear arch?
Ana. (1) If t he arch collapses wholly or in part, t he upper part of the
Tear tub" sheet mtly become overheated and damaged. (2) Anyone walking
on top of the arch may cause it to collapso, and he will fall through to a horri-
ble death.
78. What precaution is required with a fiush-front-set H.R.T. boiler?
Ans. The front arch protects t h dry-sheet an d front bead seam from
damage by overheating. This arch should be kept in goot! ()ondition.
79. Why should the hole in the brick wall th rough which tbe blowdown
pipe passes be inspected?
An8. To sec that t he pipe is not resting on the bottom of t he opening.
If it does, it is an indication that t ho boiler is probably settling and that it
may not have sufficient clearance to allow frell expansion and cOlltraction.
80. Would loose bricks lying in the fu'ebox be of any interest? If so,
Am. They might be from the losing-in lin e or from some point where
they are supposed to protect part of the boiler from overheating. Al so,
they might be from a poin t where their lOMs wo ul d wea ken t he walls.
81. Name three poin ts wh erp brickwork should protect t he boiler front
Arl8. The rear arch, the closing-in-line along t ho sides of the shell, and
the front arch in the fiush-front-sei boiler.
82. How and under what condi tions may t.he segments of the hends " hovp
the tube dispense with dingonal or thl'ough-stuY8? In boilers not exceeding 36 ill. d iam eter or 100 lb. pCI' "q . in. 1l1I1xi.·
mum allowablp. pressure, the segm ents m tLy he hraced by st.iffening witl,
channel irons or angle irons (riveted bnck to back) ri vetor] to the i ube sheet"
The specifications for structural form sbould comply with Code rules.
83. What dangers are there in settling of the boiler foundation or sup-
porting walls?
Am. Severe stresses may b e Bet up in the piping (collnections to the
boiler) or in the boiler itself. The brickwork protecting parts from over-
h eat ing may be dislodged. Sludge may settle at the hot end of the boil er
and cause overheating and damage. If serious, the walls may become
weakened and collapse.
M. What is the maximum height of the fire line ?
Am. Below the lowest safe wat r level.
86. What is the lowest safe water level ?
Am. One in ch above t he top row of tubes.
86. What is a strongback?
Ana. It is a bar bolted to the tube sheet to prevent the sheet from buck-
ling when the stays are put in tension before the tubes are installed.
87. If the boiler is pitched forward slightly, what should be done ?
Am. Unless the installation was designed in this way with the blow-
down in front, the boiler should be reset with tho proper pitch toward the
real' as soon as possible. In the meantime, the boiler should be shut down
frequently and the manhole or bandhole in t he front head below the tubes
removed . All sediment should be washed out. The frequency of t hese
washoUts depends upon t he rapidity with which sediment aooumula.tes.
88. What is the rlifference in a through-brace and a through-to-heacl
brace? each used? Why?
Am. The through-brace has wfishers and nuts on each end. The
through-to-head brace has nuts and washers on one end; the other end is
forged into an eye that is held clear of the rear head by a pin or other con-
struction. The through-stays may be used above t he tubes, for the reo.r
outside nuts are protected from burning off by I he rear arch.
Tbe tbrough-to-hclicl braces a re used below the tubes where the rear eons
have to be protected from t he high-temperat,ure gases.
89. If a fusib le plug is used, wh ere should it be IO(ll1tcu?
A 11,8 . Ncar t he center line of the rear tube sheet not less than 1 in. above
t,he top row of tubes.
90. In AilS. 89, why near t he cent er line?
A 1\8. BHcause this is the highest part of the rear arch (unlcss Ii " fl at "
'1reh is usecl ), nnd this extra space is often Iwcdod for use of a wrench.
91. How lllay I.he maxiIIlulJl pr llHure for whir:h t hl' boil or is COJ:lstru ctNI
be discovered '/
Ans. From Ih (' standard st"m ping on t.h" fron t, tube ~ h eet above the
92. Where is th p Illud drum on nn H.R.T . boiler?
Ans. There j~ no mud drum.
93. How may t ht' proper height of 11 water column be r.hccked?
Ana. Filll,he hoil er wi th wa,tel' to a level 3 in. "bove th e top row of tubes
at their higheHt end (usually the frout). The water column should b 11t II
level where water JURt Ahows in the bottom of the gage glass. Or th(· height
of a water column may he "her'ked by measurem ent from any common point
of elevation.
94. Why do the fl at scgmcIl LS of the tube shccl,s or heads rCl] illre bracing?
A 1\8. Because internlil pressure tends to bulge these arelLs outward in to
a semispherical shape.


96. What are tho sheets of a locomotive boiler?

Am. Barrel or shell , smokebox tube sheat, dom e shell, dome head,
wrapper sheet, throat sheet, fir box side sheets, fIrebox tube sheet, crown
sheet, inside-door sheet, and outside-door sheet .
96. Where is the fusible plug?
Am. In the highest part of the crown sheet, projecting through at least
1 in.
97. Where should the standard stamping be located?
Am. On tho outside-door shoet, usually over the firing door.
98. Where is the most dangerou~ part of the boiler in case of low water ?
Am, The crown sheet.
99. From which end are tubes removed and replaced?
Am. The smokebox end.
100. How are the firebox sheets supported?
An". The side, door, and throat sheets are supported by stay bolts. The
crown sheet is supported by radial or girder stay...

101. How may expansion of long firebox side sheets be aocommodated?

A ns. Vertical corrugations in the sheets are used between several of the
vertical rows of stay bolts.
102. What are required with sling sta.ys that are not needed with radial
AnB. Crown bars and girder stays.
103. What are the advantages and dj~advaDtages of radial stays am:
girder stays?
Ans. The radial stays are more flexible ~nd lend to hold less scale from
circulation than girders. About the only advantage for the girder stays is
that t hey pass straight t hrough the sheet rather than at an angle.
104. If the segment of the smokebox t ube sh!'et below the tubes requires
bra,:ing, what type of stay may be used?
Ans. Any approved type of diagonal stay.
105. Where is the llsual location for the manhole?
Ans. In the dome head, 01' in the shell if no dome is used.
106. How many manholeR flre used in 0. locomotive boiler? Explain
your answer.
A ns. One. Thc part of the barrel over tbe tubes is the only part of the
iut,erior that is accessible.
107. What should be the lowest level for the bottom nut of the gage glru;s?
A ns. 'rhe lowest v isible par t of the glass should be at least 3 in. above
I,he highest part of t he crown sheet,
108. How fllr through the sheets should the ends of stay bolts extend
, efore they are riveted over?
Am. Not less than two threads.
109. If both flexible stl~y bolts and solid stay bolts are used, how should
they be arranged? Explain your answer.
Ana. The floxible stay bolts should be install d in the top two rows, all
I,he way around. The greatest furnace expansion and resultant stay-bolt
hreakage occur !It this point.
tlo. May stay bolts be welded in?
A 118. The A.S. M.E. Code does not permit welded-in stay bolts for over
I r. lb. pressure.
111. Wily should not the feed water discharge into the \Vat r leg?
An.. The cooling action of the water against t he hot furnace sheets
would (:I\IlSP serious stresses and probable damage.
112. For what purposes arc smokebox doors?
Ans. InsRection, cleaning, and tu l e replacement.
113. What is tho advantage of the thermosiphon arch?
A ns. It inorcaa s the capacity of the boiler, relieves expansion stresses,
and improves combustion by providing better turbuJence.
114.. With reference to Ans. 113 how does the thermosiphon arch ulcreasb
tbe capacity?
Ana. By eliminating dead-gas pockets in the upper and lower corners of
the firebox and sluggis!l water circulation in the throat.
116. What type of boiler is this in regard to firing? Explain your answer.
Am. Internally fired, for the furnace is within the boiler proper.


116. Name four types of firiug-door construction in a V.T. boiler.

Ans. F langed together and riveted, flanged together and butt-welded,
both sh eets flanged out and riveted (sucker-mouth ), riveted dooTframe ring.
117. What are the frmr typns of V.T. boilpr?
Ans. Sta ndard straight-shell , Manning, taprred-shell , and Bubmorgcd-
118. What ar the reasons for Or advantages in t he deviations from the
standard type of til(> other t.ypes Darned in AOH. 1J 7?
Am. The submerged head prut.erls the upper eods of the tubes frolll
overheating. The Manni ng I1ml tapered-shell types 1~1l0" n. !luger gmtc
area and furnace volu l11e.
119. On what point. of construction is tho ulI\xin,um ttll owablc pressure
hased in the standard V.T. boiler'?
An8. On t he ability of the sbell or furnace, whichever is t he wel1ker, to
rcsist collapse.
120. What additional method is used ill cl~lcu l l1ti ng t hc maximum ,dlow.
:I,hle pres.~ure of a Manning boiler ?
Ans. It is n ecc~sary to figW'l' t he strength of t he shc,ll at iiS point oj
grcal.est di amet,er, between the reverse fl ange ami t he top row of stay bol1 R.
121. Is the Economic boi ler internally fired?
A m. No. Its cOlllbustion chambC'r is stp<11-eu(~Asp.d, but the cusillg iH
1I0t 11 prcssure part of t.he boiler.
122. What arc four interually firm! boilers'!
Ans. Vert ical tuhula r, locomotive, Scotch marine, and S,~otc h dry-back.
123. ,"Vhat hoi ler has a crown sheet that is braced simuarly to the loco-
motive crown sbeet?
Ana. Th e Scotch marine boiler.
124. What int.ernally fired boil!)r has frequently more than one furnace?
How many has it?
Ans. The Scotch marine or t he Scotch dry-back often has two to four
(' i reular f II rnaces when the boiler ;5 af la rge diamcter.
126. How arC internal fUIflI1ces braced?
A ns. II flat, thcy a rc stay-bol ted . If circu lar, they mllY be thic~
('lIough to be self-supporting for moderate pressures. II t h 'Y Ilre not thicl
enough, they may be stlty-bolted, corrugated , or brllced by Adamson rings.
126. If used, where should t he fusible plug be located in any boil~r?
Am. Not lower than the lowest safe water level.

127. What would caus .. fire tube to burst or explode?

Am. Fire tubes are normally under external pressure. They may
collapse but do not burst.
128. How should a boiler b prepared for inspection?
Am. Extinguish t he fire , and allow the boiler to cool slowly. When it is
cool, open t he blowdown and drain, venting the boiler to p,tmosphere.

The soot and ashes should then be blown '~nd swept clear of all tubes, shell
plates, heads, and seams 11nd every accessible external surface.
The blowdr)wn valve should be shut if any otber boilers feed this line.
The manhole, hand hole p lates, and inspection plugs sbould then b · removed.
All loose deposits of sludge or other sediment, should be washed out. The
blowdown valve shou ld b opened only wilen it is certain that there is no
pressure in tbe line and no Olle inside the boiler. Attached scale or oil
deposits should be loft for t he inspector to see.
A hoiler properly p!"epltred for inspection should be cool, clean, and dry.
It is adv islLbl' t,o attach a red tag marked " Man in boiler" to the steam,
blowdown, feed, and fncl valves and a lso to t he manhole plate wbenever any-
one is in the boiler.
129. How nre d iagonal stays instftll d?
Am. Wben t he crowfoot is against tbe head, tile holes in t he shell should
l>e 80 placed lhnt the holos in the palm of the stay are about 7!l2 in. shy
of lininp; up . Often, t he crowfoot is bolted to the h<'.l1d, and t.he shell Or
palm holes ''''l' marked off and drilled to moet this r ·quiremcnt. The crow-
foot is then ri vel;ed to t h() hear!. The stltY is elongated 80 that. the shell and
palm hol es lin e up. This effect may be aceomplishcd by beating, but !~
driftpill is of ton sl()up;cd in onc hole to serve the purpo~e. The palm is
riveted in pORition, and the stay becomes in tension to support the head.
Diagonnl stays are installed before t he t uues arc. The tube sheet JOust b('
hold from buckling by a strongback un til the tubes IIr() pu t in.
130. May f\ slIfety-valve nozzle or steam nozzlo be inserted flush ,· n.1
butt-welded to the boiler shell ?
A 118 . Yes, if all requirements for fusion-weld ed I oilers arc met.
131. Briefly, what arc these requiroments?
Ans. The joints sho uld be fu sion-weld ed by certificd wclders. They
should be Bubj eoted to stress relicving, radiographic examination, and a
hydrostatic and a hammer test l>y an a uthorized inspecto r.
132. Of what valu is a steam dome?
A 118. It is d signed to give drier steam, and it adds very slightly to
the steam-storage capacity of the boiler.
133. How large a steam dome IDIl.Y be used?
Am. A stoam dome may be as Il1rge as 0.6 X the shell diameter unless
t he dome h ead or shell is stayed fully to the neutral shoet of the boiler
ehell. In the latter case, the dome may not excced 0.8 X the boiler-shell
134. How should a dome be attached to t he boiler shell?
Am. If the dom e is 24 in. diameter or over, it should be double-riveted
or doublc-full-fillet-welded. If under 24 in. diameter, it should be double-
full-fiUet-weld ed, or sin gle-riveted unless the dome diameter X the maximum
pressure in pounds per square inch exceeds 4,000. Double riveting is then
required . If the double full-fillet welding is lIsed, the weld m ust meet all
specifications for f usion welding except that the X-ray examination may
be omitted.
186. Where and whY' are drain holes required in a steam-dome installation?
Ana. A drain is required on each side of the dome in t.he lowes t part of
the neutral sheet so that condensate will not collect and possibly cause
136. Maya dome hllve a lap-riveted longi tudinal seam?
Ans. Yos, if t he dome is under 24 in. diameter nnel the max-imulD working
pressure is calculated with 8 as a fllctor of Rafety.
137. What other types of seam in Question 136 ma.y be used?
Ans. But t-aud-doub le-strap, or butt~welded if all mquircmcuts for
fusion welding art' com plied with.
138. Wlutt prceautioJlR sh()uld be t"t.k(Jn before entering a boiler shell?
A1l8. If th(' b lowclown ent.pr8 a rl)mmon line wi th other hoi lorH in opern.-
tiol1, i1, mu st he (wr1ain thl1t all vfdvc~ on t he line to the open hoiler aT('
(·loserl. If other uoiJers are operl1ting on t he salUe stel1m bCltd('r, both stop
valves must. 1)(' dOsed and the drip valve between them open. Any other
vILlves OIl lin os wldor pressure le,.d ing t:o the boiler must he cho(,kcd. The
('np;in"'~r in chlLrge And t.hl' op('rHlor on (lut y Illust be t.old thHt 80tn~O n ~
iH J,!;oi )( g in ~ id e. A r spollsihl l' P CI'KO I1 should hI' Htationerl itt the manhole
or I' l1t'" II(''' doors while anyone is inside !'he boiler.
139. \Vhlli docs an inspector do in followinp; the ~onstruction of II boiler
through the shop 'f
Am. On t hH first visit, 11(' t']l eck~ tl!p ('1H'Uli<:nl and physielll propurties
of t he st,eel from t.he mil l t,est r port s to R('U if they m",p( Codf' r('quire men t~.
He t hen checks the mdt and Sll\b number" on (h('s(' reports wit.h Ill(' numhers
stamped on the ph,tcs to identify t llPlO . 'rhe shop st.l1ndiug is checked to
seE' if t he shop is authorized to cOllstruct boilers for t he state iuto which
t.he boiler is to be carriod " nd instfillcd. The platt's are CXamill()d for finy
visible defects, as Rcars, gouges, or lam inaLions. The tltickness of the plllt('R
is gllged, a tolerance of 0.010 in. under thl1t specified bciug all owed . Th e
design of the proposed boiler ,is checked to Bce if it meets ode specificatiorlN.
A second visit iR made to check methods used for riveting or welding, PT('-
paring calking 'dges, rivet. boles, t ube holos, nnd assembling t.he boiler.
A third visit is made on com pl etion to view a hydrostat ic !'est and examin e
t he geneml workmanship j if th boi ler has been completed satisfactorily
in accordan ce with Code specifications, t,he boi ler is stamped and the manu-
facturer's data sheets are signed by the inspeotor .

General Details.- Th conv ntional types of watel'tube boiler

may be cIa sified in two divisions: those with stra'ght tubes,
described in this, an d those with bent. tubeR. deRcribed
in Chaps. IV and V.
Th straight-tube typef\ may be subdivided int,o three groups:
sinuous-header 01' box-header types, horizontal or vertical types,
longitudinal- or cross-drum types.
The chief differenc:e between the watertube and the fire-tube
boiler is that in the former the water circulates throu,gh th tubes
instead of around them. The hot gas s paSH around the Lubes .
. Fire-tube boilers are designed with the tubes contained. in the
shell. The tubes of mo t wat.el'tube boilers are located outside
the shell or drum. There are two advant.agc. to this feature of
the watel'tube boiler: (1) Higher capac:ity may bf' obtained by
increasing the Ilumber of tubes independent of shell or drum
diameter. (2) The ~hell or drum iR not. exposod to the radiant
heat of the fire.
Definitions of vlwious terms concerning t he wat rtube boi ler
that are unfamiliar to the apprentice will br. found in the Glo S3.ry
(If Boiler Term'.
Water-column Connections.-The water column is connected
to the upper and the lower part of the front head of the main
steam drum. If more than one drum is installed at the same
level, it is not necessa1:y usually to provide a separate water
column for each drum, for the water level should equalize in all
the drums.
Manholes and Handholes.-A standard size manhole is pro-
vided in at least one head of each d.rum. Tube caps are used to
close the tube holes which serve the important purpose of allow-
ing for tube insertion, replacement, and inspection. Handholes
are provid d in external mud drUIDS to permit proper cleaning
and in pection.

Rating.- The rating of all watertube boilers, as of fire-tube

boilers, is based on the square feet of heating surface. This is
the sum of the areas of drUID surface exposed to the products of
combustion, the area of all water tubes so exposed based on their
outside diameter, and the aggregate projected area of all headers
l"0 exposed.
It is common to operate watertube boilers at 100 per cent to
considerably ahov their rated capacit.y, as based on the boiler-
horsepower term. Manufacturers often ratc their boilers at their
ma>';mum output in 1,housands of pounds of steam per hour.
The first watertubc boiler wa. patented by William Blakely in
thi country in 1766. tephen Wilcox, a pioneer of th first
Babcock and Wilcox watertube boiler, was the first to use in clined
water tubes betw en water Hpaces 301, front and rear and with an
overhead steam space. This wa, in 1856, the original Babcock
and Wilcox boiler being patented in 1867.
The watertube boiler is now in almost universal u e for high
capacities and pressures. The sinuous-header type of boiler
may be built for pressures up to til critical point (3,200 lb. per
sq. in. is the critical pressure at which point the density of water
and steam becomes equal and a defined op rating water level is
no longer possible). Many 1,400 to 1,600 lb. per sq. in. units
a re in operation today; several of these have been in opefl1tion
since about 1925.
Advantages.- There are many advantagefi 1,0 t.he watert,ube
1. It is flexible in starting up. Owing to the multiplicity of
paths for circulation and of water and gas contact points, the
boiler can be brought up to steaming temperatur in a short.
time without causing excessive temperature stresses.
2. It possesses evaporation flexibility due to the reasons out-
lined in item 1, and to the water and ·team storage whicb
permits meeting demand peaks with a minimum prCBsur drop.
A proportionately large amount of heating urface is exposed to
the radiant beat of the fire, efficient operation and flexibility
being tbus increased.
3. It bas a wide range in capacity. The straight-tube type of
boiler may be constructed for capacities up to several thousand

horsepower or for outputs up to 200,000 to 300,000 lb. per hr.

The capacity of other types of watertube boiler, described in
Chaps. IV and V, is practically unlimited.
4. Its construction is such that impurities deposited from the
water are received outside t he zone of rapid circulation and
arc removed from the boiler.
5. The water space is divided into many tubes so that failure
of one tube need not cause a disastrous explosion.
6. The furnace proportions may be altered eonsiderably to
11"JP<'t fuel requirement. .
7. All parts are acce sible for cleaning, inspection, or repair.

FlU. 52.- Longitudinal-drum, watertuhe boilor baffled for high capacit,y. A

bridgewall is installed at dotted lines and the long. horizontally inclined baffle is
omitted in most old units and in some new units designed fOT moderate capacity .

8. The general d sign permits high operating efficiencies and

the carrying of high overload. ' without damage to the boiler.
Disadvantages of Watertube Boilers.
1. Tube !'tarvation and overheating may result at extremely
bigh rating. , far b yond tbos for which the boiler wa designed,
when one down comer nipple has to supply water by circulation
to an entire v rtical row of tubes.
2. The first cost for very small boilers (sizes below about
100 hp.) i often prohibitive.
Gas Flow.- Thcre ar u ually thre passes foJ' the gas flow,
provided by inclined baffies (Fig. 52). ometimes a four-pa.s~·
design is used (Fig. 53). The disadvantage of the latter type is
that the bottom of the >lecond and t,hjrd pa>lses may become fill~d
wi th soot and ash thrown out as the gases make the t.urn. The
draft is then impaired. A draft. loss results from thE'
• la,rgf>r number of paSI'CR.

Thl' volum l'tri(' si7.C' of the passes decreases from fUl'llace to

gaR exi t, in order t ha t equal gaR velocity may be maintained
t hroughout thp lra vpl. Cooling gaReR eontl'lw t a ll el would tend

i A•

Flo , 64.- U-bolt 8Ul>pnrt for boil er drum .

to low up under equal draft and e1'O s-sectional area of the

passes. High gas velocity i conducive to efficient beat transfer
to the tubes, for a slow gas travel would tend t,o allow a stagnant,
insulating film of gas to form around the tube surfaces.
94 BOILER ()P BR A'l'OR'S orr IDE
Setting.- The customary method of supporting the Babcock
and Wilcox and similar type of boiler is by a heavy U bol~ at
each end of each drum (Fig. 54). Each end of the U bolts is
threaded and secured by nuts and plate washers to overhead steel
cross beams. The cross beams are supported at each end by
steel columns which foot in the foundation. The columns are
external to the high-temperature zon es of t.he set.t,iog and are
protect.ed again t overheating.
The important thing is that the weight of the boiler full of
wat,er shall be supported and yet that. room shall be I ft for free
expan sion of all parts of the boil er. If the boiler is suspended
from above, the lower part.. should be free 1.0 riRe and fall slightly
as the tubes or headcrs expand Itnd cont rad . In thiR type of
suspension , t he bot.tom of t,he headers and mud drums should
not be on brickwork If the boiJ er is supported by reRting
on the headerR or mud dmm . th(' I' eb'ums should be free
for expansive movement.
Feed-water Connections.- The feed-water pipe ente rs t hrough
the front head in t he Rtandard longitudinal-drum Babcock and
Wilcox boiler. An intern al feed pipe, Reveral feet long, diRcharges
the feed water bclo\\' t he wat,er lin e to t he rear of i hf' front cross
box. As in other boilerR, the water should not, diRchargp againRt
a riveted spam or dire agaim;t t.he drum fiU ·faces. The inter-
nal feed pip permi tR th e: watf'!' to be h at d somf'what and thell
discharge in toil e same dire(' t.ion as the normal circulation .
Solids are carried back and are deposited in the mud drum .
Circulation.- AR the tube!' are inclined, it, iR easy t.o under-
stand the direct.ion of flow wheD the i. heated- it riseR.
Thus, the watcr-and-Rt.eam roixtur in the generating (inclined)
tuber; rioeR to the front head erR up through the 11 >aden; and riser
nippieR into t he "t·eam drum. Water i. div("rLed by a baffle
plate baok t hrough the steam drum, then down through the
downcom l' nipplcs and rear headers t,o the rear ends of the
generating tube to complete the cycle. Steam dissociates from
the water and rises to the steam space.
The lowest safe water level in most water tube boilers having one-
drum. or multi drum boilers at the same level is 6 in. above the
bottom of the drum. If a fusible plug is us d, it is located over
the firl'lt pastil of gases at the lowest safe water level. However, it
i" not recommended for watertube boilers except. in one of the
very few municipalities that require its use.
When more than one drum is installed, it i customary to
create bet.ter equalization of level in the drum~ and
improved circulation by interchanging the adjacent down comer
nipple. of th adjacent dl'umlR wit.h the respective headers
(Fig. 55).
Other Piping Connections.- The nozzles for the safety valveI';
and main At.eam lilH' arc on the top of the drum. If more than
one drum is used, as in Rome typ's of longitudinal-drum boilers,
it is ('ommon pract.iee to provide Aafrty-valve nozzles and steam

Top of' headers

PtC, 55.- Circuiu.tinn- tl.ud lc'V"el ... eq uaLiziug nipples. COllstruotion ox agger·
uted rur ularity. Actuall y all h Olld orH ru'e closely "puc'cd a ud drums are closer

nozzl es 011 each dl'Um. The safety valves are connected dU'ectly
to their nozzles, wh rca: t he steam pipi11g connects into a
crossover connection which ties the steam nozzles of all drums
t.ogeth r.
The blowdown connection is made by a. £lang d pipe joint at
the lower middle of t he mud drum. If more t han one steam
drum is used, necessitating a long mud dl'Um, two or more blow-
down connections are common. These are equally spaced along
the bottom of the mud drum.
LongitUdinal Box-header Types.- Tbe box-header type of
watertube boiler differs from the sinuou -header types dealt with
so far ill that only two headers are used, one front and One rear.
Figure 56 shows a typical header and tb names of the aheet,s.

The methods by which the headers are attached to the drums

are shown in Figs. 57, 59 to 62.
General. Advantages and Disadvantages.- Some boiler manu-
facturers and d signers feel that use of box header in'tead of
SinUOU R headers gives somewhat better circulation. After
analyzing the consen 'UR of opinion and the results of operating
experience and of te ts, the author has the opinion that some
box-header types do have Rome advantages in respect to circulll-
tion when operll,ting at high rating, up t.o t.he practieal limits,-
t.ionA for pres ure.

------ Downcomer nipple

f'ram drum

Tube-cClp she~f

"Trough sheef
Flo, 56,- Box-hoader section,

Flat surfaces in box headers are subjected to pressure and

must. be stayed, stay bolt being used for this purpose. Thc
use of stay bolts constitlltes a practical limitation as to pres ure
for the box-h ader types. Pressures over about 600 lb. pel'
sq. in. would require heavier plate and staying specifications than
are often practical. Since the minimum pitch of stay bolts is
determined by tube spacing, there is a maximum pressure which
this pitch and practical size will permit.
The front box header is usually riveted directly to the steam
drum, and the rear box header may be connected by nipples or
flanged-plate passages in order that the headers may be placed
in position for inclined tubes.
Heine Boiler.- The Heine boiler (Fig. 57) is one of the first
types of box-header boiler; it is still built today and has been
developed for very efficient operation in modern plants.
The batHing of the box-header longitudinal-drum boilers is usu-
ally the same as that of the sinuous-header longitudinal-drum
type. The one exception is the Heine boiler, which quite com-
monly uses so-called "horizontal" baffles, as shown in Fig. 57.
The gas passage is shown by t he arrows.

FlO. 57.- Heille boiler.

In the Heine boiler mean ar provided for removing soot

accumulated on the horizontal baffles by the u e of large, hollow
stay bolts. The hole in each stay bolt is large enough to admit
a ~-in. pipe connected to a steam or compressed-air soot blower.
The pipes are sometimes permanently connected, or the holes
may be filled with tapered plugs to prevent draft disturbance.
The plugs are removed individually when a portable soot-blowing
nozzle is inserted.
Another distinctive feature of the Heine boiler is the method
of feed-water discharge into the internal mud drum . The feed

pipe enters usually through the top of the drum and discharges
toward the rear into the front end of u. trough-shaped cylinder
(Fig. 58). The front end of this is open for feed water to enter
the boiler water after it makes a reverse turn at the rear blind
~nd of the mud drum . A blowdown is connected from the blind
head, passing through the rear head of the boiler drum, and is
used to remove solids deposited in the mud drum.
The customary method of supporting the Heine boiler is to
suspend the front end and to support the rear end by short steel
columns under the rear box header.

/ Feedwafer inlef

Rear end"
of Heine
boiler drum
__ Handhole
forc/ean -

FIG. 68.-Food-water inlet alld internal mud drum of Heino boiler.

There are many other efficient typ s of box-header 10ngitudinaJ-

drum boiler that are of high-grade construction and design.
Several of these are described in the following sections.
Union Boiler.- A distinctive feature of this type of boiler
(Fig. 59) is the baffle in the rear of the steam drum. The internal
reed-water pipe passes through the baffle, discbarging at the l' al'
end of the steam drum. This portion of the drum is isolat d
from the path of gas contact, and the waLer is practically quies-
cent. A blowdown from the bottom of the rear head removes
the solids thus deposited while the feed water reverses its flow,
back through ports in the baffle, into the boiler-water circulation.
A surface blowdown is provided also at the rear of this baffle
in order to remove any impurities that float to the surface.
The rear header is connected to the drum by a neck of flanged
boiler plate, as shown in the figure . Expansion stresses in the
rear of the riveted connection of the neck and drum are designed
to be taken care of by the corrugation in th flanged plate.

Fla. 50.-Union watertube boiler. A longitudinul-drum box-beador type with

internal settling chamber. (CourteBU, Union i ron Work8.)

FlO. 59A.

The support of this boiler is accomplished by susp nding the

front end of the drum or drums by a heavy U bolt. The rear
end of t he boiler i supported by rollers under the rear box header,
free expansion and contraction thus being allowed.
Murray Boiler.- The Murray boiler (Fig. 60) i a. conventional
type of box-header longitudinal-drum boiler having as a distinc-

Pta. 6O.-Murray water tube boiler. A longitudinal-drum box-bender type.

(Co"rte.lI, ftfurralJ Iron Work. C01nl>anlJ .)

tive feature the fact that the front and rear box headers are both
flanged and Iiveted directly to the drum, the tub s being thus
parallel to the bottom of the steam drum. When the boiler is
installed in its setting, the drum or drums are then inclined the
same as the tubes.
The Murray boiler is suspended by four sling bolts, each with
an eye at the bottom end through which is a bolt pin in a riveted
pad (8 e Fig. 60).

FIG. 61.- Murray wate,·tubc boiler. A iongitutlillul th"co-drul11 boi ler wit'h bux
bcaders. (Collrte.y , i'lll rrau iron Works omJI(1I1II.)

Flo. 62.-As-.cmhly 01 a Keeler 10ngitucUnai three-drum wl\tertube boil r with

box headon. (Courte'lI, E. Ked~ Company.)

Another type of Murray boiler (Fig. 61) has horizontal drums

eonnectcd to the real' header by a double row of downcomer
Keeler Boiler.-The box-header longitudinal-drum boiler built
by the E. Keeler Company (Fig. 62) is also a boiler that has both
the front and rear headers flanged and riveted directly to the
steam drum. However, the connections are usually at an angle
allowing inclined tubes with the drum in horizontal position.
The Keeler boiler makes use of an internal mud drum in the
steam drum. The feed water discharges into the f.·ont end of
this, making a reverse turn before entering the boiler-water flow
1'10 that sediment may remain in the rear of the mud drum until
removed by a blowdown lin passing from the back of the mud
drum through the rear head of the boiler drum. This system
"esembles somewhat that of the H eine boiler.
Keeler boiler of this type usually have additional blowdown
lines at the bottom of the front and rear box headers.
Support of Keeler boilers is effected by hea'7 U bolts at each
end of the drums. The U bolts, of COUl'S ,outside of the brick
setting so that they will not be ovprheated.
Cross-drum Boilers.-Cross-drum watertube boilers are con-
structed with either sinuous or box headers, as with the longitudi-
nal-drum types. The real' headers arc supplied with water by
a row of down comer nipples connected to the lower part of the
cross drum. 'rhes are often the same diameter as the generating
tubes. The upper nds of the front header are connected to the
front side of the cro drum by one or more rows of horizontal
circulating tubes which carry the mixture of steam and water
(delivered to the front headers by the generating tubes) into the
A baffle plate is used in the dl'Um to deflect the steam-and-water
mixture from the horizontal circulating tubes downward; other-
wise, a consid rable amount of water might b carried over with
the st am flow, e pecially in operating at high ratings.
Advantages of Cross Drum.-In general, the purpose of design-
ing a boiler with a cross drum is to combine economy of construc-
tion with considerations of furnace design. Construction of a
boiler for installation in an existing building necessitates designing
it with a definite over-all height. Moreover, to design a boiler
for a new building, one must consider a practical limit for total

But this height may not give sufficient furnace volume for
desired combustion conditions. It becomes necessary then to
increase either the lengtn Or thc width of the furnace. It is often
impractical to carry the length of the furnace beyond a definite
proportion of the boiler's length. The dimension of furnace
width then become of interest.
With longitudinal-drum boilers, the number of drums must bn
increased as the setting is made wider. This is expensive, for the
drums are the most costly part of the boiler. But with a cross-
drum boiler, the width of the furnace may be increased to any
desired limit wjt,h one steam drum merely by constructing a
proportionately longer drum. Thip feature is the great advan-
tage of the ross-drum boiler.
Disadvantages.- There arc but two f atures of the cross-drum
boilers that could be listed under this classification. However,
they are not disadvantage if the boiler is designed for the given
service requirements.
A typical 500-hp. standard eros -dmm boiler installation and
lungitudinal-drum boiler installation will show uHually one Irum
for the former and two or t.hree drums for the latter. Ob,riously,
the steam and water storagc capacity of the latter j.~ considerably
greater. Consequently, there may be more pre!:lsure fluctuation
in the cross-drum type with variable loads unless the R p(> e ifict~­
t.ions are design d for thi type of service. A l::trger drum diam·
eter may then b used to give greater s~orage capacity.
The second disadvantage is that some provision must be made
to compensate for the JOngitudinalligament of tube holes in th ,
drum. These are r quired for the row of horizont,al circulating
t ubes and the vertical row of downcomer nipples.
A heavier drum thickness is ometimes required at, these !Sec-
tions, or a doubling plate l is used, in order to maintain the
strength of the drum. However, this additional expen. e is much
more than offset by the savings effected by eliminating additional
Springfield Boiler.-The standard Springfield boiler (Fig. 63)
is a modern ero s-drum type of boiler. It is of the sinuous-header
type, but each bend of the header and each tube cap include a
group of four tubes (Fig. 64).
The front end of the standard pringfield boiler may be
supported by sling bolts from each front header to overhead
I Deecribed in Chap. I.

channel irons set back to back, and the rear end is supported by
several cast-iron cradles und r the mud drum. This type of
setting is used for low- and moderate-capacity units. It will
be noted (Fig. 63) that the steam drum is somewhat forward
from the rear headers. Inclined downcomer nipples are thus
required for this type of Springfield boiler.

FlO. 63.- pringfield we.tertube boilor. A cross-drum type with sinuous (sec-
tional) headers. (Courteay, S,>ri.noficld Boiler Company.)

Owing to the weight of the larger boilers, the high-capacity

Springfield unit may have the team drum dir ctly above the
rear headers (Fig. 65) which are connected with vertical down-
comer nipples. The rear of the boiler is supported by suspending
this drum by U bolts, by a cradle and a beam under each end of
the drum , or in similAr fashion.
Another feature of the standard Springfield boiler is the "feed
pan." The feed-water line passes through the side of the steam
drum discharging into the feed pan or trough. Feed water t hen
spills over into the boilcr-water circulation, leaving much of its
suspended solids behind t.o bc removed by a blowdowll (.'ol1nrction
from the pan jJa.<;sing ont. to a cOl1veni 'IJt point for blowdowl1

FIG. 64.- H ader section from Springfiold boiler. (CourtCIIY, SprinoficUJ. Boue>

valves. An external mud drum is provided, too, and customary

blowdown connections are provided at this point.
Babcock and Wilcox Boilers.-Tbis cross-drum boilcl' (Fig. 66)
may be built for all pressures. For high capacities, it sometim s
makes use of one header above th other, for two reasons: (1) to
eliminate excessively long headers, and (2) to provide space in a
high-temperature zone for a superheater.

The headers are con nected by "interdeck" nipple', and tbiq

type of tube arrangement is known as a "double-deck" boiler.
Thi boilE'l' makes use of the external mud drum in the same way
as the longitudinal-drum types do. It should be noted that the
horizontal circulating tubes are connected to the top of the front

FIG. 65.- pring6eJd high-capa<'ity cross-drum watertube hoiler. (Courlcoy •

• pri1l0fi'ld Hoiler Company.)

h ader ' by a wide-swe p bend. Thi. con truction permits free

expansion without inducing excessive expansion stresses.
An effi lent system of bafRing in th steam drum (Fig. 66)
assures dry steam at high rating . The gas passages are marked
clearly by the inclined bafR s. The usual bridge wall i. eli.mi-
nated so that th entire length of the bottom rows of tubes is
exposed to the radiant heat of the fire. Consequently, a larger
furnace volume is sccur d whicb permi.ts greater capacity and
J 07

efficiency; and, o,"ing to the greatcr furnace volumc, the furnacc

temperatures may be kept within reasonable limits for refractory

FlO. 66.-Babcook and Wilcox cross-drum boil r. A sinuous (sectional)

header watertube boiler shown with Babcock and Wilcox ioterdeck superheater.
(Courtuli. The Babcock and Wilco"" Company.)

Box-header Units.-Practically all manufacturers of longitudi-

nal-drum box-header type boilers also build cross-drum box-
header units.
10 HOlLE/( OPERATOR'S 0111 J)E

FIG. 66A.- The Babcock and Wilcox two-stago furnace boiler. This boiler i~
one of two built for "n Eastern utility . Its design pressure is 14 5 lb . per sq.
ill., its maximum conti"uou8 caplloity is 615,000 lb. steam per hr .; its totalst.earn
temperature i8 925°F. (Courte.l/, The Babcock and Wileo", ComllUnl/.)

In such units the box headers are inclined t o b perpendicular

to the generating t,ubps. The upper end of the front header
(Fig. 67) is bent so as to be perpendicular to the horizontal
('irculating tube. . The Wickes boiler shown in the figure is
su peuded at t he fl'Ont end by slillg bolts t.hrough riveted flanges
on the sides of t hr front box header. The real' header restf' on
short steel columns except in largr lUlitf: \\'h r l'(:, til(' Rtf'OIn drum
' U 'pE-nded OJ' l'rsts ou beams.

Pil l. 6 7 .-'Vi ck~s "ross-drum watcrtube boiler. 1\ box-bendor typo. (CfJUrtcolJ.

Tltc Wicke. B oil er ComplJlI /!. )
A distinctive featme of this type of Wickes boiler is the
patented box head 'r in which bot h the tube sheet and t he tube-
cap 8h et are flanged in the same direction so t hat they may be
riveted on t he hydraulic bull riveter. No strap i.. )) cessary with
this construction, and there is no seam 011 the fire side.
Vertical Wat ertube Boilers.- The vertical watertub boiler is
a type requiring moderate headroom and small floor space per
unit of capacity. The Wickes boiler in (Fig. 68) represents this
These boi~rs make use of a Duteh oven 01' furnace extension to
secure proper combu ·tion Rpac Some installations use tte

front row of generating tubes to form a roof waterwall in the

furnace extension.
The upper drum is known as the steam drum, t he lower as the
mud drum. The tube sheets are braced by sling stays of proper
si ze and pitch, as mentioned in Chapter I. The head opposite the
t ube sheet in the steam drum and in the mud drum do not need

F I G. 68. -The Wickes vertioal watertu be boiler. (Cou rtllll1/. The W ickllll B oiJ,.,
CO?n1IO. n ll .)

Rtaying, for t hey are dished to the proper radius to be self-sup-

porting at th design pressure.
Tube replac ment may be accomplish d by insertion through a
circumferential row of handboles provided in the upper head
of the team drum for this purpose. Access to these drums i"
by a manhole in the dished head of each .
Questions and Answers
160. What is t he differencfl between lI. water tube and a fire-tube
TrA 7'ER7' rIRE RO ILRRS 111
Ans. In the fire-tub e boiler, tbe prorlllcts of combustion pass through
the tubes and tho water su rrounds them. The reverse is the case in water-
tube boilers.
141. What short nipples are used in the Babcock and Wilcox boiler?
Ans. Short nipples arc usod between tho mud drum and the bottom of
each rear header i a l ~o . in double-d(jck boilers, interdeck nipples IloI'll used
b(·t ween the headers.
142. What is the purpose of the b,tffies in wai<:lrtube-boil er settingR?
Ans. To de Aec)t the hot gasos back and forth hetwc'en the tubes a num-
ber of t.imes so that will be gl'cl\ter heat. Il.b8orpLion n~' the boil er LubeR.
143. How i. IL n('w tube phwcd in position for installation in a Wickes ty p~
vc rticnl watc rtuhe hoi ler ?
Ans. Throllgh o ne of thl' hanclholcs provirled for t hi" pllrpo~(' in thf'top
hend of th e steam rlrum .
144. WbM type of firinp: clem is req nil't'lrl on watc-'rtulw hoilf' I'R '/ Explain
your HJ1S~" r.
Ans. Till' inw ard-opeuinJZ; t.ype or " typl' pl'Ovid ed with sclf-Iocking
•• door la tc hes of It st.yl OIl1il springs 01' fri ction ('ontarl, so that the door
will be hlowlJ opl'n in ca. e of tUI)e rupture or fUl'lwl'l' (·xlll osion.
146. Wherc, other th"n as t\lbe caps, are 11Ilndhol e~ required on 8inllollM'
header t,y pe waterl.uho hoilers ?
Ans. In t.he ext.ernal mud drum.
146. Nam e t.hree typeR of mucl dr um u~ed in straigh t.-t.u hl' wat.(lrtuh,·
hoil ers ?
Am. 'l'he int,crlHLll1lud drum (Heine), tlwextem,,1 ,,,tld drum (Ho.hcock
and Wi lcox ), a nd till' lower wo.ter drum (Wickes vnrtical noiler)
147. Are ",.tl,ertuhp hoil f' l's "upporled by Lhe brick sirll' \\'nlls?
Ans. Not as a rulE'. They are stlpportdd hy independent steel structure_
148. Where 111'0 st.IIY hnlts used in sinun\ls-hMdcr-l y pp bo ilers ?
A 110.,. No stav bolts are used.
149. Wllcre i; til!' ma nilol" in horizon tal wM.c·rlun(· Iv)ile rR?
Ana. In a t ll'asl ou e rliHhed head.
160. ViTh a t is the u eua.1 method of forming the lU anholC' fram e?
Ana. The head is (jan~l'd in. If it is not, ~t Jet\st I 16 in. th ick for a g!lR-
ket hCl,ring Burfac'c, n SII'('I band is Khrnnk ont.o I.he f1a nj!;f' t,(j hrin~ t,he com -
bined th irkness to at. lf'ast I H6 in.
161. What would happen if a bame broke down ?
A.ns. Gases would MhorL-cirouit one or more passes, cxcessiv flue-gas
temperatures and a loas in efficiency and capacity thus resulting. Over-
heating a nd damage might result in parts of the boiler designed for low gas
tern perature•.
162. What is the purpose of an external mud drum (Babcock and Wilcox
Ans. It provides a chamber out of the rapid circulatory syst.em fOI
deposition of sediment, which is then removed by blowing down I t also
equo.lizes circuh\tion betwe'n headers.
163. May hu t to straps or reinforcing dOllbling plates on tube ligament»
be exposed t,o radiant hea.t or high-temperature gases? How are they

Am. No. They are protected by brickwork or baflling.

164. Of what material are mud drums of the external Babcock and Wilcox
Am. Wrought or cast stoel on modern boilers. Oast iron was used on
some old installations.
166. Where is the external type mud drum located on box-header type
Ana. Usually, there is none.
166. Oan a ligament be strengthened on a boiler in tbe field?
Ana. Yes, by removing the drum tubes Ilnd riveting on a doublinV; plt1t..
167. Are tubes bended or flared in the straight-tube watertube boiler?
Explain your answer.
Ans. They are flared, for the onds arc not contacted by hot gAses and
nothing would be gained by beading.
168. How is a large cross-drum sinuous-header boiler supported?
Am. The front end is Hupported by sliug bolts to the t.op of each front
header or by U bolts around the front end of each horizontal circulaLing
t ubc. Each end of the drum is supported on CroSS beams by cradles Or
riveted pads.
169. How many connections are t here to the mud drum of a Babcock and
Wilcox boiler other than the mud-drum nippl s?
Am. The blowdown connect,ions, usually one or two.
160. How is access gained to the various gas passes over the tubes?
Ans. Through cleanout doors in the side walls, except in the standard
type Heine boiler. Here, tho baffies are nearly horizontal, and access is
gaineo through It cleanout door in the top of the setting, on "ach side of tbr
161. To what points are wat~r-column connections made in most water-
tube boilers?
Ans. To the upper and lower part of one head of the main stcnm drum .
162. How many gas passes are there in most standard type watertube
Am. Three.
163. Is the volumetric capacity of ach gas pass the same? Explain
your answer.
Ans. No, it decreases in each succeeding pa 8. ' The gases contract as
they coul, Md, ill order to maintain the high gas velocity necessary to sweep
off stagnant gas films to effect good h at transfer, the cross-sectionallLrea of
the passes must decrease as the gases req uire less space.
16'. What are the two most important faotors in the support of a boiler?
Am. (1) Allowance for free expansion of all parts. (2) Suppor t of the
entire weight with a reasonable factor of safety so that there will be DO set-
tling to stress any part.
166. Where does the fe d water usually enter and disoharge in: (a) tbe
Babcock and Wilcox longitudinal-drum boiler, (b) the Heine boiler?
Am. (1) Through the front head, disoharging to the rear of the front
cross box. (2) Through the top of the drum, discharging toward the rear
into the internal mud drum ,
Feed water should not discharge agaillst a riveted SCllm or directly agaillst
the drum ill any case.
166. In what type of watertube boiler are stay bolts us rl?
An.. The box-header types.
167. How are stay bolts us d in connection with Boot blowing?
Am. The boles tbrougb hollow stay bolts in Heine box headers Ilrc of
sufficient size to permit a SWILOl or air lance to enter and blow soot from the
tubes along the "horizontal" gas passes.
168. What is a downeomer nipple?
Ans. It is a short length of boiler tube between 1.he stel1.11l drum I1.nd
lH'ader carrying downward circulation of boiler water.
169. What type of cross-drum boiler often has inclined dOwllCOIU~r nip.
pies? Explain your answer.
Am. The standard SprillgfieJd boiler, because the st.eam dnur. mny be
located forwff.rd of the line of rear headers.
170. Where are iuterdeck nipples used?
Ans. In double-d 'ck boilers whore two sets of headers are installed one
above the other. Interdeek nipples COIUlel't them vertically.
171. Name the two mai.l sheets of a box helLder.
Am. The tuhe shect and the handhole (or (ube-c,tp ) sheet.
172. What i s tbe nal'rOW pbtc sometime.:: used (0 form the bottom of It
box header (,::tiled?
An8. Tbe header trougb.
173. How many co urses MO there in l\ crosl:!-drum boiler? Exp lain your
AnB. Usually ODO, for n, girtb Bcnm might. unnecessarily interfere with
the tube ligam ent.
174. Is it more difficult to withdraw a tube from It watertube boiler or
from a fire-tube boiler? Explain your answer.
Am. It iII usually more difficult in a fire-tube boil or, for Ilny BCllle will b
on the outside of t.he t ube.
176. How many blowdown connections would OllP oxpect to see on a
triple-drum longitudillal watertube boiler, Bahcock ILnd Wilcox type?
Am. Two or three, spaced equally along the bottom of the external mud
176. How many blowdowTI connections would bc found on [\ single-drum
Reine boiler? Where would they be?
Am. At least two, one through the reM head coming from the internal
mud drum, and at least one at the bottom of the rear box hoader.
177. How many gaskets are r ·quired for tube caps covering tbo end~ of
eight tubes in a standard Springfield boiler?
Am. Four.
178. What general type of straigh -tube watertube boiler usus the least
floor space per unit of capacity? (This refers to boilers for moderate pres-
sure and of moderate capacity.)
Ana. The vertical type.
179. What type of furnace is required with a vertical watertube boiler?
.4'4. A Dutch oven.

It would take volume to describe all the rcceu1 moclifications

of the comparativ ly few II tandal'd" types of bent-tube boiler of
from 1900 to 1920. Thi' chapter will cover major types only.

FIG. 69.-Riley 8team generator. A high-capaoity bent-tube boiler. (CourtlJ81j,

RillJ1l Stoker Corp.)

However, it should b understood here, as in other chapters, that,

because one particular type i discussed, unmentioned similar
boilers ar not necessarily inferior in any way.

In general, the bent-tube boiler possesses many advantages.

A deterrent for a particular installation may be the added cost of
construction for the several drums, particularly if a specific plant
does not demand the advantages of a multidrum boiler. With
t he exception of a boiler of obsolete design or of very recent
development (see Chap. V), t he bent-tub boiler is inherently a
multidrum boiler.
Bent-tube boilers cons' t of one or more so-called steam drums
in the upper part of the setting and one or more so-called mud
drums (full-sized drums in t he main circulatory ystem) in the
lower part of the setting. Actually, the uppcr drums may not,
be at the same elevation, and
some of them may be water
drums as in the Riley steam
generator shown in Fig. 69.
Support.-It is customary to
suspend or support the upper
drums of large bent-tube boil-
ers by the steel structure and
the lower (mud) drums by the
t.ubes. This arrangement per- 'Cross beam orsfee/ work
FIa. 70.- Cradlc "uppart {or bailor.
mits free expansion and cou-
traction of the tubes and results in the mud drum rising (tnd
falling slightly on temp ratuTe changes. Usually, the upp 1"
drums overhang the s tting for attachment of their supports,
whereas the mud drum is contained within the width of the
Fletting. Consequently, the mud drum is the shortest.
Anyone of three devices for supporting each end of the upper
drums is commonly used. These methods are: (1) a heavy
U bolt (li'ig. 54), (2) a cast cradle on a cross beam (Fig. 70), (3)
a flanged-steel L pad riveted to the lower part of the drum head
and resting on an I or H beam (Fig. 71).
Tubes.-The tubes are bent for four reasons:
1. It would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to install a
straight tube.
2. A bent tube allows free ex )ansion and contraction.
3. The tubes are bent so as to enter the drum in approximately
8 radial direction.
4. Use of bent tubes permits great flexibility in design, par-
ticularly as regards drum arrangement.

The tubes are pitched equally and far enough apart to per-
mit replacement of a tube in the middle of the tube bank. Or
the tubes may be spaced elo 'el' in group of two, with a lane of
sufficient distance between the groups to permit a tube to pass
through .

FlO. 71.-Murray four-dl'um bent-tube watertube boiler, showing method of

8uapon.ioll by L pud. on I boam.. (COUTtlJl<jJ, Jlfurray Iron Worka COm1XLnY.)

The tubes are install d and flared, as described in hap. I and

VIII. How vel', the ends of a number of tube in th lowest row
of each steam, or upper, drum are beaded, and a number of tube
end'3 in the highest row of each mud, or lower, drum are beaded
over also, to ensure that all water will leave the upper drums
when the boiler is drained and that no air will be trapped in the
lower drum wb n the boiler is filled,

Manholes and Access Openings.- Access to the drums is

gained through a standard manhole in at least one head of each
drum. Each gas pass may be entered by a standard clean out
door in the side of the setting.


The Stirling boil er (Fig. 72) is one of the fir t types of bcn t-
t ube boiler to comr into common use. Stirling boilers similar to
the boiler shown in the figure and built over for ty years ago may
be found till opera ting efficiently . An int,el'CI'l ting point is
that the origin al design was so nearly correct, ('ven as l'egal'dH
modern practice, alld wad so far in ad\'an 'c of its time t hat it has
been necessary to make bu t few cballges t.o enable it to k ep t.he
title of being an execcdingly effici ent stf\am generator.
There are three steam drums and one mud drum in this boiler,
with steam equ alizing tub's, as shown, between 1.he midd le and
rear .lteam drums and between the fron t and rear steam drUID".
Equa (i zers between the front a nd middle drum are omitt d, fot'
the fl ont rOW8 of generating t.ube. ' exposed to t he radiant ht'at
oj t he fire discbarge steam and water into the fron t drum \O\1th
con sid ~l'abJ e turbulence at high ratings. Since the main steam
line is ·)onnected to the top of the middle drum, wet steam might
be prorluced if the equalizers were carried to that vicinity from the
possibly turbulent steam and water space of the front ell·um.
Water-circulating tubes connect the frOUL and middle steam
drums below th e water lin e; th se are omitted between t hc
middle and real' drums. Th e rear rows of generating tubes con-
necting the middle drum deviate from the middle bank of
generating tubes to ioin the rear bank of generating t ubes
between the rear steam drum and the mud drUID. This arrange-
ment makes for positive circulation throughout the boiler,
'!specialJy at high ratings.
Gas Flow and Baftling.-The products of combustion sweep
upward between the front bank of generating tubes, over the
top of the front baffle and downward in the second pass. The
second pass includes part of the generating tubes connected to
t he middle steam drum. In some of the older installations, the
" middle" suspended baffle divided these generating t ubes, all of
which formed t he middle tube bank. But, in the latest type

hown, the real' rows of t he tubes pass behind the bafflc into the
rear t ube bank.

FIG. 72.- The modorn Stirling boiler shown with convection superheater.
(Court6&lJ, The Babcock and Wilcox Companlf.)

The gases sweep downward lJllder the suspend d baffle, then

travel upward in the third and last pass and leave the setting
near the top of the rear wall. Another comparatively- recent

development is the baffle against the back of the rear tube bank.
This prevents the gases from making a sweep toward the duct in
t.he rear wall and by-passing the upper ends of the rear tube
Baffles are provided between the three steam drums for the
full width of the setting; they are located below th lowest safe
water level. They protect the longitudinal seams and that part,
of the drums above the water line from being contacted and
overheated by high-temperature gases.
The bridge wall is cH,rried up and closed-in-line against the
front of the mud drum, just below the front row of tubes. Thus,
the fire and gases are prevented from sweeping under the mud
(ll-um and therefore causing overheating of the longitudinal
Ream and short-circuiting thc first and s cond passes.
Feed-water Entrance and Circulation.- The feed-water pipc
pnters through the top of the rear stea.m drum or through the
upper rear part of its manhole head. Feed water discharges into
a long trough riveted or welded along the rear part of this drum .
It then spills over the front of the trough to enter the boiler-
water circulation.
The water circulates downward through the rear bank of
tubes to the mud drum, and supplies the middle and front banks
. of tubes through which it rises to the respective steam drums.
It circulates from the front to the middle steam drum through
the short circulating tubes, thus tending to equalize the water
level in these two drums. As the rear rows of tubes from the
middle drum pass back to join the rear tube bank where lowel
gas temperatures permit a downward circulation, the water level
in the middJe and rear steam drums tends to equalize through
the mud drum.
The mud drum is large in diameter, and all the riser and down-
comer generating tubes are remote from its bottom. Sediment
is deposited here, for this section is not disturbed by rapid cir-
culation. The blowdown connects into a forged-ste I fittinl!;
riveted or welded to the bottom of the mud drum. In the case of
large boilers with long mud dr ms, more than one blowdown mH\y
be provided.
Steam Nozzles.-It is customary to install the safety-valve
nozzles on top of the rear steam drum, whereas the main st am
nozzle is connected to the top of the middle steam drum. An

internal collecting pipe or dry pipe for the main steam line is
optional, but with good water conditions the baffling of the
steam-equalizing tubes is uwally sufficiently efficient for the
dry pipe to b dispensed with.
The extremely large water surface, which disengages steam
bubbles, is another important factor in producing dry steam from
these boilers.

Fro. 73.-Murray low-head watertube boiler. A three-drum bent-tube

type u d often where headroom is limited. (Clmrtc811. Murray Iron Worke

Capacity and Rating.- The Stirling boiler is built in sizes

from about 150 hp. up to 10,000 sq. ft. heating surface, or larger
if required. The h';)ating surface is calculated the same as for
other watertube boilers, the outside areas of all water tubes and
all drum surfaces exposed to the products of combustion being
Other Bent-tube Boilers.-There are many adaptations of
four-drum boiler design. A high-capacity four-drum bent-tube

boiler (Fig. 71) meets requirements similar to those of the

Demands from the small plant owner for an efficient watertube
boiler of moderate capacity to fit in space formerly occupied by
one or more H.R.T. boiler ' or other fire-tube boilers resulted

Flo. 74.- Babcock and Wil cox low-head watortubo boilor. A three-drum
t.ype using bent tubes and adILPt,ed {or low headroom . (C(J1IrtMI/, Thr lJ'L{Jc(Jck
a"d Wilcox ('omprMJ/ .)

in the development of a low-h:')ad watertube boiler. As invari-

ably the headroom was limited, proper furnace volume for
efficient combustion meant increasing the width of a proposed
design. Increased length was usually out of the question in
view of the existing space. A ,cross-drUID type was therefore
decided upon.
In order to meet requirements for extreme flexibility and
maximum capacity in a comparatively small unit, a multidrure
b nt-tube type was chosen. So that the tube might. be carrieu

in a nearly horizontal direction (to conserve headroom) , three-

drum boilers were developed (Figs. 73 and 74). This type has
become so popular that it is now being con5tructed by many
leading manufacturers of watertube boilers.
Gas Flow.- Like the Stirling boiler, the low-head bent-tube
boiler is a three-pass design. The gas flow passes up through
the first pass against the roof or circulating tubes. It then
sweeps back over the bafRe and down against the top of the mud
drum, after passing between the rear ends of the generating
tubes. The gases then turn upward under the short ~uspf'nded
baffle and, after passing between the downcomer circulating
j,ube , exit from the boiler through the breeching at the upper
rear wall of the setting.
The tile shown (Fig. 73 and 74) along some tubes in the first,
pa s are to provid proper gas distribution between these tubes.
Steam Nozzles.-The safety-valve and main steam nozzles
are mounted on top of the upper rear drum. Since the water
surface area is somewhat less than that of a Stirling boiler,
an internal collecting pipe (dry pipe) is used generally beneath
I,he steam nozzle to a.clSllfe dry steam.
Feed-water Entrance and Circulation.-The feed-water line
enters through the rear part of the upper rear drum and passes
through an internal pipe, discharging near the bottom of this
drum. Water circulates through the several rows of downcomer
circulating t.ubes, down into the mud drum. From here, it
supplies the main bank of generating tubes through which the
water-and-steam mixture rises to the front drum. Water and
steam pass back through the horizontal-return circulating tube"
to the rear drum, A steel bame plate is provided at the point
of discharge so that water from these tubes will not be carried
over with the steam flow.
Manholes and Access Openings.-A standard manhole of the
flanged-in typ is provided in at least one head of each drum .
Standard-sized cleanout doors in the side wall permit access to
the various gas passes.
Capacity and Rating.-These boilers are built in sizes as small
as about 750 sq. ft. of water heating surface (75 hp.) and up to
about 5,000 sq, ft. (500 hp.) .
The water heating surface is, as for other watertube boilers,
the total of the area of the outside of all water tube exposed to

the products of combustion and the area of all drum surfaces so

Support.-The upper drums of this type of boiler are supported
usually by L pads attach d t,o t he IOWE'l" part of eac h bead, the
feet of the pad, resting on cross beam,~ of the RLeel structure.
Other possible methods of support IJ,!'(' id 11 t,ical with the meth-
ods of supporting the Stirling boil(>r. dCHcribed in preceding
The lower, or mud, drum is Rusppndcd by the tubcel, as in 1,hc
tirling boilE'r.


This boiler (Fig. 69) iR known a" a Riley steam generator.
The posi tion of the drums i ~ similar 10 thnt of those in the Baden-
hausen boil 1'. The present high-capn,ei1 y installation shown
in Fig. 69 has b en developed by t h Riley Stoker Corporation,
Circulation.- Thjs boi l(>r bas been termed also ihe "ring-
circulation type." AlLhough i t i ~ 11 four-drurn type, water
circu lation is in a defini te ring flow among thrr.r. drums only.
It starts Itt Lh feed-wa,trr diRc hargr in tb" rear ,·teal'll drum ,
passes downward Lhrough t he down 'omM circulation t.ubeH into
the lower or mud drum. Tht· bui ler watr.r then pn.RRrs upward
through the double bauk 01' generating tubes to the front wat,rT
drurn and thence through the circul ating and upper bank of
generating tubes to the rear drum, the cycle thus beingcornpletcd.
The fourth drum, in the upper front part of the setting, is a
"dry drum." It supplies the main steam flow from the boiler
and is removed entirely from the water cir ulatory syst m, dry
steam thus being ens ured. The stearn-supply circulating tubeR
from the rear steam drum to the dry drurn form the roof of the
setting. As these tuues arc exposed to Lhe product of combus-
tion, any moi ture iH vaporated and the stea m may brcorne
slightly superheated.
Gas Flow.-AJ ,hown in Fig. 69, thi. is a two-pass boiler; the
gases sweep upward to the roof in the front pass and downward
behind the baffle in the rear pass. Minimum draft loss is an
adva.ntageous feature of this design.
Capacity and Rating.-As in other bent-tube boilers, the total
heating surface is the sum of th areas of the outside of all water
tube below the water lev I and of all drum surfaces exposed to the

products of combustion. The Rilpy I'tt-am generators arc built

in capacitie ranging from about. 150 hp. to high-capacity unil$
of several thousand horsepower.
Support.-Either each end of the rear stearn drum rests on a
cast cradle set on cross beams of the steel structure, or the drum
is suspended by U bolts at ('ach end. The st,eam drum and t he
fronl wat(~r drum are suspended at each end by a heavy ring or
hangt'r. The mud drum is suspended from the boiler tubes.
Thus, all parts of the boiler are frpe 1,0 expand and contract with-
out restrictivl' "t.rC'SRl''' being set up.

FIO. 75.- JliJey RP watertllh~ boiler. A h~lIt-t\lbe type. (ConrfCllY, Ruey

fQker Corp.)

This boiler (Fig. 75) if; a modification of the ullit described
a.bove. It is designed especially for installation in existing space
and is built in capacities of about 500 to over 2,000 hp.
This if; a three-pass boiler using plate type step baffies in the
second and third passes. The step baffies cause the gases to
zigzag back and forth between the tubes on t heir downward and
upward path, high heat transfer and evapora,tion rates per unit of
heating surface being the result.
Tb front head r has a series of handholes or tube caps through
which the tube,' may be rolled, turbined, and inspected. In spite
of the compact tube arrangement, the tubes are so ized and
lVATER1'UBE BOILER (BE1I' 'l'-7' IT 81?) 125
pi.tched t~at it is possible to removl' fl.ny tube for replacement
WIthout dIsturbing other tubes.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _......I ci:
.......__..........;.......:._ _ _ _ ~

A successful development in the eros '-drum type of bent-
tube boiler in the Babcock and Wilcox integral-furnace boiJer
(Fig. 76). This is an extremely flexible unit, because of the large
amount of beating surface exposed to the radiant heat of the

combustion chamber and because of the ample volume of thif<

chamber. All four walls of the combustion chamber, its roof,
and its floor are encased with water tubes (waterwalls) whic~
form an important part of the main circulatory system. .
This boiler is adapted particularly for burning of pulverized
coal, oil, or gas in its various forms.
So that excessive temperatures will not develop in the walls
of tubes exposed to radiant heali, Bailey stud t ubf'R are uRC'd for
the side walls (scc Chap. VIII) . .
Gas Flow.- A distinctive feature is the bafHing arrangement.
which dirf'cts thc path of gas flow in a horizontal plane (circle of
Fig. 76). Soot, falls by gravity along the semivertieal tubes and
do s not tend to lodge on hrating surfaces.
The baffle arc sedionalized so that rf'pair or replacement is
facilitated. Thf' general arrangement of the combustion path
i such that long flam e travf'l is as. 'ured. Tllis aids, t.oo, in rf'duC'-
ing tube fouling.
Circulation.- The circulation is upward in all side-wall tubes
into t.he steam dr1UD. Also, watrr-and-Rtram mixturc £IoWR
upw.ard in the front row of gellf'rating tubes and in the bank of
generat,ing tubes enclosed in the first gas paAS. Circu lation is
downward into t.hl' lower or mild drum in the second and t hird
gas paSko
The tubes in the first pass which ar subjectrd to highcr
gas temperature and cvaporation rates are 33i in. diam tel', a
size that mak S obst.ruction unlikely under proper opl'rating
onditions. The tubes in the second and third passes arc 2 or
2~ in. diameter and poss ss high capacity and good efficiency in
heat transfer in an exceedingly compact unit.
The foed water enters tho steam drum through the head on
the side nearest the first gas pass. The feed pas eR through an
internal pipe along the 1 ngth of the drum to discharge OVf'T the
down comer generating tubes.
Support.-T-be weight of the boiler rests on two ca 't cradles
under each end of the lower, or mud, drum. One crn.dle support
is anohored, and the other is free to slid , free expansion and
contraction of the drum thus being permitt d.
The upper drum is supported on the tubes and is free to move
as they may expand or contract. In large sizes, support guides
are providpd to kol'p this movement stable.


This is a cross-drum bent-tube boiler (Fig. 77), with self-

contained furnace ; it was developed about 1925. Great flexi-
bility of operation, W' well as compactness and high efficiency, is
afforded by the ample combustion f4 pace and adequate heating
surfaces offered t.o t he radiant hcat. Thi boiler i~ d('~ign!'d

FIa , 77.- Combustion Engineering YU steam genorator. A two-drum bent-tube

waterwnll-typc boi lel', (rOUr/ r 81I , CmnlmBtion Efiu,,,,,.rrino ('n" I nc.)

especially to burn fuels in sllspenFion wi t.h inlert.lll e type burners

as shown in the figure.
Gas Flow and Baffiing.- The Combustion Engineering V(I'
steam generator is a t hree-p8£lfi boil r with vertical baffles clivid-
ing the passes. Step 1 affles arc u~ed 1;0 caus th · gases to mak •
several sweeps back and fort h t.hrough the tube banks. Th!'
entire setting irs ste l-en cased, with \\·at.Nwalls on all sideR of the

combustion chamber backed up by hapcd tile'. Refractory and

insulation fill the space hrtween the tile and the steel casing.

Fro . 78.- A Wiekes t hree-drum watertube boi ler with intcgrnl water-eDDied
bridg and front wall s. (Courtuy. The Wicku B oiler Company.)

Circulation and Feed Water.- The flow of water from the

internal feed pipe is downward in the main convection (rear)
bank of generating tubes, from the upper to the lower drum.

The latter supplies water to the radiant and front bank of gen-
erating tubes and t.o the lower headers of the three waterwalls.
The water-and-steam mixture rises in these tubes, returning to
the upper drum . Here, an efficient baffle system separates the
moi ture from the steam, returning the water to circulation.
Capacities.- Up to the pre ent writing the VU steam generators
have been built for outputs ranging from 20,000 to 200,000 lb.
steam per hr. and for pressures of 150 to 700 lb. per sq. in.
Support.- AIJ headers and pressure parts of these boilers are
suspended by the steel structurb which forms thc casing frame .
Thus, free expansion is provided.
A late type of three-drum boiler (Fig. 78) makes usc of a
water-cooled bridge wall and front wall. The method of sup-
port and waterwall connection are shown in the figure. This
type of boiler possesses many of the desirable featurf's of multi-
drum boil ra wi t hout the expense of more drums. It should be
noticed t.hat the front waterwall header is mounted un springs-
a desirable method of supporting the weight of the headers and
still permit ting free expansion of the tubes.
The largest boiler in the world built to date (Fig. 79) is a Com-
bustion Engineering bent-tube type, which at first glance appears
to be two three-drum boilers in the same setting. This unit is
designed to generate 1,000,000 lb. st eam per hr. at 1,385 to
1,425 lb. per sq. in. and at 925°F. It is not unlikely that the
design capacity may be exceeded by a considerable amount, for
the design incorporates all practical methods of obtaining high
capacity at high efficiency.
The firing is by pulverized coal, tangentially from each corner
of the dry bottom furnace. The heating surface of the boiler
is 20,800 sq. It., to which is added a waterwall of 19,863 sq. ft.
Additional capacity is provided by two Eleseo fin-tube econo-
mizers, each with a heating surface of 12,925 sq. ft. Air pre-
heaters, too, are used, of the Ljungstrom regenerative type.
A recent development by the Foster Wheeler Corporation is
the twin-furnace boiler (Figs. 80a and 80b). This boiler iR

Flo. 79.-Combustion Engineering steBlll generator. The largest boiler in the

world to date. (CourtU1/, Combustion Enrrineeri11(J Co .. Inc. )

FlO. 80a.-Sectional front elevation of Foster Wheeler 750.000 lb. per hr .

twin-furnace 8toam generating unit for the Windsor Station of the Ohio Power
Company. The right-hand furn ace includes a radiant on the righ$
",all. (Courtuy. Fo.ter Wheeler CorporatOon.)

equipped with both convection and radiant type superheaters

for constant superheated steam temperature during varying load.

FIG. 80b.-Seotional .ide elevation of the twin-furnaoo boiler shown in Fig. 80a.
(Court"'II . Fo.ter Wh.eler Corporation.)

A smaller boiler of thiA typ has proved the theory of super-

hell.ted steam-temperature control by varying the firing rate in

twin furnaces. Over a load range of 30 to 100 per cent capacity,

the steam temperature was well within the desired range.
The unit shown in the figures 80a and 80b has just been com-
pleted; it is designed for an output of 750,000 lb. steam pel' hr. at
1,525 lb. per sq. in. Operation will be at 1,325 lb. per sq. in. and
925°F. over a load range of 25 per cent to full capacity. The
boiler and waterwalls have 15,507 sq. ft. of heating surface, and
34,800 sq. ft. is provided in the economizer section.
The twin water- and steam-cooled furnaces discharge to a
common convection superh ater in the second pass, and a radiant
Ruperheater is installed in one furnace only. The steam first
passes through the radiant superheater and then through the
convection superheater which is in s~ri es .
In starting up, the furnace with the radiant superhcater
is not fired until steam flow is cstablished, and thus its tubeR
may be protected from overheating. III operation, a sligh t
unbalance in the firing rates of th two furnaces makes practically
constant steam temperature possible. At full load, the unit is
designed for equal firing rateR in both furnaces, exce siv' heat,
release in either furnace being therefore unnecessary.
The division wall between the furnaces provide 23 pel' cont
more waterwall surface than would have been possible in a single
furnace of combincd capacity. This fcature aids in making
possible the long combu tion chambers beneficial for complete
combustion and in cooling the ash particles below their softening
temperature before they contact the generating tubes. The
latter effect should go a long way in preventing tube fouling with
This boiler is a longitudinal-drum bent-tube type (Fig. 81) .
Circulation.-A distinctive feature is the economizer section.
This design causes the feed water to discharge behind a baffie
plate in front of the rear two rows of tubes in the upper drum .
As the water level behind the baffie plate builds up higher than
the level of the boiler water in front, the static and thermal head
differential eauses positive downward flow through the two rows
of tubes into the lower, or mud, drum. Here, there is a tight-
fitting baffle plate in front of the rear four or five rows of tubes;
hence, as the water enters the rear part of the lower drum through

the r ar two rows of tubes, circulation is forced upward by the

baffle plat through the several row,' of riser tubes in front of thc
downcom rs. Wat r di 'charging into the uppf'r drum in front of
its baffie plate from these riser t.u.bes n1.el's the normal boiler-
water circulation. In j his manncr, the rear tubes serve as an
integral or built.-in economizrr.
Capa:ities.- This typf' of boiler if! quite compact and requir s
a minimum amount; of brickwork. These features, as well as the

FIG. Sl.- Itiley ItO boil or. A longitudinal-drum low-hoad bont-tube wutertube
boiler with intogral watorwalls. (Courtesy. Riley Stoker C<>T1).)

general design, make the uni t well suited to replace old-style

boilers in c>.:isting space. Capacities range up to about 500 hp.
Gas Flow and Baffiing.- The flow of ga es makes fi ve pa..<;ses, a
feature that is unusual for boilers and that is accomplished by
vertical baffles. The final pas exits the gas between the econo-
miz r tube,. around the rear end of the upper drum to the uptake.
Because of the many pas es, the ga s are at sufficiently low
temperature so that no damage to the steam space of the drum
can result, from overheating. The vertical baffles and tube
arrangement permit the long gas travel without undue draft
Piping Connections.-The steam and safety-valve nozzles are
protected against It picking up" water by the long plate baffle
shown in the upper part of the steam drum in Fig. 8]. The
blowdown oonnects with the rear head of the lower, or IDud,
drum where it can remove sediment dE'po its from behind the
mud-drum baffle plate.
Manholes.- In addition to the manholes flanged in, in the
rear head of each of the two drum. , therr is a manhole in the

FlO. 82.- Keolor CP boilcr. A I OIl~itudiu"l-drum lo w-head bcn.t-tu be watcrtubc

boiler with integral wat.erwoll s. (Court e81/ , E. K eeler Company.)

mud-drum baffle plate to permit accf'SS to the front part of

the mud drum. The steam-dlUIn baffle plates are arranged ;;0
that access may be gained easily to the front of the steam drum .
Here is another boiler with longi t.udinal drums and bent
tubes (Fig. 82). Vertical bam s dir ct, t,he gas flow in five passes.

The steam drum is carried for the full length of the setting, roof
tubes and upper horizontal headers for the side-wall tubes being
thus eliminated.
The feed water enters through the front head of the upper
drum, as shown in the figure, and travels through an internal
feed pipe extending to the rear part of the drum . From here,

FIG. 83.- Wiukes type A watertube boiler. A three-drum bent-tube unit with
di\';ded g(18 flow . (Court 811. The Wick .. Boiler Company.)

the f ed water discharges to join the circulation downward

to the lower, or mud, drum.
These boilers are built e pecially to replace small- and moder-
ate-sized boilers of old design. They are highly efficient units
so compact as to fit in most existing floor space and headroom.
Circulation.-From the point of feed-water discharge at a
branch pipe on the rear of the internal feed pipe, water circulates
downward through the rear tubes, back through the lower
WA 7'ER7'U BE FlOIJ,lmS (BENT- T UBE ) 137

drum, and upward through the fron t tubes of the main bank.
Circulation through the waterwall is, of course, upward. The
wall tubcs are suppli d by nipples connecting t he waterwall
headers with the lowcr drum .

}'IO. 84. -A Wi okes typo A watertu b boiler enclosed in it. st.eel C!lSi nll. (Collr-
tesy, T he Wicke. BOI:I.~r COtn1JUTlU.)

Capacities.-Up to t he time of writing, t he highe t pressure

for which these boilers have b en constructed is 450 lb. pel' sq. in.,
and the largest sizes are rated at 50,000 lb. per hr. As wit h
many modern watertube boilers, continuous operation at over
double rated capacit y is often possible.


Another type of watertube boiler (Fig. 83) built as a compact

unit u 'es t hree drums in A position and a divided gas path. A

ballie from each bottom dnUll past\P~ 1hl'ough t,he middle of

each t,ub bank upward against the bot.tom of the upper drum,
The gase pass back to the rear of thp ('ombustion chamber and
divide, pa 'sing to each side around tho rrar of each baffle, The
products of combustion swpep forward, holizontally, through the
section of tube bank on the outer side:> of parh of t.he batRes,
makiog their ('xit at 1he froot.
The completeu boiler i;; ;;hOW11 in its r.asing in Fig. 84,
Circulation and Feed-water Discharge.- The feed-water pipe
enters through the top of the steam drum and discharges at its
rear. Water circulai,es downward t hrough the tubes n the
outer side of each gas baffle, into each lower, or mud, drum.
The mixt,ul'c flows upward through the tubes
on the fire side of the gas batRes, into the steam drum to complete
the cycle.
Capacities.- At this time, these units are construct d in "izel>
of ] 5 bp. upward and for 'team pI' stlures of up to 450 lb. pel'
sq. in. In addition to the features of the Wickes type A boiler
already meotioned, it should be noted that the A construction
exposes approximately 1wice t.he tub area to radiant heat that
would be possible in many other types of const.ruetion. 'I'hi"
feature is conducive to efficient. allel fiexihlr operation.

Questions and Answers

180. How ma.ny drums fLJ" then' in bent-tube boilers?

A718. sUltlly t,wo, three, or fO\lI'. A few types have one; a few, more
than four.
181. Wbat i~ an o.dvlLutage of t.l1<' multiclrum type? What may be a
Ana, TIll' !!:realm steam and water storage capacities enable the multi-
drum Iyl''' to meet pCltks in load fluctuations with JeSll pre~~llre drop. The
",dded rost of the additional drums is the disadvant,age.
182. How is the lower drum of large bent-lube boilers, such as the 'tirling
boiler, supported '/ Give the reason for this mt'thod of support.
A n8. It is suspended by the tubes to permit free expansion and
con traction.
183. Which is the shortest drum in a Stirling boiler? Explain your
Am. The lower (mud) drum is the shortest. It is suspended by thl'
tubcs, and the heads of the drwll are inside of the boiler side waUs.
184.. Is the water level equal in the steam drum s of IL bent-tube boiler of a
type having the drums at the same level?

Am. It is when the boiler is idle 0 1' operating at low ratings. At high
ratings, the water level in t.he drum supplying the downcomer tu! CA i oft,en
lower than that in the other drums.
185. Name three met.hods of supporting the upper drums of brnl-tIlhf'
boilers (cross type).
Am. , ( 1) U bolts around each cnd of the drum s aud ti!'d Iu overhracl
cross beams. (2) Cast or forged L pads attached t" each h ead a nd re~t ing
on eross bealllA. (3) Cast cra dles under each en d of t he drllms Ilud r('~t in~
(Ill cross beams.
186. ror what rca.'ons are ben t tuucs used in Stirling t.ype uuil"J'!<?
A ns , To allow for expansion and contrl1ction. To permit I uhc rcplace-
OIt'nL Tr> allow tubes to cnter dr um s perp0ndiculnl' 10 surfaf'(' tangent,
To nilo\\' fl exibility in design.
187. How are Stirling type boilers designed ill regard to t,lIh(' IllTIlflf!t' Il H'1I1
to allow removal and replacement of tubes?
An.~. Th e tube may hI' pitched eq ually fli' a grcatl'l' spacin g I hall thr
tube diam(', or th" t.ubes may b(' grouped in I wos with closer pitch in tlu
pairs and th e wide piLch between lh e pairs.
188. What is the purpose of u bridge wall in a Hlirling boiler?
Ans. It protects tho mud drum from exposure to the direcI, h at of tho
189. What might, happen if 1he Stirling bridge wall coll.tpscd?
An8. The longitudinal seam might be overheat,ed aud damaged.
190. Wllat is t he usual diameter of a tirling-boi!E'r mud drum in J'p.lal ion
to steam-drum dilLmcter? Explain your answer .
Ans. The mud drum is often about 4 to 10 in. larger in ciialllE'ter t hnn
the steam d l·um. The tube_ from a;! t.hree steam drullls euler tht' mild
drum .
191. Are tuhes flared or beaded in bent-tube boilers? Explain yo m
Ans. A nuulber of tubes in the bottom of each upper drum a r(, beaded in
order to permit complete drainage of the boiler. A number of tUbes ill t be
top of each lower drum are beaded in order to eliminate air puckets when t ho
boiler is fill ed . The l'eru ailling tuhcs are {hued, there is nothing t,Q bp ga in f'cl
by beading them.
192. What is usually the weakest part (from t he yi('wpoint of constnu'-
tion) of a bent-t,ube boiler?
Am, The tube ligamcnt.
193. How many courses are there in bent-tube boiler drum s? Explain
your answer.
Am. One, because a girth scam would unnecessaril y interfere with the
tube ligament. Also, different-lengt h tubes wou ld be required for each J'O,," ,
194. Where is the manhole in bent-tube boiler drums ?
Ans. In at least OIlP. head of each drum .
195. Where arc braces used in bent-tube boilers?
Ana. It is not customary to use braces in modern bent-tube boilers.
196. Wha.t is the purpose of circulating and equalizing tubes in belli -tube

Ans. Circulating tubes (,OUllt'ct tbe wa t,or space of adjacent steam drumR
(usually at the SRmc level) and aid in cquRlizn.tion of water level. Equaliz-
ing tubes connect, the st,eam spRee of such d rums t,o equalize the steam
197. In rive l.ed drums of bent-tube boilers, why is it customary to select
n. longitudinal seam of com pn.ratively low efficiency (45 to 75 per cent),
whereas, in ~traight- tuh(' type~, longi t udinal SL'U I1l S are d esig:ned usually
with n.n c ffi cien c~' of R!; 1'0 95 pel' Cf'Llt?
AnR. Becnus!' thr bpl1t-tu hc type bas a t t efficiency below
55 per cl'nt usua lly, whcrcn.s the straight-tube t y pe has no ligamcut. It
would be a waste of money to ch!Rip:1l a ri veted longitud in a l seam of higb
('ffirimlCY when t he press ure Oil t he boiler was limi ted b~' t he tuhe ligament .
198. Wltat is t he diJIe l'e ll r~ hC't"'PC'n fL mud drum in a Sti rling nnd in "'
st,raight-tuue type boill'l'?
Am. A St.irling mud drum is on!' of the main drums in the circulatory
syst,rm. In Rtl'a igh t-t,ulw boilers, lhe mud drum may h(~ It trough in the
ijteum drum (Hoi li e boil er) or an ("xtC'Tl1 a l hox at t he bot. t,om of the headenl
(as in t he Bobro('k .lnd Wilcox hoiler ).
199. W1Wl't· ILre Lhe hlowdown ('OfUl cctions on bcnt-tube boilers, n!lcl how
many !\re there?
Ans. In t.he hotLon. of t hE' lowost, or lllud , drum , One or more, depenrl-
ing on the length of t h(' drums.
200. Why u.rc circulftting t uhes bent in 'tirling type boilers ?
An8. To permit, rephw(,lfHll1t Rnd [I,lIow for expansion.
201. WhR,t is t ill' diffl·rclI ('p het'\V(' f'n t hA tuhf' "heet ill IL bent-t,ube boiler
and in an H,R.T. hoil'r?
AnB. In the bent,- tube boi ler, the t,uh ' Abact, is t bu.t portion of [,he drum
into which the tubes arc rolled, I n th e H.R.T, boiler, the tube sheet j, H
f1 ut head.



Besler Boiler.- A recent AmI rican system hns been patented

fol' a fOl'ct'd "once-through)J circulatioll 1 oiler (Pig. 85 and 86) .
No drumR, head 'I'H, or storage tanks are used. The boiler may
be Y;f;ualized as a long tube bent into spiral fOI'm , with water
pumped int.o one end and Rtt'am merging from the other.

FlO. 85.-Boslcr hoilcl·. (CourtCtll. B p.JJl er Sy.lema.)

Actually, a number of coil circuits may be connected in parallel

for greater capacities.
Somewhat as in boilers of conventional design, in this boiler
the heating surfaces are arranged into three zones: steaming
economizer, transition zone in which evaporation is completed,
and superheater section. The second zone completely incloses
the firebox with a closely spaced helical coil. Combustion rates
of over 500,000 B.t.u. per cu. ft. per hr. are attained.

These boilers are designed in standard sizes for capacities of

1,500 lb. per hr. to over 7,500 lb. pel' hr. at pressures of 1,250 to
1,850 lb. per sq. in. Superheat temperatures of up to 1000°F.
are practical.
One of these 7,500 lb. pel' hr. boilers op ' I.·ating a streamline
steam train is only nbout 4 ft. diameter by 67'2' ft. high, ha. 385
'q . ft. H .S., an d a combustion space of 23;'2 cu. ft. Test oper-
Iltion has developed eonsid!'rably over the rated output. Because
of fl exibility of au tomatic control and design and beat-tran fer

}ilO. RfI.- Besler h()·ler. «('ou.rtc.y. E e.sler SY8tem8.)

facili ties, this type of hoiler may lw brought from no load to fu ll

load in 4 soc.
Black-liquor Boilers.- Black liquor is a by-product of wood-
p ulp processing in the papermaking industry. hips of wood
are cooked by steam in a solution of sodium sulphide and sodium
hydroxide in a large tank known as a "digester." Strong
liquor from the digester flows to a storage tank where it is joined
by weak liquor from pulp washers. In order that this liquor may
sustain combu tion, it is then concentrated by evaporation and
crushed salt cake added until it contains over 50 per cent solids.
The concentrated liquor is pumped at about 220°F. through
oscillating burners which spray it onto the furnace walls ;
8PE('I A L-SE H ll f CE A N D E UROPE AN 143

deposits of combustible char build up until t hey are heavy

enough to drop to the furnace floor where combustion is assisted
by primary air nozzl es. The gases and a small percentage of

fuel particles rise to the upper part ot t he fu rnace where econdary

air is admitted to complete the combustion process.
A considerable peroentage of chemioal, a form of soda ash, is
recoverable from the ash of this process. T hus, the combustion

of this black liquor is twofold, namely, steam generation, and for

soda ash recovery.
Several types of boiler have been developed for this process.
The Babcock and Wilcox Tomlinson boiler (Fig. 87) , a three-
drum (longitudinal) bent-tube boiler, is representative of this
service. Its sloping furnace floor continuously discharges
"smelt" into the dissolving tank for recovery. The furnac('
walls and throat are entirely water-co led to protect the refrac-
tory and to expose a large amount of heating surface to radiant
heat. The gases pass through the throat and the generating
t ubes in a single pass, with no baffling. Ash depoRits are
removed from t he tubes by stram- or air-lancing and drop to the

FlO. 88.- Waste-hellt boiler tube. Section of standard heat-ahsorbing

element .howing nrr-angement of rinl(8. tithe pintos and connecting hcnder.
(ColLrte811. !i'oHlfT WhPrlfT GOTporo.tion.)

large hopper at t he bottom of the boiler. As the position of

drums is A- haped, they are out of the path of any chemical
falling from the tubes to the hoppers.
Units of this type are usually constructed for pressures of 450
~o 500 lb. per 'q. in. and steam ten'peratures up to about 750°F.
Recent installations vary in rated capacity from about 30,000 to
65,000 lb. steam p r hr. A unit rated at. 65,300 ib. per hr. has
11,902 sq. ft . H .. in the boiler and waterwall, 2,010 sq. ft . in the
economizer, and 6,980 sq. ft. in the air preheater. Th furnacc
volume is 5,100 cu. ft., having a unit heat release of 25,000 B.t.u.
per hr.
Waste-heat-Boilers.-There are a number of manufacturing
processes that give off considerable quantities of high-temper-
ature gases. Common among these are the exhaust from gas or
Diesel engines.
The Foster-Wheeler Corporation states:
The value of heat recovery depends, primarily, upon three con-
siderations :

1. The cost of producing an equivalent amount of heat by other

2. The cost of heat-recovery equipment.
3. The operating and maintenance cost of the waste-heat-recovery

FIG. SQ.-Waste-beat boiler. (Courte47/. F08ter Wheeler Corporation.)

To these might be added a fourth item: The desirability of

investment in a waste-heat boiler depends, too, upon the demand
for the steam that it may generate.
Steam boilers may be designed to use waste heat as all or
part of the steam-generating m dium. Since the gas temperature
is usually 500 to 800°F., whereas combustion products in the con-
ventionally fired installation may enter generating passes at about
2000°F., some means of compensating for the lower gas tempera-

ture must be employed. Otherwise, to have any appreciable

steam-generating capacity, the boiler would have to be beyond
all reason in size. Use of cast-iron "fins," shrunk onto the
generating tubes (Fig. 88, Note), solves this problem. In
addition to providing added beating surface, the cast il'on iF!
much more resistant to COITo 'ive efi'f'ctl' of many gas(' ~, thall
would be the exposed steel tubes.
A typical wa.'te-heat boiler (Fig. 89) i:,; de iguf'd witb l'('tUl'li
bends and horizontal tnl es. Otllf'%' dc, igJ1F; illcludc' \'('I't.ical
bent tubes or tubt~s bent brj \\'(;,(>11 two drums Or beaders.

1l, 160
140 /
r: /(
;1 20
:;;100 L
:i 80
/ :--l-
ct'- 20 V
0.. 0
I r-
~ U470 490 510
-2 ~50 530 550 570 590 610 630 650 670 690 710 730 750 770
Te mperc>tu.-e, Deg. F.
FIG . 90. -Vowtherm A. vupor-pl'e. UI' O curve. (CourtIJllY. The D ow Chemirol
Com pany. )

An incidental advftlltage of a waste-heat boiler in conjunction

with internal engine exhaust is that it often muffles objectionable
exhaust sound and thus no other silencer is necessary.
Appliance requirements for waste-heat boilers are the same as
those for steam boilers.
The Dowtherm Boiler.- The Dowthel'm boiler is constructed
under agreement with the Dow hemical Company who have
developed a chemical of exceedingly high boiling point for use in
high-temperature service. Tbis mat,erial, known as "Dow-
therm," is used in the boiler instead of water.
In Fig. 90, it will be noted tha.t, at a temperature of 650°F., a
Dowtherm pressure of but 53 lb. pel' sq. in. gage is required. To
attain this temnerature with saturated steam a pressure 9f
2,196 lb. per sq. in. would be required. The comparative con-
structional costs of boilers for these pressures are obvious.
Indirect steam heating usually has a practical limit of about
450°F. For temperatures of over 750"F ., mercury vapor may
be used. Dowtherm not only bridges this temperature gap
between steam and mercury Rys tems but al 0 may be used for
lower temperat ures.
Oowfher m vapor
100 lb., 120 d eg. F. \

'400 lb. 100 deg. F.'s feamfo

presenf p lanf main f or
process and power
Oowfherm __
vapor drum --\ Outlet header
" Oowfher m
Supe r hea fer(20 " \ cir culafing , 400-1b. sat-
p C/rol/e/ circuits), \ \ pump, urated steam
\ ,
Convecfion coils , \
(20paro/lel :
circuifs) rr,;?;;;:~~~M

16001b. 2.JO d eg.F. boile('f'eed

wrder ("rom high- pressure
\ - -:' Oil burners boiler-feed pumps,
' - - -_ i----L
I Fur nace coils
'(20p arC/llel circuifs)
FIo. Ill.- Flow diagram of steam hoil er un it, (HOO-th. series t ype). u 8i n ~
Dowthorrn for indirect 8uporbenting and rehea t in g of stea m. (Courte811. T he
Dow Chemical Company. )

Dowtherm is an organic material. Dowtb erm A, which boil

at 500°F. and is recomlllended for temperatures up to 750°F., i"
composed of 267i per cent diphenyl and 73Y2 per cent diph nyl-
oxide. Dowtherm C is u ed in only t he liquid phase and for
temperatures up to about 800°F. Dowtherm is nontoxic.
It is more difficult to maintain pressure-tight joints with
Dowtherm than with steam 0 )' water, and so joints of the boiler
proper are welded instead of riveted and tubes are welded into the
drums. Whereas a hydrostatic test under cold water pressure
ffiayshow Jeakap;e at defects in a steam bQiier, no indication would

be shown for leaks that bot Dowtherm might find . The most
satisfactory test for Dowthel'm boilers is to int roduce ammonia
gas into the system at a preSSUl'e of up to about] lb. per sq. in. 01'
to fill the boiler half full of aqua ammoniae. Ail' pressure at
about 50 per cent of tho rated boiler pressure i . then appli d. A
lighted sulphur candle or a dilute hydrochloric acid swab is passed

FlO. 92.-8team boiler unit (1400-1b. series type) using Dowtherm fol' incUrect
suporheating and reheating of steam. (Court~y. The Dow Chemical Companv.)

in front of seams, joints, or points where leakage is considered

likely. If leakage is occurring, a white smoke will result from
the indicator.
Some decomposition may occur if the recommended tempera-
tures are exceeded greatly, owing to faUlty operation or localized
o-verncatinR:. Such decomposition may produce a fixed gas,
which may ue ,' p.nted during op ration. and soluble triphenyls,

If the triphenyl content becomes excessive, purification of the

Dowtherm may be effected by a disti Llation or fractional crystal-
lization method.
Blowdown connections are provid d on Dowtherm boilers but
are used only when the boilcr is off the line and cool, and for
the purpose of emptying the boiler, 01' to withdraw liquid for
purification. Since Dowtherm is a valuable chemical, no wasto

Flo . 93.- Diugt'atll of Loefflor boiler. (ll"rtc3Y , Steam il'n(Ji/, Londun. 1

is permissible. Ail vents, th dis hargp of saIet.y valws, ete.,

are conducted back thl'ough a condenser to the st.orage sYFitem.
Use of Dowth erm-boiler service may be divided into two
sections: (1) Up to the present time, the more common service is
for applying high temperature at low pressure to manufacturing
processes. (2) Thcse boilers are now finding their placc in
combination with steam plants for local g neration of high-
pressure or -temperature steam for pl'OCesS usei for accurate
control of superheated steam; as accessory equipment for air pI' -
heaters and economizers, steam reheaters, etc . Figures 91 and
92 show typical Dowt.herm applications in a bigh-pressure steam

plant. The future may produce many more applications of this

~ystem in steam plants.
LoefHer Boilers.- Loeffier boilers (Fig. 93) are built in Czecho-
slovakia at this writing. They follow a design principle advanced
by Dr. Stephan Loeffler in 1923 and were developed to eliminate
difficulties of scale and corrosion in boil er tube operating at high
pressures and temperatures. The radical differences between the
Loeffler boiler and the conventional American steam boi l rarE':
1. The boiler tubes in the Loeffler boiler are filled with steam,
not water.
2. Steam is generated by jeL::! of highly SUp(·rllt'ated team dis-
charged directly into the water in the boil(· r drum.
3. Steam is circulat.ed t hrough the tubeR by a steam pump.
The pur'posC' of item 1 is to eliminatE' tube foul ing; in a
Loeffler boil r, unlik(' OUI" high-presRuro boilers, untreated f ced
watpT of scaJe-rMming charactnistieR may bo used successfulJ y.
So sure are tbe makers that, diffiellltieR will not arise that the t.ubes
arC' welded int.o beaders and no tube caps or handholes are
provided. Act.ually, the drum of t his boilPr s('rves in part as an
('vaporator whereby clean ill,eam is gencral('d for circulation, and
,",olids jl) the water remain behind wh('l'(' they are removed by
blowing dowu whell tht'i r concenLm! iOIl l'l'aches a predptermiJ1ed
level. Often, a smfl11 mud drum is pl'o\;ded for this purpose.
l' ollowing the Loeffler system of operation from the drum B
(Fig. 93) the steam pump U circulates the steam through the
tubes of the radiant superh eater S, t hen through the convection
8uperheater tubes N, to the division point K. Here, about
one-third of the steam goes out t he steam main, and the remainder
returns to discharge into the water in the steam drum, where the
superheat is utilized in gener'ating more 'team. At constant
load, the amount of team generated equals that which passes
out th . steam main. The feed pump P pumps the feed water
through the economizer V into the steam drum. L is an air
pI' heater utilizing waste heat from the flue to heat air used for
Because steam is the only medium which keeps the tubes
from overheating, the steam must be dense, that is, at higb
pres ure, before high combustion rates are effected. For this
reason, Loeffler boilers are practical only for operating pressures
of higher than 750 lb. per eq. in. The velocity of steam pumped

through the tubes is about 65 ft. per sec. In starting a Loeffler

boiler, steam must be circulated; if none is present in the stearn
drum, it must be supplied from an outside source such as other
boilers" on the line" or from a small " donkey" boiler.

,,/I ..... ~
8J25.J;. : 12
l.i4ofm. 247"C. I
51fW Fj

~ o.+..;.;..;
~ ;...;;;..;.;..;..;;..;.;.;.;.... ~,

62.588f.per hr. "' ,

(/16Io.P._e_r 'B°F.) ....,
(960 or.; /850/b.per

(4464. c.)

Flo. 94.-Loeffler boiler heat diagram. (Courte.y. Pro/es.or E. Joo. e. Tech"';"",1
UniwerBity. Berlin.)

An added advantage in the Loeffler system is that the steam

drum does not have to be installed in the boiler setting. It is
often at or below the operating floor level, the need of heavy
supporting steel structures being thus eliminated.
The steam-flow diagram (Fig. 94)* shows temperatures and
pressures at various points in the cycle of a. Loemer boilo:lr
• "J..oAffier Boiler TestI!" by Prof. E. J08l!e.

installed at the Caroline Station of the Vitkovice Mines, Steel &

IronworkJ * in Czecho. lovakia. The rating of this boiler is
132,300 lb. per hr. at 1,850 lb. pressure.

FlO. 95. -Trcbovice power station in Czechoslovakia. (Courtesy, Arthur J .

Her8chmann and Vitkovic. Mine8, Steel & Iron Work8, ('orp.)

Figure 95 shows three Loeffler boilers installed at Trebovice,

Czechoslovakia. These boilers ar rated at 150,000 lb. per hr.
ach at a PTC sure of 1,849 lb. and a total steam temperature of
about 960°F.
Two Loeffler boilers have been constructed recently for installa-
t,ion in Rus ia and are rated at over 500,000 lb. team per hr. at
1.900 lb. pI' ssure. Since 1,900 lb. per sq. in. is the mo·t favorable
• Manufacturers of Loemel' boile18.

pressure for Loeffier boilers, the design of the appliances for these
boilers is interesting.
A multiple-disk safety valve (Fig. 96) was designed for di -
charge of 100,000 lb. ,team per hr. at ] ,900 lb. per sq. in. and
932°F. This valve is in a solid icrged-st.ecl block, and six 0.86-

r------ ------- ------- 33.1"

FIG . 116. Mult.iple-ullit hi..:h-prNI8ul'c 8ufet,y ,'alve.

in. opening valvl'H arc ufied from the one supply . Thl' de .ignel'H
thought gage glasses unsatisfactory at over 1,500 lb. per Rq. in.
and dev loped an electrical water-level indicator (Fig. 97). To
pr vent coliap e of the float, it is filled with a liquid that evap-
orate at operating temperatures and creates an internal pressure
commensurate with the external pressure. The style of pine
joint was developed by Dr. Loeffier (Fig. 98). A pressur -tight
seal is effect d by drawing up the stud nuts until a slight deforma-
tion occurs in th mfltal-to-metal contact between the point of
\;he male flange and t.he cone of the female flange.

La Mont Boilers.- La Mont boiler ' w re d veloped in Ger-

many in 1930. They are forced-circulation boilers using 8

Fw . 97 .-Watcr-level indicator, electrica.lly indicated.

}<~IO . 9 .- Pipe joint. Edge of inner cene is deformed by pre8lJUre thue producing
" bermeti c seal.

llomewhat conventional steam-and-water drum for stability on loads .

' .... ,.."..

~.. .e ~ ..:
.. e ci. .

I:>. 3 " ..;.,..
IE ..:
~ ~
.; " "". .," I:>.
3 "".." I:>. .,...: .
.,co .. :5"... 08'" to

to I:>.
... 8

., .
.3 " .9 ..: "3 '~ ca~ "
. ~B <- OJ

i " E
8 ~
~ ~ r:.lI> 0 ~ .1)8 t3 ri: (5 r.." r.]8 .s I:!l"

,...; c4 ..;. .,; cO ...: 00 .,; ;: ...; ...c4 ,.;...


In a La Mont boiler, a circulating pump forces boiler water

through evaporator tubes (waterwalls), which line the combustion
chamber, and thence through another small group of evaporator
tubes, at the top of the furnace, to the steam drum. Any wll,ter
remaining in the steam after passing the evaporator section , drops
to the water surfare in the drum, while the steam passe;1 out
through the sup 'rheater tubes to the steam line. Feed water
passes througb the economizer tubes to th drum in the usual
manner. SolidR are removed by blowdown from the drum .
La Mont boilers are constructed for all pressures and for
capacities of over 100,000 lb. p<'r hr.
Velox Boilers.- The Velox boiler (Fig. 99) is the result of
research and drvelopmelltH by Brown, Bo\'crj & Co., Lt.d., ill
Switzerland. Pr !;!;ure combm;tion is used to obtain t hn
extremely high furnace ratings of up to 900,000 B.t.u. P ' I' cu. ft .
pel' hr. Combustion pressures of up to 35 lb. per sq. in. gagp
pressure is attained by combustion air from a compreHsor driven
by a flu -gas tmbine. This turbine operate from the pressure
of the combustion gases, and the motor shown ill the figure on
the Same shaft is used in starting up or changing load in thfl
boiler. The flue-gas turbine exhausts through the economizer to
t.he tack.
Th feed-water pump (10) discharges feed water through thc'
economizer (11) to join boiler water in the separat.or drum (1).
The circulating pump (7) forces boiler water from the bottom of
the drum through the evaporator tub (3) which line the lower
part of the combustion chamber. The steam-and-water mixturr
from the evaporator goeR through a centrifugal separator in thf'
top of the separator drum (1), where water is removed from
the steam. The 'team goes from here, through the. uperheater
tubes (2) lining the upper part of the combustion chamber, to
the main st,eam line.
Among the QPerating features distinctive of the Velox boiler is
that a cold boiler has been successfully brought up to its operating
pressure and full capacity in 4.8 min. The plant operating
efficiency, after deducting power consumption of all auxiliaries
except the boiler feed pump, is well over 90 per cent at all ratings
from 35 to over 100 per cent of rated capacity.
Among large Velox boil r ' are two units placed in service in
1936 at tile Oslo (Norway) Municipal Power Station. These
boil 1's are ea·11 rated at 176,000 lb. steam per hr., at 400 lb.

_---Wafer pre-
-- --- heater

--- --Auxiliary
secfion - ---
_ '- - - Thrqttling
.;r-- ===!=!~~;;;;;;~§in - --Superhearef
Sup;;hea fed- ,Radiant -heat
steam outlet " absorbing
~ Wafer inlet
;; iii
Wafer .' Wet sfeom ' Superheafed steam
Fl .. IOO.- Benson hoiler with liuxiliary bCI1tinl( HurfaCQ.

pressure and 797°F. total temperature. These boilers are oil-

burning units.
Benson Boiler.-The principles of the Benson boiler are not
new and untried. A B nson boiler was constructed in England
under direction of Mark Benson in 1923. A few years later, the'
developm ent of these boil )'s was assumed by Siemens-Inc. ill
No drum is used with t.h Bcnson principle. The f(,od water is
pumped througb the boiler tubes (Figs. 100 and ]01) in a true
fOf('(' d-rin·uln.t.ion mam) r. Tho auxiliary heating I ubo hy-pasf;ed

Fl o. l02. -Benson bailor in SSW Cable Works. Uppor part of comhustioll

()blllllboJ'. «('ourtc81/. Franci8 H odokinson .)

around the throttling deYlce is used to indicate thermally a change

in rate of firing before steam temperat.ure or pre 'sure is affected.
Pure feed water in the form of condcn ate hould be used with
boilers of this type. Any app)' 'ciable amount of make-up that
might be scale-forming should be fcd through an cvaporator so
that distilled water will bc produccd for feed . Any salts formed
on internal surfaces of the tubes are di 'solved and removed when
the boiler is started up or shut down, operating as a flooded
Due to its sensit.ivity of response to changes in combustion
rates, the Benson boiler is well adapted to the principle of varia-
ble-pressure operation in coordination with a specially designed
turbine. Instead of increasing the steam flow to the turbine by
valve gear control when load increases. the combustion rate
increases and the rising steam pressure accommodat,,!s the
increased load.
The combustion chamber is lined with tubes (Fig. 102), as in
American waterwall practice. Combustion rates of up to about
200,000 B.t.u . per cu . ft. per hr. are common. Practicaloperat-
ing pressures vary up to the critical point, 3,200 lb. per sq. in.
Capacities of installed boilers range up to over 220,000 lb. per
hr. at high pressures. All methods of firing have been employed
wjth success, namely, stoker, oil, gas, and pu lverized coal.
Advantages claimed for Benson boilers include :
Low co t, and weight due to elimination of drums.
Elimination of t rouble due t o gravity circulation.
Extreme fl exibility in respect to pressure temperature and
Absence of danger of explosion due to use of small-diameter

Safety Valves.- The function of a safety valve is to PI' vent

excessive preS1lure from building up in a steam boiler. The safety
valve is set at, or below the maximum safe "'orking preRSU e for the
boiler it protects.
Safety-valve Construction.- It i of the utmost importance
t.hat a safety valve shall be correctly constructed. Such con-
stmction may be ensured by sp cifying that the construction
shall conform to thf' A.. M.E. Boiler Cod(' Rpccifications and
t.hat, the safety valve shall be marked" A.S.M.E. Standard "_
a requirement in many st.ates and municipalitips.l
An A.S.M.E. st.andard safety valve bears the following informa-
l,ion stamp d on tbe valve body or name plat,e :
Manufacturer's name or trade-mark.
Manufacturer's type or design number.
Size, in inches.
Seat diamet r, in inches.
Pre.'! me at. which valve is set t.o blow, in pounds per squarr
Blowdown, in pounds per square inch.
Discharge eapacit.y, in pounds per hour.
Capacity lift, in inches.
A.S.M.E. stand!lI'd i;ymbol.
When a safety valve bears tbis stamping, it is the manufac-
turer's guarantee that the rules of the A.S.M.E. Code have been
followed in thp construction of his product.
In brief, the major constructional requirements are that the
disk and seat shall be of noncorrosive material, the seat being
fastened to the body 80 t hat it cannot lift with the valve disk.
All parts should be so constmcted that no failure of any part will
1 Massachusetts ha.s an independent boiler code which requires "Mass.
Standard" stamping on safety valves. Their code is similar, and the" Mass.
Standard" safety valve is often identical with the A.S.M.E. standard type.

interfere with full discharge capacity of the valve. Th seat

may b . inclined at any angle between 45 and 90 deg.
The Rafety valve mus t be of the direct spring-loaded typ .
Code stat,es do not allow the ill,;talhltioD of wpjght and ) 'vl'r t.ype;,
or dead-weight safety valves, fol' the adj ustmput of ,;uch valveH
is too easily tampered with. Theil' URI' in non- odp Rt.atpAis uot
rp('ommended .
Safety va lv (~" Ahould be eonllect.!·d dirt·(.'t Iy t.o lUl iJldependent
nozzle on t hc' hoilrr wit;hout llllY int('I'\'('nillg valveH of allY dcs('l'ip-
tion. Thread!'d c'ouDcttions may b e uRcd tip
to and including 3 in. cliamptcr. For boilcr::;
operating at OVI:'I' ]5 Ih . I r sq. in. , all safet.y
valvEs over 3 in . diamdl:'r Rhollld have fiangl:'d
inlet conll<'etions.
afety Yalv('1' disc hul'giJ)g ,~ t ram ow!' 450°F.
from Rupprhratpl'lo; Rhould hay!' a t-h1ngc·d inlrt
r.onn{'C'tion for all i-;iZNi. Also. Ruth valvei;
Rhonld hr ('oIlRtru(·t fod of s ('('('l 01' alloy !Steel
throughout , sliitab lc' for 11t-'Ht resistan to at
maximum I-It<'arn tC'mpf'1'8turl'''. Th(' spring
in F'upprbcai ~ r Rttft'ty \,11.1\'(,,, sliould lH' fu lly
('xpo~e d (FJg. ] 03) flO tliat il will not. be in
contact wilh high-tetnlwrature ~team.
It is importallt I hat the lIozzl(' opruillg to
and t he (,flcap<' piping frol11 the safdy valve
Hhould be at least as largr as til· safety-val ve
FlO. ]03_- [:;"r " Y
(·onnection. If two or morr Raff'ty yalves ar(' valve with exposon
('onnect{'d on n, ('ommon nozzl(' or fitting, the spring ro" u.c wi th
Buperh eal,od stOllll'-
area of this no zzle or fitting should at least (Cour l ."". J. E_
Aqual the combi nl:'d areas of all safety valves Lonergan Co.)
The safety-valve spring is mmally of square flLock, for maximum
clea.rance between the coils. If the coils coml:' in contact, t he
valv cannot lift. It i. for thi reason princit ally that the
maximum range of adjustment permitted with a flpring is 10 pCI'
cent of its rated setting. This rule is for safety valves set at up to
250 lb. per sq. in. For higher pressures, the allowa.blr range of
adjustment i 5 per cent of t he spring rating . If tb setting is
changed to a greater deviation, a new spring and Dam plate
should b e installed by the manufacturer's representative .

A lifting lever is required, in order to lift the valve from its

scat when there is 75 per cent of the popping pressure in -the
boiler. Lifting levers that can lock the valve in raised position
are not approved .
Blowback is the number of pounds drop in boiler pressure
from the value at which a safety valve pops to the point where the
CQ valve closes. For pressure up
fn'\', to 100 lb. per sq. in., the blow-
\£.(., " back should be not over 4 per
f.:\ , '
~~~L~"':~~.. "'::+'!Ii+IF_~loII-
I-... cent, but not less than 2 lb.
@ Higher pressures call for a
®- minimum blowback of 2 per
cent of thc popping pressure.
A lesser blowback may result
in a destructive chattering
(rapid popping and seating)
action. Too great a blowback
wastes steam and fuel. Al -
though the Code is silent rc-
gar~g maximum blowback, it
i. usually good practice to
adhere to t,he minimum allowed.
The A.S.M.E. Code specifies
that the blowback shall be
adjusted and sealed by the
manufacturer. However, em-
FIG. IO't - Pop safety valve. (COUT- ergencies may arise in which a
tell1/. J. E. Lonergan Co.) hi f
1. Set .or.... 13. Ring-lock .cr.w. competent c e engineer may
i: t';~~gprn~k.. l~: ~I~~~~~ing ring. be justified in breaking the seal
t k:~~t~t. l~: ~t,:';il. nut. and making temporary adjust-
~: ~~~!~:..teP' 19: 6~~~pin. ment. The adjustment is
:: ~~~l~: ~t::. ~~: ~~:'1:'~I~' effected by the blowback ring,
l?: :t~-:'ng. ~~: ~'1ti~'g pin. or adjusting ring, in valves of
12. Star nut. the type shown in Fig. 104.
The adjusting-ring access screw is removed, and with a pointed
tool or screwdriver the ring is rotated part of a turn on its
threaded sleeve. This raises or lowers the ring, changing the
area of the huddling chamber.
The action of the huddling chamber and blowback ring is to
expose a gr ater area to escaping steam when the valve lifts

slightly. The steam pressure acting on an increased area gives a

greater total lifting pressure against the spring, which results in
the valve opening with a pop, the abrasive cutting action of the
steam (known as "wire drawing") which might be caused on
the valve and seat by slow opening being thus eliminated.
The Crosby nozzle-t.ype safety valve (Fig. 105) dispenses wit.h
the "blowback-ring" principle. When th valve first lifts,
steam strikes the adjusting ring and iR
deflected downward . The reaction of
the diverted flow CaliRI'S t he
valve to pop open. This ronstnlcliOlI
results in high lift and high capat' il Y.
Escape pipes should be uspd if t.h!'
discharge is 10ca1.ed where workmclI
might be scald d. A proper escape
pipe is as essential to the safety of
plant personnel as the safety valvc is
to the boiler. Too often a man ha.~
been opening a stop valve when a
Aafety valve, having no escape pipE'
and pointing directly at him , pop".
To be standing in the path of It high-
pressure 3- or ~-in. jet of st,('am is
usually fatal.
Every escape pipe should be at
least 6 ft. high. If headroom makes
it impossible to terminate the escape FIG . I05.- Crosby nozzle-
pipe within a reasonable di. tance from type safety valve. (Cour-
the ceiling, it should extend out tuy, Crosby Steam Oll(l" and
Valve Co.)
through the building wall or roof. If
it is a fiat roof where workmen may be, the escape pipe should
extend at least 6 ft. above it. If a horizontal escape pipe is
more practical, it should discharge at a safe location.
It is essential that the escape pipe should be at least equal to the
size of the safety valve. If a length of over 12 ft. is necessary, it
is better to use a diameter ~ in. larger for each 12 ft. in length.
A long line with no increase in diameter will cause a back pressure
because of flow friction and may cause serious chattering
of the safety valve. All 90-deg. bends should be avoided if

The escape pipe should be supported independently of the

safety valve. Serious stresses may be set up in the safet,y-valve
body, connection, or boiler nozzle by the weight of a heavy,
IIL1 uppol'1 ed ('RCape pipe.
After a safety valve bas blown many times, it is not uncommon
for slight leakage to develop. Condensation of thi' leakage may
gradually fill an undrained es-
supporti ng (/
T cape pipe with water . This con-
('fong ll ...... ·;1.. dition alone prevents the 'afety
1 valve from blowing at its f;f'i,
.1' t - - - - ' pressure. The popping poi n t-
room will be increased 1 lb. for every
i.oose 2.3-ft. elevation of water in thf'
,'.'cape pipe. AL'o, in an out-
door e1::lcape pipe expo:;ed to
seVf'l'e wintors, ice may form and
:;eriously , interfere with propel'
safety-valve operation. Bvery
escape pipe should have a %- 01'
Yz-in. open drain at its lowest
point. This drain should be
('onducted off the boiler top ill
order to prevent external cor-
rosion induced by dampnes:o<.
Figurc 106 Ahows a correctly
installed afety valve.
ho. 1(1(;. Escapo pipe (0'- safety
The number of safety valves
required depend on the size of
1he boiler . At least one safcty valv is required on every boiler.
if the watpl' heating AurIa 'e of a boiler exceeds 500 q. ft. or if the
maximu m gencrating capacity of a boil r is over 2,000 lb. per
111'., at least two safct,y vaivp ' should be used.
The required safct.y-valve discharge capacity should be sueh
that the minimum relieving capacity of t he safety valves should
not be Ie - than the maximum generating capacit.y of the boiler.
The A.S.M.E. Code assumes a stcam gen rating capacity in
pounds per hour pel' square foot of heating surfa 'e as follows.
For fire-tube boilers: hand-fired, 5; stoker-fired, 7 ; oil-, pulverized-
"oal-, or gas-fired, 8; attached watel'walls with the e methods of
firing, 8, 10, and 14, respectively. The generating capacity per

square foot of water heating surface per hour for watertube

boilers is given by the Code as: 6 for hand firing, 8 for stoker
firing, and 10 for oil, gas, or pulverized-coal firing; for attached
waterwalls, 8, 12, and 16 for the respective fuels.
Thus an oil-fired 150-hp. H .R.T. boiler with no waterwalls
would require at least two safety valves; for 150 X 10 = 1,500
1:14. ft. heating surface (over 500 sq. ft.), and 1,500 X 8 = 12,000
minimum requirpd relieving capacity for safety valves, or
12,000/ 2 = 6,000 lb. per hr. each for two valves.
When a HafC'ty valve is mounted on a superheater having no
Hhutoff valves br.twern the superheater and the boiler, the
capacity of this ::;afcty valve may be included in the total required
for the boil r provid0d that it iF; allowf\d not. more than 25 per cent.
of the necessary total ca.pacity.
Determination of the required safety-valve size is the last st<'J)
in safety-valve calculations. (The latest edition of the A.S.M.E.
Power Boiler Code Book has omitted this method of calculating
safety-valve sizf' in favor of specifying capacity alone.)
For 45-deg. bevel-seat safety valves
D = 1]0 X P XL
For flat-Rent safe1"y valve:-;,

D = W
1.55 X P X D
For "f'atH at other ang;les,
A = 50 X P
wherc D == inside diameter of va)v!' seat, in inches.
W = discharge apacity, in pounds per hour.
P == popping prf'ssure, in poundf'\ per square inch absolute
(gag pressure +14.'1 at sea level).
L == v(~ rtical lift of valve disk, in inches at 3 % excess
A = relieving area, in square inches = 7r X D X L X sine
of seat angle.
The A.S.M.E. Code specifies that at least one safety valve
shall be set at or below the maximum allowable working preS8ure

and that the rest of the ,'alves shall range from 3 per cent above
to within 10 per cent of the highest pressure at which any valve is
set. It is poor economy for all safety valves to pop at once; if
there is a few pounds differential on the setting, the fireman 'will
have warning to check his fires when the safety valve set at t,h~
lowe t pres ure blow '.
Water Columns, Gage Glasses, and Gage Cocks.- The gag!'
glasR and gage coclu; are essential applianCI'R for indirating the

J!' lO. l07.- Refleot,ing-typo gnp:e glass. ,md safety water column with high- and
low- water ,,[nl'm whistles. (CQ ll r (C8Y, The Reli"'lcc Ga.uge Column 0.)

level of the boil I' water. The water column (often omitted in
railroad and marine practice) is installed betw en t he gage glass
and the boiler. It serve to eliminate excessive fluctuations of
water-lev I indication in the glass due to rapid boiler cil'culation
or ebullition and thus act,s as a steadying medium.
Mirrors (Fig. 107) are sometime' U ' d where, because of
extremely hi b levation, gage glasses are not visible from the

lip ·l'lltiug" tioOI'. Other styles of .glass mak(-' llse of remolt' gag't' -
glass indicators (Fig. 108) which may be IO('.fl.tNi a1 thf' operating
floor level.
The gage-glru s conncctions between the gla s and the water
('.olumll (or boiler if the column is omitted) hould be at least
~ in. , and a draoin Yalv(' or cock 'honld be provid d in the bottom

Fw. l08.- Remote-type gago gJass loo"ted at a ('ooveniont point by boiler

operMor·. ('o atrol station. (Courtll8l1, The ReJ.imu;o Ga1JO~ Column Co.)

of the low l' connection chamb r. A shutoff valve i in tailed

in both connections to p rruit replacement' of a defective glMtI
whil t.he boil ' r is under pressure.

Automatic shutoff valves in a gage-glass connections serve to

stop the escape of steam or boiler water on glass failure. They
are not permitted in Massachusetts, but the A.S.M.E. Code does
allow them if they are constructed according to their specifications.
Gage cocks are installed to serve !W a check on the accuracy
of the gage glass and to deLermine the water level in the event of
glass failure. If two independent gage glasses are installed at
the same elevation , and at lea t 2 ft. apart, the gage cocks arC'
usually dispensed with. Most codes require but two gage cork;.;
for locomotive boilers witbin 36 in. diameter or 011 firebox boilrJ'''
within 5 hp. Larger boilers arc fitted with thI'pe gage corbo
These cocks may be mounted on the water column OJ' directly
on the boiler and are equally I:lpaced, within HI(' visible range of
the gage glass.
Water-column material is usually cast il'on up to 250 lb . pf'r
sq. in. The A.S.M.E. Code specifics that malleable iron may be
used up to 350 lb. per sq. in., but steel is requiJ'E'd for higher
pressures. The piping connecting a water column to th boile,
should be at least 1 in. diameter. Brass pipe for the lower
connection is preferred up to about 150 lb. per sq. in. Where any
bend or tum is necessary in the lower connection, crosses should
be used instead of 90-deg. elbows. The two unused openingI'
should be fitted with pipe plugs, and these should be removed at
each annual internal inspection (oftener if required) to sel." that,
the connecting pipes are clear and to clean them if necessary.
Water-column drains are requil'ed a,t the bottom and in the
lowest part of any pocket in the lower connection. A %-in. 01'
larger gate-valve drain is u ed for sediment removal. A globe
valve may be used on t he nonpressure side of the gate valve for
tightness if desired. Use of the gate valve permits a wir to be
run through an obstructed valve and pip without removing the
boiler from service.
The steam connection should pitch toward the column and the
water connection toward the boiler so that a false indication of
level will not be shown by trapped in the column when
the boiler-water level is declining.
Leveling a water column or a gage glass is important. The
lowest visible point in the gage glas should be at least 2 in. above
the elevation of the lowest safe water level.

In H.R.T. boilers, the lowest safe water level is at least 1 in.

above the top row of tubes. It may be less ii the Jistance from
the top row of tubes to the top of the shell is 13 in. or less, but
it must be above the upper surface of the top row of tub s.
The lowest safe water level in locomotive or Scotch marine
boilers is ] in. above the highest part of the crown sheet; in
V.T. boil ers, one-third t he height of the tubes; alld in vertical
submerged-head, or subme"ged-tube, fire-tube boilers, 1 in .

FlO. IOg.- Tandem mounted blowdoWll valves. (Court' sv, Ya;",all-Warino CQ. )

above the upper tube sbeet. In mo ·t standard t.ypes of water-

tube boilers, it is 6 in. above the bottom of the steam-and-
water drum.
Blowdown Valves and Fittings.- A blowdown connection is
required at the lowest water space of a boiler to serve three
1. To remove precipitated sludge or loose scale.
2. To permit rapid lowering of t he boiler water level if it has
become too high aceidentaJly.
3, As a means of removing water from the boiler system so that
fresh water may be added to keep concentration of solids in the

boiler water below the point wbere difficulties may b experienced

(se Chap, VIII),
Since at lcast onE' of thcse functioD], may be performed und!'!'
ern rgency conditions, it is essential that the blowdowll valve.'
should cOliform to rigid specifications, Globe valves are not
permit.ted under any condition, for inherent in t.hrir design is a
tendency fol' a dam 01' pockrt t.o forlD , where sediment may
build up,

FlG, UQ ,-Slow-openi ng blow- Fla. 111,- Globe vnlve

dowll valve, (Courtesy, Yarnall- with renewable seat and
Warin(J Co,) disk, (CourteBY, The Lun-
kcnheimer Co. )

Blowdown valve,. and fittings Fihou ld be design d for at leasL

25 per cent greater pressure than the maximum allowah lc
pressure on the boil r.
Cast-iron fittings may be used between the blowdown valve
and the boiler for pr ssures 100 lb, per sq. in, or Ie s, but steel
is preferI'd. Steel fittinga are an A.S.M.E. Code requirement
for pres ures over 100 lb. per sq. in., and steel valve construction
for over 250 lb. per sq. in.
A t least two blowdown valves (Fig. 109) should be used if the
pres ure exceeds 100 lb. per sq. in. At least one of these valves
should be a slow-operunp: valve (Fig. 110),1 Where there is more
1 The A. . M. E. Code defines a slow-opening valve as one requiring at least,
five full 360-deg. turns between full-open and closed positio.n.

than one blowdown connection from a boiler, joining a common

blowdown header, one valve on each independent line and a
master valve on the header meet A.S.M.E. Code regulations.
The Code specifies furthcr that a double blowdown valve in one
casing is permissible provid("d that failure of one valve does not
affeet the other.
Valves of various types llll,ve becn mentioned. As a rule, the
globe valve (Fig. J J 1) i. used whorc posi;ivc tightnes..'l against
leakage is desired and where th ' fluid controlled is practically fl'ee

FlO. 112.- Gate valve, nOll- FlO. 113.- Gate valve (out-
rising stom. (Courtesy, The side screw and yoke), rising
Chapman Valve Mig. 00.) stem. (OourteBY, The Chap-
man Valve MI(J. Co.)

from suspended solids. It should be noted in the figure that both

the valve disk and the seat are renewable. If they become worn,
all that is necessary is to remove pressure from the pipe line,
unscrew the valve bonnet, and renew these parts. The valve
body does not have to be disturbed from its piping connection .
When a globe valve is used in the feed-water piping to a
boiler, it is important for the Bow to enter under the valve disk.
If it entered from above and the disk became detached from the
stem, th valve would automatically close. feed liO the boiler
being thus prevented.

The gate valve may be one of two types: the nonrising-stem

inside- crew and the rising-stem outside-scrcw-and-yoke types
(Fig '. 112 and 113). Some power-plant engineers claim that the
gate valve will not hold pressure
so well as a globe valve, but this
claim is usually a fallacy; any type
of valve will leak when its seat is
The gate valve operatel:l on the
wedge principle, with considerable
seat contact. Also, since there i.'
"straight-through" flow, no dam
is offered to trap sediment or pieces
FlO. 114. -Flllppcr or 8wjng- of scalc. Hence, the gate valve
i ng-disk type check v,,1 vc. (Cour-
l e8j/. The Lunkcnhrimer Co. )
should be w:ied for water-column
drains and for similar services.
The lising-stem type gate valve is used where it, is urgent that
there should b visible indication that the valve is in oprIl
I)osition . This typ is required when shutoff valves are used in
t,he conuecting pipes between a water column and a boiler.

FlO. 1t5. -Forgoo-steel high-pressure plunger-type check valv". (Cuurtr.lll/.

Ha1lcock Valve Division. Mannino, Maxwell & 1I10Qre, Inc. )

Many other modifications of the globe and gate valves are

available for special services with various fluids.
Check valves are u ed where unidirectional flow is essential,
as when feed water flows into a boiler. The swinging disk in the
valve (Fig. 114) closes against its seat if the flow tends to reverse.
By bleeding pre ure from the piping and removing the bonnet

and side plug, the valve and seat may be ground to a new face
when worn. Also, all of these parts are renewable.
Check valves for very high pressures are usualJy of forged
st eel and of the piston type (Fig. 115). A globe valve and check
valve may be combined in one unit for feed-water attachment to
a boiler drum h ad (Fig. 116).
A nonretum valve (Fig. 117) is used sometimes as a stop valve
on the main steam line next to a steam boiler. The function of

FIG . 1l6.-Combinatiou stop and FJO. 117.-Nonroturn valve fOl'

check valvo fot installation in feed- main steam lino from boiler,
wa.ter line at drum bead . (Courtesy. (Courtesy, 7'he Lunkenheim er Co.)
Hancock Valve Division, ilfa1lnino, Max-
welL & J\[oore, Inc .)

such a valve is to close automatically if any pressure part fails

in the boiler to which it is attached and to prevent backflow
from the steam header to the point of failure. Thus the defective
boiler is isolated automatically from any other boiler supplying
the same header.
Fusible plugs are sometimes at the lowest safe water levd
in a boiler. A fusible core is de 'gned to melt and allow escaping
steam to sound warning of low water. The threaded casing is of
bronze, and the core is of practically pure tin with a. melting
temperature of 400 to 500°F.

In the outside type (Fig. 118), the tin core is tapered, with the
large end at the threaded end of the casing that is exposed to
pr S 'ure. This type is installed from the fire side (as in most
boilers). The inside plug (Fig. 119) is installed from the pressure

FlO. 118.-0ut- FlO. 119. -In-

side-type fusible sido-type fu sible
plug. (Court.81/. plug. (Courte8U.
The Lunkcnheimer The Lunkenheimer
Co.) Co.)

FIG. 120.- Door latch for w!\tertube boiler. (Courte8V. Erie Cit1l Iron Work,.)

sid and has the large end of the tapered tin core at the hexagon
end so that pressure will not blow the core out.
Fusible plugs are seldom used for pressures above 250 lb. pel'
sq. in. Below this pressure, they are required in but few locali-
ties. The author strongly recommends their use with the

locomotive or Scotch marine type of boiler where low water may

cause a serious explosion. Where they are used, they should be
renewed at least annually.
Door Latches.-Many state laws enforce the A.S.M.E.
specifications for inward-opening firing doors or doors that have
approved types of door latch for watertube boiler::;. Such door
latches arc required t.o be !:icJf-Jocking (Fig. 120) and of a typ not
dependent on splings or friction contacts, which might be
impaired by overh ating.
The purpose of tllis type of firing doOl' is to protect boiler-
room pp.l' 'olUwl from injury if a door blow!:i op n from furnace
presl:lure r sulting from tub rupture or otll r cause. ThiR
I' quircment is a safety precaution ; it should not give the reader
the impression that, watertube
boilcrs are morc hazardous
than fire-tube types 0 1' that
tube ruptures are :1 common
Pressure Gages.- Tbc biR-
tory of the modern pl'C'i>Jomrl'
O'age may l (' traced bac' k t 0 all
art icle appc'ul'ing in t llc' Lou-
don Artizan of 1851 under the
title" A diseriptioll of a llew
Metalic manometer, and other
instrumen t, for m aRuring
pressures and t emperatures." FIG. 121.- Siogjo bronze t ube gage.
Thi article by t.he Parisian Co.) (Courteay, ('ro.Try Steam Gaoe and Valvr
inventor Eugene Bourdon 'aid
in part : "In the COUI'Re of manufaeturing a coiled worm for a
still, one side beeame flattened by accident; internal pressure by
a force pump was applied, to restore the cylindrical form, and
to the astonishment of the author, as the pi'essure increased,
the coiled tube unwound i1.self. . . . "
This extract describes the invention of t.he forerunner of the
Bourdon~tube pressure gage of today (Fig. 121). Compare this
with the original Bourdon gage of about 1849 (Figs. 122a and
122b), and the imilarity to the original design may be seen.
The calibration of a boiler pressure gage should be to at least
1~ times the safety-valve setting in order that graduations may
b~ easily read and to indicate an inoperative safety valve.


FIGs. 122A and B .-Original Bourdon gage .

m Boiler wafer
mJ Boiler steam
53 Boiler feed water

FIG. 123. -Principle of Copes feed-water regulator. (Courtull. Northern Equip-

m ent Companll.)

In order to maintain the Bourdon tube at a constant moderate

temperature, condensate is trapped in the gage by a "pigtail"
siphon or water leg in the piping to the gage. A ;1-in. threaded
pct cock should be provided in the pressure-gage piping between
the siphon and gage to serve as a test connection. This permits
attaching an inspector's test gage with the boiler under pressure.
~J"A., .. t lJ rI'j.U N"JU.t
~W'... ftlt"~lJlW-tlf".IUIlllI'
~,Jfl ..... ,..~.Ol(tI:r"Jrt""
~w.. rt. "'~ff"J "HIll/#t

FlO . 124.- Bailey feed-water regulator. When the regulator is placed in oper-
ation, the steam in the upper portion of tho inlier generator tube B causes part of
the wa tor .hOWD (in the closod system) s urrounding that, portion of the genel'atol'
t.uoo to flash into steam. The resulting increased pressure in the gonerator BOts
like [\ piston forcing the wator down out of tho generator until its water level is
the same as thut in pipe B. Tho wator forced out of t he gonerator passes into
the 8ylphon on the regulator valve, expanding it aDd compressi ng the valve spring
a proportionate amount. (Courte8Y, Bail l'/ii Meter Company .)

Feed-water Regulators.- There are three general classes of

feed-water regulator in use for all sizes of power boilers: (1) the
thermo tatic-mechanical regulator, (2) the thermostatic-fluid
type, and (3) the float-operated style.
The Copes feed-water regulato (Fig. 123) is a thermostatic-
mechanical type. Each end of the inclined tube is connected to
the boiler; thus, when the boiler water level is normal, the water
level will be about midway in the inclined tube. Owing to the

inclined position of the thermostatic tube, a I-in. vertical change

in the boiler water level will cause several inches change in the
water position in the tube. This fact makes the regulator
extremely ensitive in operation. One end of the tube is con-
nected through a bell crank and linkagf! to the feed-water control
valve. As the boiler water level falls, more of the tube length
is exposed to steam i the tube expand and opens thc feed-water

FIG. lZ'>.-Stets feed-water r gulntor, direct-acting waler-Jevel type. A,

float ohamber; B , foed-valv e casing; C, bushing; D, valve jack. (Prom. " Feed
Water Reoulatur8 a"d H ow 'J'IIey Work," by Gen. lV. 8t_t80".)

control valve. As the water level rises, the tube cools, contracts,
and closes the feed-water valve.
The Bailey r gulator repres nts the thermostatic-hydraulic
type (Fig. 124). An inclined thermostatic tube is used This
tube is surrounded by a iacket having fins to dissipate heat to
the atmosphere and make it rapidly responsive to temperature
changes within the thermo tatic tube. The jacket contains
water which through a closed piping system connects with a metal
bellows on top of the feed-water controlling valve. A spring

tends to balance the valve against the fluid pressure on the

sylph on or bellows. The feed-water valve position is controlled
by the pressure of the fluid as caused by temperature changes of
water-level (and steam-space) variation in the thermo tatic
The Stets regulator represents the third type (Fig. 125).
Here a float cham bpI' is installed and conneeted to the boiler at

Lower shut orr - -

/~ /

Blow-orr - - / /
- - Lower flexible tube
o, , ,
! , ,
G 9 IZ
I , , I , ,I

Sc Cf Ie) Inches
F'IG. 126.-Morehet,d boiler feod. (Court esy. Morehead JIIa .,ujllcturi"(J Co.)

the same elevation as the normal water level in the boiler. A

ball float rises and falls with the boiler water level and, through
a linkage system, controls the position of the feed-water valve.
The Morehead water-level controlled valve is a newly designed
apparatus which may be used as a feed-water regulator. It may
serve also as the water column. At the present time, this
regulator is designed for working pressures of up to 150 lb. per
sq. in.
A description of the operation (Fig. 126) of this valve follows:

When the water valve is opened, water flows through it into the ooiler
reeding system.
When the end of the dip pipe is closed by the rise of the boiler water
level, steam is trapped in the tank and the upper connections to the.
tank. This steam condenses, and boiler water rises into the tank .
When full, this tank is heavier than the counterweight and conse-
quently moves downward, and the valve is closed.
The boiler water level then begins to fall and, as 800n as the end of
the dip pipe is un covered, the steam goes up to displace the water in the
tank, which gravitates to boiler water level. The counterweight moves
the tank upward, and the valve is opened again. The gate valves
shown in the figure are essential and must not be omitted. They are
used when it becomes necessary to blowout sediment that may accumu-
late in the flexible tubing.
To blow down, close both valves, and open the union in the lower
flexible tube. Open upper gate valve, and allow steam to blow through
the flexible tubes. Close the union, and reopen both gate valves.
Caution . Do not twist the flexible tubing.
Since operation depends upon the condensation of steam in the tank,
it is necessary in starting the apparatus to open the pet cock above the
tank to veot all air. Close it again when air has been expelled by the
steam pressure.
The Morehead valve may be connected also to the steam
supply of a boiler feed pump. In such cases, a small by-pass
around the valv may supply sufficient steam to keep the pump
operating very slowly at all times when thi is desired.
Feed-water Heaters.-Feed-water heaters arc used to bring
feed water nearer tothe temperature of the boiler water. Each
10°F. rise in feed-water temperature increases the over-all boiler
efficiency about 1 per ccnt owing to savings in fuel that would
have been required to heat t he boiler water an equal amount.
An added advantage is that temperature stre ses in the boiler
may be avoided by feeding water at higher temperatures.
Two general classes of feed-water heater arc used: open and
closed types. The open heater is sometimes classed as a "direct-
contact" heater in that the water and steam mix, and the closed
heater is sometimes termed an "indirect" heater because the
steam and water are separated by tubes and the water is heated
by conduction.
Under these classifications, the direct-contact heater has two
definite subdivisions, namely, the standard open hep.ter and the
Deaerating heater.

The open heater (Fig. 127) was originally designed to utilize

exhaust steam for feed-water heating and i. essentially a low-
pressure heater. It is alway located on the suction side of the
fe d pump, and the beater must be at a sufficient elevation above
the pump suction to prevent stearn binding. (When hot wat!')

FlO. 127.-Cochrane open feod-water heater. (Courtesy. Cochrane Corporation.)

is subjected to va uum, it flashes into steam. Thus, a pump

handling hot water must hav its suction fed under positive
pressure, or no water MIl flow to the pump. A steam-bound
pump MIl race and so may be damaged.) The required elevation
depends upon the maximum wa.ter temp rature. Usually a

12-ft. suction head is sufficient for open heaters. Figures

128, 129, and 130 show the correct suction head for vanous
it 4O r--r_......_
~~ 30 f-- t --f----='F"....;.,:;:.
.g ~
t.~ 20 i==~"""'~~'.!!
1l~ 10 I--t--+-+--I--f"ooo,~

'5 c 10 f-- t- -i---+-- - t - -!--1I--t*-i
]g Wl--+--+--+--~~---r--I-~
] 0 3060 80
Fro. 128.- Theoretical and praotical suotion for water at variuus


FIG. 129 .-Hei~ht q_{ feed-water heater above pump suotion depends upon water

The principle of the open heater is to pass cold make-up water

from the top down over a series of metal trays. Low-pressure
steam enters between these trays, condensing and mixing with
the water.
Important functions performed by the open heater in addition
to raisin~ the water temperature are:

1. Depositing solids causing "temporary" hardness in the

2. Removing a considerable proportion of free oxygen by
bringing the water to the boiling point and venting the gases to
Step 1 may reduce scale formation in the boiler; step 2 helps
to reduce corrosion and pitting, which are accelerated by free

Fro. 130.-Minimum suction hend at eye of boiler-feed pump. I\B recommendod

by Hydraulic Institute 8tandard8.

The steam supply to open heaters is often exhaust from

reciprocating engines or pumps. The pressure is seldom over
3 to 5 lb. per sq. in., and the heater shell is usuaJly vented to
atmosphere through a small line. Thus, the maximum tempera,
ture attainable is slightly over 212°F. The shell should be
protected against excessive pressure by an atmospheric relief
valve (larg~diameter safety valve) set at not over the maximum
pressure for which the heater was constructed. This is often
15 lb. per sq. in.

TIle D eaerating heater (Fig. 133) is a development of the .Jpen

heater and increases its o}l.-ygen-removal function by operating a,t
temperatures corresponding to pressures above atmospheric.
Though for tbis reason it is no longer an "open" heater, it is,
nevertheless, still a direct-contact heater. It i used with
xcellent re, ult.' in moderate- to large-sized plants where a
sufficient volume of low-pressure st.eam (5 to 50 lb. per sq. in.)
is availabl for Lhe heating pl'ocel:r·.
Oxygen and nO[lcondell, able gase, are vented with steam
through a vent condenser on top of the heater. Here the steal'(

FIG. l3t.-Closed foed-water henter. (CotLrt6IJ1J. Albergcr Heater Co.)

condenses and the condensate returns to the system, the oxygell

and oth r noncondensable gase being vented through a vacuum
pump to atmosphere.
The closed feed-water heaLer (Fig. 131) was developed origi-
nally to operate where, because of oil contamination, the steam
conditions were not satisfactory for mixing with feed water. As
it is an indirect heater, the condensed steam was usually wast d,
a condition eldom found in modern plants using tbis type of
The closed heater has found a definite place in modern plants.
Since it may be operated under high steam pressure, high feed-

water temperatures may be attained by its use. It is usually

located between the feed pump and the boiler and may be used
now for higb-temperature service by extracting steam from
intermediate stage of steam turbines.
In large stcam plants, closed feed-water heaters are frequently
operated in selies or ca cade (Fig. 132). In this manner, the
ultimate temperature iR limited only by the temperature of
available steam and the efficiency of h at transfer. The tempera-


Sfeam ' --- - Deaeraf-

inlef Ingfroys

- - ...

Deaerafed wafer fo
boi/er- reed pump
FlO. la:-l.- Dillgrammat.ic arrangement. of deael'ating heater. (Court.BY . Elliott

tures shown in Fig. 132 are attained in practice in high-

pI'essure plants. Needless to say, clean steam is used in these
installations, when cJo..-tractcd from a turbine. All condensate
i r~claimed by trapping it back into the system. This eJo..-traction
practice is common in higb-pressure plants, for it permits the use
of a smaller condenser for the turbine. Closed feed-water heaters
used in this manner are often refen-ed to as "bleeder" or "extrac-
tion" heaters.

Economizers are used, too, for feed-water heating. Instead of

steam, waste heat in the flue gases is used for the heating modium.
The economizer consists of a number of tubes through which the
feed pump discharges the feed water to the boiler. The easing of
the independent type of economizer is located between the boiler
setting and the stack, and the flue gases pa between the tube. .

FIG. 134.-Foster Wheeler oconomizer. phalltom v iow. (Courte8Y. Foster Wh.tler


Cast-iron tubes have been used in many economizers to reduce

internal-corrosion difficulties. For very high-pressure boilers,
a secondary feed pump has been used between the economizers
and the boiler in order to eliminate excessive pre 'sures on the
cast-iron tubes. However, advances in oxygen control in recent
years have made the usc of steel t.ubes advantageous, and the
Cal t-iron tube types are not so common a formerly.

The Foster economizer (Figs. 134 and 135) us s steel tubel<

which are constructed for as high a pressure as may be used.
Here the feed water pa ses through the tubes at full pressur
usually 1 to 20 p r cent over boiler pressure.

FIa. 135.- Foster 'Vbeolcr cconomjz ,. shown encasod.


The Green economizer was formerly a cast-iron tub type.

Rec ntly these economizer have included a steel-tube economizer
for high-pressure service (Fig. 136).
Fe d water of low o},.'ygen content is recommended in using the
steel-tube type of economizers. Relief valves (water safety
valves) are required on eeonomiz rs to protect them against
exces ive prcssur that might be built up by the Ieed pump if the
regulator or feed valve to the boiler were closed.

One of the independent economizers can s~rve a number of

boilers if it is located in the common breeching to the stack.
There is a moderate draft friction loss in passing the flue gases
through the economizer; as a result, induced draft fans are
usually installed.

FIG. 136.- High-pressure Green stool-tube economizer. (Oourtll8l1. The Green

Fuel EconomizCT Co .• Inc. )

The amount of heating surface which should be used in the

economizer is limited by the final gas temperature at the exit.
If the gas temperature is cooled below the" dew point," condensa-
tion (sweating) may result. Sulphur in the soot then unites with
Ploisture to produce a sulphurous acid, which is extremely corro ·

sive to all steel construction contacted between the economizer

and the stack.
A number of manufacturers of watertube boilers are designing
their boiler ' with a bank of tubes as heating surface, serving as

FIG. 137.- Evapora.tor insta.lled at modern high-pressure steam-electric

plant. Evltporator cQnden80r 8hown above the evapo,·ator. (Courtesy, FOBter
Wheeler Corporation.)
an "integral" economizer in the last gas pass of the boiler (Figs.
75, 76, 77, 79, 81, and 82). Thl feature reduces the expense of
separate casings, and a compa t unit results.
An added advantage of economizers is that by using them the
':apacity of an existing boilH may be increased or the size of a
prospective boiler design may be decreased for a proposed output.

The evaporator (Figs. 132 and 137) is a still in which raw

(impure) water is evaporated into steam. This steam is con-
densed into pure condensate for fe d water. The condensate is
often high in oxygen content, and it is customary to include with
the installation a deaerating heater for oxygen removal.
The evaporator consists of a shell into which the raw water is
fed to maintain a constant level. Tube coils through which
steam at 10 t o 150 lb. per sq. in. pressure passes are submerged
in the water. The condensate in t he steam coils is trapped back
into t he feed-water system. The vapor or evaporated steam
from t he raw water passes through an evaporator ot;ndenAel'
where the steam is condensed for u 'e as make-up in the feed-watl'l'
Most of the scale-forming impurities are left in the water ill
the evaporator shell. As the concentration of the raw water
builds up, it should be reduced by blowing down tbe evaporator
and refilling (see Chap. VIII).
With a number of units, evaporators may be iJ)stalled in series
(m ultiple effect). Usually, foul' effects in series (quadruple
effect) are sufficient to produce pure water from raw water as
impure as is possible to u e and yet be productive of maximum
practical f'fficiency.
Steam supply to evaporators usually is extracted from steam
turbines. The evaporator is more practical in model'ate- t.o
large- ized plants using a small pE'rcentage of make-up.
The single-effect evaporator and evaporator condenser on the
platform (Fig. 137) are used in a l,200-lb. central generating
station to distill t he small percen t,age of make-up water used to
replace that 10 t in the boiler feed system.
The make-up water enters through the larger pipe shown in
the figure and comes down at the left of the steel column. The
line branches off to t he left through the float type level regulator
(which maintains a constant level in the evaporator) and through
the water meter, to discharge into t he lower part of t he evaporator
The valve n at' the column on the vertical section of the large
make-up line is a by-pass around the regulator and meter.
Normally, it is closed. It is used if any repairs necessitate
sbutting the regulator off. It is used, too, after blowinj!; down
the evaporator when hot, to fill tbe shell rapidly with cold water.

The purpose of this step is to cause sudden contraction of the

steam coils, with r sultant shedding of scale.
The vapor evaporated by the steam coils passes through the
large twin outlets at the top of the shell into the top of the
evaporator condenser. Here, cool water is pumped through
tube to condense the vapor. This condensation produceI' a
vacuum which reduces the boiling temperature in the evaporator,
live team being thus con erved.
Under normal operation, the evaporator-shell pressures may
range from slightly above atmo~pheric to a partial vacuum. At
time whe shortage of condensate in storage demands more

FrG. 13S.--Go.rdner duplex pump . (CourteBY, Gardner-Denver Co.)

rapid evaporation, live-steam pre uro to tbe evaporator coils is

raised, and the resultant vapor pressure may be at 5 to 10 lb. per
sq. in. or ven higher.
One recent large industrial installation passes all steam gener-
ated through evaporator coil , returning the condensate as feed
water. Tbu, the boilers and evaporator coils form a closed
system, and feed-water treatment is nil. Here, the evaporators
supply all st am for process and bear the brunt of scale and
corrosion problem .
Fe d-water pumps in general use may be divided into two
gen 1'801 classes, reciprocating and centrifugal types. The recipro-
cating type makes use of a water cylinder and a plunger directly
mounted on a common rod from a direct-connected steam

cylinder. One or two water (and steam) cylinders in parallel,

known as "simplex " and "duplex" pumps, respectively, are the
most common types of reciprocating feed pump (Fig. 138).
Triplex and quadruplex feed pumps oHen have each plunger rod
connected by cranks to a mechanically driven crankshaft.
Owing to their simplicity and low initial cost, th simplex and
duplex typ pumps are found most often in plants having boilrr~
of up to about500hp. Larger
plants find usually that it
pays them to install centrif-
ugal-type foed pump:, re-
gardless of higher first rost,
because of the rel:lulting in-
crease in tbeir operatinl!: dfi-
Thc principle of t hc centrif-
ugal pump is that it take'S th
Auction at thr, or eye,
of the rotatil1g member known
as t h e " impeller." Vanes
curved from the impcll 'r cyr
to the p riphery ar curved in
&. volute shape, and therefore,
when the impeller rotates at
high speed, the velocity of the
water increases rapidly. Dis-
charge-chamber construction
chang . this velocity to pre. -
sure (Fig. 139).
A number of impellers may
Fl O . 139.-0ne-picce ce ntrifugal-
be mounted on the same shaft, pump casing and diffusing-chamber
the discharge being fed from inoton impeller assembly. (Courteay, Worth,.
Pump and Machinery Corp.)
thc peripbery of each impeller
to the suction, or eye, of the following im peller, or stage. Roughly,
for moderate pressures one stage is us d per 100 lb. discharge
pressure required, except that it is seldom nece sary to go beyond
five to seven stages even for fe('ding water at 1,500 to 1,700 lb.
per sq. in. for high-pressure boilers. Figure 140 shows a multi-
stage high-pressure boiler feed pump.
Injectors, or inspira.tors (Fig. 141), are used commonly for
feeding water t.o small boilers or as an auxiliary means of mechan-

FIG. 140.- Scyon-stnp;o boilor feed pump, Jersey Contral Power & Light Com-
pally. (CotIrtesy, Worthinoton P"mp and Machinery COr1).)

FIG. 141.- The llnncock inspirator. (Courtesy, Hancock Valve Divino".

Manni?lO. Mazwell &: Moore, Inc.)
91. Cn."k v ..lve.
101. Lifter 8team nOllle.
102. Lifter tube.
103. Forcer steam noule.
104. For er combining tube.
105. Regul .. Ung valve stem.
{y~: ~rn~iO~!~~fi:~~D.lve ,tern oOlnplete.
119. Fina1 ovel'flow valve packing nut.
l20. Intermodiate oye'tHow vulve bonnet
121. In te.rmedio.te overflow valve.
126N . Compound Ufter swam valve.
128. valv. paolcing nut.
137. Lever.
146. Steam valve .tem.
16 . Steam valve bonnet.

ical feed for medium-sized boilers. They are quite common

in railroad locomotive practice. They make use of an elon-
gated nozzle, or Venturi tube,
so that steam may feed water
back against its own pressure.
Steam enters Olle end of the
Venturi tube in a jet. The
vacuum produc d around this
entering jet draws the feed water
fed to the jet chamber into the
"tram flow . As the steam-and-
l!' lG. 142.-Stonrn separator.
water mixture passes through
the l'E'duced area of the t hroat of the tube, a very high velocity
of flow is produ ced. The weight of. the water content in this
steam-and-water mixture attains sufficient momentum to open

FlO. 143.-Crnuetilt direct-retw'u trl.lp . (Courtcsy, Crane Companll.)

the feed-pipe check valve against boiler pressure, water being

thus fed to the boiler.

Steam separators (Fig. 142) form a. chamber in a steam line

from which condensate may be trapped off, comparatively dry
"team being thus ensured.
Steam traps may be divided into two general classes: (1)
return traps and (2) non return traps.

Live steam
FIG. 144. -Mol'cbead return trap.(CQUTtC8Y. Morehead lIfan1lfacturi711l

The return trap (Figs. 143 and 144) is used to return con-
densate to a steam boiler without thc aid of a pump or injector.
It is located about 6 ft. abov th boiler. Conden ate is fed by
gravity or under pressure from another trap into t he body of the
return trap. The body is vented automatically so that the trap
chamber will not become air-bound. The trap body is mounted
on pivots and balanced against an xternal counterweight Oll
the lever arm. AB the chamber fills with water, the increased

weight overbalances the counterweight and the trap body tilts.

This tilting operates the linkage, which closes the vent valve and



FIG. 145.- (Courtuy. Morehe<Vl Manu/aaurinq Compa111/.)

opens a valve admitting steam at boiler pressm 6 to the con-

densate-filled chamber.

A check valve in the condensate line to the trap prevents

backing up of flow in this line. Another check valve in a pipe
from the trap chamber to the boiler opens as the boiler and trap
pressur equalize, and t he 6-ft . head of water due to the trap
cl vation causes flow by gravity to the boiler.
When suffi cient conden 'ate leaves the chamber to permit the
counterweight to tilt the t rap body back, t.he linkage closes
t he boiler team valve to the chamber and opens the vent.
The check valves t hen prevent reverse flow in the feed line
from the boiler, and, as the pressure in the chamber drops to
atmospheric, cond nsate flow to the chamber is reestablished.

~I W
:1'10 . 146.- I llvorted-huckot stearn trap. (a) Tmp closed, ill coming .teuIl'
under tho Uout buoys it up, ke ping the outlet closed. (b) Trap open, incomiul!
condon.nte has filled t h e Uoat, permitting i t to .ink and ope n the outlot. (COUT-
t eall, The (.',.ane Company.)

The Morehead Liql1ivatol' (liquid elevator) is a modfl fll

d('velopment of t he return t rap for th ' t ransportation of liquid ~
by fluid pressure. The Liquivator may bll used in many indus-
\.rial fun ction , but its ability to t ransport high-temperature
condensate makes it especially valuable for steam drainage and
boiler feeding in place of a return trap. In operation (Fig. 145) ,
the condensate flows through the inflow check valve by gravity
or under pressure head. When the condensate level rises to a
predetermined point, the displacement tank mechanism closes
the vent valve and opens the valve supplying boiler pressure.
The condensate empties through t he outflow check valve by
gravity to the boiler. At a predetermined lower level, the float
lever clo e the pressure valve and opens the vent valve, excess
pr sure being thu allowed to escape. Condensate then flows
into the Liquivator to repeat the cycle. High-capacity units are

constructed with these mechanically operatcd valves acting a,q

pilot valves to operate larger pr ssure and vent valvcs.
Nonpumping traps are used to drain condensate from steam
lines, separators, and steam chambers of a wide variety of
machinery. An efficient t.rap should exp I condensate but pre-
"ent the wast.eful blowing t lirough of stcam. MallY types arf'
available. The ball-float trap and t.b(' invel't ~d-buclcet typf' (Figs
146a and 146b) arc uuilt for high
eapacities and operate th e ('011-
densat.e \'alvn 111> t.he trap ('ham·
bel' fills. The thermo"htl ic type
(Fig. 147) iR often used Oil hraL-
ing systems and operates on
temperature e(llltacL of ('ondrn-
"ate or steam which (·.ontracts or

FlO. 147.-Thcrmostutic F'G. 148.- ProBB ure-rog ulating

trap. (Courteau, Sarco Com- valvo. «('""rlc8Y. Ruqol c8- Klinq c-
pany. {nc. ) mann .Alan1Jfuduri11.{J C01l),pa1L'II.)

expands the metallic bellows to operate the condensate dis·

charge valve.
Pressure-reducing valves, somctimes known as "pressure
regulators," are used to supply steam at a desired constant.
pressure lower than that of the supply. Their applications
include supply for manufacturing processes, low-pressure feed-
water or fuel-oil heaters, and othel' auxiliaries

Often the equipment that is supplied steam at reduced pressure

is not constructed for any higher pressure. In the event of
reducing-val ve failure, full supply pressm e would be imposed on
the low-pressurE' E'quipment. F or this reason, a pop safety valve
of adequatel:lizc and set at a pre ure not higher than that
allowed on the low-pressure equipment should always be installed
on the system following the redu cing valve.
A typical pressure r gulator (Figs. 148, 149 and 150) uses a
diaphragm upon which t he redu ced preSfmre is imposed t hrough a
small pipe between t he diaphragm chamber a nd the steam exit
line. The total pres 'ure on this diaphragm i, opposeu and

Diaph ragm chamber;, I Diaphragm PIPe

Diaphrag.m " ,
Diaph ragm _-----
beoring plaf e " Sorely (re/ier)
Spring -- --- - - valve

Val ve spindle ------ ,Spri n

At:/Jusfing nuf- - - -
Pocking n u f -

High pressure /' \ \ '-, '-"_....,_.

. I Valve " Reduced pressure
Pressure reducmg I
F lO. 14!l.- PressW'e-rpduci lll( valve instaUation.

balanced by either a spring or a weigh t and lever arm . The

valve position is controlled by a spindle moving with change of
diaphragm position. Thus, a change in exi t pressure due to
ehange of flow 01 t o ot her causes destroys the diaphragm-spring
or weight equilibrium, and the valve pO!:lition changes to main-
tain t he correct exit pre sure. The exi t pres ure may be set to
maintain any desir d pressure up to the capacity of the r gulator.
One recent development in the regulator field makes use of a
compressed air chamber instead of a spring or weight for oppos-
ing the exit-pressure load.
Regulators for high-pressure differential or for high capacities
may make u e of a piston or plunger t o op rate the regulator
valve (Fig. 150). Often, this piston is controlled by oil pressure.





The oil pressure i" varied by a pilot valve the po ition of which is
determined by the exit. steam pressure. The regulating system
shown in the figure can reduce and desuperheat over 1,000,000
lb. steam per hr. from 1,200 lb. per sq. in. at 900°F. to 260 lb.
p~r sq. in. at 600°F.
Oil burners are divided into two distinct classes: mechanical
atomization and steam atomization. Oil burners operate by
producing a fine mist by atomization of the oil as it is pumped to
the burner. The finer tbis Rpray a it is produt' d, the more
readily will it igllite and attain complete combustion. Con-
versely, a "heavy" (poorly atomiz >d) spray causes poor com-
bustion and heavy carbon deposits.

FlO . 151.-Fuel-oil heater. (CourteBY , Alberaer HlXdfr Co.)

Mechanical atomization is accomplished by feeding the oil in t.o

the center of the base of a metal cone or bowl. This iii dir cLrd
into the firebox and rotates at high sp rd. As the oil is thrown
off the leading edge of t he bowl, lL cOll tilluoufl hlast of air spirally
rotates in the opposite direction (primary air supply). Tbis air
blast breaks the film of oil into a fine miAt. The additional air
required for combustion enters through port"~ along the path of
flame travel ( econdary air supply) .
Steam atomization onsists in f eding the oil t hrough spe 'inIly
shaped nozzles into the path of a steam jet.
In the selection of the most desirabl class of burner for a
particular installation, the first cost should be weighed againl'lt
operating costs (power for t he mechanical type VB. steam cost for
steam atomization) . Consideration should b given, too, to the'
flame characteristics in COnDee ion with furnace volume and
Fuel-oil heaters (Fig. 151) are required when heavy, viscous oii
is burned in order to facilitate flow and assist atomization. In

t he e heaters, oil is pumped t hrough tubes that are surrounded

by steam and enclosed in a shell.
The maximum safe pre sure of the shell should be ascertained
definitely, and a safety valve set at not over t his pressure should
be installed on the shell or on the steam supply system.
The manufacturer's specifications for maximum oil pressure
should be learned, and an oil-pressure relief valve installed between


1,600 /
<./) /
t0..1,200 /
:1 /
~ 800
~ €lao /
400 /
200 ....
- I-'
300 400
Tempero+ure, Deg . F
500 600

1<'10. 152.- Temperature-gage pressure curvo of 8aturatod steam . (Plotted

from K e..ultl'a StllUm Tabll)lj. C01'1Jriqht 1930 by A .S. M.E .)

the oil pump and the first shu toff valve in t he discharge line to
the heater. The discharge of t his r lief valve may be piped back
to t h ' oil storage tank for cleanliness. A second oil-presFmrr.
reli f valve houla b installed at the outlet from t he h eater, for,
when valves arc clos d, expansion may create excessive pre ures.
The condensate from the heater should b drained to waste
unless a well-lighted and frequently observed gage glasR is on the
trap body or oth I' suitable means of oil detection are employed
(see Chap. VIII). One cannot be too careful with this inRtalla-
tion, for a split tube in the oil heater might. allow th fuel oil to

pass into the fced-water system, flooding the inside of the boilers
with oil, an extremely hazardous condition.
Superheaters.- Each pres ure of saturated steam has a corr -
sponding temperature (Fig. 152) . Heat added to the dry steam
at this pre 'surc is known a R " uperheat" and results jn a higher

FlO . 153.- Rudiant supel'hoater in ('ombustion chllmhcr of

Enginoering boilor at Lakeside ,tuLioll. (CO'Urts8Y, Cnmbu.tiQn
Compa7lV , Inc. ,

temperature than that indicated on the curve for the correspond-

ing pressure.
Th advantage of superheated stcam in prime movers is two-
fold: (1) Work may bc done down through the superheat range
before condensation start to take place. This represents an
incr ase in "team utilization efficiency. (2) This period of work

p rformed with dry steam eliminates corrosivE" and erosive

effects of condensate. l
Superheat is produced by passing the flow of saturated steam
from the boilflr through a Rupe rheate r of one or both of two types,
radian I, and convection. The radiant superheater is located so
as to b exposed 1.0 th(' firebox (Fig. 153), and it absorbs it" heat
from t,he radiant (light) heat of the fire. The convection type i ~
in ~ t,all ed in the firRt paRS of the products of comhuRtion (F ig~.

F,a. 154.- Typicnl elolllent for convoction 8uperheater. (Courte811. Riley

Stoker Corporation.)

6U alld 72) and absorbs its heat from t he gas flow. The conVf>C-
tion type iR usually made up of a number of clements (Fig. 154)
expanded at aeh nd into inlet and outlet headers.
Though uperjwatcrH Ill" used more often with watertube
boilers, they arc soml'time,' used with fire-tube boilers. One type
~uspendcd around the rear end of th H.R.T. boiler is shown in
Fig. 155. Thf'Y are almost always used in locomotive boilers
for railroad service and consist of U tubes installed inside a
number of large diameter fire tubes or flues (Fig. 40).
onstant temperature of uperheated steam is the desire of
mo, t designers, for a steam turbine is designed for the particular
1 The deterioration of high-spe d turbine blades caused by inlpingement

of drops of condensate may be considerable.


steam temperature at which it will operate most efficiently.

Characteristic of the convection type fm perheater may produce a
drooping temperature curve with increasing combustion rates,
wher as the reverse may be true with radiant typrs. Thus
comes the possibility of a combination of the t wo types in certain
installations in order to obt.ain
a practically constant SUPPl'-
hcated steam te m p e ra tu I' e
with varying loads. Damper
('ontl'ol of gas t.hrougb the
passe::; is one recent develop-
ment for control of superheat
I.emperature. The Twin-fur-
nace boiler d sc ri bed in
Chap. IV also accompli. hes
t his purpose.
Desuperheaters.--()dd as it
may seem, many plantR hav-
ing sup rheated steam install
a desuperheater to red uce the
temperature back to the satu-
rated point. Large power-
gcnerating units are designed
to operate more efficiently
with a high degree of super- FIG. 155. - Elcsco girth-typo super-
heat. But E<mail steam auxil- heater fOI' H .lt T. boi ler. (Cou rte8Y,
Corno1£8tion E1toinccrin(J Companll. Inc.)
iary units are often designed
to operate with satural,od tram i,emperatures, for the lI RC of
supcrheated steam necessil,atpH higher costs of constru('t i(llI in
respect to close clearance and roLaLing expan sion control I han
would be warrallted, even when rom pared with t he posr-;ible
operating-expense reduetioll.
Rather than run a separate ;;tealll tiu e from the boiler, inde-
pendent of the supel'h at 1', iL iF) oft.en more practical (especially
for temperature control) to p3.Sti all ~team through the super"
heater and tap off a small line, from the superheated steam
header, for auxiliary use. This mall line pas 'es steam through
the desupel'heater (Figs. 150 and 156) which sprays a careflllly
propOl-tioned amount of water into the flow . This proportion
is regulated , 0 that Lhe amount of superheat to b removed will

e<iual (or not quite equal) the amount of heat necessary \0

evaporate all water added into saturated steam.
Waterwalls.-A waterwall con ists of a series of vertical or
inclined water tubes installed along one or more walls of the
combustion chamber and exposed to dir ct radiant heat of the
fire. These tubes are connected directly, or through headers and
conn cting nipples, to the. circulatory system of the boiler.

Flo. 156.- Desupcrhoater. (Courteay, EllioU COml)(lnY.)

Two purposes are ' rved by the waterwall: (1) Added heating
'iurface and boiler capacity ar secw-ed. Revamping and adding
waterwalls to an exi ·ting boiler may even double its capacity.
(2) Maintenance of the refractory wall protected is reduced
greatly. Thi protection of refractory walls is extremely impor-
tant when high combustion rates are desired. The practical
combustion rate i about 18,000 to 25,000 B.t.u. per cu. ft. fur-
nace volume per hr. when bar refra'tory walls are exposed to
the furnace. But combustion rates of 40,000 to 200,000 B .t.u.

FlO. 157.-WlI.tcrwaU. and head~rs (ColJrtu1l. prinofitld Boiler C".)


pel' cu. ft. per hr. have been attained without difficulty with all
refractory sW'faces protected by waterwalls.
The circulation of water is upward t hrough the wall t ubetl
exposed to radiant heat. These tubes are supplied by water
t.h!'ough hfl}Ldel'tl connected by piping from one or more of the

1"1(1. 15 .- ,,' utol·wall tubes f1t burner ports. (Courttl8l1. COmQu8tion Enqinecri11Q
C 07nT)f11111. l11c.)

boiler drulUs and located outside of the boiler setting (Fig. 157).
1'h supply system is known a ' the" downcomer."
In laJ'gl' boilers using pulverized coal, oil, or gas burners, the
watcl'waU tube may be bent around t he burne!' ports (Fig. 1.'i8).
A row of waterwaU t ubes may face a bridge wall and at the same
time form the bottom row of generating tubes (Fig. 159).
Blowdown valves are required for each header at the bottom of
I~ series of watcrwall tubes, for the same reasons that the boiler
it elf 11 ds them. Sediment accumulation in a header supplying
wall tubes might cause interruption of circulation, with conse-
quent overheating and failure of t he tubes.

An addition to the bare-tube types, the Bailey stud-tube water-

wall is a progressive development (Fig. 160). In this waterwall,
short lengths of round steel stock are spot-welded to very few
square inches of the half tube area exposed to the radiant heat

FIG. 159.- Springfield watertube boiler with water-cooled bridge wnll. (Cour-
t e8V. Sprinofield B oiler ('0.)

of the fire. High-temperature plastic r fraetory is applied to

these tubes in position so that just the ends of the !';tuds are left
exposed. In tbis manner, the actual tube wall is not exposed
to the extremely high temperatures of fore d combustion, but

the studs conduct h at to the tubes efficiently so !IS not to defeat

their purpose.
men the waterwall comes in contact with the fuel bed of
automatic stokers, it is quite common to use heavy cast-stcel
blocks (shl1lnk or of split cOllstruction) on water tubC's to protect

FIG. J60. -Bnile.v stud-tubes. ourte81J. Th:e Ba.bcock a.nd Wilcox Company.)

the tub s (~gainst tho corroRive or abrasive effocts of the fuel bed
(Fig. 161) .
Pulv rized coal is much llii d in firing boiler of 500 hp. up
to the highest capaciti s built. T\\'o systems are in common us :
the entral-bin syst,emi and the uni.t, Or dir ct-filing, system.
The central-bin system is used in a Dumb r of larg uti.lity
st am stations and may be cOllsidered ru a storage battery for
fuel, being charged when the load is light Ilnd drawn upon during
heayy loads. Pulverizer are usually m tor-driven and require
an appreciable amount of power. In the central system, the
pulveriz rs operate during early morning hours whep tb station

FlO. 161. -Taylor stoker with water-oooled side walls. (Courte8Y. American
Enoinemno COml){lny.)

load is lightest and coal is pulverized at a rate far in excet:8 of

that at which it is burned. In a few hours, the pulverizer fills a
l)ulverized-coal bin having a storage capacity mfficient to supply
the burners for about a day's run. Then, during the hours of

Flo. 162.-Cross Be tion of Whiting table roller pulverize r.


peak load on the station, th pulv rizers are iJle and I ave that
much more gen rat d energy available to m et peak load
d mand. The table type pulverizer (Fig. 162) i. often used
with central systems.
The unit, or dir ct-fired, system operates as its name implies.
The pulverizer opemt s continuously to supply the burners

directly, and there is no intermediate storage bin. Owing to

elimination of the pulverized-coal storage bin, building space
rcquirements are less, aod therefore thc dircct-fired system is
finding its place in some of the largest modern plants (Fig. 69).

FIG. 163.-Foster Wheeler Tricone pulverizer. (Oourtll.8l1. Foster Wheeler


The Whiting pulverizer grinds and pulverizes the coal by means

of hard, steel rolls rolling on the raw coal against a rotating table.
Adjustable springs control the contact pressure of the balls

FIG. 164.-R iloy Atritl\ unit p\ll\"~";zer. (Cmll·lr.", Ril ey Sioker Corporation.)

Fla. 166.- Taylor atoker. (Courtuv, American Engineering Companl/.)


against the table. As the coal is reduced to proper fineness, the

current of air through the pulverizer lifts it to the conveyer
The Foster Wheeler Tricone pulverizer (Fig. 163) makes use
of a rotating cylinder containing variou -sized, hardened steel
balls which pulverize the coal dUling the rotating process. With
this pulveri zer, too, a blast of air conveys the coal when pulverized
fine enough to lift.
In the Riley Atrita pulverizer (Fig. 164), rotating paddles or
hammers impact t he coal parti clE's until they are fin e enough to
pass out with the primary air stream.
Automatic Stokers.- For high-capacity units, t he multiple-
retort-type stoker (Fig. 165) is used far more than any other
type. Each retort. is supplied with coal by a plunger at the front.
end, located at the base of i.he coal hopper (Fig. 161). As the
coal enters the retorts, under the fuel bed, the gases lise through
the fire zone and are ignited . The fuel bed is agitated suffi-
ciently to prevent excessive caking, and it is worked forward, as
combustion progres~es, by the pusher plates, actuated by pusher
rods from the driving mechanism.
These retorts are divided by tu.yeTe.s which are perforated to
admit air supply for combustion. As the ashes and residue of
combustible produ cts reach the dump plate, additional air is
supplied in order to complete combustion. The ash then drops
through the clinker grind er for di posal.
Air Preheaters.- Preheated ai r increa/:'Ies effici ency of combus-
tion whether st.okers or pulvelized coal are used. The hot. gases
from the last pass of the boiler pass on one side of the tubes or
plates of the air pl'ehcater on their way to the stack, while ail' for
combustion is drawn by a forced draft fan along the other side
of the heating elements and delivered for the combustion process.
A typical air-preheater installation is shown in Fig. 69.
Questions and Answers
i~. What are the minimum applicauces or appurtenances necC88ary for
safe operation of a boiler?
Ana. Pressure gage and test connection, safety valve, blowdown valve.
gage glass, gage cooks, stop valve in steam line, and stop and oheck valVElil
in the feed line.
203. What is the most important boiler appliance?
Ana. The safety valve.

2M. Wb",t Lype of 51l,fety valvl' should you install?

Am. A.S.M.E. standard' direct spring-loaded pop type.
206. How should a sruety valve be connected to the boiler?
Ana. Directly to .111 independent nozzle with no intervening valve of any
description, If over 3 in. diameter and over 15 Ib, per sq. in., th valve
should have a flanged Ilonnrctioll .
206. What sholtlJ be th e maximuUl dilLllJ"ter for Rl1.fety vl1.lvc8?
Am. Five inches.
207. How do requiremcnts of supl'rheatcr sufl'ty valves discharging Rteam
at over 450°F. differ frolll rel,uirements of thos on thQ boiler drum?
Am, They should have a flanged connection for all sizes. Th y should
be constructed of step I or alloy steel suitable for the maximulTl temperature.
The spring should be exposed so that it, will not come in con tact with h igh -
temperature steam.
208. With a 4-in. safety valvc, what is the minim1l1lJ size direct-connect.l'd
nozzle and escape pipI' \\,hil'h should hI' used?
Ans. Four inchl'e in earh case.
209. What testing attachment is required on safety valves?
A 11.8. A Lifting levcr,
210. What is ml'ant hy hlowback?
Ans. It is the number puu1l(h Pi'l l' square in ch steam pressure drop from
the point It slLfety valv(' pop, to the pressure at, IV bleh it reseatlt.
211. What controls thc amount of blowback?
Am. The blowback ad justing ring.
212. What is a huddling chamber?
An.s. It is a cllllOlll('r rxposi ng th" und erside of tho vltl"e disk in It slIfety
vnlve to increusl'd pl'f'ssnre nrc.t on its primary lift. PrllRsure actinl!: on tbe
increased area results in the "pop," or seeondary, lift.
213. What principle do some safety valves use in place of the inerea"cr!
a.rea exposed by t he huddling chamber?
.4 m. The reaction principle.
214.. Wby go to the expense of inst.alling huddling chambers or rlJl\ctioll
now to pop a safety valve?
Am. Without such instalhttioJl, a gmdual lifting and seltting of t he
valve would rapidly ruin the valve Bont by cutting or ,,,ire-drawing action
of the steam.
216. When is more than one safety valve r qllired on a boiler?
Am. If the boiler has ovcr 500 sq. ft. hating surface or 2,000 lb. per
hr. generating capacity.
216. What is the'Purpo e of II water column?
Am. To toady the t,lIrbulenc of boiler water between the drum and the
gage glass so that its level may be determined more accurately.
1117. What attachments are permi tted to pipe connections of a water
column? Why limit tho number of attachments?
Am. Pressure gag, damper regulator, foed-water regulator, drains, level
indicators, or such conncctioL\l! ns negligible flow. Any apprecia.ble
fio\v would cause a false wat r-leveJ indication,

• In MIl88Il 'hUSelts, Massachusetts Standard vnlves are required.


218. Where should a gage glass be located?

Ana. In an easily seen location with its lowest visible point at least
2 in. above the lowest safe water level in the boiler.
219. (1) What are gago coc:ks, or try cocks? (2) How man)' are there,
and wbore should they he?
Ana. (1) They are valve co 'ks used to ahow the water level in a boiler as
a check on the gage glaas. (2) Two are required on locomotive boilers up
to 36 in. diameter or on firebox hoilers up t.o 5 hp. Thrce are required on
all other boilers over 15 Jb. per sq. in. preas ure. They should be loent,ed
equidistanL within the isiblo rang of Lho gage glass. Trycocks are not
required if two gage glasses arc insLlllled at the Bllme level at least 2 ft .
Ilpart on a boiler.
220. Why is a drain required on a wat,er column, and why should it be ilL
least % in. diameter?
Ana. To permit removal of sediment, whi(,h might blook Lb e lower con-
nection and cause a false water-IE-vel indication . S!fI[,Uer sizes might become
obstructed easily.
221. Why is a globe valve not desirable for waLer-co lumn draiu conLrol1
Ana. Because 1.11(' dam or poc:keL in t his type of valve forms a uatural
trap for secliment and scale.
222. What three purposes does a blowdown valv e serve?
Ans. Removal of sludge aDd loose scale, control of boiler-water concen~
tration, emergency antral of abnormally high wt1.tcr levels.
223. Would you select cast iron or st.eel for elbows in t1. blowdown line
between the boiler and the valve?
Am. Cast iron is permitt.ed up to 100 Ih. per sq . in. tcel is required
for higher pressures. I,ccl is preferrl'd for all pressures ovCr ) 5 lb. per
sq. in .
224. On what principle do th majority of pressurc gages operatcl?
Am. On th Bourdon-tube principl i that is, a curved tube tends to
straighten when subjected to internal prc~sure.
226. Dcscl'ib a fusible plug.
Am. It is a threaded bronze or brass casing having a tapered core of
nearly pUre tin. A fusible plug is installed at th e lowest safe water level
in some low and moderate pressure boilers with the small end of the Lapered
core exposed to ga.~es in the primary pass. Should the water level approach
a dangerously lo\v level, the core is designed to melt and escaping steam
will sound alarm.
226. Where and why are self-locking door h1tches required on firing doors?
Ana. On watertube boilors, in order to prevent the door from being
blown open from positive furnaoe pressure reSUlting from tube ruptures,
gas explosions, etc.
227. Where and why is a siphon l'equired in pteBSllrC-gage lines?
Ana. It is a "pigtail" or drop leg in the piping to the gage, designed to
trap condensate and to prevent live steam from entering the Bourdon tube.
It prevents the tube, springs, and oLher delicate parts from being subjected
to h igh temperatures.
228. Wllat is the difference in principle between an open and a closed
feed-wa.ter heater?

Am. The open heater brings low-pressure steam in direct contact with
t he water and operates at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. The
closed feed-water heater consists of shell and tubes with indirect contact
between steam and water and may operate at high pre88ure.
229. What is the main difference in the purpose and function of a deaerat-
ing and an o}Jen feed -w6.ter
Am. The open heater reduces oxygen content by heating th e feed water
to about 212°F ., venting thc contents Itt atmospheric pressure. T he
deaerating heaLer removes practically all oxygen by heating the feed water
witb steam of about 30 Ih. p er sq. in. or high er. Its shell is vented at
pressure, through a vent condenser Md vacuum pump.
230. What applil1nces would you recommend 011 an economizer?
Am. Pressure gage, rolief v!Livc, blowdown valve, inlet and (Jutlet
water thermomoters, inl ot and out.lcL gas tempemt.ul'l' indicators or record ra.
231. How is normal scale formaLion removed from evaporator tubes?
Am. By ahodding, rCRlIlting from forced expansion and contraction of
Lhe tubes.
232. What arc t he "uvlLnt"g('~ .UlU th., cli 8,,(lvl1ntago~ of motor- and steam-
driven feed-water pumps?
Am. A motor drivo rcd uces the ILlUount of RtCfl.m piping and is preferred
usually when the ffled-wILter h eatinll; system secures steam bled from the
main generating Lurbine. The steam drivc ia not n,ffpcted by loss of elec-
trical circuits as would be tho motor. At least one sleam-driven feed pump
is almost always installed for this emergency. BLeam units may exhaust
to a feed-water heater.
233. How doeR an illject,or foroe water Hgainst boiler prC~8un' whell it
uses steam at the Bam(> pressuro?
An8. "Because of t he restricted arc .. of t hl' llozzlp, high velocity carri es
the drops uf water SO t hat their momentunJ (lnllR(>~ flo w into the boiler.
234. What is IL stAam trap, and where should YOll expect to find one in a
hoiler in 'Lallation?
AtloS. It is lL devi(:o dCRign ed to remove co nd c l1 ~a(.e from steam space with
minimulll l.o8s of tpltm. A stearn trap is very often u sed on pockets 01'
~e pl\rators of steam lin es.
236. What is t ho purpose of a pressure-reducing or pres8ure-regulaLing
valve? Where might you fiud one?
Ans. It serves to reduco an available pre88ure to a lower, constant,
desired pressure. A stcam lin e operating at 400 l b. per sq. in. for power
generation has to supply a branch line to a beater shell designed for 75 lb.
per sq. in. A reduding valve would be installed on such a line and sct to
maintaiu beat,er pressure within tbe prescribed limits.
236. What are two essentitl.l appliances used in conjunction with th e
reduccd-pre88ure side of the regulator? Explain your answer.
Ana A pressure gage and a safety valve. The former is req uired to
check tbe operation of the regulator, the latter to protect the low-pressure
equipment aganst ex essive prCBBure should the regulator fail.
237. What are two services performed by waterwalls?
Ana. 'They increase boiler capacity and reduce refractory tnRintenance.

288. Whllt is the purpos of a forced-draft and an induced-draft fan?

An8 . The forced-draft fan s upplies air to tbe combustion space. The
induced-draft fun draws gases and products of combustion and delivers
t hem t.o tbe stack breeching.
289. What, arrangement is desired for safety between the induced- and
t he forced-draft fans?
An8. An interlock so that the forced-draft fan cannot bl) operated with
t he induced-draft fan shut down; otherwise, fire might be blown out of the
doors and oh~ervatio n ports.
240. Under what conditions are shutoff valves permitted in cOnIlecting
pipes between boiler and water col umns?
Am. If t hey a rc of t hc rising-stem outside-screw-and-yoke type or are
straight,llway valves or cocks lnDl'ked plainJy for their open lind closed
position . They should be lochri ('r sealed open.
241. Why aI" cheek vI~lves required in the feed-'\'ater line?
Am. So that boiler pres8urp will 110t force t he hoiler water back in case
of piping fail m e. Also, to assist the functioning of the feed pump or injector.
242. What a rc t he minimum and maximum sizes permitted for blowdown
valves or nOllnectious?
An... One inch rninimum; 2~ in. maximum.
248. What arc deflect,ors, lind when a re they required on explosion doors?
An.. Thl'Y are shoet-metal plates placed in front of explosion doors in
a boiler setting to divert any blast from operating floors, stairways, plat-
forms, or anywhere anyone might bo passing.
244. What force op rates bucket and tilt traps?
Am. Gravity.
246. or what materi," are trap buckets or flo ats rn.~de?
A'I8. CO Tl'o~ion-res i ata Llt metal.
246. Why mll~t a return trn.p be vented to [ltmc.spbere aftor eMh
An8. BecauRe the body is at n pressure higher than that of the conden-
sate r t.llrnR, and the return check will be held closed. By venting the
trap to atmosphere, the returns may flow [reply into the trap until it tilts
Clnd closos these valves.
247. What two materials may be plaoed in the bottom of lill open feed-
water hCILter? WllY?
An8. Coke or exoelsior. To remove oil from condenaatc.
248. (a) 10 whILt units is a vacuum gage gradu ated? (b) What is tbe
relation between these units and pounds p r square inch?
Am. (a) In inches of mercury (Hg) vacuum. (b) Each inch of mer-
cury equals 0.49 lb. per sq. in. below atmospheric pressure (14.7 lb. per
sq. in. at Bea level).
249. Wllllt is a compound gage?
Am. A gage reading positive pressure in pounds per square inch on one
ijide of the zero readjng and negative pressure (vacuum) in inches of mer-
cury on tbe other aide.
260. Provision for what four details of installation must be made in a
steam lin transmittiug steam a cOllBiderable distance fror:l the boilef?
Am. Provision for insulation, support, expansion, and drainage.

Volumes have bern written on the subj ect of this chapter.

The space available here limits t his discLH;sion to a few funda-
mentals and high ligbts of this important ide of boiler-plant
There are definite business fields for the plant superintendent,
chief engineer, mm;ter mecbanic, rtc., to consider. The boiler
plant is the hear t of the establiRhmenL Each inclividua l con-
nected wi t h its opemtion and maintenance should be trained to
understand thn.t he has a higbly responRible duty to carry out
and that those who cannot assume this responsibility capably
have no place in a boiler plant. Tllis at titude Rbould be as umed
by each man in t he organization, from t he aRh handler to thr
chief engineer. The success of the organization depends largely
on the carpful selection of each prospective employee-a real
probl em in personnel study.
Modern boilerfl and au>:iliary equipment have been develop d
along such line of automatic control t hat t hey seem to require
lit tle attention. Unfortunately, tIllS development has had its
eff ct upon some operators with Lhe consequence that they have
acquired tho idea t hat the equ ipm('nt can think for it elf.
Regardless of how aut.omatic a plant may he, t he human clement.
may still he the weakest link and may become r sponsible for a
costly shutdown.
A log in which each operator shall keep hourly readings and
remarks of any unuHual occurrence is of valu (Fig. 166) . The
value is enhanc d by recording notes on reading, and observa-
tions from the more remote parts of the plant that may be visited
but 'eldom during the normal course of duties. An operator,
unless utterly incompetent, hesitate!:! to walk past equipment to
take a reading without observing it condition.
The central " clearinghouse" for daily study and writing up of
the e logs depends on t.he size of the plant. In any case, the

reports should receive careful daily attention and then be sys-

tematically filed for reference at any time. Most important
readings, such as fuel consumption, steam evaporation, and gas
temperatures, should be broken down into efficiencies and
equipment factors for recording in graphical form (Fig. 167).
A graph showing daily, weekly, or monthly progress in these
results should be posted whcre everyone responsible for the
operation may see them. A gradual depreciating operation is


e~ 20 I-------I-------+-------!-------I

,.... f1) 0'- 0

2: ~ ~ ;
FlO. 167.-Typical1oud-Qfficiency record curves.

shown in this manner where otherwise a 10 s might mount

Ul1n 0 ti ced.
Arousing a eompetitivo spirit between opposing shifts in the
boiler plant usually aids in maintaining a high standard of
opero.tion results. In one large plant, the results of each pre-
ceding day regar'ding evaporation secured per poulld of fuel on
each shift were po ted for all to see. An immediate increase
was lloted.
Wage-incentive or bonus schemes have been worked out to
maintain further, lasting efforts by the operating personnel in
cutting operating costs. Probably nothing will aid more in
reducing the fuel bill than to develop a personal financial interest
in those responsible for its control.
One plan offered by a large industrial plant was started by
showing that the average evaporation per pound of dry coal
with existing equipment should be 11.5 lb. At the end of each
year the evaporation attained was averaged. Each 0.1 lb. in
excess of evaporation anticipated represented a considerablp
reduction in fuel cost.s, and t his saving was proportionately
Rhared bctween the company an d all concerned in effecting t,hC'
Having. Plans of thi,~ type not only serve to create an elevating
competitive spirit but al!3o aid in developing eooperation among
t he personnel for an item which is to the mutual advantage'
of all.
Study programs :; hould be developed. The size of the plant
and available facilities will determine the best approach. III
the large plants, this may eonHist of periodic elas. os for the·
operating pen;onnel under the supervision of a capable ('xecu tivf';
in the small plants, it may out.lille home "iudy for those
ested. Some meaus of instillillg ambit ion and promoting action
to ac:quire furtiler klluwledgr of the equipll1('lI(. with whi!'h t lw y
work will be to thr benefit of all cOlle·emed.
TI)('re are several organization.· of operating an d power
engineers which arc r€'pre~cntcd in larger (·i ties and of which Uw
aims arc purely f'duc:ational. The> educational and so(~ i a. l func-
tions of su ch groups a re r commended highly.
Employment.- hoO!:;ing among cand idates for boiler-plant
openings is not asy. Some state!; and cities have fmgin ee r '~
li cense laws stipulating that the prospect for certain boiler-plant
functions should hold or secure a particular grade of li cells('.
Some of thc examinations for such li censes arc a fair way to
determine the applicant's knowledge and ability to fill the posi-
tion; many of the questions have been included in t his book.
In any case, if the chief engineer of the plant is qualifi d to
hold his position, he should be consulted in the selection of those
who are to come under his supervision. If he is not capable of
wise selection, he is not competent to bold his position.
Past history on the prospect's application may mean little
unless it is intelligen tly checked and analyzed. A 30-, 60-, or
90-day trial is probably the best approach to selection of a satis-
factory worker for an operating or maintenance opening.
The applicant should realize that he approaches an employer as
a salesman-wi th himself to sell. To be a successful salesman,

he must not misrepresent any facts, for to do so would lead to

loss of confidence in him.
In filling a boiler-plant opening, he should feel that he is
responsible for equipment costing thousands of dollars. If he
fails in his responsibility, he can easily be replaced; but if he
oucceeds through explicit care and interest in learning to do his
job better, he will be invaluable. He should know that successful
operation of the plant depends upon close cooperation of all con-
cerned, never upon "ev >ry man for himself. " No job is monot-
onous if one takes an int.erest in learning to do it. better .
Cleanliness cannot be carried t o an extreme in the boiler
plant. However, increased operating costs and maintenance ,
accidents, and lost t im due to illness may be expE'cted in a dirty
plant. But the operating personnE'1 cannot be expected to main-
tain cleanliness if a ll reasonable steps t o prevent dirt have not
been taken . Nothing will break down the aims of t hose cleaning
the plant quicker than to have clouds of soot an d dust pour from
cracks in a boiler setting just after they have clean(\d t he plant.
Savings ,gained by long deferment of needed repairs is not econ-
omy. It is wast ful ignoran ce. All stE'PS pos:ible to preveut
dirt should be t aken, and t hen all en rgy necessary may bp
expected of those responsiblE' for maintaining cleanliness.
Shift schedules are not diffi cul t t o arrange if the plant is not
on a 24-hr. day. In the lat ter case, various schedules are fol-
lowed in order to limit t he work week t o a certain number of
A successful outline was followed in one plant desiring a
" rotating shift" for a maximum work week of 42 hr. This plant
operated 24 hr. a day and 7 days a week. Operating shift
A would work their first Monday t hrough unday from 7:00
A.M. to 1 : 00 P .M. Twenty-four hours off w ' re taken from
1 :00 P.M. Sunday, and they returned at 1: 00 P.M. Monday for the
second shift of 1:00 to 7 :00 P .M . through the following Sunday_
They would t ake t h ir twenty-four hours off t o return Monday
at 7: 00 P .M . for the third shift. After working the third week
7: 00 P .M . to 1 : 00 A .M. t o unday, th y would take their 24 hr. off,
returning for the fourt h shift at 1 :00 A .M. Monday. At the end
of this week, they would b off from 7: 00 A .M . Sunday to 7 : 00 A.M.
Monday, when they would be back on the original starting
schedule (Fig. 168).
The hours for shift change may be varied to suit the most
convenient arrangement for local conditions. An arrangement
for rotating shift on a 48-hr. week basis in a 24-hr.-day 7-day-week



7 A.M. t.o 1 'J..... M . to 7 P.M. t,o 1 A.M. to

1 P.M. 7 P.M. 1 A.M. 7 A.M.

Buift o. f)]1 ift No. Shift No. Shift No.

-- - - -.
Mon . 2 3 4.
Tucs .. , . . ... " .. 2 3 4.
Wed ...... ..... . ... 2 3 4
Thurs .. ... 2 3 4.
Fri .. .. ... ..... 2 3 4
Sat . .. 3 4
Sun . .....
:l 3 4
Mon . ~ 2 3
Tuc8 ...... 3
Wcrl ...... . . -~ ? 3
Thurs. 2 3
Fri .. .. ...... . .. 2 3
Sat .... .... 2 3
SUIl ...... ...... ... . , .~ 2 3
Mon . . 3 4 2
TuCB . . . .. ...... , .. 3 J 2
Wed ....... 3 2
Thurs . . .. 3 4 2
Fri .... . ..... 3 4 2
Sat ..... 3 4 2
Sun .. , ...... , .....
Mon ................ j
I 3

Tues .... . ....... . ... 2 3 4. 1

Wed ... . .. .... .... . . . 1 2 3 4. J
Thurs ... ........ . .. . 2 3 4. 1
Fri ... . . .. . . . ...... .. 2 3 4 1
Sat .............. . .. '1 2 3 4. 1
Sun .. . ......... . ... . 2 3 4. 1

plant consists in shift A workin' from 8:00 A.M. to 4:00 P .M.

Monday through Saturday. On that Sunday, shift A works
from 8:00 A.M. to 12 midnight, returning the next day, Monday,
to work 4:00 P.M. to 12 midnight through Saturday of that week.

Shift A is then off from 4:00 P.M. of that Saturday until 12 mid-
night Sunday, when t hey work 12 midnight to 8: 00 A. M . through
to the following Sunday. Then they are off until 8:00 A.M.
Monday, returning to start the original schedule.
Many plants that employ a number of operating engineer<;
find it necessary to have at least one spare man, or "floating "
operator. This man should be capable and trained to fill in allY
shift vacancy due to iilnes , absenc " or vacation periods. Dur-
ing normal conditions, he may be absorbed in a maintenance or
t.est schedule.
It should be a strict rule in shift work that no operator should
leave his station to prepare to go home until his relief operator

FlO, WI) , - Punel bonl'd for operators' guidance,

has report.ed at the posL ready to carryon the duties. It is often

during t.he few minutes interim of neglect when one is preparing
to leave the insLant his relief. hows up t.hat an accident happens.
Panel Board.-Many boiler plants operate 24 hr. a day.
During the night, one or mol' boilers, a cording to load require-
ments, may be taken off the line. In such plants, the enginrel'
going off duty is usually accustomed while hanging shifts to
giving detailed information to his relief operator regarding condi-
tion. Often some detail is forgotten, usually through forgetful-
ness or because of the engineer's hurry to get away.
A panel board (Fig. 169) has b en used to good advantag in
at least one plant for keeping I' cord of equipment operation. A
pair of holes is provided in the panel for each major valve or
switch control, and a separate plug for each pair of holes is
attached. These holes are marked legibly as indicated, but the
individual arrangement should be varied to suit each power plant.
Every time a change other than momentary is made in one of
the major valves or switch controls, the plugs should be changed
accordingly. The operating personnel should be held strictly to
account for indicating these change. 0 11 the panel. Although the
board should not be depp.nded upon to the extlmt of operators
neglccting to check conditions, it is a useful method to keep track
of boiler-plant operation, especially at time of changes in regular
operating 'chedu le.
Training for emergencies of t he operating personnel is indis-
pensable to the boiler plant. In the small plant, individual
instruction may suffice, but in larger plants, as with a fire drill,
t he operating force should be schooled for every conceivable
emergency. Whether the emergency iii low water in a boiler, loss
of am.ili al'Y power, failure of an in1,er]oeking i'lystcm, 01' a rupture
in t hf' pressure system, each man should have a definite station
/lnd spl'cific duties to fullill . He should be dJ'illed to understand
t he reaRon fol' thl'i:>e duties and (,0 CRl'I'y them out quickly with no
('onfu ion or overlapping in their SCOP E'.
Cf'l'tain alarm RyRtcmi:> are invaluable fOI' warning of emer-
gencics, but therc is no alarm system that Ct1l1 replace the almost
instinctive anticipation of many emergencies by a well-trained
engineer who is alert to his dutic~.
Replacement of equipment is an important problem of plan t
management. The chief engineer may be called upon to investi-
gate and to make up a comprehensive report on the advisability
of replacing a feed-water heater, combustion equipment, etc.
Or, under some organizations, it is the duty of the engineer in
charge to keep track of equipment obsolescence and to be
informed on development of new equipment which might pay for
its installation in savings effected.
Mere opinion is not enough. The place for opinions is at the
conclusion of a report, the figures and contents of which form the
basis for these conclusions.
For example:
A new, feed-water beater migbt cost ..• $1 ,000
A scrap or allowance value of the old beater (assuming
it to hI' writttJn off the books) might be . .. . . .. . . . 100
Net cost of replacement .then .is ......... .... .. , $ 900

The monthly operating cost or the function performed by the old unit
might be $175 whereas for the new unit it is estimated at $150.
The net saving in operating cost would then be $25 per month, or the new
unit would be written off the books in 3 years.
If the expected life of the new unit were 15 years, it could be
amortized wi t h a definite saving, and immediate installation of
this replaccment unit would be strongly recommended.
More complex itE'ms than mere amortization enter the picture
of fixed charges, such as interest, in urance, and taxes; but oft n
Lhese are more t han balanced by savings in operating cost
po. sible when modern equipment is substituted for obsolete
In the design for installation of new or replacement boiler-plant
equipment, it is well to submit the blueprints, proposed plans, and
specifications to the plant engineer for comments or approval.
He should know the" ins and outs" of the plall t, its general setup ,
and its peculiaritiets, whereas the designer or consultant, lacking
familiarity with the particular plant, may unintentionally slip on
an important item. Many costly errors may be eliminated by
close cooperation of the de igner or consultant and the chief
Insurance of boilers is an important item usually handled by
t he company executives, but one on which t he chief engineer is
sometimes call d for consultation.
Insurance should be twofold in scope. It should be designed
(,0 be an adequate bond to give financial reimbursement for any
possible accid nts, and it should carry with it an inspec tion
service that will make it possible to reduce accidents to a mini-
mum. This service should be expected, also, to point out any
conditions in the boilers, overlooked by the plant personnel, that
might b corrected to reduce operating or maintenance costs.
Two general types of boiler insW'ance may be written. One
covel'S damages. caused by explosion or ruptur of any part of the
boiler proper under pressure, and the other reimbur es the user
for los of production due to outage of equipment operated by the
boiler in case of uch an accident. The former is known as
"e}..'plosion coverage," and the latter is classed as It use and occu-
pancy coverage."
Many states reqwre that steam boilers operating over 15 lb. per
sq. in., and not under federal control, should be inspected by a

state inspector (for whose services there is a charge) unless the

boiler is insured by an authorized in urancc company and
inspccted by one of it.s qualified inspect.ors.
Selection of the most desirable company for insurance of steam
boilers is a matter of (1) net cost per unit of insurance, (2) history
and stability of tbe insurance compltlJY, and (3) the quality of
inspf'ction servirr that tbey conduct.
Test programs ill the boill'r plant, arc esscntial if oprrating
rfficiencieH arc to he maillt~til1rd at a high lrvrl. Even (,hough u
full romplement. of reco rding and inst.rument,s is
installf'd to pcrm it most economical opcration, t brsp instrument.s
,'hould I'rrrivc peliodi(" calibration and cbeek by actual test .
There are some plant functions for which iostrum ' nt~ hl1ve not
yef been devpioprd to give dirf'rt readings and for which analyti-
cal mf'thods of r-;ecuring the (ll·sired information arc n(,(·\'RRary.
Test" on fu nl and wat('r are examples of Ow mrtllOds employed
ill chetkill~ Oil t hiK group of fl!llrtiolls. Figure 170 shows tJH'
da( a taken ill an ('ffieirl1('y trst 011 an Oil hilt Nteam hoilrr. A test.
of this type is 0:';f;f'ntiai to d<'l crmill!-' t he ('ffiei erI('Y and prr-
formalwP of a hoilf'r.
In t]!p small plant , it is foiuffieiC'u t usually to t.p~t each lot of
fud l'e('('ived. But largr pla.nt." ~t oring coal out,dool'R find thi8
"YRtrm impractieal , fwd for t lwm it prriodie ter-;t of the fupI as
!ired is n!,cpssary. Similarly, a small plant may find it sufficient
to test the boiler waj,<'r once :1 week, but, a large plant operating
undf'r "ictely varying eonditiollS finds it. advisable t.o make this
test at least On(;(' a day.
Testing and calibratioll of prf'ssure gagps and meters should be
c3.rTied out. on routine schedule. The date of the test and the
~u itial s of the person making it . hould be printf'd on a slip and
pasted on the instrument or otherwise recorded for future
In large plants, purchasing of supplies is coniin d to a depart-
ment for this purpose. However, in the small plant, the chief
engineer often has to assume this duty. If l:e listens to all
every salesman has to tell him, his entire time would not be
sufficient; if he purchases everything urged upon him, no
budget would be large enough. There are, however, salesmen
of 'the engineering class who can be of real service in imparting
information on latest developments in their field . And there

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-C- - -.- . - - -.
234 liOlLEl? OPERA TOR 'S GU Tnrc

are new developments in boiler-plant equipment that are very

worthy of consideration.
Where, then, is the engineer to draw the line? First, his
budget should be ananged to covel' supplies necessary for nor-
mal plant operation and maintenance program '. It Rhould be
also ample enough to allow for conservative trials of a reasonable
number of more expensive maLerial,' in anticipation of reduced
costs over a period of time.
Moreover, it should contain an allotment for accidental l o~Res,
based on experience of past years. This alloLmellt bhoukl be
pl'oportionatrly re lured each year thro ugh a i:itudy of this
experience, and any savings t=;hould he applied to a "inking fund
to covrr allY major breaka!{(' 01' accident not rovf'I'('d by an
inslIl'anee poli cy. Expt'J;('nce should indi('atr, too, t he amount
advisabl ' to accumulate in this sinking flllld .
A study should bc made of all products avail able to fill a need,
romparing t.heir ('ORt. prr IInit. of service (not first cost,) with the
re. uiL ' aeeomplished. For example, one grade of j)U,t'king for
11 high-spepd celltrifugal pump eo::;t $0.30 a Hrt compared with
another brand costing $0.75. The first set, l'nquired replacement
('very 30 days, but the lat.ter srt operat{'d kat.isfactorily for (j
months. Thus, the eORt, prr day for t he form 'I' was $0.01 again, t
$0.00417 fol' thr latt er, or the moro cxpcnsi\Te first cost was leHs
nmn ollc-halr as <'XPI'IlSi\'(' P('J' ullit of Reryi('('.
III ca es of th ' foregoing typr, th(' appal'C'ut ('osL i~ !Jot ni l that
!-lhuuld be considered. One type of pum]) paeking may cau"r.
('xc Rsiv(' haft-sleeve wear; a ccrtain grade of lubricating oil may
last. longc!' hut may be eausing oxidation; a particular type of
valve may b(;' easier to operate but may not meet A.S.M.E. odf'
~pecificaLions for safety, and so on down the line.
Probably, thc engineer having charge of purcha.'lillg has no
product thrust upon him more often than the boiler compound.
The problem of pUl'chasing such compounds i dealt with further
in the following chapter. However, it may be mentioned here
that the author feels quite liberal in estimating that] compound
out of 20 meets the claims made by thei r salesmen.
Maintenance Programs.- Depres ion pedods have made many
executives so cost-con cious that they are tempt d to be blind
to boiler-plant maintenance needs. Deferment is the watch-
word with them; action is not to be considered. The problem of
maintenance should be approached with the view of how much
it will cost not to carry on an active maintenance program. The
unexpected expenses will be sure to be far greater in frequency
and extent when such a program is abandoned or deferred than
when it is in effect.
Large plants use a card-index system. One card is made out
for each piece of equipment and has upon it identification
information and a space for entering records of tests and remarks .
A patented signaling system used sometimes to indicate the date
011 which equipment is due for tests, overhauls, and inspection.

Mooke _ _ •
Boiler Feeol Service
A'1Ie _ . Cost new
Serio I No. Type
Ma ior Reoairs Minor RepairS Inspection and Tests
Date Tvpe Cost Dote Tvpe Cost Oat.! Type os·~

FlO. l7l .-Card indexing for maintenanoe program .

Even the smallest plant can effect a system that will give thiH
information in an alphabetical card-index file that can be pur-
chased for less than $1 (Fig. 171).
Safety.- Large plants sometimes employ a "safety" engineer
whose duty is to see that all hazards are reduced to a minimum,
to educate the per onnel to be safety-minded, and to select
educational material on safety for posting. Obviously, t~.\)
small plant cannot afford such a specialist. But the samG ideas
of safety can be developed among a smaller personnel at a propor-
tionately lower cost. Such a program supplies another instance
of how spending ten dollarS may save hundreds.
No matter how small a plant may be, a bulletin board should
be included in its equipment. If employee's compensation

insurance is carried (as required in many states), the insurance

companies usually furnish excellent safety bulletins free. These
should be posted. A set of safety rules for the particular plant
should be suitably framed and posted permanently in a con-
spicuous place. A set of these rule typical of those observed in
many plant is shown in Appendix 5.

Operating Fundamentals.- tram-boilpl' operation plnef's t h('

safety, I'ffieieDcy, and continui ty ()f control in thf' hands of tbt'
operating engineer. MI1ny auton1A.lic devices ha,·c been devel-
oped to m'iiKe f11i s control ensier, safe!', more effi cicnt. But all
lhis autoDlntic ('quipmenl deTnnndl'l 1110rr head work t.o rrplace t.hl)

FlO . J72.- Viow8 of boiler explosion (r,o.used hy 11\1> seam orack).

'I,rong back r quil'rd of yesterday's engine!:!!". The automatic

equipment must be understood and maintained. If it should
fail, t he engin er must be capable of picking up manual control
of many operations on a split second's notice.
In this chapter, some of the opel'atulg and maintenance
problems of both the large and the small plant are covered.
Explosions.- Boil r explosions (Fig. 172) are becoming less
frequent, owing largely to the excellent work of the A.S.M.E.

Boiler Code committee and many, tat boiler code committees

in demanding :lafe construction, inspection, and operation.
Howrver, explosions still OCCUI' too often. Probably the majority
arc in states that have not yet adopted and enforced a boiler code.
Explosions are usually a result of one of three faults: (1) a
defect in t he boiler; (2) a defective appliance, such as a pressure
gage or safety valve; (3) improp l' operation . Often (1) is a
result of lack of propcr in spection and (2) of faul1y main-
tenance and / or lack of proper inspection; (3) is usually due to
failure of the human element r plain incompetcncc.

FlO. l73. -Wrupper sheet section of locomotive-typo boilor, as it landed 1000 ft .

f"om boiler house, nfter explosion due to low water.

To treat ihe CUUS is of an cxplo 'ion in more detail, boiler def cts
contributing to an explosion inc Iud cracking, improprr design
or construction for the operating pl'essur , and defective matcrial
Uf'led in construction. Most of these should be disclosed by
compet · It inspection.
Appliance defects most likely to cause an explosion are safety
valves of defective de 'ign or in improper setting or condition.
Defecti\'e installation, de 'ign, or condition of water-level-indicat-
ing equipment constitutes a similar hazard. Pressure-gage
inaccuracy may lead to such accidents, as may failure of feed-
watcr quipm nt. Defective blowdown cquipment resulting
in fouled internal surfaces of the boiler have caused explosions.
Internal surfaces may be fouled from other sources to such an
extent that explosions may be cau ed, as mentioned later in
this chapter. An analysis of improper operation would include

as an item fouling of internal surfaces by neglect of water-

cleanliness control. In fact, neglect and negligence or incom-
petence of a plant operator may lead to any amount of trouble,
from an explosion down.
The results of a boiler explosion should not be minimized.
Even a small boiler may cause terrific damage. A sawmill loco-
motive boiler exploded recently (Fig. 173), wreckin<r th e mill

FlO . J74.- Remnin8 of boilorhouBe dil'e~Uy nfter' explosion of boiler' in Fig. 173.
(Fig. 174) and killing fiv e perSOlls. This cxpJo 'ion was dlle to
low water. Bmatl boilers, indeed, must often be cons! CJ~cI
more hazardous than tho e in large plants, owing to their frequ en t
laclC of competent attendance. However, close adherenco to
A.S.M.E. Code standards for construction and care of power
boilers, and a hio-h grad of opera tion and inspection will pra-et;
cally eliminate possibility of accidents of this nature.
The following paragraphs 011 the effects of improper water alld
overheating all deal with conditions that roay lead to an explosion
if neglected.

Scale formation on the water side of boiler beating surfaces is

caused by the contact of certain impurities in boiler water with
the hot surfaces. Most common among these impurities are
calcium (Co.), magne ium (Mg), and silica (Si0 2) . Tbe calcium
or magnesium may unite with
su lph at s (S04) or magnesium
which arc scale-forming.
Calcium is 'ommon in raw
water because it is present in
many forms, as marble, lime-
stone, and cbalk. Magnesium
in vaJ'ious forms is found , too,
b raw water from many
sources. A well-known form
is magnesium s ulphate
(MgSO.) (Epsom salts).
Silica, found in sand and
gl al'ls , forms an exceedingly
hard, dense scale-actually
glas ·like.
Scale-foJ'ming water i::; .said
to be "hurd." Tills hardness
is e i t hI''' temporary" or
" permanen t" or both. The
temporary hardness may be
eliminated by heating the feed
Fl O. 175.- Ruptured boiler tubo.
water to about 212°F. in an
open or deaerating heater
where th salts causing temporary hardness arc precipitated.
rhe permanent hardness must be controlled by treatment in
water softeners or by treatment in the boiler.
There are two definite objections to scale on boiler heating
surfaces. (1) Scale is a vcry officient nonconductor of heat, the
degrce of nonconduction varying somewhat with its density.
Its presence in appreciable thickness means less heat absorption
by the boiler water, with consequent loss of boiler efficiency.
(2) Becau e of fnct that scale is a poor heat conductor, the heat-
ing surfaces thus insulated from boiler water on one side and
expo ed to hot gases on the other may soon reach a dangerously
high temperature. Serious damage, rupture of tubes (Fig. 175)
and even boiler shells, has resulted.

Scale formation often increases with the rate of evaporation.

Thus, scale deposits will often be heavier where the gas tempera-
tures are highest.
Scale is usually more serious in a watcrtube boiler than in tho
H.R.T. type of fire-tube boiler. A coating of scale 71:6 in. thick OD
water tubes exposed to radiant heat may cause tube failure,
whereas much heavier dC'posits of scale OIL fire tuhes cause loss
in efficieney b ut may not be dangerous. The reason of this
difference is that fire tubes a~orb their' heat by convection of
gases and not by I'adiant exposure. Further mention of damage
caused by scale is made later in this chapter (page 260).
Heavy scale deposits are uf;ually an indication of neglect, for
scale can be prevented in most easeR by proper treatment of the
water. Where scale has formed to an appr ciab]() thickness, it
should be removed; and, once a clean boil!'r is attained, proper
steps should be taken to prevent its 1'e urrence.
Scale removal is accomplished by one 01' both of two methods:
(1) M.echanical removal. (2) Water treat.ment.
Mechanical removal of S(~a~e is effected whi lr the boil!'r is idle
and empty. Tilfl ace ssible parts of fib IIA, drUIDS, heads, and
braces are chippcd with a dull chisel or scaling hammer, car being
taken not to 'COre the metal. Seal may J e ground off the
internal surfaces of watcr tubes with a tube turbine. Water is
generally us d to wash out ground" sealc sludge" while the tube
turbine is in operation. Care should be exercised not to operate
a tube turbine too long in one place or to force it unduly for
damage to the tube may thus 1'rsult.
Scale deposits 011 external surfaces of fire tubes may be vibrated
loose with a tube rattler or by shaking a long, heavy bar in each
tube. Extreme care should be taken after such me hanical
treatment to see that all loosened scale IS removed from the boiler
before closing it up for operation. Many cases of serious damage
have resulted from loose scale accumulations left ill boilers
(Figs. 176a and 176b).
In Rome boiler plant 1 kerosene has been used with more or less
success for many years to aid in removal of scale. One method
of application is to spray kero ene over the dry scale and use
previously mentioned mechanical means of cleaning. Another
method of kerosene application is to introduce about 10 gal. per
100 hp. boiler capacity into an empty boiler while the setting is
still warm. The feed-water valve should be "c:racked" open

so that it will take several hours or longer to fill the boiler with
warm watcr. In this manner the kerosene floats on the water
surface and tends to soak into the scale as it rises. Draining

• FlO . 176a.- Bul"o on bottom of H.R.T. boiler ahrll .

Fro. 1761>. -Inside of boilor in Fig. 176a dirootly after oponin handbole under
tubes, sbo\\'ing pilo of 10080 scalo wbich dropped from tubes and causod bulge.
(Rod on bottom is hoe inserted to removo scale.)

the boiler and mechanical cleaning should follow this treatment.

Tho purpose of 1.01'0 ene treatment is to penetrate the scale
and loosen it. It is extremely important that care should bc
taken to keep all open lights and sparks away until the boiler has
been washed out thoroughly and all fumes dissipated.
Caustic soda is of value in loosening some types of scale. This
treatment is often an efficient method of cleaning boiler surfaces
of oil and similar deposits. There sholtld be introduced into
the boiler fu ll of water 25 to 50 lb. caustic soda per 100 hp. boiler
capacity. With a ~ l ow firo and with t he boi l 'I' vented to atmo -
phere, the Rol ution shouJd he uoi l()d for at least 24 hr. At th 'elld
of this period, the boiler should be cooled Md emptied, and ALL
deposits remov(' d. This treatment of tell will loosen scale so
that it may be waHhed off with a high-pressure stream of water.
There arc many treatm nts avai lable to remove 8ealr whlip th(1
boiler is in operation. These are ul('utiolled und r Boiler Com-
pound ' vs. Feed-water TrrlLtrn ent (page 260) .
Carrying a high concen tratioll of solids in the boiler water may
cause Jln'cipi1.atrd sludge to bake on in tho form of scalo. This
condit ioll is cOlltrollpd C'asily by periodie blowdowns or by a latrr-
mentioned continuow; bluwdowlJ sYHtem (page 254).
Oil in boilers i ' a dangerous eondi tiOll. Oil is an exeellen t
heat insulat.or, and it presence on heating surfaers exposed to
high tempp,ratuJ"(~R may eaURe srriolls overheating alld damage to
the boiler.
A common cause of this condition is the U Re of r eiprocating
stearn-equipment exhaust containing cylinder oil for condensate
return to the boiler feed sy tem. Also, fu el-oil heating equip-
ment may leak oil into the steam system and caus t hif; difficulty
if the condensate iR returned to the boiler. A minimum amount
of high-grade properly compounded cylinder oil should be used
for lubrication of steam engines and pumps where condensate is
returned, and an efficient type of oil separator should be used in
the exhaust system. Oil may a1. 0 enter the feed through its
presence in such raw-water supplies as rivers and str ams con-
taminated by milJ, marine, or trade wastes.
Condensate from fuel-oil heating equipm nt may be t rapped
to waste or fed through an oil-detector tank (Fig. 177). Oil
deposits should be removed from a boiler by scraping all parts
within reach and then boiling out with a cau tic solution, as
described in the preceding section on Scale R em oval.
Internal corrosion is an electrochemical deterioration of the
boiler surfaces, u ually at or below t he water line. It is the result

of a. continuous flow of iOIlS (tiny particles) of the boiler metal into

solution with the boiler water. These ions are positively charged
and, since a neutral balance mu t be maintained, an equal number
of negatively charged H (hydrogen) ions plate out of the water
on the metal surfaces that are known to have a cathodic polarity.
If an H film cou ld be built up and maintained on these cathodic
sections, the insulating effect of the film would stop the ionic flow
and further corrosion would cease. However, ill the presE'l1ce of
oxygen (0), two parts of hydrogen (H) from the H film unite with
one part of the oxygen in the water to form another atom of
,Welded sheef-merol box

--reedwater to boiler
Fro. 177.- 0il dotcttor tank.

water, while some H ions e cape to the steam space as gas. AB

the H film is broken down, ionic flow or corrosion progresses.
From thiR description of the fundamentals of corrosion, it can be
seen that an absence of free OA-ygen tends to inhibit corrosion by
'tabilizing t he H film. Conyers ly, the presence of free oxygen
aids corrosion.
The pH value of the wat r is a m '!l.Sure of its alkalinity or
acidity and usually has a direct baring ou the corrosive prop-
ertie. All water contains alkaHIJe (hydroxyl, OH) ions and
hydrogen (H) ions. The product of these concentrations is
always approximately 10- 14 , The pH value of the water is the
log of the reciprocal of the H ion value.
If the water is neutral, the OH ion concentration will be 10--7 j
therefore, the H ion must nl 0 be 10- 7 • Then, the pH will be 7.

Waters with an If ion concentration of greater than 10- 7 are

acid. Hence, a pH of below 7 indicates acidity; over 7 designa.tes
an alkaline condition.
The detrimental effects of corrosion depend upon its rate of
penetration. Corrosion affecting large areas of boiler plate is not
so likely to pen trate so rapidly as localized corrosion on small
areas. The former ('ondition sometimes is difficult to see, and
it may progresR unnoticed to a dangerous extent.
Localized corrosion may be in t he form of pitting or grooving
(Fig. 178). Pitting is caused by repeated breaks at t he same spot
in the protective H film. It is affected by t he type of Burface,
especially if mill scale or such surface irregulari ties are present.
The pits may be as small as a pinhead or as large 8.I:i a half dollar.

Fla. 178.-GJ'oQvin~ alung riveted eeam .

They may be widely scattered or so close th!\t a honeycomb sur-

face results. Obviously, scattered pitting docs not weaken th('
metal to the extent of clo ely spaced pitting. Scattered pits may
be filled by electric welding or with a lime, litharge, or silicate
filler. However, 1)0 strength is gained thus, and the app arance
of a shell so treated may be deceptive. In future years, new
pitting may develop between the old hidden pits, and a dangerous
condition results.
Grooving is a form of deterioration of boiler plate by a com-
bination of localized corrosion and stress concentration. It is
found usually in areas adjacent and parallel to riveted seams or
flanging, as in dished heads. The groove is usually U to ~ in.
wide and may be several inches to Heveral feet in length . Since
the reduction in thickness occurs in a part that is subjected to
stress concentration, grooving may be very serious. If it occurs
to any extent in the seams of an unstayed boiler shell or drum, no
repairs are possible. The allowable pressure must be reduced

considerably, or the boiler must be permanently removed from

service. In all such CMes, the advice of an authorized inspector
should be followed.
Prevention of internal corrosion in its various form s can be
effected by one or both of two methods : (1) Removal or neutrali-
zation of the corrosive agent. (2) Insulation of the metal from
its effects.
Corrosion, as has been stated, may be a result of an acid condi-
tion of the water due to contamination of either supply or con-
densate. An analYRis of the water should be made, as m nlioned
under Boiler CompoundR vs . Feed-water Treatments (page 260) .
If the corrosive agent is dissolved oxygen, the open feed-water
heater will be helpful in the small plant and the deaerating heater
in the large.
Protective coatings, sueh as Apexior, arc of mu ch value. Thi"
paintlike material may be applied with an ordinary brush on all
aceessible parts. The internal surfaces of water t ubes may 1)('
painted with a special rotary brush d 'vc!oped for t.hi. purpo,"('.
Clean, 'tlry surfaces are eSRential to the su ccess of this coating.
The eoating should be allowed to dry thoroughly before filling
the boil r with water. A properly applif\d coating should last
1 to 3 years before l'epainl.iug is ueco""ary. Duriug t his "paillt-
ing," care should be taken to supply adequate ventilation, since
some of th 'se preparations may affect a person applying it in
confined quarters. When a man is using such treatments inside
a boiler drum, a fan or blower should be operated at the manhole,
a rope should be tied around the workman and passed out of the
manhole, and a second man should be stationed outside the
manhole at all times.
A very light scale on internal surfaces not expo ed to radiant,
heat is sometimes beneficial in insulating the surfac s against
corro ion and pitting. Such a scale may be form ed by intro-
ducing 10 lb. of slaked lime or 1 gal. of silicate of soda NaSi0 2
(wat,er glass) pel' 100 hp. capacity into the boiler full of water.
The boiler should be operated about 24 hr. without blowing
down (except in emergency) to allow a film to " set" on surfaces.
This treatment should not be repeated until an internal examina-
tion shows that scale hM not exceeded paper thickness. If a
scale-reducing treatment is used, the lime treatment may not be
Portland cement, sodium silicate, and water, mixed to the
consistency of cream and brusll-applied, have been used as a
protective coating with some Success. As with Apexior coatings,
the surfaces must be clcan and dry before application, and the
coating must bc dried t horoughly bcfOl'e admitting water.
Galvanic action is the flow of minutc stray electrolytic currents
in the boiler-water solution, usually between some part of the
boilcr steel an d a fi tting of nonferrous metal. Deterioration
having thc appearance of very localized corrosion , u.'ually
a round t he nonferrous fittings, rc. ults.
Deactivation of feed water consists of passing the water t.hrough
a tank filii uf !"('l'ap iron auo steel. H ere the dissolved oxygen

; Wel ded longifudinal

seam ef'f'iclency= 90%

10'10. 1711.- Col·l'()dod hoiler d rum .

iR used up in an attack on the scrap, and practically" oxygen-

frce" water emerges for boiler f ed.
Weakening Effects of Corrosion.- The strength of the shell or
drum is reduced as corrosion or the formation of clo ely spaced
pits progreRses. The ratio of actual thickness at any area so
affected (for 4 in. or more in a longitudinal direction) to the origi-
nal thickness should bc considered as a percentage. If this per-
centage is below t he efficiency of t he longitudinal seam, thE'
maximum allowable pressure should be reduced accordingly.
We should use the boiler-pressure formula given in Chap. I
(pagE' 7), sub tituting thc actuaJ thickness and deducting for
deterioration for t in the formula. The percentage may be con-
sidered 1.00, for the pressure is being calculated on a thickness
weaker than the strength of the longitudinal seam.
Example.-A boiler drum is 48 in. diameter, the longitudinal-seam
efficiency is 90.0 per cent, the plate is ~ in. thick, the steel h&8 a T .R. of

70,000 lb. per sq. in., and the drum is designed for 262 lb. per sq. in. maxi.
mum working pressure based on an F.S. of 5. Corrosion and pitting have
reduced the average thickness ~ in. in large areas (Fig. 179). What is the
safe pressure?
P _ T .B. X t X %
R X F.B.
0.5 - 0.125 = 75'"
0.5 10

which is b low the longitudinal scam efficiency.

70,000 X (0.5 - 0.125) X 1.0 218lb .
24 X 5 - . per sq. ill.

External corrosion or deterioration of boiler surfaces on the

fire side, may be a continuous process. It is a chemical combus-

FlO. 180.- Bo%-header watertube boiler.

tion of the metal, known as "oxidation" or "rust." Normally,

this action would not progress appreciably in the life of a boiler.
However, most boiler surfaces are coated with soot on the fire
side. The sulphur content of the soot combines with any
moisture to form a sulphurous acid which is highly corrosive.
Hence, e. minor leak may cause e. serious defect to develop within
a few years; even though there is no leak, the boiler may" sweat"
when idle in humid weather, and such moisture in combination
with the soot will cause troublc.
Leaking tube-cap gaskets in box-header watertube boilers
oft,en cause moisture to saturate soot at the bottom of these
headers (Fig. 180), and rapid deterioration results. The blind
heads of bent-tube-watertube-boiler drums sometimes extend
into the brick wall and arc practically inaccessible for inspection
of their external surfaces. Here is a natural pocket to fill witb
soot, and trouble may be expected. To prevent serious explo-
sions, the brickwork should be chipped back from the head seam
so that the soot will not be held against the head, and sufficient
clearance should be provided so that the head will be accessible
for inspection.
Continued leaks from any source should not be tolerated
wheth r they are from a roof, valve packing, gaskets, piping, or
other sources. Water dripping onto It boiler will cause damage.
Leaky soot blowers arc a frequ ent source of external corrosion of
water tubes. The soot-blower valves should be kept tight, and
the piping drained of condensate b fol"' blowing soot.
Vertical fire-tube boilers are often used for portable service,
as in derricks, railroad wrecking cranes, and steam shovels.
Because of cramped quarters, the coal is stored against t he bottom
of the boiler shell. External corrosion may be expected here,
for any sulphur (8) in the coal will react with moisture exactly
as sulphur in soot does.
There may be sulphur in ash, too. Hence, damp ash should
not be allowed to remain in contact with boiler parts, especially
in firebox type boilers.
Handhole- and manhole-gasket leakage frequently causes
damage to the flange or surrounding plate by external corrosion .
The dry sheet of H .R.T. boilers should have a % -in. drain hole
in the bottom so that any leakage from a manhole gasket, soot
blower, or tube will drip through the hole and give indication
of the leak. Otherwise, water might collect on the bottom of
the dry sheet and cause serious damage.
Mud-drum nipples of sinuous-header type watertube boilers are
ideal places for attack. P eriodic boiler cleaning should include
removal of soot accumulation from the mud drum and nipples.
Care should be taken that all tube-cap gaskets are kept tight,

since water dripping from these gaskcts is tho greatest enemy of

mud-drum nipples.
Piping is often affected, particularly if buried as are ome
blowdown pipes. It is best to have all piping accessible for
inspection and general maintenancE'.
Erosion is clo ely allied with external corrosion in its effect,
but it is purely a mechanical action, a wearing of external
surfaces by abrasion. The gas-entrance ends of tubes in fir -

FlO .
~ ..
181.-Boil er failure due to ernbl'ittlcmeut. (COIu·l eB/I. Un'iver.it71 0/ Jllinoi.
Pro/, F. a. Straub, )

tube boilors may be 'orne thin after 10 to 20 year' because of the

scouring ac tion of . oot particles entering the tubes at high
Ero ion by improperly adjusted soot blow '1'0; i " not uncom-
mon. In a few weeks of use a hoI may be worn through 'everal
tubes by one faulty j t of a soot bJowcl'. The action rc 'embles
and blasting, Ero ion as a result of flame scruboing probably
does not have the opportunity to become serious before the
damage done by heat localization, as mentioned in a following
paragraph (page 262) makes the condition e,~ident.
I This effect may be due a) 0 to the fact that internal corrosion is mol'
'8T>id ",hl'rl' }1igh-j,p.moerature zone causes a higher evaporation

Embrittlement is a condition which sometimes develops in

boiler plate during operation and which may cause cracking
and a dangerous condition. A number of explosions have been
traced to this condition, (Fig. 181).
Embrittlcment is the result of the action of certain boiler
waters on highly stressed regions. It is known that extremely
high cOl1centra(.ions of salts are necessary before embl'ittlernent
may take place. uch concentrations may be found under

FJO. 1 2.-Under a butt strap in8ido nn ornbl'ittiod drum. 500-hp. boiler. (Cour-
tUJI. UniverBil1l of Illinoi8. Prof. P. G. Straub.)

butt straps (Fig. 182) or under the laps of the plate in riveted
scams but are rare in welded drums. The embrittling action is
actual ly a mic!'Oseopic form of corrosion between the grain
boundal'ie of the metal.
The exact cause and l' medy Jar all cases of embl'ittlement are
not determined as yet. A number of America's for most authori-
ties are giving thi problem their ttention. The one thing that
they have agreed on to date is that t he job i. still unfinished .
The action of embrittlement is shown in the accompanying
photomicrographs (Figs. 1 3 aod 184) of an affeeted boiler. The
crack i intel'cry. talline, whereas a fatigue crack is transerystal-

line. A well-founded theory has been advanced that an "in ter--

crystalline" corrosion is the result of certain combinations of
chemical including sodium hydroxide (Na OH) , silica, and po: -
sibly other substances. It is hoped that research chemists will
soon be rewarded with succ('ss in their cfforts and that, more
definite data wi ll be a\'ailabl for boiler-plant engine rs.

Fro. 183. -Emhrittlemeul Illi crogmph. (Courteau. Univer8'itll 0/ illinoi8. Prof.

F. O. Straub.)

Priming and foaming and carryover a rc fa ' ~or:s ul:lually

controllabl , by the operating engineer. Priming is the lifting of
boiler \\'a ~c r by the steam flow. The water may b , lifted as a
spray or in a small body; as it enter. the steam line, its weight
and velocity may cause s'vere damage to equipment. Rup-
tur d steam-line fittings or wrecked turbines 01' engines have
resulted from " lug " of water. Unless priming is induced by

faulty boiler design (which is not common), it is caused by carry-

ing too high a water level fol' the demands for steam flow . The
water level in the drum should be kept several inch es lower than
normal if the steam fiow fluctuates vcry much, for l:i udden rush
of steam sometimes tend ' to pick up water from the surface
directly below the nozzle.

FIG. of embrittlement ora.ok. (CourtUJI. Uniwtr8U1l oj

l/linoi8. Prof. }<'. G. Straub.)

Foaming is mor a chemical than a mechanical problem.

High surface tension of the boiler water causes many of the
stearn bubbles to be encased by a water film. These film-
encased bubbles ri e and pass out in the steam flow . The cause
of high surface tension is usually a high concentration of solids
in the boiler water. Organic matter, too, may produce this

Great difficulty in ascertaining the correct water level may be

experienced, for, with a badly foaming boiler, the gage glass may
be full of bubbles. The fires should be checked immediately,
and the boiler fed with fresh water and blown down for about
quarter-minute periods alternately until the condition is corrected.

Hof blowdown

)f valve.~

De .F.

Boi/er- ~=~)
I pump
feed -- .

Flo. 185.-Continuous blowdown and heat-exchanger systom.

Periodic ch cks on boiler-water concentration and control of

blowdown to hold the concentration within allowable limits will
prevent foaming . The den ity of the boiler water is a measure of
its concentration. Sp cially calibrated hydrometers are avail-
s,ble at low cost for direct reading of thi condition. A cont,inl101ts

blowdown system (Fig. 185) is an excellent mean of economically

maintaining allowable concentration limits.
Carry-over from Steam Boilers.- Clcan st earn plays an impor-
tant part in economical power-plant operation . When it is con-
taminated wi th wate r, mineral solids, or other impurit.ies,
numerous 1rouhles develop and costs automatically incr 'ase.
Foreign maHer entrained in otherwise clean st eam leaving a
boil et" drum is commonl y term ed "carry-over." l1, can be
rlimiuat ed O r' minimized by dr lr rmining its cau. e and then apply-
ing the' right, corrcction . Th e magni t ude of the 1088(',' occasioned
by carry-ovN are' !lot generally realized . Fuel ('ommmption,
(·quipmr nt. main tc ll ance costs, and plant safcty are all affccted.
Some of tb r more common effects of carry-ovrr arc listed below:
Boilr l"l:,:
1. Deposil s in piping of instrumf>l1ts, water columns, and fced-
wa ter J"egula lors, affecti ng safety and good opC'ration.
2. Ero: ioll or in crustation of nonreturn and stop valves, in
some imd ances rendering 1hem inoperative when needed
in an em<::rgr ncy.
3. DangC'r of boil er destru ction brought about by watel"-
hammE'1" shocks in the Rteam piping transmitted back t o t he
st C'am nozzlr.
4. Accumul ations of Rolids above t he wate r lin e which may
become di ~ lod g(' d and fall on high-tempr ratu)"C' hcat-transfr l"
sulface.·, causing the Tn C'tal to become overheat f'd .
5. F alse Wa1 0 1" level in gage glasses, induced by surging or
foam bubblC's.
Sup0l"heatel"!:; :
1. Evaporation of moisture in entering steam, redu cing super-
heat and lowering over-all economy (Fig. 1 6).
2. Solid deposits which plug t ube, affect heat t ransfer, and
cause overheating of the metal.
3. Shocks from water hammer, likely to damage the structure.
Engines :
1. Danger of wreckag if slugs of water entrr the cylinders.
2. Washing effect of exc ss moi ture on rylind('r \\"all"! which
increases oil consumption .

3. Gritty particles, which cause wear of cylinder liners, pistons,

and valves.
4. Lowered factor of safety brought about by erosion or
incrustation of stop, cmcrgency, and governing valves.
5. Increas d steam rates due to reduced superheat or rc-evapo-
r!l.t ion of moisture.
Turbine!'; ;
1. Erosion of valvcs and blading, afiectinp: maint.enanec costs
and, tram consumpt.ion .

35 ...... .... ......

..... r-.,<%
r-o ~~rp
r-- ......

- /%,.,., .

o0 200 400 600 800 1000 1400 1600 1800

Absolute PressureJ Lb. per Sq. In.
FlO. 186.- Lo8. of . uperheat with 1 per cent and 2 per (lent moist.lIl'e in the
entering steam.

2. Execs moisttu'e in team which increascs leaving losses and

aggravates carro ion.
3. Deposits in nozzlcs and blading, interfering with steam
distribution and thus causing higher steam rates and, in
sam instances, unbalance and vibration.
4. Damage to blading or wrccking of turbine by heavy slugs
of water.
5. Incrustation of governing and emergency valves, causing
erratic speed control, oversp eding, and possible wreckage
"Ii the machine.
1. Danger of wreckage by water hammer.
2. Erosion and incrustation of valves, inducing leakage or
rendering them inoperative.
3. Dezincification of brass valves by the alkaline content 01·
boiler concentrates in the steam.
4. Deterioration of asbe tos in packing and gasket ·, caused by
abrasion and chemical changes.
5. Trap troubles from deposits.
6. Heat-balance los ·es from excessive water in piping and
traps blowing through.
7. Plugging or, in some cases, severe erosion of piping by the
water and solids in the steam.
Though some of t bese t roubl es are due to tile entrainment of
solid slugs of wuter, most of them eo1'".o from til!' ct:mulative action
of small quanti tic of carry-over. As an illustration, a.~f:jume a
10,OOO-sq. It. boiler operated at 400 per cent rating and having
only 100 gr. per gal. of concentrat.ed impuri ties in its water.
It has been estimated tbat steam from .'ucb a boiler would carry
with it in a month's tim' approximf1tcly 208,000 gal. of concen-
t rated water containing 2,975 lb. of solid matter. Much damage
can be done by 863 tons of water and roughly l ~ tons of abrasive
What are the causes of dirt in dteam? Carry-over starts with
the entrainment of droplets or slugs of water in the steam leaving
the steam-di3engaging surfaces of the hoiler. This entrainment
may be caused by violent boiling or may come from bubbl!'s or
foam partly filling or filling the steam sp!tce of the drum. These
disturbances at the wator surface ftre commonly referred to as
"priming" and "foarning. "
There are many reasons for violent boiling. High evaporation
rates, limited area of steam-disengaging surfaces, circulation
characteristics of the boilef, and flashing of the water brought
about by sudden pressure drops ar often r'sponsible individ-
ually or together. In all cases, however, priming and foaming
are aggravated by or can be traced directly to increase in surface
te.psion of the boiling water brought about by concentration of
impurities. These substances stabilize the film surrounding
steam bubbles in the boiler water, delaying their bursting. This

delay creates a geyserlike action at t he water line in the case of

priming, or t he bu bbl es fail to break and foaming occurs.
It is easily seen t hat, wit h modern boilers which have st eam
(lrums of comparatively small diameters and are operatrd at
high rA.tin6s, careful cont rol of boiler-watt'r nOl1 centratioml is
needed to a\'oid c:1rry-oyer.
ImpuriLie!:i in boiler wale r arc rit nrl' d i8~o l cd Rolids or insol-
uble material hr ld in :-;uspcnsion. Th ough either form of impu-
ri ty, if concentrated suffirir ntly, will produ('(' can y-ove)', com-
bin ations of thc two ha\'ing much lower co ncentration are

~ 35 000
:f '

~ 30,000 1\ , I
t:i 25,000 I
2 20, 000

~ 15, 0 00
1\ +
.!: !\
~ 10, 000
I\. I
en 5,000 ..... ....
o 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 BOO
Suspend ed Solids , Pads per Million
FlO. 187.-Criti cal conoentration value a nd t ho rob tion betweon d issolved and
suspendod solid •.
PSp cialJy dangerous. There is a critical poin t limiting t hese
concentrations in any given boi1:>r iIl ' taliation .
The curve of F ig. 187, obt ailled from tests Ort a 3,000-sq. ft.
longitudinal-drum watertube boiler operating a t 200 per ccnt
rating, 'hows th poillts at which carry-over occw·s with varying
concent rations of dissol ved and suspended solids.
Soap or oth l' organic matter in boiler water is particularly
undesirable. Evcn t hough present in very small quantities,
thes substanccs which enter the boiler through contamination
of t he feed-water supply by certain types of engille oil or sewage
often produce foamillg.

Consideration of these causes of carry-over indicates control

of boiler-water concentrations as the first step in any elimination
program. This control involves three factors; (1) removal of
impurities from the feed water, (2) preventing concentrations
from exceeding the critical limit, and (3) maintaining an economi-
cal balance between the quantities of dissolved and suspend(~d
Removal of impurities from feed water j ,' psppciaJly deHirablr.
when oil, Roap, or organic matter causes i roublp. Oil can Ilsually
he eliminated by properly designed separator!'. III had cases,
however, it may be necessary to filter th fe d wa,Ler. Water
eontaining ,oap or organic matter must, be filtered. Chemical
coagulat.ion beforr filtrat ion is often beneficial. External ~ofte n­
ing of boiler water is often econom ical. Zeolite softf IWrR, t uough
they do not reduce the total mineral Rolid content, of thp feed
water, do reduee insoluble solids to a minimum , thus decl'('asing
Lhe quantity of HURpcnded mat.Le!' in the hoilrl' water.
Lime soda soften er ' reduce the iotal quaJlti ty of solids and
slow down the bujJding of coneentra,t,ioJls in the boiler.
Conceuiration control wi.thin tho boilN requires that impur.ities
l:ihould be hrld below th , critical vahH' by blo\~ing down the unit
either periodjcally or continuously. Various type.~ of chemical
coagulant are also utled to throw solids ou 1 of suspension ill a form
easily removed from the blowdown.
The method of handling the boiler is an important phase of
carry-over prevention. Water levels in the drums must be held
as nearly conHtant as possible, preferably wjth feed-water regu-
lators. Higb-\\' a~r levels bring steam-liberating surfaces close
to the boiler outlet nozzles, entrainment being thus promoted.
During light-load ppriod', water sbould never be p rmitted to
rise past the middle gage cock. Sudden opening of a steam
valve or erratic pressure control may cause carry-over by quickly
flashing large quantities of stearn, lifting the water, and producing
very violent boiling.
There are many cases where carry-over still persists, even
though all ordinary preventative measures are used. To reduce
entrained solids to an absolute minimum, stearn washers or
steam separators are installed. Washers use t he relatively pure
incoming feed water to wash outgoing st am. Separator:;
remove entrained water and soJjds by impinging the steam against

baffies or suddenly changing its direction of flow so that foreign

-particles are thrown out by centrifugal force. Separators or
purifiers are also valuable as insurance against any unexpected
slugs of water which might damage power-plant equipment.
Boiler Com.pounds VS. Feed-water Treatment.- It is probable
that few "rackets" have flouriHbed to the extent that the so-
called" cure-all" boiler compound have. There have been sold,
under every conceivable trade name, compounds of potatoes,
bark, seaweed, graphite, silicate of soda, sawdust, copper dust,
and many inert chemicals, some of which arc actually dangerous
fOl' use in a boiler.
Some compounds which actually are partly satisfactory include
in their composition a certain percentage of soda ash, which
tinder specific conditions is proper for treatment of boilers. But
the remainder of their bulk is made up of inert and coloring
matter, and the price of the compound based on resulis, is many
times that of the plain soda ash.
Sale 'men for such products hound the prospects. If the chief
C'ngineer is not receptive to hi arguments, he "goes to work" on
t he executive department in a mad effort to introduce his
The au thor can state without hesitat,ion thai, when it is
l'epresented that a boiler compound will remove scale, prevent
scale, and stop pitting and carro ion under all conditions, it is
well to beware of such a prodnc t. Such claims are usually far-
fetched. Feed-water treatment or a properly designed compound
should produce the results ml'ntioned. But a given type of
treatment may not be satisfactory in different localitie , in two
different plants in the same locality, or even in the same plant
under ehanged evaporation rates or when the sourc of water
supply is affected by climatic changes.
The treatment of feed wat l' is a problem requiring periodic
testing of the water and proportioning the treatment according
to the varying conditions. There are a number of reputable
laboratories prepared to equip small or large plants with suitable
test kits and to upply or advise the proper tr atment indicated
by the tests.
Extreme care hould be taken in removing existing scale in a
boiler by treatment of the water. If the scale is removed too
quickly, it may drop down in large quantities, serious damage to

H. R. r boiler


FlG. 188.- Flnmo impingement.

FIo . 189a.- Flllrne impingement in waiertube boiler. Ace lerated ciroulation

in lower row of tubes nt x, due to temp rllture differential acr08S bridge wall.
Dlay be too l'apid for adequate wuter' supply from renr ond of tubes. .. Starva-
tion" and damage by overheating may res'tIt. team pocket. are a poll8ible
result of this starvation.

the boiler being the result because of restricted circulation and

overheating, In a watertube boiler, ruptured tubes may be
the consequence; in a fire-tube boiler, bulges and even rupture
in the shell have followed,
A compound offered to prevent the action of large quantities
of fre oxygen in the water, causing internal corrosion or pitting,
should be looked on with suspicion, Removal of large quanti-


FICI. J89b,-lmproved baffle design by back end firing , Unequal temperatun'

On low~r rOw of tube. eliminated, Also furuace volume is increl18ed for high

ties of oxygen is a mechanical problem, as mentioned previously

(pages 183 and 184). Any internal treatment for such condi-
tions is very likely to contain some form of silica to put a pro-
tective coating on internal surfaces, and continued use of such
treatment may build up a heavy, dense scale.
Flame impingement is a source of damage to boilers and
refractory, If the flame impinges directly on the boilel' shell
(Fig. 1 8), excessive evaporation will be caused on the water
surt'ace over that point. The high temperatures may cause
damage through local scale formation 01' corro ion which other-
wise would be dormant, or the temperature may be high enough
to cause serious damage by overheating the plate.
Direct impingement of flame on tubes of watertube boilers may
cause steam pockets (Figs. 189a and 189b) . That is, O\'aporation
and resultant circulation upward in a tube may be more rapid

.I!'ru. 190.-Ors..t appo.ratu8 tor aoalyzing flu" gase8. (CourtUJ/, The Bay.

than the rate at which cooler water can be supplied from its
lower end. A stcam pock t, serious overhcating, and failure of
the tube usually Te ult. Water t ube' are also au c ptible to the
same results of flam e impingement 118 those mentioned with
r ference to fire-tube boilers (page 270).
A reduction in thickness, due to erosion by particles of burn-
ing carhon and of fly I18h, will result if flame impingement con-

tinues. Flame scrubbing of refractory greatly sho~ ~ens its life,

owing to erosion and overheating.
Flame control is definitely a combustion problem. The more
common combustion problems are discussed in the following
Combustion processes and combustion problems are many
and are divided between the designeJ' and the operating engineer.

FIo. 191.- Indi cating CO , (Courte8Y , The }Jays Corporation. )

Incomplete combustion re 'ults in smoke and lowered operat-

ing efficiency. In order to obtain complete combustion, the
furnace volume must be adequate to permit complete burning
;)f fuel particles before they enter heating surfaces and are cooled
below their ignition temperature.
In order thoroughly to mix oxygen with bUl'lling fuel gases
and particles, the flame action must produc turbulence. Flexi-
bility of flame control may be affected by control of primary ail'

supply.' Turbulence is affected, too, by the velocity, location,

and amount of secondary air.2
One of the most easily performed and essential tests of combus-
tion efficiency is thc analyzing of flue gases. Thi· may be
performed by an Orsat apparatus (Fig. 190). There are also

FIG. 192.- Racording CO, maLor. (CourteBY, Th e Hays Corporation.)

several indicating (Fig. 191), and recol'ding (Fig. 192) instru-

ments that give dircct readings.
Flue gases may contain three gases, CO 2 (carbon dioxide) ,
CO (carbon monoxide), and 0 (oxygen). Complete combustion
combines two molecules of 0 with each molecule of C (carbon),
producing CO 2 (Fig. 193a). Theoretically, all oxygen supplied
the process should combine with the carbon to form CO 2, and the
1 Primary air is that which conveys fuel to burners or mixes with Iuelat
burners or through the fuel bed.
S Secondary air is supplied to the burning fuel 80 that oxygen may unite in
combustion at advantageous points.

flue gases would then show a high percentage of CO 2, no 0

and no CO.
Combusrion chamber

Combusfion chamber
•O . • 0
0•0• 0 0• 0
• °0•• 0 0
• • •• •
0 0 0 0
CombusTion chClmber rlue
• 0 . 0 ~ O 0 •
· 0

• 0

.", 0

0 ••
0 0
• o 0

• 0
0 ••
• (c)
• Carbon molecule ~ Carbon monoxide (CO)
o Oxygen molecule ~ Carbon dioxide (C02)
FIo. 193.- (11) Good combustion. All ILvailable oxygen molecules have pairod
up with carbon moleoule! to form a high percentage of CO.. (b ) Poor combU!l-
tioD. Tbere ha.a been an inadequate number of oxygen molecules to supply a pair
for each carbon molecule. The C (carbon) molecules. unattaohed. denote smoke.
For good oombustion. inorease the air supply (c) Poor combustioll. Fluo 1M
show8 both unattached oxygen and carbon molecules although there is an abun-
dance of each. Tbis indicates lack of mising in furnace (turbulence) . Furnace
design. proportions. or the Bame oharacteristios require ohanging.
If CO and no 0 in the flue gases, this fa.ct indica.tes
that insuffici nt oxygen was supplied the combustion chamber to
allow the C molecule to acquire the second 0 moleculeneccssary
(or complete combustion (Fig. 193b) . On tbe other hand, if
CO is found in the gases with 10 per cent or more 0, lack of
flame t urbulence for proper mixing is often indicated . The 0
molecules were there, but they did not meet the C + one 0
molecules in time to unite at combustion temperatures (Fig. 193c) .
In operating oil, pulverized-coal, or gas burners, t he primary
air should be adjusted so that the flame will start just far enough
from the burner tip for its burners not to overheat. The second-
ary air should t hen be controlled so t hat a "clean" fire will
result and maximum CO 2 will be obtained. A clean fire means
one maintained at as neal' "incandescent" heat as possible
for load carried, and up to such praetieallimits as safe refractory
temperatures. This objective is accomplished by reducing the
secondary air to just above t he point where t he fire looks yellow-
ish and smoky.
Oil fires sometimes pulsate or flu tter to t he extent t hat the
entire boiler setting may vibrate. This effect may be traced
usually to a pulsating oil-burner pressure resulting from a
reciprocating oil pump. Usc of an air-cushion chamber usually
:solves this problem.
The method of ignition is an important item in the use of
suspension fuels. 1 An adequate torch or auxiliary-burner flame
should be applied to wit hin 1 or 2 ft. in front of t he burner before
fuel flow is started. The secondary-air supply should be practi-
cally cut off, and the primary air reduced so that a "rich " fuel
mixture results. If ignition does not occur within about 15 scc.,
t he fuel should be cut off, and the ignition extinguished. Thc
furnace should be scavenged by full draft for several minutes
before attempting ignition again.
Burners should never be lighted by t he heat of the refractory or
from the flame of a burner. Use the igniter. Furnace-gas
explosions may result if these igniting precautions are neglected.
Ignition stability is important to safe burning of suspension
fuels. Coal of low volatile (gas) content is sometimes unstable
when pulverized and when operation is at low loads. Oil-
burner instability can be traced usually to a clogged oil Bystem
or to improper oil temperature.

1 Oil. pulverized coal, and 188.


One of the most common Cll.USC of furnace explosior s is the

momentary failure of ignition during regular operation. During
the pause, unburned fuel enters the furnace, and highly com-
bustible gases, di tilled by the heat of the firebox, fill t he boill'll'
setting. These gases may penetrate a crevice in the refractory
or ash where fed heat exists, and a bin t results. Furnace
explosions may be caused also hy a.ccumulations of unburnpcl

Fw . 194.-Exterio'· of hoil"r casing. Damage to l a " g~ wat.e,·tuhe hoi lo,' <,,,usod

by £uml\co explosion.

combustible igniting i;polltancously. These explosions may

cause seriolL.'l damage (Figs. 194 and 195).
An ins tance of tile danger of unbumed combu tihle, paralleling
t he cas of the dom tic-chimney hazard, is describ d in a r cent
news account of a fire, with do.mage of $75,000 to boiler auxil-
iary equipment, in It large public-utility pow r , tation where
n!\W boiler ettings were being dried out by bunling oil for several
days, It appears that the result of the low fire in the large
,. cold" furnace was for much unburned oil to saturate the soot
all the way through to the stack. When the combustion rat:
was in rpas d, the deposits ignited, with costly}' suits.
Control of suspension-fuel combustion is sometimes difficult in
blowing soot. A full fire may become unstable owing to draft
disturbance, and there may be danger of a gas explosion. Blow-
ing soot just after the burners are shut off may be dangerous, too,
for the soot may back up into the hot firebox and be hazardous.

FIG. 195.- Interior of furnace damaged by furnllco oxplosion.

oot should be blown after thc firebox has cooled, if steam OJ' air
js available. Otherwise, if flame stabiljty is affected, the burncrs
should be set at their lowest point with a lean mixture, land
secondary air and draft should be high enough to carry soot
deposits to the stack.
The inherently limited combustion volume of internally fired
boilers and the requirements of fuels such as wood-waste prod-
I High primary air-low fuel rateR.

ucts sometimes demand additional volume. This is often pro-

duced by a Dutch oven, which is actually an external, primary
furnace that leaves the boiler furnace as a secondary combustion
chamber (Fig. 196).
F lame impingement and excessive furnace temperature in H .
R.T. boilel installations wit h oil burners are not uncommon and
are usually a result of in, ufficient furnace volume. Or, in many
cases of conversion from hand firing to oil burning, the setting is
unchanged, and the bridge wall diverts t he flame against the shell.
Damage may be caused, and the cooling of the flame may impail'


FlO. 196.- Scotch dry-back boilor.

The furnace volume should permit a heat release of 18,000 to

25,000 B.t.u. per cu. ft. per hr. for all refractory furnaces. The
lower limits are preferred (unless there is an abundance of
radiant heating S\lrfaces e}..'posed), or refractory damage may
result. This point is of especial importance in changing
from hand firing a boiler to mechanical firing with existing
When it becomes desirable to provide additional furnace
volume in an existing installation, it is not always necessary to
reset the boiler at a higher elevation. With many watertube
boilers, furnace volume may be increased by dispensing with
the bridge wall and relocating the baffies (Figs. 189a and 189b).

In H.R.T. boilers, the bridge wall may be eliminated with

suspension fuels, and the floor of the furnace and combustion
chamber cut down lower (Fig. 197) . However, if light loads arp
to be carried at times, it is better to leave a checkerwork bridge
wall. This allows flame to pass through at high ratings a nd
provides sufficient reflection of radiant heat to maintain stablfl
ignition on light loads.
Low water in a steam boiler may lead to anything from leakage
tv an pxplof;ion, depending a great deal on the type of boiler,


FlO. down furnace floor to dotted line was an inexpensive

mean. of increasing furnnce volume from 477 to 690 cu. ft. This reducod the
unit heat release from 32,000 to 21,300 B.( .u . per ou. ft. per hr.

the rate of firing, and just how low the water gets. A popular
fallacy is that adding water t.o an overheated boiler causes an
explosion, but experiment.s abroad and by a large railroad in
this country have proved otherwise. However, an overheated
boiler should b cooled gradually by extinguishing the fire and
leaving a.11 valves as they are. Competent inspection for damage
is then essential.
If the boiler is a type with a crown sheet over the firebox or
combustion chamber, such as a locomotive or Scotch marine type,
a rupture of the crown is almost inevitable if the water drops
below t he level of the crown heet, for the bared metal Boon

attains such a temperature (red heat) that its tensile strength

drop to a dangerously low point. A rupturing crown sheet
often is exceedingly violent, and many serious explosions have
resulted (Fig. 198).
In H.R.T. boilers, the first result of the water level dropping
below the safe level 'wben a bot fire is carried may b leakage at
tbe rear ends of the upper
rows of tubes. As the water
recedes from tubes exposed to
high-temperature gal es, the
expansion of the tubes is so
great that their rolled-in seat
i · broken. L ea kage may
appear from the rear ends of

Flo. 11)8. FlO. 11)9.

FlO. J!is.-Ruptured crown sheot caused t his explosion. Crown and furnace
Jhoets I\S they landed lIearly hilll 11 mile from the locomotive-type boiler. Note
staybolt-holc fract ures whero stay bolts tore through.
FlO. 199.-Rupturod water tube due to low waler .

each succeeding row of tubes as the water level drops further,

until distortion of the shell plat s and heads, with leakage at the
scams, usually occurs. An explosion due to low water i
uncommon in this type of boiler because of the many points of
leakage to give warning. However, the tubes may collapse.
The effects of low water on water tubes are similar to those on
fire tubes. The tubes expand as the water leaves them, and they
break theil' expanded s ats, leakage bemg caused. Excessively
low water may result in tube rupture (Fig. 199).
Cracking in boilers may be a result {)f faulty mn.terial, design,
construction, or operating conditions. Materials have been
covered in Appendix 1.
In addition to flaws in design and construction already men-
tioned, the "notch" effect of gougeG, toolmarks, or grooves
Boiler plofe, ,. (Nofch or surFace indenfafion
E5$ §
Normal sfress / '
,- ==~
Sfress concenfraflon
=;:;= §= -= 3
Fra. 200.-Stress concontration causod by "notch " effect.

should be considered as a potential cause of cracking. Any HIICh

irregularity if; a cause of stress concentratioll (Fig. 200), and
continued stress concentration may result in fatigu', one of thl'
most common causes of cracking. Bending an iron wire back
and forth eventually results in its fracture. Similarly, boiler
plate may crack if it is continually bent back and forth . Rising

Ogee j l/Somefirnes
(reverse)- ... (iP' ~ cracks here
fkmqe ~ ~!d!:::!:!:!:!::Io:!::!!db!::l:l,,- ~
~ ~
~ ~
~ ~
~ ?1
~ ~
FIG. 201.-0geo crncks in Manning boiler.

and falling pressure and temp'" 'ature in a boiler produce a

"breathing" action, which also may cause fatigue of the metal
after a period of years; cracking will then result in the section,
subj ected to greatest stres ing.
Corrosion is a close partner of fatigue. A fatigue crack may
extend rapidly if affected by water of corrosive nature.

The reversed fiange (og e) of a Manning boiler is sometimes

affected by fatigue cracking (Fig. 201) . This Hange is subj ected
to fluctuating u nding stress as the t ubes expand and contract.
R epairs to such a defect should not be attempted. If the crack
extends more t han about 3 in. , the boiler should be removed
from service permanent ly 01' unt il a new flange is installed. As
the latter operation practically entails dismantling and rebuild-
ing the boiler and as the e fatigue cracks do not appear usually

FlO. 202.-Cracked flango in lower tube sheot of vertical t ubular boiloo·. Rmall
black dot l~ hole drilled to meaaure depth of crack.

until the boiler i. quite old, it if( .. eldam practical to install a

new flange.
Fatigue cracks may also appear in the true ogee of the furnace
sheet in a V.T. boiler. Repairs may require in tallation of a new
furnace; cutting off the ogee and in. talling a mud ring; or drilling
each end, fitting with a tapered plug, and Veeing the crack and
electric welding it if it is of minor extent.
V.T. boilers may develop fatigue cracks in the flange of the
lower tube ( rown) sheet (Fig. 202). This problem must then
be handled as is t h similar problem of the defective Manning
ogee flange.
Sharp corners have caused a stress concentration and fatigue
cracking in thick-walled drums for high pressures. Design pro-
cedure has overcome this tendency by fabricating such points in
a sweeping contour to eliminate the corners.
Probably the most dangerous of all fatigue cracks is t he " lap
crack" developing unseen between rivet holes of the longi tudinal
lap-riveted seam of lap boiler shells. This defect is induced by
the fact thnt, a lap-seam boiler iR not rolled into a true circle and
a bending trcss is concentrated at the offset of the lap by thc
I reathing action of the Rlu·ll (Fig. 203 ). Many serious explosions

Fro. 203.-Lap crack.

have resulted from such cracks. Usually, leakage from the seam
appears as a warning of a lap crack. If any leakage exists or
suspicion of this defect develops, the plate should b slotted
(Fig. 204) with a cape chisel. If any leakage shows through this
slot, a crack is usual ly indicated. It is often necessary to remove
several rivets ill suspected regions so that 'the inside of the rivet
holes may be examined. No repairs are permitt d on lap cracks.
The boiler should be condemned immediately.
Fatigue cracks sometimes appear on dished head , though not
commonly; usually they originate from the notch effect of tool-
ma.rks or from an incipient crack caused by the flanging process.
Repairs are not permi sible, other than drilling and tapping each
end of a small crack with a 7i-in. hole and fitting a plug to prevent

extension of the crack. A new head is usually necessary if a

crack extends more than 25 per cent of the head thickness for
more than several inches in length.
Embrittlement cracks may be treated as lap cracks in so far as
their treatment goes. The cracks usually occur between rivet
holes in a seam, and leakage may give warning of development
of the dE'iect. Removal of rivets and examination of the holes,
and sometimes removul of t he butt straps or heads, are necessary
for final analysis of t.he problem. Such cracks are not repair-
able, and boilers so affected should be discontinued from sel'VICp..

Fro. 204.- Section of longitudinal lap-riveted seam ; . Iots cut ill p late to detect
sourc'e of leakage.

If an embrittling condition i!; encoun tered or suspected, it is

e 'sential that a reputable laborat.ory ,·hould be consulted for
recommendations on feed-water treatment.
Fire crack are not uncommon when boiler plate is exposed to
radiant heat, They are not dangerous as a rule. The cause of
fire cracking is the comparatively great difference in expansion
differential between the plate water and fu'e surfaces. For this
reason, fu't;: cracking is more common in riveted seams of thick
plates. The cracks usually extend from a rivet hole to the calk-
ing edge of the plate but sometime extend across to the opposite
ide of the rivet hole.
Repairs a1' permitted if the crack does not extend over 3 in.
beyond the lap of the plate. If the crack does ext,end into the
solid plate within this limit, the end of the crack should be drilled

and plugged with a }.i-in. tapered or threaded pin to keep it from

extending. If leakage occurs from fire cracks, the rivet should
be removed from the holes affected and also two rivets on each
side. The cracks should be Veed out and electric-welded, the
rivet holes reamed, and new rivets driven (Fig. 205).
Common locations for fire cracks are the lower part of the
front girth seam of H.R.T. boilers and furnace seams of firebox
In general, it may be said that cracks extending from rivet holn
to rivet hole should not be repaired by welding. The defective
section may be cut out and a riveted patch installed if an author-

F,O. 205.-Soction of a girth seam showing whero fi,'o cmcks may oncnr and how
to repair t horn .

ized boiler inspector approves. R epairs to cracks appea.ring

between tube holes of a drum ligament should not be attempted,
Such drums should be abandoned for further service.
Tube-ligament cracks in fiat tube sheets, such as the head of a
V.T. boiler, may be Veed out and welded if leakage develops.
It is best to remove the tubes from the tube holes affected. After
the welding is completed, the tube holes may be reamed and new
tubes installed. A copper ferrule is sometimes necessary, for
the tube hole at that end may be slip:htly oversize.
The depth of a crack may be determined by drilling a Ji6-in.
hole through its center. The hole should then be saturated with
cencentrated hydrochloric acid on a swab. After several min-
utes, the hole should be flushed with clean water and blown dry.
A magnifying glass and strong light will show the depth of most

fatigue or expansion cracks. The hole may then be tapped and

fitted with a 74:-in. pipe plug.
Tube troubles usually follow overheating due to scale, oil, or
flame impingement. If the overheating is serious, a rupture may
occur (Fig. 206). Otherwise, a bulge may result. Repairs to
a ruptured tube are out of the question:
a new tube must be installed.
A bulge in the bottom of a tube forms
<:;, to; a pocket for loose scale or sediment . and

~~ . .1 ev niual l'upture is likely. If the bulge

liaR swelled out more than one-oighth of its
length, renewal of the tube is advi ·ablr.,
for the metal has been burned and stretch-
ed !;I('verely. An experienced worker can
drive back bulges of less extent by heating
and driving alternately. The heating
. hould be ov I' the entire bulge and just
enough so that a wet cloth hislSes when
FlO. !lOO. Ruptured touched to ihe i ube. A 2- to 3-lb. strik-
\Vnt I' Lubo.
ing hl:Lmrner should be used around the
outer cireurnfer 'nce of the bulge, t il circlr. of striking being
gradually decreased unLil the t ube curvature is normal.
The boiler-inspection departments of several localities dis-
courage driving bulges back and recommend new tubes. Cer-
tainly, such repairs. should be undertaken only on advice of the
Failure of a fire tube by pitting or corrosion always requires
renewal unless the defect is close to one end.
Safe-ending of fire tubes is common practice in railroads and
is permitted by most codes for stationary boilers for up to 50
per cent of all tubes. If one end of the tube becomes thin, the
tub i removed, the thin section cut off, and a new piece of sound
tubing weld d on by belling one end and using a forge-weld.
For work on a large scale, an automatic electric-welding machine
is used.
Removal of a tube is accomplished by cutting the beading or
flaring off of each end. One end is slotted with a ripping chisel,
care being taken not to score the seat. The tube end is then
reduced in diameter with a crimping tool (Fig. 207) so that it may
be drawn through the hole. An acetylene cutting torch may be

used to advantage in somo operations. The new tube is then pu t

in place. If a fire t ube, it is expanded and beaded. If a watel
tube, it may be expanded and flared (Fig. 208).

/ \~
Flared end
F======;===~~ ~ / Tube-cap
Tube .;:' hole

Tool fOr ~,impl;7g end of boiler:

lube preparafory fOr removal
Fu,; . 207.

If a tube hole should be damaged by I;(;ol'ing, it may be reamed

out slightly oversize, and a copper a'· f~ soft-ira 11 ferrule uRrd

Tubes drawn out au fomafical-

Iy (ploper IfYIIgfh for bead-
\--i~";""-~ ing) against guord, which
being stationary agains f
sheet, ovoids
friction and wear

rolls ex-
pand and flare tube
in one operation
FIG. 208 .- Abovc, expanding tub" end for ueading: oeuter, beaded tube end;
below, expand ing and fl a ring tube !l8 in watertubo boilers. (Courte81l , Th_
Gustav Wiedeek e Co.)

between the tube and the tube hole. The tube is then expanded
against this ferrule.
It is nee sary sometimes to weld ends of a water tube, as with
circulating tubes to a header which is being renewed . Th e edges

of the tube should be ground to a V and a 7tl-in.-thick copper

backing sleeve used inside the tube so that the weld metal will
fuse into the bottom of the V, attaining full penetration without
"icicles" hanging into the tube. The copper is used because the
weld metal will not fuse to it and thus it may be removed easily.
Steel backing rings as left in piping usually are not desirable in
boiler tubes, for cveu It slight restriction in flow may not be

.,..... eo.,u
FIG. 209.-Vertical Jire-tubo boiler.
Steam protects the upper ends of tubes in vertical fire-tube
boilers from burning. During starting up periods, a low fire
should be maintained until several pounds pressure is attained,
or else overheating-may damage the tube ends. Sometimes dur-
ing the starting periods these boilers are filled with water to the
top to protect the tube ends. The water level is blown down
after steam generation starts.
It may be of much value to keep a record of replacements of
tubes, stay bolts, etc. A method used in one plant of identifying
the tubes is shown in Fig. 209.

Bulges! and blisters 2 in the boiler shell often require repairs.

If a bulge is not down more than 2 per cent of its length, it is
usually best to leave it alone unless t he metal has been burned
badly. If a blister has not reduced the t hi ckness so that the per-
centage of new thickness to oliginal thickness is less than the
efficicncy of the longit udinal seam, repair · arc not usually
neces ary .
If a bulge is down more than 2 per cent. of its lengt h, but not
over about one-eigh t h of its length and t he plate has not rup-

FlO. 210. -J ncking ffLbricnted pnt ch into position for ri veting 00 trough nt
bottom of box honder in wntertubo boiler .

tured or burned, it is usually advisable for it to be dri ven back by

experienced boilermakers. A form holding a charcoal fir may
iJe used to heat the cntire bulge simultaneously. A short-
handl d, heayy striking hammer is used around t he circum-
ference, and work is gradually toward t he center.
Bulge or blisters of more serious extent or where the plate is
burned badly are repaired only by patching. Usually the size
of the ar a to be patched may be reduced by driving back the
circumference of the affected section, prcwided that the plate is
1 A bulge is caused by overheating, and it affect~ t he en tire thickness of the
S A blister is caused by a. slag inclusion furming a lamination at the time
the plate was rolled in t he steel mill. The entire thickness of the plate may
not be affected. Usually, the area between t he lam ination and the fire side
'····wk~ And bli~te1"!l .

not burned. One of the most concise codes for proper design of
riveted patches, reprinted in the Appendix by the cowiesy of
Mr. Joe Kunschik, Commissioner of Labor, is that of the Texas
Department of Labor, Bureau of Boilet· Inspection.
Collapse of a front arch under a box header of a watertube
boile!' sometime.' permits Damr impingement to cause a bulge in
the" trough I 011 t,he botLom of t he header. Figure 210 shows
a fabricated pal eh lwing i!l:talled for rivpting to repair such
damage to a 400-lh. boi[(')·.
Handhole rings are required to strengthen edges of handholes
deteriorated badly by external corrosion. This corrosion i
caused usually by leakage past the gaskpt. Th elliptical ring
is of the same thicknes.' fl. the ~hrrt, ftno it. .. hould overlap the

IHandhole cy>ening
.FlU . 211.- Ncw scat for h andhole plate.

inside of the opening sufficiently to bear on sound metal. The

thin edges of the opening should be cut back so that a bead may
be applied bye) tric welding to I<eai I he ring to the edge of the
hole (Fig. 211 ). COlTosion at the edg('s of handholes may be
prevented by keeping the handhole gask(··t mad· up tight against
The subject of stay bolts and furuace-sheet repairs in firebox
boilers is not fully covered by all eod s.
Breakage of flexible (Tate) stay bolts is uncommon: but if it
.'hould occur it may be detected by removing the eap and using
a heavy screw drivel' in the lot of the ball-. 0 'ket joint (Fig. 212) .
The solid fe ling of a sound bolt will not be pI' sent.
olid stay bolt u. uaily show leakage from their telltale holes,
but these holes become obstructed Rom times. A hammer test
is made to determine wh ther any bolts are broken. Sound
bolts give a ringing noi when struck sharply on the riveted head
'Vith a hammer. A broken bolt gives off a hollow-sounding
"clunk." Leakage from the t.elltale hole may occur when a
stay bolt is cracked halfway through. This condition cannot be
detected by hammer tests.
Most broken stay bolt will be found in the upper rows owing
to the greater temperature and expansion at that point. For
this reason, it is desirable often to put flexib1e stay bolts In the
upper two or three rows, with solid bolts used below.

Fro. 212.- Flellible stay-bolt installation. Tbe threaded end of tbe stay bolt is
usually upset so tbat tbe diameter at root of threads will not be lesa tban the
body diameter.

A broken stay bolt cannot be repaircd ; it must be renewed. A

core is drilled and the "shcll" of the bolt i;lotted and collapsed for
removal, care being taken not to damage thc thread~ in thc
Leakage from the edges of the stay-bolt head i.' scaled some-
times by a bead of welding. This
condition may be excecdingly dan-
gerous if leakage is caused by local- rurnace
ized corrosion of the shell (Fig. 213).
The distortion of the few remaining
threads may cause the furnace to
collapse with a violcnt explosion
when subjected to pressure. In such
cases, the Iltay bolts should be re-
moved and a larger sized stay bolt
FlO. 213.- StaY-bolted sbeet
that will contact solid metal should dangerously we ..keued by cor-
be installed. Otherwise, a patch or rosion.
new furnace will be necessary.
Violent furnace collapse may result, too, if a number of stay i ~.
bolts in the same location are broken.
Bulged furnace sheets may be driv6ll back by removing the
stay bolts in that region and heating. Backing bars (Fig. 2]4) ,


:""- Oufside rurnaee shed

\ ,rurnace sheet

/,Vertical backing bars


--vO'ck goes nere

" Crossbar ror.Jack

:.4'w . 214 . Bt\cking up furnace .beet of vCl'li ct\1 ,"b,,!tll' t,oi ler fOi' (hidng bac·k

Fro. 215.- Proceee of fu.ion weldin g. (COllric31/. Th e New En(}la1ld Wddi'l{T


are sometimes valuable. If a handhole is not available in the

shell opposite the bulge, it will be necessary to cut one.
Grooving at the bottom of the furnace "heet just over the mud
ring may be repaired in on of two ways. Either the bottom of
the water leg may be cut off and the mud ring raised, or the defec-
tive plate should be cut off and a new circumferential , trip riveted
000000 000000 0000000000

Saf'efy valve and Sfe<xm

/~ verfical seamnof gage
Sfeam shown
oufle f

@ connecfion

" Mud

FlO. 216.- Weldod patch on stay-hoi ted furnaco shoot.

or butt-welded on. The permi sible reduction ill furnace vol-

ume and local regulation determine the method.
Welding for patches in fully stayed areas is permitted under
practically all codes (Fig. 215). Massachusetts limits these
repairs to 36 in. in length, but many satisfactory repairs longer
than this are done on railroads and elsewhere. A row of stay
bolts should be located on each side of the weld (Fig. 216). The
following description of welding is from a recent, periodical

The defective plate should be cut out with an acetylene torch in a

semielliptical shape, care being taken to make the entire cut at about
8. 45-deg. angle. The apex of this section should come between the
second and third row of stay bolts, if the pitch permits. A plate of the
same material and thickness as that used for the furnace sheet should be
secured, fabricated to the proper curvature and size to fit in the cutout.
Edges of the new plate are beveled so that, when in place, beveled edges
of the new and old plate form two sides of a gO-deg. V, or a little less.
The plate is then drilled and tapped for the stay bolts and drilled and
reamed at the bottom for the mud-ring rivets. The sheet is riveted in
position along the mild-ring a.nd the circumference of the patch fused
carefully to the wrapper sheet by electric welding. Stay bolts are

--o,,;.:d ,h;.~-.?-"I::-=---=- _- -w- --

Ori'9lnal posifiDn ollhrDUgh - IIJ -n.erd hNrca:J .#.'
Flo. 217.- Dowed hrflOCB bolow tubas in H .R.T. boiler.

screwed through the sheet so as to extend at least two threads and

riveted over.'
A general rule t.o determjne when to use field welding for repair
work is to weld for t ightness against leakage only when the
strength of the structure does not depend upon the weld.
Braces or stays, unlike stay bolts, seldom break, for they are
long enough to have considerable flexibility. If a brace or stay
does br ak, repairs should not be attempted. A new brace or
stay should be installed at once.
Through-to-head braces below the tubes in H.R.T. boilers
sometimes become bowed (Fig. 217) when the bottom of the shell
i overheated owing to scale or oil. The shell may expand
nearly 1 in. because of excessive temperatures; but the braces
are subjected to the much lower temperature of the boiler wa.ter,
and their beat expansion may be only half that amount. As tbf
1 R. M. Spring, Jr., Power, February, 1937.

shell expands, it carries the lower part of the heads and brace
attachments with it, stretching the brace far beyond th ir yield
point. Thus, when the shell ron tracts, the braces have been per-
manently elongated and will bow. The direction of this bowing
j often upward (but may be in any direction).
A slight bow need J10t be repaired. If t he braces are bowed
badly, they should be taken out and straightened. If they arc
elongated so mUI',h t hat, a fult numh<:,r of t hreads is not in ~,ontact
with the inside nut, DeW braces should be installed.

to high pr088U"C on low-pro88uro ca8L-il'On


Piping problems \:Ollstitute an impori ant part of plaut design

and maintenan ·e. M any industrial plants replace t he boilers
after 20 year, or so w.i th new boiJ e r~ dCOIigllcd and operated at
higher pre;JiSur. Often. the original boilers operated at below
125 lb. per sq. in., and many of the pipe fit,tings and valves
throughout the mill were of cast iron, 125 lb. standard. In
installing new boiler for higher pressure, caution should be
exercised to replace all low-pr ssur pipe fittings 'with fittings
designed for the new operating pre sure. Figure 218 shows t he
result of subjecting 125-1b. cast-iron fittings to a higher steam

The size of pipe should be adequate for conservative flow

velocities, or excessive friction bead will result. The maximum
recommended velocity for steam flow is 5,000 ft. per min. for
heating service (up to 15 lb. per sq. in.) 10,000 ft. per min. for
high-pressure aturated steam and] 4,000 ft. per min. for high-
pressure superheated sLeam. The Crane Co. ha ' found velocities
of up to 20,000 ft. p'r min. reasonahle for higb-pressure super-
heated steam in large pipes.
Example.- Iu order to select the proller sizr of pipe, the following formula
may be used:

D = l ~(
where )fro = cubic feet of steam fl ow per minute.
D = requil'eu diameter 01 pipe, in inches.
F = pc rl1li ~s ibl c Htmull- {lo w veloci(y, in feet per minute.
To select I.L proper pipe si7.c for 12,000 lb. sat llrated stetun per br. at 300 lb.
per sq. i.ll., first find the density for the pros8ure from tile stenlll tables. P'll'
300 lb . pressure, it is 0.67 lb. per cu. ft. i therefore,
0.07 = 17,910 cu. H. per hr. or 208 1I. f t. per min.

Subst.ituting in th foregoing formul:J., we have

It would ue cllstOllla:"y (0 bO to t.ho nearest larger standard pipe si7.c, and so

2 !.ii-in . pipe " 'ould pl'ob,tbly be !IRed in this caRP.
The density of s(cllm rises lI'it.h th(' pre8~u rei thlls, the volu me for a given
weight of steam is less Itt higher pressures, and smaller sized piping nmy he

Pipe supports should be designed to C(l,rry the weight of the

piping full of water. They should be spring-mounted for heavy
ervice in order to provide proper support during vertical motion
of the pipe due to expansion. Hanger type supports should be
adjustable by means of a turnbuckb or nut-threaded to the top
of the hanger rod so that compe:1saLion may be made for set-
tling of tho supporting structure.
Expansion of pipe anchored at each end may set up severe
stresses. It is good practice to provide an expansion joint of
either the slip, bellows. or loop type for long horizontal runs

of steam piping. Figure 219 shows the approximate amount of

expansion that the double offset loop will accommodate. The
length of expansion is calculated by
(tl - t2) X L X 0.0000065 = inches eA--pansion
where tl = steam temperature.
t2 = room temperature.
L = horizontal length of pipe section, in inche .


E20 ~----+-----~-----1~~f-~--~~--~~-----1

Fto. 219.- Mcllu radius of expansion bend in inches. (Data by coltrtcsy of the
Crane Company.)

In steam-piping installations requiring expansion bends, the

Crane Co. recommends that the pipe should be cut short by one-
half the calculated total expansion. The pipe is then "cold-
prung," that is, pulled into position. In this manner, much of
the expansion tendency merely relieves the slight "cold~sprung"
stresses rather than setting up expansion stresses.
A Holly Loop i a piping arrangement used to return conden-
sate from steam-line separators to the boiler (Fig. 220) .
. In operation, £low of condensate and steam mixture from the
steam separator to the surge and separation tank is established

by causing a slight pres ure drop in the surge tank. This is

accomplished by having the vent valve open slightly ill a small
Line from the top of the surge tank to a heater or hot well. The
surge tank is located at an clevation sufficient to give static
head pressure so that the condensate 'will return against boiler
pressure by gravity.
Use of a Hartford Loop is confined ui:lually to heating boilers
and eliminates t.llE' ncrd of a check valvo to prevent, condensate

f----Ve;;f~;;;;; =--- ~--=--~ -- - -- --'1-

I .~ ' I
': Surge and _, /
II Si separaflcn -
--,!.--- ----.. I
I ~ tank,. !! I
Steam I ~1461b.persqm. : ! I
line I~ :: I
.~ ~:: t
~ " I : I
.J,. IS- I I I
~ 20 plus, sfafk t • I
head=added I

pressur:e or8/a :(:i I
per sq. tn. \ I


Condensa~ !;!;: !! / Sep.arafor

refurnsl : 1 ~
Stop va/ve / ,/
Check valve ,'
0-1 lb. per
/Th rottle

Open reed-water heater ' / Engine

or hof-well receiver;
vented fo afmosphere Legend
Steam - - - - - - - - - - - -
Steam and condensafe mixfure--------
Condensate -----------------------
]<'10. 220.- Holly loop .

returns from backiug up the return line in case the steam valve
is olosed (Fig. 221).
In installing steam piping from a boiler, all essential or emer-
gency steam lines, such as for feed-water pump, fire pumps,
and station auxiliary drive lines, should be connected directly to
the boiler or to the main steam line between the boiler and stop
valves. Thus it is pos ible to operate this equipment without
subj ecting the main piping to pressure. Stop-valve require-
ments for su h direct lines are the same as those for the IllJj;1l
stearn line if other boilers tie in with them.
Use of a number of short-radius 90-deg. bends in steam lines is
undesirable when the flow through them is of a pulsating nn,ture,
for the reaction of the piping may set up severe stresses and even
cause the boiler to pulsate and wreck its setting. Wide-sweep
bends are the proper design for such installations.
Drainage of piping at all low points is essential. Traps are
desirable for automatically serving this purpose. A pocket of
water in piping may be pichd up by steam flow, and its momen-
tum on a sharp turn may result in rupture of the fitting.
Cold-water piping often sweats in humid weather, and dripping
water may be undesirable. As a preventive, the piping may be
Sfecrm line

---- .... ~

~ / Abouf
....:t.,,4,...--.. .
12"t 1
--r I I
I ~~----~--~--------~
I Condensafe refurns by gravi y

----..+ Harff"ord lOOP sysfem shovyn

fhus:- - -

FlO. 221.-Ha.rtford loop.

coated as follows: Whiting and linseed oil are mixed in propor-

tion of 5 lb. whiting to 1 gal. raw linseed oil. About ~ pt. of
drier is added per gallon of oil. This mixture is painted thickly
on the pipe surfaces, and, while it is wet, ground cork mixed with
the liquid to the consistency of putty is troweled on in a layer
about ~ in. thick. When dry, the surfaces may be painted any
desirable color. Sweating will be prevented with this insulating
Steam valves should always be opened very slowly, a by-pass
being used if provided, until pressures are equalized, and closing
should be gradual, or dangerous reaction of the piping may

Cutting a boiler on the line in battery with other boilers

should be performed carefully. The drip valve between the stop
valves should be opened when the boiler pressure is rising. The
stop valve on the line side should be opened very slowly, when
the boiler press me is about 10 lb. per sq. in. below the line pres-
aure. The drip valve should be closed when all water has blown
out. When the boiler pressure reache 2 or 3 lb. below line
pressure, the boiler stop valve should be cracked open to permit
slight flow, or, if a stop-valve by-pass is provided, this should be
opened. After flow ceases and t he pressure is equalized, the
valve may be opened wide slowly. In thi/:l manner, any water
pocketed in the line will flow back to the boiler rather than pass
on with the steam flow.
If a nonreturn valve is on the boiler, the outer stop valve may
be opened earlier and the nonreturn valve opened before the
boiler pressure ~tvpl'oaches line pressure.
The firing rate should be controlled carefully, there being
allowed at least 131 hr. pel' )00 bp. capacity of the usual type of
fire-tube boiler from cold boiler to cutting in on the line. About
balf t his time is sufficien t for mOi;t wat.ertube boilers.! When the
boiler preSRure reaches header preRsure and all valves are open, the
firing rate may be incr ased. The gages should be watched t.o be
sure that the 1l0nretUl'll valve opens and tbe boil er pressure docs
Jlot exceed line pres 'ul'e.
Steam b:nding of feed-water pumps results from an insuf-
ficient suction head for the temperature of the water. The water
flashes into steam, and reciprocating pumps will race. A centrif-
ugal pump will vibrate and overheat. No flow of water will be
attained, and damage may be caused to the pump if this condition
continues. A temporary expedient is to slow the pump down if
possible and introduce cold water into the suction.
When this condition exists, either the water temperature
should be reduced, as has been indicated, or the suction head
increased. The latter may be more costly for the moment but
is cheaper in the long run due to increased plant efficiency.
F ed-water heater maintenance is generally low. The typical
cast-iron open heater is usually designed for exhaust steam pres-
sures of 1 to 15 lb. per sq. in. An atmospheric vent is installed
1 Twa steaming time does not apply to boilers with new settings. An
.. Uowance of 24 to 72 hr. should be mado for drying out t he setting.
to prevent internal pressure from building up and to emit oxygen.
Where the heater is in a basement and the vent run many
stories to the roof of a tall building, there is sometimes a chance
of excess pressure on the heater due to a flooded vent. If the
system should be flooded in a vent 10 stories or 100 ft. high, a
static pressure of 43 lb. per q. in. would result from the weight of
the water. A" vent drain' t hrough a water seal hould be used
with high vent lin es (Fig. 222) .
A leaking tube or coil may develop in a closed heater. An
easy test for this condition is to shut off the steam supply and

/ High -elevaflon venf

Sfeam - __
supply Open Tee

Feea' pump supp/y' /

FlO. 222.- Watedcg 80111 [or pl'eventinll oxccs.ive pressure on open IP.6d-wutol'
heaters by flooding o[ high-elevation vent pipe.

observe the open condensate drain line while water is pumped

t.hrougb t he heater coill,. AllY lflakage from the drain indi cates
a defective coil.
Economizers may b located outdoors between t he boiJerhouse
and stack. In freezing temperatures, the conomizer should be
drained when out of service. Wh en it is in US ', a by-pass around
the blowdown valves ;;hould be provided, and this by-pass should
be opened slightly to prevent freezing of the blowdown line.
Also, all exposed pipes out of the main circulatory system should
be heavily insulated. Soot accumulations should be removed
periodically, for they may impede heat transfer and draft.
Large quantities of soot in the base of economizers may be washed
out with a water hose.

Superheaters of old design are sometimes flooded when the

boiler is started so that they will not be overheated before steam
flow is established, but modern materials and operating practice
make flooding unnecessary. The firing rate is held low until steam
shows from the open superheater outlet, vent valve. This valve
is left open for the steam to flow through the superheater while
the boiler pressure is built up. The vent valve is closed when
the boiler goes on the line and normal flow through the super-
heater is started.
iOpen when boiling out

FIG . 223.- Higb-presBure evaporator.

Superheater supports should be kept in good condition. They

burn off sometimes due t.o excessive gas temperatures, and then
immediate replacement is necessary in order that the weight of
the superheater may be properly supported.
Rarely, a superheater header may cmck between the tube
holes, replacement being then essential. In such cases, it i
often unnecessary to disturb the superheater. The tubes may
be cut off just outside the defective header, and a new header
installed over the tube ends in a new position for the shortened
tubes. Relocation of the piping connecting this header is, of
course, necessary.
Evaporator Operation.
Thermal expansion and contra.ction of the hea.tiug coils take place on
sudden temperature cha.nges during blowing down e.nd refilling. This

expansion and contraction serves to shed surface Beale from the coils
The scale drops to the bottom of the shell and passes out the blowdown.
During operating hours, periodic tests on the evaporator (Fig. 223)
shouln be made to determine concentration and proper time interval~
for blowing down. Maximum allowable concentration will, of course,
vary with the type of evaporator, pretreatment of make-up water, and
such other factors as llIay be present in the individual casco
Good results in tbe removal of scum and other surface impurities
from the water will be had with the use of a surface continuous blow-
down . This should be tapped into the shell at the average water level.
In one installation the surface blowdown line consisted of a ~f -in. pipe
having a ~ -in. orifi ce. Thi.' line may discharge into any waste vacuum
line having a higher vacuum than that which may occur in the evapora-
tor. Suitable discharge points for this line may include condenser tail-
water piping, ~ ulilp-well pump suction, generator air-cooler tail-water
pipillg, etc.
A high -pressure single-effect evaporator should be equipped with at
least three pressurr gages. Olle gage should be calibrated higher than
the maximum Rtealll jJl'e~~ ure to the coil and should be counecteu at the
RUPl1ly end of this <loil. TWI) compouuu pressure gages I'Ihould be
connected, one tappe,[ intu th vapor outlet from the sheU and the other
tapped directly into the top of the shell or the Rafety-valve nipple.
'ollllDon practice for the past few years has becn to install an intemal
purifier within the evapoJ'l1tor to remove allY l:!Olids in the entrained
water. Tbe pressure dilfer ntial Ahown by the readings of the two
compound gages will show the pre sure drop across this purifier. In
spite of all such precautions, carry-over by foaming is still experienced
occasionally. Much of this has been eliminated by installing a rec-
tangular baffle plate of sheet steel in a horizontal position midway
between the water level and the purifier bottom. This plate haa an
area of 50 to 75 per cent of the water-surface area.
If, after some time, a pressure differential of greater than 10 per cent
of the maJo.imum operating shell pressure is shown, it will be necessary
to clean out the purifier. This may be done by removal from the shelJ
and scraping by hand, but this is a long tedious job in large evaporators
and is usually unnecessary.
It has been found that most of the solids which encrust the purifier
surfaces are soluble in hot water, and so an easy method of cleaning the
purifier is aa follows: The float valve on the water supply is blocked
open, filling the evaporator with water, and the float is left blocked in
this position. The valves on the vapor discharge and blowdown
are closed. Steam is then passed through tbe coils, and the water in
t,he shell is allowed to boil about 15 min. During this boiling out, a
131-in. line frc.!.D thp. evaporator side of the vapor-discharge gate i ~

opened to the sump. AB the water boils out of this line, carrying dis-
solved impurities to the sump, fresh water is constantly admitted, the
purifier being kept under water. The shell should then be drained,
refilled, and boiled out a second time. Then it may be drained, refilled
to the correct operating level, and placed in service.
Many are the methods that are used in blowing down, but one very
effective one is given. Steam-supply and vapor-discharge valves are
closed. The make-up water line is shut off, and higb-pressure steam is
admitted to the shell by a special ;!i-in. lin tapped into the top. As
soon as the shell pressure builds up to ab('ut 50 per cent of the safet:v -
valve setting, the blowdown valves are opened. An indication that
the shell is empty will be a sudden drop in the positive pressure reading
of the two compound gages. Tbis is caused by a loss of the water seal
on the blowdown line and the sudden release of steam through it . A
small quantity of water is then admitted to the shell to flush it out, and
this is then blown out. The tlvaporator is then filled 'with water to the
correct operating level and placed in service ill the usual manner. In
lUling the shell, water should be admitted by a by-pass of large diameter
around the meter and float valve in order to cause maximum coil
cooling and contraction.
An evaporator should be drained and refilled in thi8 manner after
standing idle for over 8 hr. Otherwise, the action of tbe water on the
scale will have raised the concentration to such a value as to cause
probable carry-over through foaming.'
SBJety-val ve care in t,he operating schedule should include
frequ ent periodic tests of safety valves. In boilers of moders.f.e
pressure, the va.lve should be lifted by its lever at least cnce each
day of operation and the pressw'e should be raised t,o the popping
point to test the safety valves at least once each week of opera-
tion. If the safety valve does not blow at its set pressure, the
lever should be tried at that pressure, for the spindle may be
stuck slightly in its bushing. If the valve is not freed or if it
does not blow at its set pressure on several subsequent trials, the
boiler should be shut down at once for safety-valve overhaul.
If the spindle becomes sticky in operation owing to soot
binding in the bushing, free use of kerosene and repeated lifting
of the Jever may free it. Cleanliness is a big point in safety-valvE>
maintenance, and soot and dust accUDlulations should not be per-
mitted on t he safety-valve mechanism. Lubricating oil should
'H. M. Spring, Jr., Power, September, 1933 . .

not be used on the spindle, for it may collect dust and cause
gummy deposits.
Owing to the cutting action of high-pressure steam, daily tests
of safety valves set at over 500 lb. per sq. in. may not be advisable.
The manufacturer and local boiler authorities should be con-
sulted on t his point, but it is seldom wise to II.llow more than a
week to pass between tests except on superheater safety valves.
If the safety valve b lows at a lower pressure than normal,
according to the pressure gage, the gage should be te ·ted. If the
gage i correct, the gage piping should be blown out to be sure
that it il:! clear. If the safety valve then blows at too Iowa pres-
sure, it may be adjusted by a compet.ent person, taking extreme
care that plenty of clearance is left between the spring coils when
the valve is wide open. 1t is always best to check the boiler
pressure at two different, point::; on thE' boil r to eliminate thf'
possibility of incorrect prCHsure iudication. Any considerabl e
deviation from normal operation of safety valves should receive
immediate competent attention.
Safety-valve escape pi} es may become dogged with sediment
owing to leaking safety valves. The periodic test should dis-
close this condition. Leaking safety valves should be reground ,
never tightened by adjustment to SLOp leakage.
Water-column and gage-glass behavior i · affected directly by
operating procedure. Obstructed connection· arc dangerous
and may cau ·e fal se water-I vel indicati:m. If the upper con-
nection to the gage glass is ob ·tructed, the glass will fill rapidly
to the top after blowing down either the column or the glass,
although a test by the try cocks shows normal water level.
Sometimes the connection may be freed by opening and closing
the shutoff valve repeatedly. If it cannot be freed, the boiler
must be shut down for clearing the line.
An obstructed steam connection to the water column is rare
but exceedingly dangerous. The water will go rapidly to t he top
of the glass on blowing down either the glass or the column, and
the try cocks, too, will sbow a falsely high level. Tbe only way
to detect this condition, if suspected, is to shut off the lower
connection to the column and open t he drain. If no flow results,
the upper connection is obstructed, and the boiler should be
removed from service at once. If no shutoff valve is provided

in the water-column connections, the boiler should be shut down

immediately for investigation if this trouble is suspected.
When the lower connection to the water column is obstructed,
water will return and fill the glass very slowly- 'ometime taking
15 min,-after blowing down th column . This action is due to
a small amount of water getting past the obstruction and to
condensation of st !'Lm. When the glass is blown down, water
will return rapidly owing to the storage capacity of the column .
The gage cock action will correspond with the indicated water
level. If the lower connection of the gage glass is obstructed ,
the level indication in the glass will respond very slowly when
the glass or column is 'blown down, but thc gage cocks will show
t,he true level. In either case of obstruction, it is necessary to
remove the boiler from service to clear the connections.
Obstructions usually come from loose scale or sludge. Fre-
quent blowing down of the glass and column aids in preventing
trus difficulty. This op ration should be performed a1; the begin-
ning of each shift.
Gage glasse should be clcaned or renewed when stained. A
cloth sb,ould be used on a wooden stick-never on wirc or other
metal. A slight scratch will cause thc glass to explode when
under preRsurc.
A new gag glass should be cut about 74 in. ' horter than the
di tanc betwe n the bases of the stuffing boxes to allow for
expansion. After the new glass is in plac with new packing
rings, the packing nuts should be drawn finger tight, thcn about
one-eighth turn with a wrench. With the drain valve open,
crack open the gage-glass steam valve, allowing ste9TU to blow free
and gradually heat thc glass. Thcn opcn the steam and the
water valve wide, and slowly close tho drain valve, thus prc-
venting pressure from being applicd to the glass suddenly and
a possible explosion. Wh n a glass docs break, shut off the watcr
valve first, then the steam valve, using a bag or an old coat t,o
keep from being 'burned. The try cocks should be used fre-
quently to check the water level while a new glass is being
Hydrostatic tests are made on boilers that have had any
repairs, such as tube installation, or patching. They are
applied also to determine the location, extent" or existence of
def ·ts.
The boiler is filled to the top with water at room temperature,
but not below 70°F. so that, if a defect should "let go," the
slight expansion force of the water would not result in an explo-
sion. A pressure of up to 1~ times the maximum allowable
pressure is applied by either the
feed pump or a special test pump.
The safcty valves should be
gagged (Fig. 224) or removed, and
the connections fittcd with a blank
flange. The safety-valve adjust.-
ment should not be screwed down ,7-

for hydrostatic tests. ".'"

Sefscrew fo screw
If other boilers arc on the line, down on fop of
sarefy- valve spindle
the drain valve bctween t he stop
valves should be left open. If
water or steam leaks past the stop
valves, showing from thc opcn drip, reef fo fI'funder
the hydrostatic test should be saf1Jfy-valve -Flange
FIG. 224..- Safcty-valve gag.
delayed until the steam line is fitted
with a blank flange. No chance should be taken of cold water
pressurc building up against a stop valve having steam temper-
ature on its other side.
Any areas whcre defects are suspected, such as riveted seams.
should be exposed for the test by removing all brickwork neces-
sary. The test pressure should be maintaincd long enough to
examine all parts for leakage. A hammer test is often applied
to suspected sections while under test pressure.
If any leakage or indication of distress develops, an authorizeu
inspector should be consulted in regard to the cause and the pro-
cedure to follow. Wherever possible, it is advisable to have the
test conducted by the inspector.
The first thing to do on completing the test is to remove the
gags or blank flanges from the safety valves. This action should
never be. delayed, for if it is it may be forgotten.
Questions and Answers
2151. Name three scal&-forming properti B of water.
Am. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and silica (SiD.).
ll52. What are the two major objections to Beale in a boiler?
Am. (1) Seale is a heat insulator and thus may produce overheatm,:
of the parts affected. (2) Seale causes a oonsiderable 1088 of effioienoy.

llli3. Two identical boilers operate in the same plant with the same feed
water. Blowdown from each is t.he same. More Reale forms in one boiler.
Am. Evaporation must be greater in t.he boiler having the most scale.
2114,. A watertub bo.iler is scaled heavily. What should you recommend?
Am. Removiog the scale Illcchauicfllly by t urbining the tubes and
scaling (chipping) the drum surfaces if necessary. Kero 'ene saturation or
caustic boiling may b benefi(·ial. After Lhc boiler is clean, treat men t. of
the feed water should be il1(,orporaterl 01' C()rrectod to pl'ov(mt sCl1le fOrIIlIltion .
266. Can a tube turbine cause damllge 10 a tube? How?
Am. Yes, if forced or held in one position too long.
266. What care should be exercised in changing feed-water treatment or
Iced-water source of supply? Explain.
Am. If scale of any quantity is present, it may be loosened suddenly
and precipitated ont,o hot surfllces where it wm cause overheating or damage.
The change sho uld be made u,s gradually flS possible, and the boiler opened
very often for inspection during and directly following change.
267. Is a tube tu rbin e used to remove scale mechanically froln fire t ill es?
If not, what is used?
Am. No. A tuhe rattler or vibrator is used.
268. Of what benefit Ui a coating of oil on internal surfaces of a boiler? your answer.
Am. None. It. is exceedingly dangcrous. Oil is a heat insulator and
thus may produce dangerous overbeating of affected surfaces.
269. What is the most common so\!rce of oil in boilers?
Am. Use of contaminated condensate returns from reciprocating steam
260. How might fuel oil get into a boiler when oil burners arc used?
Am. By failuro of a t ube or coil in a fuel-oil steam hoating element wilen
the condensate is returned to the feed-water s,Ystem.
261. If the pH of water is 6.5, what may be said regarding alkalinity?
Am. The water is acid.
262. What is pitting (briefly), and when is it serious?
Am. It is a localized form of internal corrosion acti ng to deteriorate t,he
boiler surfaces. It may b serious if active and is serious if the pits are
extensive Rnd closely spaced.
263. What is a protective coating used for in a boiler?
Am. It is a very thin coating used to prevent direct contact of boiler
water !lgainst the boilor surfaces. Internal corrosion and pitting may thus
be redured.
264.. What is galvanio action?
Am. It is an electrolytic Bow between dissimilar metals in a boiler,
resulting in localized deterioration.
266. Is internal corrosion more serious in a drum having a quadruple-
riveted longitudinal seam than in one having a lap seam 7 Explain your
A'I'l~. It is more serious with a quadruple-riveted boiler because a smaller
p(>r entage d terioration would bring the resultant strength of the drum
]J low the st rength of the longitudinal seam of rugh efficiency.
288. What causes most external corrosion?
Am. Sulphur (S) in soot, coal, or ash, and moisture.
287. What objection is there to burying piping under the boiler Roor?
Am. External co rrosion may progress unnoticed to a dangerous point.
268. What is erosion, and what is the most common causo of it in a boiler?
Am. It is the wearing of surfaces by abrasion. It is usually caused by
impingement of ~oot and ash particles.
269. What causes priming 11nd foaming?
An,q. A high water level plus sudden demand for steam may oa\lSc prim-
ing. High concentration" oI solids, or organjc mf1tter may causo foaming.
270. Whut hu.rm may priming and Iouming do?
Am. Priming may cuuso rupture of stcl\m piping or wreck turbines or
engines. Foaming may make it impossible to tell t.h corre(:t water level
in the boiler. It !Day cause severe wear of pipe fittings, valves, and steam
271. What shou ld YOII recommend for priming and foaming?
An.~. Cllrrying a lower water level (but in safe range) and a higher
pressure up 1.0 "afc limits for the hoiler, to reduce priming. Blowing the
boiler down more frequcl1tJy, to reduce concent,mtion causing foaming.
272. What harm mR.Y be euused by flame impingement?
Ans. Locl11izcd overheating nnd damage to boiler part.s exposed to
ref rltctory.
273. What is the external indic!l.t.ioll of low and overheating in !.
boiler other than possible distortion, cliS(lolomt.ion, and leakage?
Ana. The soot would be burned oft' of affected surfaces.
274. Which is the mor(' serious, a lap crack or a fire ('mck? Where muy
each be found?
Ana. A lap crack is more serious. l ,ap cl'l1!'ks arc found in longitudinal
lap-riveted seums. Fire eracks Jrmy I e found in the lap of rivete(1 8 !LmS
exposed to rudi!1.nt, heat as in H.R. T. girth seams and firebox-boiler furnace
276. How may lap cracks be repai red?
Ans. 0 repairs are allowod other than an ntiro now courso of boiler
plate. Otherwise, the boiler is condemned.
276. Should YOll advise repairs to n fir£' crack extending from a rivet hol e
to the calking dge? If so, how shou ld tho r puirs be made?
Ana. Only if leakage occurs. Then remove tho rh'et and the two rivet.s
on either sid e. Yoe out crack, and electric-weld. Ream rivet holes, and
drive new rivets.
277. The ogee (r verse) flange of a Manrung fire-tube boiler is cracked
17 in. circumfercntially. Whnt type of repairs would be in order?
Am. A new ogee flange or a new boiler.
278. What is grooving? Where is it found?
Am. It is a localized form of corrosion in highly stressed areas, suoh as
thoso adjuccnt to a riveted scam or in the knuckle of a dished-head flange.
279. When is it dangerous toO weld fire cracks?
Am. When they extend over 3 in. bcyond the lop into the sclid plate, or
when they extcnd from rivet hole to rivet hole.
280. Name four oauses of failure in tube.~ of watertube boilers.

Am. (1) Sca.le, (2) oil, (3) low water, (4) flame impingement.
t81. What is safe-ending, and why is it used?
Ana. It is cutting off and replacing ends of fire tubes that have become
eroded or corroded till they are too thin for safe use. A short length of new
tube is welded to the cut end of the old tube.
282. What would be a likely cause of leakage at the upper ends of tubes
in a vertica.l fire-tube boiler? Give repair and preventative recommendation.
A m . Overheating tbe tubes by forcing fire in starting up the boiler is a
common cause. The tube ends should be rerolled to make tight; or if the
t.ubes are damaged by overheating, tube renewal may be necessary. A low
fire should be carried until steam is raised to protect the upper ends of the
tubes, or the boiler may be filled with water until hot, then blow down to
operating level.
28S. What is an approximate limit of extension for Il. bulge in boiler sbell,
before repairs are recommended?
Am. Depth not to exceed about 2 per cent of length.
284.. What is the limit of depth of a blister before repairs or a cut in
allowable pressure are necessary?
Am. When the ratio of sound metal remaining to the total original
thickness expressed as a percentage is less than the percentage efficiency of
the longitudinal seam, repairs and / or a cut in pressure are necessa.ry.
2815. Briefly, how is a bulged shell repaired?
Am. If the depth of the bulge is not over about one-eighth its length
and the-plate is not ruptured or burned badly, the bulge may be heated and
driven back. Otherwise, it is necessary to cut out the affected Ilrea and
install a properly designed, riveted patch.
286. What is a common defect at edges of 0. handhole? Give cause,
prevention, and repairs.
Ana. Leakage from the gasket may cause cxternal corrosion to deterior-
ate the plate down to a knife-edge, giving it insufficient strength to support
t he handbolc plate. Leakage should be prevented. If deterioration does
not exceed 40 per cent of original thickness and affected IlrelL is close to hand-
hole, the plate may be built up by electric welding. Otherwise, the hole
.hould be trimmed back to sound metal and an elliptical ring seal welded
inside the shell or head.
287. How is a broken stay bolt in an empty, idle boiler detected?
Am. hcn the ends of solid-type stay bolts Me struck with a hammer, a
broken stay bolt may be detected by a dull BOund. Flexible stay bolts are
tested by removing the cap a nd using a heavy screw driver in the ball slot.
288. What docs lli!akagc from the telltale bole in a stay bolt indicate?
Am. The bolt is either broken or cracked halfway through.
289. What causes stay bolts to break, and what location is most sus-
ceptible in firebox boilers?
Am. The expansion and contraction (breathing tlCtion) in the boilers
bends the stay bolts. Fatigue may break them eventually. The upper
rows are most susceptible to breakage, for the expansion is greatest there,
the lower part of the firebox being stiffened by the riveted or welded connec-
tion to the outer sheet.
290. How should you repair a broken stay bolt?
Am Repairs are not allowed. A new stay bolt should be installed.
291. If a. fire sbeet is badly corroded externally or internally ~ in. around
a number of sta.y bolts, what repairs would be advisable?
Am. Removing the stay bolts, drill, and tap sheets, and installing R
larger stay bolt to contact sound metal.
292. Briefly, what causes through-to-head braces below the tubes in an
H.R.T. boiler to bow?
Am. Overheating of the shell bottom causes excessive expansion anci
permanent elongation of the braces. When the shell cools and oontra tA,
the braces bow .
293. What causes steam binding of a feed pump? How should you
recognize it, and what should you do for it?
Am. Exoessive temperatures for the head pressure on the suotion am
the cause. A reciprocating pump would race, short-stroke, or hammer. A
centrifugal pump would overheat, vibrate, and operate noisily. Temporary
measures might include slowing the pump down, th rottling the water dis-
charge, and / or red ucing the water tempera.ture by introducing cold water
into the suction if necessary. Playing a stream of cold water onto the suc-
lion pipe may aid in emergencies. Permanent correction req uires greater
suction-head pressu re or lower temperature.
29(. What is a common causc of excessive feed-pump suction t,e mper-
Am. Steam blowing through into the storage owing 1.0
defective traps.
296. What operating precaution should be exercised with outdoor econo-
mizers in cold weather?
Am. Freezing of the blowdown should he guarded against (lither by
use of a small line by-passing the blowdown valves or by leaving thp blllw-
down valves open slightly.
296. How are superheater tubes protected against overheating in starting
a boiler?
Am. Flooding the tubes with water is recommended for a few types.
More commonly, the Buperheater is vented t,o atmosphere by a free blow
valve until the boiler goes on t,he line, and the firing is kept at 11 low rate
until steam appears from this vent, indicating that steam cooling of the
tubes has started.
297. What happens if the lower connection to a gage glass is obstructed"
Am. Th water will return to the glM8 very slowly after blowing it
down . If the obstruotion is complete, the glass will filJ with water slowly,
becauso of steam condensation. An incorrect water level will be shown by
the glass.
298. With reference to Question 291, how should the water level be
checked 7 Outline the procedure.
A.m. By use of the try oocks. Try to remove the obstruotion by
attempting to blow down the glass with th steam connection closed. If
not succeBBful, close the connections, and remove glass. Try to run a stiff
bent, wirl' through the 10"'er oonnection aftflr opening this valve part way,

taking care to keep to ono side 80 as not to get scalded. A careful check on
the water level by t he try cocks should be maintained. If the obstruction
cannot be freed, the boiler should be shut down so that tho connection may
be dismantled for cl aning.
299. How should you know if the upper connection of a gage glass were
obstructed? WLat should you do if it were?
Am. Water would rise rapidly to the top after blowing the glass down,
although try cocks show a lowcl' true level. Proc:eed the same as for lowel
300. What is tbe first th ing to do On entering a boilerroom?
A tl8. Look ftt the gage glass.
301. How should you kuow if a connection to the water column wero
A 118. The water in the glass would show action similar to that described
for gage-glass obstructions, but [, check on t he true level by try cocks
would be impossible if they were mounted 011 the water column. If
this condition is suspected, the boil or shou ld be shut down immediately 80
that the connections may be cleaned.
302. II the distance between the bases of gage-gl!,as stuffing boxes is 12 in.,
how long should you cut a new gage glass? Explain your answer.
Am. About 1l ~~ in. to allow for expansion.
303. Wha.t tools and should you need to install a new gage glass
(tubular type)?
A n8. A gagc glass, a gage-glass cutter, new packing rings, a knife, 11

packing hook, It wrench, a wiping rag, a stick, and a pail of cold water to cool
the packing nuts.
30t . What should you do if you saw a small amount of steam leaking
through the brick covering OJ) a boiler drum?
Anll. Shut the boiler down Il.t once Il.nd have it inspected.
306. What is a hydrostatic test? How should you apply this test on 1\
boiler installed in battery with others in operation?
Ans. It is a test on [l. boiler with cool wator Il.t a pressure of up to 1 ~
times the maximum allowable working pressure of t he boiler. The test is
performed on new boilers and on boilers in the field to check major repairs or
suspected defects.
All areas to be examined should be exposed. The boiler should be filled
to the top with water at room temperature but not under 70°F. The safety
valves should bo gagged or tbe connections blanked. Both stop valves on
the steam wo should be closed and the valved drip between them open. A
t est gage should be used to check the pres.~ure. If any leakage from the drip
between the stop valves occurs, the test should be stopped and the steam line
blanked off. The water pressure should be rai.~ed slowly to not over 1 ~
times the working pressure and beld at that value long enough to make a
complete examination of the boiler and a hammer test when advisable.
Immediately after the test, the safety-valve gags or blank flanges should
be removed.
806. Wha.t is the trouble if the try cocks on the water column all show
steam but the glass is half full of water, and what should be your procedure?
Am. The lower connection of the gage glass is obstructed. Shut the
boiler down at once, and have it inspected for possible damage.
307. Where on a boiler should you use gaskets cut from sheet rubber?
Ana. For gaskets below the water line, and temporarily only. Pre-
pared gaskets of the asbestos composition typo should replace such rubber
gaskets as soon as possible.
308. What would result from a nick (a) in the edge of 1.1 bowl of a mechan-
ical atomizing oil burner? (b) In the jct opening of a steam atomizing oil
Ans. (a) and (b) An unstable fire with pOOl' combustion and excessive
carbon deposits might result. (b) Also, flame shape and direction might b('
changed, fllLllle impingement thus being clLuscd.
309. If a safety vlLlve sticks open, what should you do?
Am. Reduce tbe firin!l; rate. Tap the top of the safety-valve spindle
sharply with a light hammer. After the valve scats, blow all dust from the
external surfaces of the slLfet,y valve, Ilnd pour some kerosene arouud the
spindle bushing. Operate t.he valve with the lifting lever until it workH
freely. If the valve will not ~eal" remove the boiler from service lLnd over-
haul the safety valve. Care should be taken to maintain proper water level
when t.he safety vltlve is blowing.
310. How should you propare ~Urfl\CeB for weldjng?
Am. Wire bnlsh and wipe them clean of !til paint, oil, rust, and scalo
deposit,s. Make sure that they Ilre dry on both sides.

absolute pressure. See pre83Ure.

air preheater. A device using flue gases as a Jnlldium to lll.·nt lIir for coJ)J·
bustion purposes in boiler furnaces.
backing ring. A strip of thin plate used on the inner surfaces of the abutting
ends of pipe, tubes, or plates which are to be butt-welded. Its purpose
is to prevent irregularities at the base of the weld and to permit pene-
tration at its root.
backing strip. See backing ring.
barrel. The cylindricl'! portion of a fire-tube-boiler shell that surrounds
the tubes.
barrel pin. See drift pin.
bearing plate. A BItt steel plate lIsfld liS a footing on masonry to distribute a
(·oncentrat.ed load.
bent-tube boiler. A watertube boi lor ill which the tuhcs arC hunt owing to
its cOllst,ructional characterist.ic8.
Bessemer converter. A furnacc used for the refinement of steel.
blade. See palm.
blast furnace. A furnace used for the refinement of iron ore.
bleeder feed-water heater. See extraction feed-wat er heater.
blowback. The number of pounds per square inch pressure drop in a boiler
from the point where the safety valve pops to the point where the safety
valve reseats.
blowback ring. Au adiustable ring in a sl.fety valve, used to control the
amount of blowback.
blowdown. The drain connection including the pipe and the valve at tbe
lowest practical part of a boiler, or at the normal water level in the case
of a surface blowdown. The amoUllt of water that is blown down.
blow down (v.). The act of removing water from a boiler through a drain
valve known as a blowdown.
blowoff. See blowdown.
boiler. A prellSure vessel in whioh a fluid is evaporated into higher pressure
and temperature vapor for power generation, process, or heating service.
The fluid may be water, mercury, Dowtherm, oil, or other fluids for
special service. See;o.l80 bent-tube boiler, electric boiler, fire-tube boiler,
watertube boiler.
boiler header (box). A pressure part of a boiler oonsisting of a fiat tube
sheet into which the ends of the water tubes are rolled. In a parallel
plane is a tube cap or handhole sheet. The two sheets are spaced about
4 to 8 in. or more apart. The top and bottom and both ends are Bangce

together and riveted or may be closed by 11 narrow flanged strip OJ

plate riveted to each sheet. Circulating nipples connect the top of tho
header and dru m, or the header may be flanged and riveted directly
to the drum.
boiler h ead er (sinuous or sectional ). A pressure part of a boiler having a
sinuous shape along its length, into which a staggered vertical row of
water tubes is rolled.
boiler tube. A tube forming a preSSlll'e part of a boiler. Set' also ci'rcuiating
tube, equalizing tube, .fire tube, generating tube, wale.' tubt"
Bourdon tube. A hollow JJletallic tnbc, bent to a smnicirmllM shape, which
form s the actuating medium of a pressure gnl!:e.
bracket (as applied to boiler suspension ). An !l.ngle pad fitted to t he
curvature of a boilor sbcll llnd having a foot resting on masonry. U8ed
to support the weight of the boiler.
breeching. A mOLal du"t for conducting flue gaslls from a boiler t.o the
steck or chimn ey. Sec also fl,ue,
Brinell t est. A hardne~s t!'st performed by pressing a steel bl1ll of st,luldllrd
hardncss into n s urface ily a stan daru pre8~ u re.
buckstay. A steel or cast-i ron column, Buckstays arc installed lit intcrva18
IIp;aluHt. a urick 11'811 to pl'C\'ent its huckling.
bull. A hydraulic 1'i"", ing Inachine.
by- pass. A pipe or duct pa8 ing around a piece of equipment to permit
flow while the piece of I'quipm cnt is out of 8erYi~.e or of insufficient
by-pass (v .). To operate a hy-pass,
calcium. A scale-forming elplllcut found in so m ~ boikr {",cd waters.
carry over. The JlIoisturt! [tno entrained so licis forming the film of stean!
bubbles ; !L result of foaming in a boiler. Carryover is caused by a
flLu lt.y boiler-water con ditiOIl. See also foamillg.
carry over (v.). Bubbles may carry ov()r j,hrough the steam line from the
calk (v.) (as applied to a boiler). To mltke the contacting surfa.ces of
a sealD tight against leakage by upsetting or forcing (by distortion ) t he
edge or abutment of the pl at e iot,Q the surfltce of tbe adjoining plate.
Also, to close any pinhole or fissure in a III tal plate, by virtue of the
duotility of boiler plate, by d istorting its surface to close a slight open-
ing. A blunt tool is used in calking.
check valve. A valve designed to prevent r v 1'8al of flow . Flow in one
direction on1y is permitted.
cht!eks. The Illetal side plates of a firing door in hand-fire boilers.
circulating tube. A boiler tube used 1,0 connect the wator spaces of two
drums or the pressure parta of It boiler.
clos ed feed- water heater. An indirect-contact feed-water heater; that is,
one in which the steam and water are separated by tubes or coils. See
also exlraction feed-woter healer, feed-water heater.
closing-in-line. The sealing by plastio refraotory between a boiler shell
or head and t he fir brick wall. Used to prevent hot gases from COD-
tra.ctin, t he boiler above th lowest. sa.fe water line.
cold-short. Brittle when cold.
combustion. Chemical combination of the comblJstible (that part which
will burn) in a fuel with oxygen in the au' supplied for the process.
Temperatures may range from 1850°F. to over 3000°F .
condensate. The water (d istil led) of condensed steam.
conduction (as applied to hoat). The property of a solid materill.l to t rans-
mit heat through the body of the material.
convection. The property of a gas to transmit heat by 01' in the gas fl oll'
or circu lation.
convection superheater. A superheater located in tbc floll' of (!ombustion
gascs, away from the radicLnt heat. of the tire, but, in a zone where it will
be contacted by gases of high temperature. Sce also super/water.
corrosion. See external rorrosioll, internal corrosion.
course. A circumferentinl R(wtion of a boi ler shell or drum. With usua!
diameters, the number of courHes will equal the number of plates forming
the sholl or drum.
crimping tool. A tool used LO "educe diameter of t,hE' end of a boiler tub,:
preparatory to its remoYld from 'l boikl·.
cross box. A fh,ngcd box of hoikr pint" used in connecting the drum of t ue
longitudinal Bahcork anrl vYilcox boiJer to the circulating nipples. The
upper cnds of lir e nipples are expanded into the MOSS hox, and the lower
ends into the' headers.
crowfoot. The en d of n brnc·E' ill a. boilol', split ill two dirc(ltio ns for ri vet in g
to thc plate.
crown sheet. Th\' plate formilll1; th e !"Oof of nn interulLlly fired furnace or
of a combll~1ion chambcr.
deactivation. Tbe rClIloYlL1 of dissolved Ol.")'gen from feed water by passing
the water over semp iron and permitting the oxygen to react into
ferrous oxide.
dead plate. The ~teel base plate of a firing door in hand-fired boilers.
deaerating h eater. A type of f('cd-water heater operating with water and
stearn in direct contaot. It is designed to heat thc water ILnd 1;0 drive
off oxygen.
deaerator. See deaerating hcate,..
deheater. See de8uperheater.
desuperheater. A device used to remove I,ll or part of superheat from steam
when steam supplies equipment designed for operation at the lower
dolly. A riveting tool.
Dowtherm. An organic chemical with an exceedingly higb boiling point,
sometimes used in speciu.! type boilers for high-temperature service.
It is composed of diphenylllnd diphonyloxide.
drift pin. A tapered steel bar used to drive into and a lign rivet- or boltholes
in plates or pipe flanges.
dry sheet. The extension ofthe shell of an H.R.T. boilerforming the smoke-
box. It refers particularly to the lower part.
ductility. A plastic property of meta.l to withsta.nd deformfl.tion without

Dutchman. A wedge or tapered plug used in butt-and-double-strap longi-

tudinal seams of some boilers to fill tho space between t,he abutting edges
of the plate from the end of the inside butt strap to the edge of the
adjoining course.
Dutch oven. An extended furnace, external to the main setting of a boiler,
used to increase the volume of an existing furnace.
economizer. A series of tubes located in thc path of flue gases. Feed
water is pumped through these tubes on its way to the boiler in order
to absorb waste heat from the flue gas.
efficiency. (1) Of boiler operation: Output in heat units divided by input
in heat units. The number of B.t.u.'s contained in all steam evaporated
is the useful output, The number of B,t.u.'s contained in all fu el
supplied the boiler is the input. (2) Of a riv(lted seam: A ratio of the
strength of a unit, length of a riveted seam to the same unit length of the
seamlcss plate.
ejector. A device, using the injector principles, for drafting water. Used
especia.lly for drainagc purposcs.
elastic limit. The maximum tensile load to which a metal may be subjected
without becoming permanently deformed upon cessation of t he load.
electric boiler. A boiler c(\nvel'ting electric energy into heat energy.
electric furnace. A furnace used for the refinement of high-grade steel.
embrittlement. An illtcrcrysialline corrosion of boiler plate occurring in
high ly stressed zones. Cracking may result.
equalizll\& tub e. A boiler tube uscd to COIlDO<:t tho steam spaces of two
steam drums, or pressure parts of a boiler.
evaporator. A pressure vessel used to evaporate Tl\W water by means of a
stearn coil. The steam is condonsed by m"ans of cooling water coils,
and this distilled water is uscd as make-up boiler feed.
evaporator condenser. Tbat section of an evaporator installation which
condenses the vapor.
external corrosion. A chemical deterioration of the metal on the fire side
of boiler heating surfaces.
extraction feed-water heater. A closed feed-water he. ter supplied with
steam extracted. O~ bled from a stage of a steam turbine. &e also
f eed,..water heater.
factor of saiety. The ratio between that stress which will cause failure and
the working stress. This ratio often applies to preBBures instead of
fatigue limit. A measure of the abilit,y of a material to withstand repeated
stress reversals without fracture or damage to the crystalline structure.
A piece of I:!Oft iron wire may be broken easily by hand when it is bent
back an~ forth a iew times. Its fatigue limit is low. Conversely, a
piece of spring steel may be fl exed many thousands of t imes without
showing any indication of distress. In this case, the fatigue limit is
high. This property is of especial value in stelJ.lll-boiler construction.
feed-water heater. A device used to heat feed water with steam. See also
utraction feed,..water heater, open f eed,..water healer.
feed-water rer;ulator. A device for admitting feed water to 110 boiler auto-
matically on demand. Pra.ctically a consta.n~_water level should result.
Are tube. A boiler tube through which the products of combustion flow .
The fluid u nder pressu re surrounds the tube.
Are-tube boiler. A boiler in which the products of combustion pass
through the tubes and the wa ter or other fluid surrounds the tubes.
flange. (1) A eircu lnr metal plate threaded or otherwise fastened to an end
of a pipe for connection with II. companion flange on an adioinieg pipe.
(2) That part of a boiler head (dished or fiat) which is fabricated to {,
shape suitable for riveted or welded attachment to a drum or shell.
flange (v.). The act of fabricatieg the flange in a head or simil!U plate.
flareback. A furnace-gas explosion of minor intensity.
fiu e. (l) A large-diam eter fire tube . (2) Sometimes used to denote aU fire
tubes i.n railroad locomotives. (3) See breeching .
fluid. Any liquid, gas or vapor that will take the sbapo of any container
ie which it is placed .
foaming. Formation <Jf steam bubbles on the surfaeo of boiler waier due
to high surface tension of the water. Sec also carryover.
forge -weld (v.). The welding together of metals by raising the tempera-
ture to the plastic point and by applying pressure OJ blows.
free-blow. A pipe open 11nd free to blow to ILtmospbere.
fuel oil. A petroleu m product, rcquiring comparatively mieor refin ement,
used as a comb ustible for stcam boilers.
fuel-oil burner. See oil burner.
fuel -oil h eat er. (I ) A ttlnk and coil type heater using steam as !~ heating
m edium to redue heavy low-priced fuel oil to the proper viscosity for
good atomization a nd combustion. (2) An electric-coil heater making
lise of an electri c resistancc co il because the hcating medium is used
sometimes where steam is no t available for starting up a "cold " boil or
fuel-oil pump. A pump supplying fuel oil to an oil burner.
furnace. A chamber in which combustion takes pl ace. See also B essemer
furnace, blast furna ce, electric furnace, open-hearth furnace .
furnace explosion. A violent cOlllbustion of dust or gas accumulations in
a furnace or combustion chamber of a boiler.
fusible plug. A brass bushing, havicg It tapered core composed of 99 %
per cent pure tin and a meltie~ temperature of 400 to 500°F.
and installed at the lowest safe water level of a boiler. The large end
of the tapered core is exposed to boiler pressure; the other end is exposed
to products of combustion. The core of fusible plug is designed to
melt if the boiler water level approach s a dangerously low level. When
the core melts, escap'i eg steam will Bound warning.
fusion-weld (v.). The welding together of edges or surfaces of m etal by
raisieg the temperature to the fusion point and by addieg a "filler"
metal (of the same characteristics as the metal being welded ) at the
same tem.perature.
gag. A clamp designed to prevent a safety valve from lifting. URed in
applyieg a hydrostatic test at higher pressure than the safety-valve
cage. See pres8ure gage.
,.,e cock. See trll cock.

cage glass. A glass-enclosed visible indicator of the wat~r level in a boiler.

Many gage glasses are tubular in shape; but modern high-pressure
practice and railroad locomotives use two thick flat strips of glass
bolted between flanged plates, the water and steam being between
the glass strips.
cage pressure. The pressure above that of the atmosphere, 14.7 lb. per sq.
in. at sea level. Absolute pressure minus 14.7 at sea level.
gate valve. A stop vnlvc using the wedgc-and-double-scat principle. It
may be used to control fluid s containing some solids, for when wide
open it operates on a straight-through flow. There is little likelihood
of its becOll'ling obstructed.
generating tube. A boiler tube used for evaporation.
girth seam. A roundabout, or circumferential, scam connecting two
courses of a boiler shell or drum .
globe valve. A stop valve using the round-disk-and-seat principle. Used
where the fluid controlled is comparatively clean.
grommet. A wrapping of candlewick and white lead or similar material
used under the head of a bolt or nut to prevent leakage.
gun. (1) A pneumatic riveter. (2) A gun-type oil burner, of the kind
having a long-shaped flam e. (3) An injec·tor, in raib'ol1d terminoln!!:.".
hammer-weld (v.). Sec forg e-weul.
bandhole. All inspectioD, sight . or a cleanout opening in H hoiler; oftE'll
elliptical in shape !lnd closed by a hand hole plate.
hard patc'h. A riveted patch made pressure-tight by calking.
header. A distribution pipe supplying a number of smaller lines tapped
off of it. A main receiving pip(' supplying one or more main pipe lincs
and recei ving a number of snpply linea tapped into it. See al80 boiler
header, 8uperheater header.
hot-sbort. Brittle when bot.
hot well. A tank used to receive condonsate from various sources on its
passage back to a boiler through the feed-water system . It usually
is vented to atmosphere.
huddling chamber. A space provided under the valve disks of many
safety vah-es, permitting the steam pressure in the boiler to act upon
I1n increased area when the valve disk lifts, to permit the valve to pop
open rather than to rise gradually.
hydrostatic test. A pressure test by water at room temperature applied
to a boil r to d termine its safety, as a check on repairs or to trace sus-
pected leakage.
impeller. The rotatiog wheel of a centrifugal pump.
injector. A device for feeding water into a boiler, making use of the high-
velocity-momentum principle to feed water back against boiler pres-
aure by use of steam at the same pressure.
inspirator. See injector.
internal corrosion. An undesirable chemical deterioration of the metal
in oontaet with the boiler water.
l.,pn,. Blocks of a.sbestos or magnesia insulation wrapped on the outside
of a boiler shell or steam piping.
lamination (as applied to boiler plate). A slag stratum or inclusion rolled
into a piece of steel plate during roUing-mill operation.
lazy bar. A bar fitting across the latches of firing doors of hand-fired
boilers. Used as a balal1ce and rest for long, heavy firing tools.
ligament. A series of holes in one or more rows.
longitudinal seam. A riveted or welded seam along the longitudinal axis
of a boiler sheJl or drum.
lug (as appli ed to boiler suspension). A steel eyepiece fit,ted and riveted
or welded to the cu rvature of a boLler shell or drum and connected by
a steel U bolt or sling rod to overhead steel structure. Used to support
tbe weight of the boiler.
magnesium. A scalc-forming clement found in some boiler feed waters.
make-up water. The a mount of raw water necessary to compensate for
the amount of condensate t hat is not returned in the fp.od-water supply
to the boiler.
manhole. An access opening to the interior of a boiler, of elliptical shape
1J by 15 in. or la rger, or ci rcu lar shape 15 in. diameter or la rger.
mill scale. An iroll oxide scale formed on the surface of a steel plate by
cooling and exposing the plate to air just after it has been rolled at
high tenperatures.
mill test report. An affidayjt from a steel mill testifying as to t he physical
and cbemical properties of the steel referred to by tbe report.
nipple. A short length of pipe or tubing.
nonreturn trap. A trap designed to discharge its condensate at atmos-
pheric pressurf' or at considerably lower pressure than at its inlet. See
also thermostatic trap, trap .
ogee flange. A flange in the form of a reverse urve, used to COllnect thr
edges of two ()oneentric shells.
oil burner. A burner that atomizes fuel oil and blows it into the COUl-
bustion chamher in the form of a fine mist 01' vapor. Steam or mechani-
cal motion plus air may be used as the operating medium.
oil heater. See fuel-oil heater.
oil pump. Sec fuel-oil pump.
open feed-water heater. A direct-contact. feed-water heater operating at
or slightly above Il.Lmospberic pressure. See also feed-water heater .
open-hearth furnace. A furnace often used for the refinement of boiler plate.
Orsat. An instrument for determining the chemical analysis of flu e gas.
palm. The end of a brace in a boiler, forged flat or riveted to the shell
patch. A piece of boiler plate used to repla.ce a defective scction cut out of
a boiler. See also hard patch, 80ft patch.
pig. An ingot of refined iron or steel.
pit. Corrosion localized in a sma.ll spot.
pitch. The unit spacing of a series of holes, tube holes, or other holes in a
pressure. Absolute pressure; the pressure above a periect vacuum. Gage
pressure plus 14.7, at sea level. See also (lage pressure.

priming. An induction of boilor water caused by the steam Bow into the
steam line. The water lTlay be in the form of a spray or a solid body .
radiant (as 9.pplied to heat). Having the property that permits heat to be
transmitted by ra.ys similar to those of light. To absorb radi9.nt heat
an object must be in the" light" of the fire.
radiant superheater. A superheater exposed to the direct radiant heat
(Light) of the fire. See a lso superheater .
raw water. Untreated feed water.
re-lInd (v.l. See 8afe-end.
refractory. A heat-insulating materi9.l, such as firebrick or plastic fire clay,
used for such purposes 118 lining combustion chambers.
reheater. A device using highly superheated steam or high-temporat.uro
fiu e gases as a medium serving to restore superheat to partly expanded
steam. Used often between high- and low-pressure turbines.
return trap. A trap designed to discharge its condensate against boiler
pressure and feed to the boiler wjthout additional llle~ballical equip-
ment. S 'e also trflp.
safe-end (v.). To replace a doteriorat,ed end of a firo tube by off the
end Ilnd welding on a short longth of new tube.
safety valve. A valve that au tomatically opells when prcssure attains th"
valve setting which is adjustable. Used to prevent excessive pressure
from building up in n boiler.
safety-valve drain. A hol e at least % in. diameter rcquired through t he
body' below the valve-scat level in Sllfety valves larger thllll 2 in . diam-
eter. Used to prevent condensate from collecting at this point.
safety-valve escape. A pipe conduc.tillg stcam diseh9.rged from a 'lI,fely
valve to !l safe location.
safety-valve lifting lever. A lever by whic,h n safety vnlve may be lift,ed
from its seat.
safety-valve muffier. A silencer designed gO that it. will not cause appre-
ciable rcstriction to steam flow.
safety-valve nozzle. A fiangpd nozzle by which a safety valve is connected
to a boiler shell (ir drum.
scale. A deposit of medium to extrem e hardness occurring on water hcatinp;
surfaces of n boiler because of an undesirable condition io the boiler
scleroscope. See ShOff 8clero8cope.
sectional headers. Sec boiler header.
separator. A tank type pressure vessel installed in a stenm pipe to collect
condensate to be trapped off and thus proyidjng comparatively dry
shank. The body of a rivet.
shear (v.). To cause failure of a material by the "cutting" across its longi-
tudinal axis of parallel tTl111SverSe stresses acting in opposite directious
See Figs. 233a, 233b, and 234. for cases of single and double shear .
Shore scleroscope. A device to test tho hardness of a material, perfonned
by dropping a diamond-pointed hammer from a standard height.
sUica. A scale-forming element found in some boiler feed waters.
sinuous header. See boiler header.
siphon. A" pigtail" shaped pipe or a drop-leg in the piPIl leading to a
steam pressure gage, serving to trap water in t he gage and prevent its
overheating from direct contact with steam.
slag. A residue deposited by ash particles that have attained their soft-
ening temperature (1900 to 2700°F. ) depending upon t heir composi-
tion. Slag may be plastic and viscous when ho t. It hardens and is
rather porous and brittle when cool.
slicer. A slicing bar. A long steel har used for b reaking up a fuel bed in
coked or caked condition.
slug. A solid body of boiler water passed into the steam flow by priming
or picked up from a pocket of condensat.e in the steo.m line.
soft patch. A patch applied with tap bolts, with a gasket under t he patch
plnte to prevent leakage.
soot blower. A tube from which jets of steam or compressed air a re blowl1
for cleaning the fire side of tubes or other pa rts of a boil r.
specific gravity. The ratio of t he weight of a unit volum e of a material to
the weight of the same unit volum e of wa ter.
spud. A fl ange nut wrench , open at one end and pointed at the other as ..
drift pin. The pointcd end is uscd for aligning boltholes of pipe flanges.
stack. A steel "chimney."
stay bolt. A stay threaded and ri"cted over at each end , used to connect
two flat or curved pressure parts of a boiler.
steam. Water vapor produced by cvapomtion. Dry saturated stoam
contains no moisturo and is at a specific temperature for every p rcssure;
it is colorless. The white appearanoe of escaping steam is due to con-
densation at th e lowered temperaturc; it is t ho water vapor that showB
stress. The internEtI resistance of a materi al to an external force changing,
or tend ing to change, the shape or position of the material. S e also
tolal stres8, unit stre88.
stress-relieve (v.) . To dissipate pent-up stresses caused by welding, by
meaUl! of heat-treatment.
strongback. A hoavy steel bar bolted to tube sheets of fire-tub e boilers
during constru ction, while braces !lre being iustalled, to prevent the
tub sheot from buckling before installation of the tubes.
subpunch (v. ). To drive a pilot hole through a plate preparatory to drilling
a larger hole.
superheated steam. Steam heated to a temperatu re higher than that
" corresponding to the temperature equivalent to the pressure.
superheater. A series of tubes exposed to high-temperature gases or to
radiant heat. Steam from the boiler passcs through these tubes to
attain a higher temperature than would be possible otherwise. This
superheated steam ensures dryn ess. See also convection superheater,
radiant superheater.
superheater header. A large-diameter (about 4- to 8-in.) thick-wallel!
tube into which a row of superheater tubes is rolled.

tack (v.). To hold edges of plate in correct position fol' rivetinjl; by (J) 8,
few scattered bolts, known as "tack bolts," placed through rivet holes
or (2) by small scattered spot welds known as "tack welds" or "stitch
telltale hole. A hole drilled into the ends of a stay bolt. The hole extends
at least 31' in. inside the inner surface of t he stayed sheets; or if tbe stay
bolt is reduced in dillmetcr at its middle portion, t he hole extends 31' in.
inside t,he point of diameter reduction. The purpose is to show leak-
age, through the telltale hole, if the stay bolt breaks or cracks.
tensile strength (ultimate). That stress which causes breaking in ten sion.
thermostatic trap. A non return trap usin g a thermostatic expanRion and
cOlltmction principl e 118 its actuating medium. See also nonretUTn
trap, trap.
titrate (v.). A chemical process used in analyzing feed water.
titration point. That point at which a solution changes r-olor when a n
indicating chemicl\1 .is introduced drop by drop.
total stress. The total resistance of a material to an external force on itH
eu ti 1'(' Cl'OSB-Aectional area in 11 plane perpendicular to the direction of
the fo rce. See also stress.
trap. A device designed to remove condensate from steam automatically,
with negligible lOBS of at.eam. See alao nonreturn trap, return trap,
thermostatic trap.
try cock. One of three valves mounted on a boiler or water colum n within
t ho visible rango of the gage glass and used to check the water level.
tube. Sec boiler tube.
tube cap. An elliptical or circular handholc plat,e used opposite the cnd of
1\ water tube in a hendor of a watert\lbe boi ler. Used for inspection,
cleaning, or tube removal.
tube rattler. A vibrating tool designed to b paa~ed thr011gh fire tubes 10
crack seal" 1 0(l~(; from the tube as a result of the vibration.
tube sheet. A flat head of a boiler or that part of a boiler drum into which
boiler tubes nrc rolled.
tube turbine. A rotating tool used with water or compressed air prcssure,
designed to he passed th rough water tubes to remove scale.
tube vibrator. See tube rattler.
unit stress. A valve expressed in pounds per square inch anci found by
dividing he total stross or force by the cross-secti.onal aroa stressed.
Set) also stress, total stress.
upset (v.), To enlarge or increase the cross-sectional area of auy part of a
metal hy forging It bl~ck to a shorter length.
valve. See check valve, gate valve, globe valve, safety valve.
washout plug. An inspection, sight,l1.nd cleanout opening, r,ircular, t hreaded
and fitted 'with a threaded pipe plug, !lond not to he used for any pipe
water column. A vertical, hollo\'I" chamber located b tween a boiler and
the gage glass fo r the purpose of steadying the water level in the glass
through the reservoir capacity of th column. Also, the cohlll1n IYUt)'
eliminate the obstruction of small-diameter gage-glass connections by
serving as a sediment chamber.
water leg. That space wbich is full of boiler water between two parallel
plates. It usually forms ouo or more sides of internally fired furnaces.
water tube. A boiler tube through which the fluid under pressure flows.
The products of combustion su rround the tube.
watertube boiler. A boiler in which t he water or other fluirl flows through
the tubes and the produ cts of combustion surround the tubes.
waterwall. A row of water tubes lining a fuma.ce or combustion chamber,
exposed to the radian t hen,t of t he fire. Used to protect refractory
a nd t,o in crease capacity of t he boiler.
weld (v.). To join together two edges or surfaces of metal by the appli-
cation of hellt. See also forge-weld, fusio1l,.. weld.
wire drawing. A cuttinll; of su rfaces caused by the abrasive action of high
velocity flow under restri cted outlet.
yield point. The point at whi{lh a metal, under a mounting tensile load,
exceeds its clasl,ic limit. At the yield point the metal hecomes per-
manently deformed and will not return to its original shape or position
upon cessation of the load.
Manufacture of Steel.-The first step in the product ion of steel ;s to
extra.ct iron from the ore. This is accomplished in t.he blast furna.ce. T he
blast furnace is a vertical-tubular steel chamber hned with refractory. Tho
furnace may be 5 to 25 ft. diameter and up to 100 ft. high.
It is charged from the top with iron ore, flux, and coke. The usual flux
is some form of hmestollc.
When the" charge" is fired up, the coke burns at extremely rugh tempera-
tures-up to 3bOO°F. The iron is melted out of tbe .lre and flows to the
bottom of the furnace. Tbe flux combines with most of tbe impurities in
the molten iron and likewise flows in liquid form to the furnace bottom.
However, because the flux-slag mixture has a lower specific grll.vity than the
molten iron. it floats 011 the surface of the pool. The molten iron is tapped
off at the bottom, most of the slag content of the furnace being thus
The molten iron flows into molds wbere it solidifies into "pigs." Pig
iron contains a rugh percentage of carbon which causes low ductility. Con-
sequently, further refinemcnt is m: 'essnry before the physical and chemical
propertics of pig iron arc satisfactory for its use in boiler construction.
There are several methods of reducing the cn.rbou con lent of pig iron to
convert it into st e1. .
Th blast furttace (Fig. 225) is a vertical-tubular furnace lined with
refractory. An escape port is located at the top fo r discharge of gas. This
converter, or furnace, is charged with molten pig iron. and air is blown
through from the bottom. Thi oxygen in the air combines with the carbon,
sulphu r, silicon, and manganese by combustion. This process is continued
un til the greater part of these elements has burned out. The CQrrect pro-
portion of desired constituents of tho steel is then attained by careful adding
to meet chemical-content specifications.
Another process of steel manllfacture is the open-hearth method (Fig.
226). The chetuical properties of steel ml~de by tIllS process are more o.C(\U-
rately proportioned. Open-heo.rth steel is required for steam-boiler parts
under pressure. Briefly, the open hearth is a bowl-shaped container which
holds the molten pig iron. A mixture of gas and Ilir burning at high tempera-
ture is blown onto its surfaoe continuously until the carbon and other
impurities have burned out. Then the desired clements are added in correc~
proportion and amount. The advantages of the open-hearth method ar...
that less metal is lost, thero is less oxidation due to surface combustiol' and
.. IIOmewhat more accurate control of chemics,l properties is possible.

FIG. !l25.- BlllSt furnace. (Cou.Tte'l/. Amr1'icall l rO Il &: Stoel Imtitw,•. )


A third method of steel production is by the electric furno.ce. This

method is more costly and is used only when an exceptionally high quality
steel is desired. Extremely accurate control of chemical properties is pos-
sible due t,o minimum oxidation during the process.

Fro. 22().- ut-away view of open-hearth furnllce, showing ports, chocker

chambers, Bnd other constructional details. (COu.rteBY, U. S. Corporation.)

The A.S.M.E. Powor Boiler Code requirom ents for chelllieal properties
of boiler plat e up to 4 in. thick are 8.8 follows:

Carbon, for pltttes of firebox quality up to % in. thick. 0 . 25 max. %

Carbon, for plates of firebox quality over % in. thick .... , 0.30 max. %
M!lnganese, for plates of Bange quality . . , ......... . .... . 0 .80 max. %*
Mangan e, for plates of firebox quality ....... . .. . ..... . 0 .80 tnllX. %.
Phosphorus, basic steel, of flange quality .. .. ......... . . . 0 .04 max. %t
Phosphorus, basic steel, of firebox quality .. ............ . 0 .035 max. %t
Phosphorus, acid st el, of Bange quality .... .. .......•... 0 .05 mllX. %t
Phosphorus, acid steel, of firebox quality ........ . ... . . . . 0 .04 max. %t
Sulphur, flLwgo quality ............... ... . . .. .. ....... . 0 .05 max. % ~
Sulphur, firebox quality ....... . ............. . . ....... . 0 .04 max. %~
III Es:OOB8ivo mangfHleae may mllke ,_tool brittle und too hard for mlLob.iniug properly.
t Esc.-ive phaophoTUS may make at..,1 cold·"hori (brittle when cold).
t Ez<>eoAive . ulpbur may ~"k. _teel bot.-8bnrt (brittl. wh." hot).

It will be noted that restrictions on chemical properties are strictest for

firebox steel. This type of steel is required for steel pl[l.tes of a boiler under
pressure and e>'1>osed to the fire or products of combustion.
Other types of steel are described in the A.S.M.E. Power Boiler Code
specifications. These are allowed for special purposes, such as in welded
construction and for a.lloy steels of high tensile strength,
Effect of Carbon on Tensile Strength.-As the percentage of carbon
increases, a higher t ensile strength is obtained. However, as a critical value
for carbon content is exceeded, the ductility and tensile strength of the steel
drop rapidly. For th i~ reason, t he A.. M.E. Code limits the allowable
carbon content as aforementioned.

FlO. 227.- Tensile testing machine. (CourtIUlY. Tiniu8 Olsen T.8tino Machin.

Identiftcation.-Paragraph 5-1-15 of the A.S.M.E. Power Boiler Code

requires that each steel plate for boiler constntction shall be stamped at tho
rolling mill with the name or bralld of the manufacturer, the manufacturnr's
test number, I and the grade and lowest tensile strength of the steel for the
stipulated range. This stamping should appear in at least two places not
le!l.~ than 1 ft. from the cdges. Because of the possibility of distortion or
a notch effect that might cause stre88 conucntration in use, plates under
~ in. thick may be stenciled instead of stamped.

1 Usually a heat or melt number followed by t he ijlab or plate llumber.


A mill test report on a standard form is supplied the purchaser of each

steel plate. A duplicate of the plate stamping information appears on the
mill test report so that positive identification is ensured. This report con-
tains a list of the physical and chemical properties of the particular plate
referred to, as found by test and analysis of the specimens.

Flo. 228.-Tensilo i,esting machine. (CourtUIl. Tilliu8 Olsl'1t T tsl ino MaciJin.

Flo. 229.-Typi cal specimen for tensile test.

Testing of Physical Properties.- The ultimate tensile strength, the yield
point, t,he roduction of area, and the elongation are found in the tensile test.
This test may be made on machines of the type shown in Fig. 227 or 228.
A standard t,ype of specimen for this test is shown in Fig. 229. For
plates of 2 in. thickness or less, the A.S.M .E. Power Boiler Code specifies
that the specimen shall be taken from the plate in its rolled condition and
shall be the full thickness of the plate.
If th plate for a welded drum ib over 2 in. thick, the specimen is taken
hom the plate after heat-treatment, or the specimen may be full-thickness
samples subjected to the same heat-treatment at the same time. The
s]Jecimen is at least 1 ~ in. wide, and one of its surfaces is the rolled surface
of the plate. The other flat surface may be machined to reduco the spe 'i-
llI en thickness to 2 in.
Two punch marks are made on the surface of the test specimen, 8 or 2 in.
aplut along its length so t lmt the elongatior. may be measured after fracture.
rhe specimen i~ t hen pia 'ed in the testing machine where wedge-shaped
Jaws firmly clamp each end. The jaws at one end are in a stationary position
beca ll se they a re attadlcu to the fram e of the maehinc. The jaws at the
other end arc attached to I) movablo table which slowly in creases the pull

Flo. :l30.-Porlfible Brinull teB ing machine. (Courtll8l1. Louis C. E1.loen Co.)

on the specimen during the test. The iutemal resistance of the material
to tension is balanced nccurately on a weigh h am hy whieh tbe readings
are obtained.
As the tension of the specimen is increased to an illeJement beyond the
elastic limi t, tho yield point is reached. The yield point is sbown by the
dropping of the weigh beam, indicating that the specimen has Mtretehed
suddenly with little or no load increa e, and it is out of proportion to its pre-
vious stress-strain relationship. The yielrl point sbould b at least one-half
the tensile strength for open-hearth hoiler-plnte steel of either flange or
firebox quality having a T.S. of 55,000 to 65,000 lb. per sq. in. A lower
yield point indicates weakness due to too great ductility.
The load is then increased un til the specimen fractures. The reading
shown on the weigh beam at that time is the ultimate tensile strength of
the material.

The unit tensile strength is the ultimate tenaile strength divided by the
original cross-seotional area.
Sufficient ductility is ensured by meeting Code specificationa for elonga-
tion. The percentage elongation is then com puted after fitting the two
pieces of the specimen together and measuring the distance between the
punch marks .
. The Code requires that open-hearth flange steel shall have an elongation
in all 8-in. test specimen of at loast 1,500,OOO/ T.S. per cent. Open-hearth

Fla. 23l.-Brinell testing machine. «('OlJrtC8Y. Pyro-ELr.c/.ro In8trtlm o'tll. Co.)

firebox steel should a minimum ciongaLioll in in. of l,550,OOO/ T.S.

per cent, BubjeoL to slight modification for material over !J4 in. thick, as founrl
in tlle A.S.M.E. Power Boiler Code Book, Par. S-1-7.
By adding shear blocks and using the movable table in reverse motion,
the same machine may be used to test the shearing strength. Compression
tests may also be made with this machine.
Testing for Hudness.- Two common methods of testing lIurface ha.rd-
ness used in this country.
The Brinell test consists of a machine (Figs. 230 and 231) pressing a
hardened steel ball 1 em. in diameter into the surface of the material under
a standard pressure of usually 3,000 kg. (6,600 lb.). The size of the depres-
sion is then measured, and the hardness of the material determined from the
13rillell table of comparative hardnesses vs. depression areas.
A second method is that employing the Shore scleroscope. This machine
releases a diamond-pointed hammer from a standard height in a graduated
glass tube. The bottom of the tube is open and placed on the surface to be
test.ed. The distance the hammer rebou nds is read on the gmduated tube,
and the comparative hardness is found by checking this dj ~tance in t il<'
Shore tables.
Weld Metal.- Welding of boiler joints Ims be(:oll1(' iJlcreasingly conlll1on
in lilte years, and no deS('ript ion of materials eommonly used in boiler non-
stru etion would he complete without JUcntioning the required properties
of weld metal.

FlU. 232.
The weight of the weld metal hUH eonsidNflhJf' hearing on its other physi-
cal properties, and therefore the A.S.M.K Code limits the minimum specific
gravity to 7.80. The tcusilp strength of a weld must be at least equal to
the minimnm tensile strenp;th of parent metal.
Equally important as the Jabomtory tests lire several checks which can
(asily be made in the field . First is the bend test of a welded sp('cimen.
Figure 232 shows a specimen being subjected to a b nd test in a vise. Prep-
aration of the specimen for this test requires that the full thickness of
the plate shall be used. A minimum width of 1 % in. is required; but if the
available force is not sufficient to bend a specimen of this width, the Code
allows it to be cut into strips, each strip being the full thickness of the plate
and each meeting the requirements of the test for the 1>1l-in. piece.
The inner and outer surfaces of the specimen a re then machined smooth
so that the reinforcement of the weld is machined off flush with the plate
and the corners are rounded off slightly. A light line is scribed along each
boundary of the weld on the surface opposite that which is to be bent back-
ward. The distance is carefully measur d before bending. The specimen
is then slowly bent until failure occurs. The Code considers the weld to be
lufficiently ductile if tbe fibers on the outside of the weld elongate lit lel).81

30 per cent before failure.. The pcrcentage elongation is calculated from the
difference between the original distance between scribe lines and the distance
at, which failure occurred.
The nick-break test is often used to determine the quality of a specimen
of a welded joint. The weld is nicked on the surface along its axis, and the
specimen is supported horizonttllJy !Ii each end. A sudden sharp blow is
applied downwa.rd outo the weld so as to bren.k it through. The s\lffacc of
the fracture should then be oxaminod carefull y . Thorough pen etra tion is of
prime importance. SIa.g inclusion should not be noticcable. Ga.s pocket.
should not exceed six pcr square inch, and n()nc of thesc sh ould exeeed
X o in.
Defects and Tolerances.- On e of the most importa nt I1ctlll.1 defects is
a lamination in the plate. This iH the result of It slag aocumlll n.t,ion th at.

~ Single sheOir
Boiler plafe -----

Angle Irons" ,

Boiler brace
Double sheC!r
(b) 8rcrce p/n .-
Arrows show a/recf/on oFforce (Oouble shet:¥r)'
c~using or fencl/ng to cause shear
FIo. 233.-(a) Single shoar; (b) FlO. 234.
douhl e . hoar.

escaped the refining prot1esses. When slag ia in the hot Bteel heing roll ed
in to Ii plate, it may not cow' to a Hurface so as to b e readily visiblc. In
such cases, it may be olongllted into a slag stratum Of lamination within the
plate during the rolLing process. Oncll au intern al lumination exists, it is
very difficult to detect it by practical tests unless a particular location is
Fortunately, improvements in refining methods have increllsed the effi-
ciency of slag removal, and plates having serious 1(1,111 inations are becoming
more uncommon. Repairs of a plate al' discussed in Chap. VIII.
Another defect of a much more appa rent nature is the result of a surface
InJury. Far too often, careless handling or transportation results in a gouge
or scar across the surface of a plate. The result of such a n injury is to set
up a stress concentration at that point when tho plate is in a boiler under
prell8Ure. A prolonged stress concentration may result in fatigue, cracking,
and failure. Plates that show a physical injury of more than a very minor
nature should be rejected unless the section injured is to be cut out during
It sometimes happens that an error in the rolling mill results in a plate
being rolled too thin. A thickness of 0.010 in. below specifications ill the
tolp,rance allowed by the A.S.M.E. Code.

Crushing or
strengt h, lb. per
lb. per
sq. in.
sq. ill.

Steel, low <larbon of type con-

forming to A.S.M.E. Power
Boiler Code, Par. 8-1 . . . 55,000 95 ,000
CJ .. . . . . ... ... .. .. ...... . . 18 , 000 120 , 000
M.l ... ..... . 40 ,000 80 ,00D-100 ,000
W.T. . ..... . ... . ...... . .... . 45 ,000 40 ,000
COpper .. ...... , ......... . . 'I 30 , 000

Physically. carbonate scale is usually of low density, b:"ling d granuh"

appearance. Often, however, the carboolLt,e crystals are bounu with fine
particles of othor material, a smooth, uniform appearanoe resu lting . If 8
piece of carbonate scale is dropped into a Bolut,ion of acid, carboll dioxin"
hubbies will COOle rapidly to the surface.
Silica scalo is tho hardest type found. It is most often ligh t-colol'pd,
very brittlo, and dense. It is not soluble in acid.
Sulphate scale is harder and denser tluLn carbonate scale, but not so dens('
as the silica. It is also morc brittle than carbonate ijelale. If dropped in
coucentrated su lphurio acid, it will not effervesce; but, if the acid is heHted,
the scale will dissolve.
Organic ~cale formed by oil, sewage, trade wastes, or vegetable ml'ttel'
u~ua\ly dark-colored, often brown. II. is very light in weight, and is of
low dellslty. and it will often hurn if iJl;nii.ed. It is usually soluble in stron!!;
nitric acid.
Soda ash is of Bornn value in changing sulphates into an insoluble carbon-
ate sludge tlUlt may be I'cmoved by blowing down the boiler. The advisn-
bility of using soda ash in a boiler operating at ovcr 150 lb. pressure iM
qu estionable. The soda ash may break down and, with some waters, cause
cmbrittlemeut. For precipitation of sulphat,e at higher pressures, it is h ,~ t
to use trisodium pho~pl"tte.
A simple method for determining the amount of soda ash necessary for
such treatment will now be described; it may be of value to those plant
engineers who have decided that the use of soda ash is advisable. First,
the relative hardness of the water in terms of calcium carbonate (CaCO.)
is determined by use of a standard soap solution and the hardness curve
(Fig. 235).
Soap solu tion is added, 1 cc. at a time, to 50 cc. of the water in a clear
bottle. The bottlo is shaken after each addition, until the lather cover~
the surface of the solution for 5 min., when the bottle is placed on its sid~.
To find th ' equivalent hardness in parts per million (Co.CO.) calcium
oarbonate, locate on the abscissa the amount of soap solution used. Pro-
iect vertically to the hardness curve and then horizontally to the ordinates
for the answer.
Turning to the soda ash curve, Fig. 235, we locate the hardness point from
the ordinates. Dropping down to the soda ash scale in the abscissa, we may
tind the approximate Dumber of ounces of soda ash necessary to soften
1,000 gal. of water. Thus, a water taking 8 ce. soap solution to produce
sufficient lather is shown by the hardness curve as having a calcium carbon-
ate hardness of 102.5 p.p.m. Following over to the soda ash Cllrve and
checking on the abscissa, we see that 3.6 oz. soda ash is required for each

240 /
1/ /
/ /
ifl 55 V

,,0~y rI~
-- - ...J- - -- - V
I! _...,V
1/ I /_
/ I
V ../ 0

2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Cubic em., St"nolorci Soap Solution, ApproximOlte
Ounces Sod", Ash (N"'2C03 )pe~ 1,000 Gal.WOIter
1<'1 0. 235.-('urvos for dotermining hardness nnd weight of sodl\ ash o·cqu ired to
soHeu the water.

1,000 gal. of water evaporated. It should bc emphasized that this amount

is only for the water in condition liS tested. The treatment should vary
according to changes in condition of the water and load changes.
Design.- A patch should he lai d out in tho flat anel then narefully fornl<·d
to accurately fit the contour of the boiler where it is to be applied.
Patch plates should be of t,he SIIITI e thickness aH the origin al thi ckness
of the plate they replace.
Seams exposed to the produ cts of com bustion should be single rivet ed
lap construction.

1st COl.lrse , 2nd COI.Irst"

sheef ';. ~ " sheet;!

Sect ion through ot A-B

FlU. 2:16. - Trinngular patch at girth scam on bottom of boiler (i nside ) ". ,oi \I cd
from out side of boiler.

Seams not exposed to the products of com bustion should be double

riveted or constructed similar to the original scams of thl' boiler.
Patches xceeding 24. in. in length should have the proper width all deter-
mined by the rule herewith.
Patches Je88 than 24. in. in length should be triangular, crescent, diamond,
or ov1Io1 in form, and the width should be a.t twice the length .

1 By courtesy of Joe Kunschik, Commissioner of Labor, State of TexlJ.~ .


If it is found that a patch would extend extremely high, it may be short,..

ened in width to the extcnt that no morc than four rivets will be in a longi.
tudinalline, as shown in Fig. 237.

Section throuah <t. A-B

FlO . 237.- Showing how may he shortened girthwiso provided no more
than four rivots are ill n. liu(' purall ol v-ifh the longitudinfll seam.

iJ '@;=u
Section through 4; kB-A'
FIo. 238.-Diamond-shaped patoh at center of sheet (insi de).
Likewise, to avoid the necessity of calking in sharp corners, a patoh may
he shortened in width to the extent that no more than four rivets will be in
a longitudinal line, as shown in "Fig. 237,

If it is found that a patch would have to be 60 in. or more in length, con-

sideration should be given to the use of a sheet having a width equivalent
to five-eighths of the circumference of the boiler and the longitudinal seaIn
should be of a design similar to the design of the original seam of the boiler.
In designing patches, it is not neccssary to deal with angles in the t,erm
of degrees, but merely with the dimensions of the triangles forming a patch .
The relation between the length and width providcs certain fixed constants
that bavp, heen tabulated Ilnd designated as Tables F-l and F-2. The

FIo. 239.- TrifmgulnJ' patch at hend of .eam and hlowotr on bottom of boiler
(outside) .

(lonstant is the figure hy which the Icnp;th shou ld be multiplied 1,0 deterl1lin~
the width.
The first thing that should be taken into consideration in proceeding with
the design of a patch ill whether all of the end stress is to be carried by the
patch or not; in other words, whether the heads are supported or unsup-
ported. In dnlms of watertube boilers, the full endwise stress has to blJ
carried by the shell plates and the patch seams wher liS in shells of H.l'l.T.
boilers some of the endwise stress is carried by the through-rods, tubes, or
flues and consequently there is less stross on the shell lind patch SCllms.
It is evident, then, that a patch in the oue case need not have the same v.';dth
for II giv n length as in th other casco In other words. different const.antl!
may be used in determining the width. The two tables, F-J and F-2, that
have been prepared take in to account these two di fferen t conditions.
As the angle of a patch as laid out when fiat does not change when formed
to the curvature of the boiler, the diameter of the boiler docs not have to b"
taken into consideration in the design.
Rules for Riveted Patches.- In laying out new patches over 24 in . long,
it is recommended that they be triangular or diamond in shape, as may h~
required for the particular job, with definite straight line sides, but with the

FlO. 240. - Cl'escent patch fLt

j(irth seam.

corners properly rounded out to permit proper cltJking, as illustrated in

Figs. 236, 237, 238, and 239.
Where the length, designated as L, aud the width, desi~ated as W , fire
measured is also shown in Figs. 236 to 241 inclusive.
Rivets, patch bolts, or stay bolts lllay be used in "riveted" seam surfaceR
that are stayed or braced, prvvided at least one rivet or patoh bolt is used
between adjacent stay bolts. The riveting should be completed first.
Rivet holes may be countersunk in patches on shells that have braced
heads, if desired, withou t materially affecting the calculated strength of the
patch. The angle of the chamfer with center line of the rivet hole should
not exceed 45 deg., and the depth should not exceed half the thickness of
the plate.

Where patches have already been applied, the problem is to determine

the effeotive diagonal efficiency. Ii the seams are all rounded, that is to
say, the patch is crescent or oval in shape, the length L should be taken
between the of the extreme two rivets on the longitudinal oenter
line and the width W between the centers of the extremo two rivets on the
girthwise center line, as illustrated in Figs. 231 and 232.
CaIculations.- The length L of the patch should first be determined. This
is governed by the area of the defect.
T.S. 55,000 lb. S.S.-44,000 lb.
Plate thickness, t Pitch of rivets, p Eff. of seam, e
diameter, d
~ 171 6 1 % 63 .3

%2 % 1 % 60 .0

~6 % 1 % 60 .0

1%2 1:116 1191\\ 58 .0

% 1:116 ] 1916 57 .0

1% 2 % 2 71 6 57 .5

7i's 191 6 2 X 56 .0

1% 2 1 7) 6 2 3-8 55 . 5

~ 1 2 ~ 52 .5

ll{6 1 716 2 % 53.0

1%2 1 316 2 }i 52.8

% 1 716 2X 50 .5

278 2 1 78 2 91 6 51.4

1716 1 }i 2 ~6 51.4

The normal efficiency e of the single riveted seam that is to be used in

the patoh should next be determined from Table I . This is governed by the
t hickness of plate and diameter of rivet holes.
Mter determining length that a patch must be, the next step is to
dlltermine what the widtb girtbwise should be. This is found by multi-
plying the length by the constant C as shown in Table F-1 or F-2, depending
upon the type of boiler to be repaired. These tll-bles give a constant C for
a given efficiency e of patch and efficiency E of longitudinal Ream (see
Prob . 1).
To determine the longitudinal efficiency of an mrisLing patch, Land W
should be rnllasured, also the p and diamot,cr of ri vet d. W divided by


supported H ead~
Triangle or crescent shape patches: C - W -+- L; W = C X L;
L = W -+- C.
Diamond or oval: C - 2f1' -+- L; W - C X L -;- 2; L = 21V -+- 2.

" - effi cioucy of patch Sel\llllt

E 0.60 0.51 0.52 0 .53 0.54.
"·"1"·,,1"" "·..~t,·~ 0 . 02 0 . 63 O. 64 0 .65

0 . 65 1. 68 1 . 60 I . SI l.-la 1.36 1 . 28 1 .201. 13

0 . 66 1.75 1.67 1. 58 1 . [,0 1. 42 1.35(27
1 1.19
0 . 67 1.82 1. 73 1.05 1.57 1.49 1.411.331.26 1.18
0 . 68 1.88 1. 79 1. 70 1.63 1. 55 1. 'J7 I. 40 1. 32 1. 24 I. lfi
0.69 1. 94 1.86 1. 77 1.69 1. 61 1. 53 1 . 41j 1.38 1.30 1.23 I . 15

0 . 70 2.01 1. 91 1.83 1. 75 1.67 1 .59 1.52 1. 44 1. an1.30 1. 22 1.15

... 0.71 2.06 1. 97 1.89 1.81 1. 73 1. 65 1. 57 1. 50 1.43 1.35 I. 28 1.2J 1.15
gO.72 2 . 12 2.08 1. 95 1.86 1. 79 1. 71 1. (j:l I1. 50 1.48 1.41 1. ~ '1 1.27 l.20 1.14
'G0 . 73 2.17 2.00 2. 00 1. 93 I. 85 1. 77 1. 09 I. 62 1.51 1..J.7 1 . 40 1.33 1 . 2H 1. l!l 1.1 3
~ 0 . 74 2.22 2.14 2.06 1. 98 1. III l.83 1. 75 l . fi7 1.6U 1.52 1. 45 1. 39 l. 32 1.25 1.1 8
g 0.75 2.28 2 . 20 2 . 12 2.04 I.Q6 1. 88 1.81 1. 73 l. 66 1. 58 1. 51 1.44 1.3', I. 31 1 . 24 1.17
:I' 0 . 76 2.34 2 .25 2.17 2 . 09 2.02 1 . 93 1.86 1. 79 1. 71 1. 64 1.57 l. 50 1 . 43 1.36 1.3o I. 23
:a 0 . 77 2.39 2 . 31 2.22 2 . 15 2.07 2 . 00 1 . 92 1.84 1. 76 1. 69 1.62 1. 55 1.48 l.42 1.3 51 . 29
~ 0 . 78 2.44 2.36 2 .28 2 . 20 2 . 13 2 . 05 1 . 97 I. 89 l. 82 1. 75 l.67 l. 61 1.54 1.47 1.4 I 1.36
E! 0 . 79 2 . 50 2 . 42 2.33 2 . 25 2. 18 2 . 10 2.03 1. 95 1.87 1.81 1. 73 1.66 1. 59 1.52 1.4 61.40
;; 0.80 2.55 2 . 46 2 . 39 2.30 2.23 2 . 15 2 . 08 2 . 00 1. 93 I. 86 I. 79 1. 72 1.64 1.58 1.481.4.6
~ 0 . 81 2 . 00 2 . 51 2.43 2 . 36 2 . 28 2.20 2.13 2.05 1. U8 1. 91 1.84 1. 77 1. 60 1.63 1.571.r.o
E C.82 2 . 65 2 . 56 2 . 48 2 . 40 2 . 33 2.25 2 . 18 2.11 2.03 I. 97 L89 1. 82 1. 75 1.68 1 . 6 21 . 1'0.5
'Q 0 .83 2.70 2.62 2.53 2.45 2.38 2. ~I O 2 . 22 2 . 15 2.08 2. 01 1. 94 1. 87 1.80 1. 73 1.671.60
~ 0.84 2.75 2.60 2.59 2 . 51 2.43 2.35 2.27 2.20 2.13 2.06 1.110 I. 92 1. 85 l. 78 1.7 21.M

!g 0.85 2.80 2.71 2.63 2 . 56 2 . 4.8

0 . 86 2.85 2.77 2 . 68 2.60 2.62
2 . 45
2.32 2 . 25 2.18 2 . 11 2.04 1. 97 1. !IO l.84 1.77 I. 70
2 . 37 2.30 2.23 2 . J6 2 . 00 2 . 02 1. 95 1.89 1 . 8 21 . 75
'il 0 . 87 2 . 90 2.82 2.74 2 . 65 2.57 2 . 49 2.42 2.34 2.28 2 . 2 1 2 . 14 2 . 07 2 . 00 1.03 1.871 . 81
IS 0.88 2.96 2.87 2 . 78 2 . 71 2 .62 2 .54 2.47 2 . 40 2. 32 2 . 25 2 . 19 2 . 12 2.05 1.98 1.0 21.85
l'o'lO . 89 3.01 2.92 2.83 2.75 2.68 2 . 59 2 . 52 2.44 2 . 37 2.30 2 . 23 2.16 2 . 10 2 . 03 1.961.90

0.90 .... 2 . 07 2 . 89 2 80 2.71 2 .65 2 .57 2 . 50 2A2 2.34 2 .27 2 . 21 2.14 2.08 2 . 0 1 1. 95
0.91 .... .... 2 . 94 2.86 2 . 77 2 . 69 2 . 62 2 . 54 '. 47 2 . 39 2 . 32 2.25 2 . 10 2 . 12 2 . 062 . 00
0.92 .... ... . 2.99 2 . 90 2 . 82 2 . 74 2.66 2 . 59 2 . 51 2 . 44 2 . 30 2 . 30 2.23 2.17 2 . 102 . 04
0.93 .. .. .... .... 2 . 95 2 . 87 2 . 78 2 . 70 2 . 63 2 . 56 2 . 48 2.42 2 . 34. 2 . 28 2.21 2.1 52. 08
0.94 .... .... .. .. .... 2 . 91 2 . 83 2 . 75 2 . 67 2 . 60 2 .53 2 .46 2 . 30 2 . 32 2.25 2 . 192 . 13
0 . 95 ... . .. .. .. .. .... .... 2 . 87 2 . 79 2 . 72 2 . 64 2 . 57 2 . 50 2 . ' 3 2.36 2 . 29 2 . 2 ~2 . 1'i


L will give the constant C. Table I will give~. Then under Il in Table F-l
or F-2, depending upon the type of boiler to be repaired, find the consta.nt
C. Then wha.tever E is found at the left is the longitudinal or allowed effi-
ciency of the patch scsm (see Prob. 2).
Material.-Patch material shall be of firebox or flange steel depending
upon the plate it replaces. Tank steel must not be u~ed .
1"-2.-CoNSTANT C
Heads unsupported
Triangle or crescent shape pa.tches : C = W + L; W - C X Lj
L - W + C.
Diamond or oval: C = 2W + L; W ... C X L -;. 2; L - 21V -;. C.

e - effi oiency ot seams

0.66 2 . 20 2.061.931.801.091.501.451.351.241.14
0 . 662.302.162 . 03 l.90 1. 78 1.66 1.55 1 A5 1.34 l. 22 1.12
0 . 672.402 . 262 . 132 . 001.881. 751.641.521.431.321.21
0 . 682.502 . 362 . 232 . 101.98 1. 861.731.631.521.421.311.10
0 . 602.622 .462 .33 2.202 . 071. 95 1.84 1.711. 61 1.50 1.4() 1 . 30 1.17

0 . 702 . 752 .572.432 . 302 . 162 . 041.931.80 1. 69 1.59 1. 49 1.37 I. 281.16

" 0 . 71 2 . 87 2.702.532.402.26 2 . 142 . 02 1. 90 1. 79 1. 67 1. 57 1 . 47 1. 37 1. 26 1.15
~ 0 . 723 . 002.81 2 . 65 2 . 482 .36 2 . 232. II 1 .90 1.88 I . 78 1. 66 1. fi6 1. 45 I . 36 1. 26 1 . 14
'S 0 . 73 3.14 2 . 93 2.762 . 002.462.332 . 202 . 091.971 . 87 1.751 . 641 . 541.44 1.35 1.24
~ 0 . 74 3.283 . 07 2 . 87 2 . 71 2 . 562.422.302 . 192.06 1.93 1.83 1. 731.621. 521.43 1. 84
6 0.75 3 . 383 . 193 . 002 . 832 .662.522. 402.272 . 152 . 05 1 . 921.81 1. 711.61 1.61 1.42
: 0 . 16 8.62 3 .~2 3 . 14 2.96 2.782.022.492.362.242.122 . 011.901. 791.69 1. SO 1 . 60
:a 0 . 77 .... 3 . 463 .283 . 072 . 902 . 74 2 . 682.452.322 . 222 . 10 1. 981. 881. 77 1. 671.68
ls 0 . 78 . . ...... 3.40 S . 19 3 . 03 2 . 85 2 . 09 2.55 2 . 42 2 . 30 2.19 2 .07 1.96 1.86 1.76 1.611
. 0.79 ... . . .. ..... 3.323 . 162.97 2.802.652 . 51 2.39 2 . 27 2 . 162.06 1. 94 1 . 84 I. 74

; 0 . 80 ............ 3 . 463 .283 . 102 . 922 . 762.01 ~ . 482 . 302.242 . 14 2 . 031 . 921 . 83
" 0 . 81 .. .............. 3.4.03 . 203 . 032 .872 . 71 2 . 57 2 . 45 2 . 332 . 21 2 . lJ 2 . 001. 90
:g 0 . 82 . ... . ..... . .... ... .. 3 . 343 . 102 . 972.822.672 . 53 2 . 422 . 302.192.09 1. 98
'g, 0 . 83 ............ . . . ..... 3 . 46 3 . 293 . 102.932 . 782 . 632 . 50 2 . 39 2 . 27 2 . '17 2 . 00
] 0 . 84 .......... . ............. 3 . 393 . 22 S . 052. 872 . 7 52.592 . 472 . 372 . 252 . 15

! 0 . 85 ...... .. ............ ....... . 3.323 . 172 . 992 .832 . 692 . 56 2.442.342.23

~ 0.86 . .. . .............. .. ........ 3.453.293 . 132.962 . 782 . Sfl2 . 542. 422 . 82
.0 0 . 87 ............ .. .............. .... 8 .403 . 243 . 072 . 902.762 . 622.502 . 40
gj 0 . 88 ............ .. ...................... 3 . 328 . 173 . 002 . 862 . 712 . 592 . 47
0 . 89 ...................... ... ......... .. 3.463 . 293 . 142.972 . 812 . 682 . 56

0 . 90 ............................ ............ 3.403 . 243 . 072 . 982.782.65

0 . 91 ...... .................... .. .. .. ............ 3 . 853.198 . 032 . 872 . 76
0 . 92 .. .................. .. ........ .. ...... .. .... 3 . 453 . 293 . 142 . 972 . 83
0 .93 ........................................ .. .. .. .. 8.393.243 . 09 2 . 93
0 . 94 .... . ................................... ..... ..... .. 8 .823 . 193 . 03
0 . 95 .................................................... 3 . 433 . 283 . 14
The repair shop should be required to produce a copy of the manufac-
turer's test report of the material to be used.
The material shall contain the stee1maker's brand. If only part of 8
plate is required and this part does not contain the brand, the brand should
be transferred to the patch plate in t he presence of a commissioned boiler
inspector or a representative of the plate manufacturer, before the platp
is cut.
Rivets, patch bolts or stay bolts shall be of material of standard quality.
Workmanship.- All p tches shall be placed inside a boiler in all ca8e~
where exposed to tbe products of combustio n and where deposits wou ld b('
pocketed, except where a blowoff is atta.ched, in which case the patch should
be placed on the outside.
All uefective material exposed to the products of combustion should be
removed and properly trimmed to provide for neat workmanship in attach-
ing the patch. Defects not exposed to the products of combustion need not
be removed unless necessary to make a goou joh.
A distorted sheet which iH to he p>Ltched should first be sct back straight
as much as possible before proceeding with the cutting out of the plate, so
t,hat the patch may be m>Ldc as small as possible.
The edge of a patch should be beveled by planing, chipping, or gas cutting
before applying it to t he boiler. Rivets should be driven by gun if at all
All rivet holes should be drilled full size, or the holes may be punched
not to exceed X in. less thl1.n full size for plates O'ler ~ 6 in. and 7ll in. leS8
for plates!i{ 6 in. or less in thickness and then reamed to full size with patch in
place. Rivet holes are usually X 6 in. greater in diameter than the normal
diameter of tho rivet, but a ~2 in. dilTerenr>p is preforable when the rivets ar~
of uniform size.
If seal welding is used, it should be laid in a single bead with a throat
thickness not less than 7f G in. or more than ~ 6 in. The patch should be
t.ight under a hydrostatic test equal to the operating p ressure before seal
When t hree plates have to be lapped at the corners of a patch, the middle
plate should be carefully scarfed to a featheredge the entire width of the
lap, as shown in the attached illustrations.
Hydrostatic Test.- Upon completion of repairs, a hydrostatic test of 150
per cent of the operating pressure should be applied and the patch seams
should be tight at this pressure.
Problem 1: Design of a Patch for an H . T. Boiler.-A patch is to be
placed in the fire sheet of a horizontal return tubular boiler having sheU
plate Xo in. thick, longitudinal seam efficiency of 74 per cent. Length of
patch is to be 36 in. Find the width W of patch, to be applied so that
there will not be any reduction in prCSRUre, using a single riveted seam
of normal design.
Referring to Table I it is found that a Xs-in. plate with l~G-in. diameter
rivet holea, pitch 2~ in., gives a seam efficiency of 56 per cent.

Referring to Table F-l. E 0.74 and e 0.56 give a constant C - 1.75.

Width lIT :< L X C = 36 X 1.75 = 63 in.
Problem 2 : Pressure Allowance on an Existing Patch.- A crescent shape
patch bas already been installed on a horizontal boiler. It is fOllnd to be
30 ill. long and 48 in. wide. Tho sea.m is noted to be single-riveted with
1~6-in. rivet holes pitched 11 ~ 6 in. The boiler shell plate is % in.

v ./
~ L---::::
q h /
200 / 4 ~~
./"" ~ ~ 5 /I ...,...,... V


.S 160
.f 140
r--- -- --
~ ~ 0 ~ -7.
./'" :::::--: ~ /- / ~ ~~V .---
~ 6"sh e
J; 120 ~ ~V
~ ~ V -~f-' ~

-- --
v ~.'sltell -
C Ol
~ ~ v
:::::- :...-- v- ~v-
;;: .!: 100
:1:.20:!J:! 80 ~
a I-""
Q) a
:::::= k--'" f-- sheUl-,:-;;
4"ft/be.,.... -:::-:-

~ 15 'ii 60 ~ ~
II) •
r:::.- ~ t:- ~
40 ~ I=--
I--- ~ ::::.. r-
e3 .,."
One 2~"ftlbe
ne z".,."be
5 2. 0
10 1113 1214 15 1& 17 18 19 20 21
Length in Feet Shell or Tubes
FIG. 242.-Chart.s for finding heating surface ot boilers of n.R.T. type.
The longitudinnl senm is of the double-riveted butt-strap typo, having all
efficiency of 82 per ceut. The Safety valve is set for 1251h. pressure. What
l'1aximum pressure should he allowed on the boiler?
Referring to Table I, it shows that the norm l4l efficieucy of the patcb
seam is 57 per ceu t.
If th efficiency is not found in the table, refer to any other available table,
or determine it in the custom8ry manner, described in Pars. A-l and 2 of
the Appendix of the Texas Boiter Constnlction Code.
Divide the width of the patch W = 4 in. by the length L = 30 in . to
.find the constant C - 4 ~O - 1.60
Follow down column 0.57 of Table F-l until 1.60 is found . It will be
noted that this is somewhere between 1.56 and 1.62 representmg E some-
where between 0.72 and 0.73. Ail the difference between 1.56 and 1.62 is
6 and the difference between 1.56 and 1.60 is 4, E will be 0.72 plus % of 0.001
which is 0.7266.
The pressure app roved varies directly as the seam efficiency. Accord-
ingly, P = 0.7266/ 0.82 X 125 - 110 lb.
If this allowance interferes with the operation of t he plant, the patch will
have to be replaced by a new one with proper dimensions giving a diagonal
cffi ieney of 82 per cent.
Problem S : Design of a Patch for a Watertube Boilet.- Sections of the
plate having a total length of 36 in. (measured at the pitch line) are to be
removed on each side of a. girth scam. The patch is to be diaffi()nd or oval
shape. The shell pla,te is :J'16 in. thick, and the longitudinal seam is double-
riveted butt-strap constnlCtion, having an efficicn(,y of 82 per cent. Wh at
should be the widtb of the patch for maintaining the same pressure allowance?
Referring to Table I, it shows that a single-riveted lap seam wiih :J'1s-in .
plate, l~ 6-in.-diameter rivet holc~, 2~-in. pitch, has a normal efficiency
of 56 per cent.
Referring to Table F-2, we find for E 0.82 and e 0.56 that the constant
C is 3.16.
The width W - C X L + 2
W ~ 3.16 X 36 + 2 - 56.88, say 57 in .

~ach of t hesl! rules is the direct result of an accident

Never Always
Never fail to an tic;ipl1te elJl ()rgen- Always st.udy ev()ry concci, ble
oies. Don't wait until sompth ing emergency and know exactly what.
happens to start thinking. moves 1,0 make.
Never start work in a strange plant Always proceed to proper valves or
without tracing every pipe line switches rapidly but ~'ith out, con-
a.nd learning the location and pllr- fusion in time of emergency . You
pose of every valve. Know you r can Lhiuk better walking than
job. runniug.
Never leave au open blowdown valve A lwaY8 check water level in the gage
llUattended when a boiler is under glass with t he gage c,ocks at least
pressure or has a fire in it. Phl.' · daily aud also at a ny other time
safe ; memory Cl\n fail. you douht t he accuracy of thp
glass indication.
Never a llow sed im ent to ae 'umulatc Alway. hlow ou L(!I\ch gage-glass and
in gage-glass Or water-column water-oo lUIllIl "ou nection at least
connections. A false water level once each day. Forming goorl
tnlLy fool you and Ill akp ~' o " sorry. habits may mean longer life for
Never gIVe verbal orders for impor- Always ac(;ompany orders for impor-
tant opuratiolls or report su ch tant operations with a written
operations verbally with no record. rnemomndum. Use a log book to
Have something to back you up record every important fact or
when needed. unusual occurrence.
Never light a fire under a boiler with- Always have at least one gage of
out a double check OIL the wat r water hefore lighting ofT. The
level. Mill y boilers havo h eon level should be checked hy the
ruined ILnd many johs lost this gage cocks. You will not he fired
way. for being too eMefll!.
Never light a fire under Il. boiler with- Always be sure blowdowu valves arc
out checking aU valves. Why closed and proper vents,
take a chance? column valves, and
cock open.
Never open a valve under pressure Always usc the by-pass if one is pro-
quickly. The 8udden change in vided. Crack the valve from its
• Power, August, 1938.
Never Always
pressure, or l"esulting water ham- seat slightly, and await pressur
mer, may cause piping failure. equalization. Then open it
Never cut a boiler in on the line Always watch the steam gage closely
unless its pressure is within 11 few and be prepared to cut the boiler
pounds of header pressure. Sud- in, opening the stop valve only
den stressing of a boiler undor when the pressures nearly
pressure is dangerous. equal.
Never bring It boiler up to prOBSurc Always lilt tile valve from its seat
without trying the safety valve. by thA hand lever when the pres-
A boiler with its safety valve sure reacbes about three-quart.ers
stuck is ne!!.rly as safe as playing of popping pressure.
with dyn!!. rnite.
Never take it for granted that the Always raise the valve from Its
safety valves are ill proper condi- seat with the lifting lever each
tion. The power plant is no pmce day tlHl boiler is under pressure.
for guesswork. Test by raising to popping pres-
sure once each week.
N ever increase the setting of Il. s"fcty Always consult an authorized boilel'
valve wit,hout a uthority. Ser- inspector and accept his recom-
ious accidents hn vlJ occurred from mendatiolls before in creasing tlw
failure to observe this rule. safety-valve load.
Never change "djustment of a safety A.lways have the v!!.lve fitted with
valve more thA.n 10 %. Proper II new sprillg and rest-amped hy
operation depends on the proper till' manufacturer for changes over
spring. 10 %.
Never tigh teo a flU t, bolt, or pipe Always play safe on this rule. The
thread under steam or air pres- one that is going to break does
sure. Man y have died doing not have a spMial warning sign.
Never strike any ohject under steam Always play safe on this rule. You
or air pressure. This is another can't tell which straw might break
sure path to the undertaker's. the camel's back.
Never allow unauthorized persons to Always keep out loiterers and place
t,lunper with any steam-plant. plant operation in the hands of
equipment. If they don't injun! proper persons. A boiler room
themselves, t.hey may <lnURe injury is not a safe place for a club
to you. meeting.
Never allow anyone to enter a hoiler Always put a sign "Workman
without proper protecting signs. inside" on a boiler at the point
Do not remove signs until you the man enters. Lock all valves
have personally checked that closed that might endanger him
everyone is clear. if opened accidentally.
Never allow major repairs to a boiler Always consult an authorized boiler
without authorization. If you inspector before proceeding with
don't break a law, you may break boiler repairs.
your neck.

Never Always
Never light a burner without a torch. AlwaY8 assume delayed ignition
You can't dodge a furnace blast. is going to cause a furnace
explosion. Use propElr ignition
Never attempt to light a burner with- AlwaYB allow draft to cl~ar furnace
out venting the furnaoe until clear. of gas and dust for several min-
Bu rns arc painful. u tea. Change draft conditionR
Never fail to report unusual behavior Always consult someone in author-
of a boiler or other equipment. It ity. Two heads are better than
may be a warning of danger. one.
A Backing sleeve, 280
Badonhalls(;n hoilor, 123
Abrasion (see Erosion ) Baffling, 92-93, 270
Absolute pressure, 1 step, 124, 127
(See also Pressure) Bailey feed-water regulater, 177- 179
Adamson ring, 39-40 (See also F eed-water regu lators)
Air-cushion ch amber, 267 Bailey stud tubcs, 126, 211, 212
Air t rapped in boi l 'r, 116 Ball-float trap, 199
A.S.M.E. st amp , 4U (See also Traps)
Angularity of stays, 30 Barrel pins, 20
Apexior, 246 Beading of tubes, 44, 116
Arch bar, 57 Benson boiler, 157-159
Area to be stayed, 29-30 cap acities of, 159
Atomization of fuel oi l, 203 flow diagram for, 157
Automatic shutoIT for gagp-glflss Hent-tuhe boi l(Jf8, 11 4-138
connection, 167- 168 (See also hoilers classifj(\d by
Automatic stoker, 21 6-217 mako, as Riley, Murray,
Taylor, 216-217 etc.)
13 Beslor I oiler, 141- 142
Bessolller converter, 318
Habcock and Wilcox \\' llLCl'tui.Je Black-liquor boiler, 142-144
boiler, 91, 94--95, 105-10G, Blast furnace, 318
142-144 Bleeder feed-water heater, 186
black -liquor Tomlinson, 142-144 (See also Feod-water heaters)
blowdoWll connection, 95 Blister, 281
circulatioll, 94 Blowback of safety valve, 162
cross-drum type, 105-107 Blowback ring, 162
equalization of water I vel in, 95 Blowdown, 169-171
feed-water connec:tioJl, 94 continuous, 254-255
fusible plug, 94 fittings, 170
gas flow, 92-93 pad, 60
gM passages, 106 pipe, 60
integral-furnace type, 125-126 expansion of, 61
circulation, 126 purpose of, 169
gas flow, 126 valves, 169-171
method of support, 126 Blowing down a boiler, 259
longitudinal-drum type, 94--95 Boiler bushing, 63
lowest safe water level, 94 Boiler compounds, 260, 26:&
piping connections. 91; Boiler tubes (see Tublls)
suspension of, 93-94- Bonus, 224-225
two-stage furnace type, 108 Bourdon tune, 175-177

Bowing of brllcea, 286--287 Cold springing, 289

Box header, 95-96 Collapsing, 38--43
Wickes patented, 109 of furnaces, 38--43
Bracing, brace (see Staying, stay) of tubes, 272
Brllckets, 36--38, 57 Combustion, 156, 264-267
Brickwork, 37, 58-60 pressure, J 56
Bridge wall, 55, 119 process of, 264-267
flame impingement due to, 270 stability of, 267-268
water cooled, 129 Combustion Engi neering VU boiler.
Brinell testing machine, 324- 325 127- 129
Buckstays, 59-60 capa.cities, 129
Bulging, 242, 262, 278, 281 oirculation, 128-129
of fumac sheets, 283-284 gas flow and baflling, 127
general repairs to, 281 largest boi ler in world, 129
repairs to furnace sheets, 283-284 method of support, 129
Burrs, J7 Concentration, 243, 253-255, 259
Bursting preS!lure, 4-5 Continuous blowdown, 254-255, 259
(See also Pressure) Contraction of furnaces, 40
Butt strap, 9 Copes fced-waLer regulator, 177- l7!j
(See also Feed-water regulators)
C Copper, tensile strength of, 327
Corrosion, 243- 250
Caloium .~Ca), 240 external, 248- 250
Calking, 9, 15-10 eauscs of, 248-250
Carbon (C) (in steel), 320 in economizers, 189-190
Carbon dioxide (CO,), 264-267 of watel'wltll tubes, 212
Carbon dioxide metor, 264-265 internal, 243- 246
Carbon monoxide (CO ), in com- effects of, 247- 249
bustion, 265- 267 provention of, 246--247
Carryover, 252-258 at stay-bolt holes, 283
Casing, boiler, 72 Corrugated furnac , 39-40
Cast iron, physical properties, 327 Counterboring tube holes, 46
Caustic soda, use of, ill boilers, 243 Cracks, 22, 251-252, 273-278
Centrifugal feed-water pumps, 193- embrittiement, 251- 252
194 fatigue, 251, 273-275
Chain riveting, 12 fire, 276--278
Chattering of safety valve, J62 lap, 9, 275-276
Check valves, 172-173 ligament, 277
(See also Valves) ogee, 273
Chord, 35-36 repair of, 274-278
Circulation, 62 Cradle for Babcock and Wilcox
Circumferential joint, 3 integral-furnace boiler, 126
(See also Girth scam) for Economio boilors, 72
Clearance in H.R.T. boilers, 57 for locomotive boilers, 69
Closed feed-water heater, 184-1 6 for Scotch boilers, 72
(See also Feed-water heaters) for Springfield watertube boilers.
Closing-in lille, 57-58 104
Cold-short, 320 Critical pressure, 91
Cross-drum boilers, 102-107, 109 E
advantages of, 102-103
eirculation, 102 Economic boiler, 71-73
disadvantages of, 103 Economizers, 187-190
general design, 102-103 cast-iron tubes, 187
(See also <:iassification under external corrosion of, 189-190
makes, as Springfield, Bab- Foster Wheeler, 187- 188
cock and Wilcox, et(:.l Green, 188-189
Crowfoot of ~tay, 27 integral, 190
Crushing strength of boilcr plate, protection of, 293
10-15 relief valves for, 188
Cutout, manhole, 31 - 32 steel tubes, 188
Cuttlllg boiler on line, 202 Efficiency, 6, 8-15, 22-26
of ligament, 23-26
D of scams, 6, 8-15, 22
Electric-resistance welding, 44
Deaetivation, 247 Elongation of steel, 324
Deaerating f cd-water heater, 184- Embrittlcment, 251-252
186 Employment, 225-226
(See also Feed-water heatern) Equalizer, 62
Desuperheater, 201-202, 207- 208 Erosion, 206, 212, 250, 263-264
Diagonal stays, 27-31 by dirty steam, 206
Digester, 142 by flame scrubbing, 263-264
Dished heads, 33-36 of water wall tubes, 212
Di vision wall, 60 Escape pipe, 163-164
Domes, 43, 44, 69 Evaporators, 190-192
Door-frame ring, 69 operation of, 294-296
Door latch, 174-175 Expansion, 56-57
Double-deck boiler, 106 due to heat, 3
Double-riveted butt seams, J2-1.3 of furnaces, 40
Double shear, 326 of Union watertuhe boiler, 100
Doubling plate, 25 of watertube boiler, 94, 106
Dowtherm boiler, 146-149 Explosions, 237- 239, 272
indirect heating by, 147 furnace, 268
properties of, 146-147 Extraction fecd-water heater, 1l:S6
temperatures of, 146-147 (See al80 Feed-water heaters)
testing of, 147-148
Drift pins, 20
Dry drum, 123 Factor of safety, 6-8
Dry pipe, 119 Fatigue of metal, 273
Dry sheet, 61 Feed water, 182-184, 240-245, 253-
Duplex pump, 193 261
(See also Feed-water pumps) concentration, 243, 253-255, 258:
Dutch oven, 75, 70, 109-110 259
for internal furnaces, 75, 79 corrosive, 243-245
for vertical watertube boilers, deactivation of, 247
109-110 discharge, 94

Feed wa.ter, hardness of, 183, 328- Foster Wheeler boilers, 129, 131-
329 133, 144-146
impurities in, 240-241 capacity, J33
inlet, 63 starting up, 133
oil in, 204-205, 243 twin-furnace, 129, 131-133
organic matter in, 253 waste-heat boiler, 144-146
oxygen in, 184 Foster Wbeeler economizer, 187-]88
temperature of, 182-J8H (See also Economizers)
testing of, 328- 329 Front arcb, 61
treatment of, 259-261 }uel-oil hoaters, 203-204
Feed-water heaters, 180-186 Furnace xplosioDs, 26
bleeder, 186 J<urnace mouth, 69
closed, 184-] 86 Fur!l!lce volum e, J06-107, 269-271
deaerating, 184-186 Furnaces, 38-43
extraction, 186 internal, 66, 75, 78-80, 82-83
open, ] 81-183 multiple, 80
protection of, 292-293 Fusible plug~, 58, 63, 71, 73, 77, 82,
testing of, 293 94
Feed-water pumps, 192- 19~ in Babcock and Wilcox boilers. 94
centrifugal, J93-19-1 clearancn for, 58
duplex, 193 design of, 173-J74
Feed-water J'l"gulators, J 7ti--180 in Economic boiler, 73
Bailey, 177- 171:1 in ll. R.T . hoilers, 63
Copes, 177- 178 in locomotive boilers, 71
Morehead,179-180 in Scotch boilers, 82
Steta, 178-179 in vertical tubular boilers. 77
Ferrules, 279 Pusion welding, 20-23
Fin tubes, 144-146
Fire clay, 58 G
Firebox, 66-6 Gage cocks, 168
boilers, 73 Gage glass, 16G--167
Fire-tube hoilers (sce under classi- rephtcement of, 298
fication as to type, as R .R.T., testing of, 297- 298
Scotch marine, (~tc. ) Gage prossure, 1
li'ire tubes, 90 Galvanic action, 247
Fires in breeching, 26 Gamma ray, 2J
Flame impingement, 26]- 264, 270 Gas flow, 92-93
Flanging of heads, 33-36 Gate valves, 171- 172
(See also Valves)
Flaring of tubes, 44, 116
Girth seam, 3, 8-9
Floor space, 73
Globe valve, 171
Flu gas analysis, 264-265 (See also Valves)
turbine, 156 Grcen economizer, 188-189
Flush-front setting, 61 (i:>ee also Economizers)
Foaming, 252-25 Grommet, 30
Foroed circulation, 81 Grooving, 245-:&46
Forcing v rtieal tubular boilers, 73 of furnace sbeets, 285-286
Forge welding, 44 Grouting, 59
H Hydrometer, 254
Hydrostatic test, 22, 298-299
Hammer test, 22
Handhol es, 62, 70
repairs at, 282 Ignition of burners, 267
Hangers, 36-38 Impeller, 193
Hardness of steel, 324-:J25 Injector, 193-195
Hartford Loop, 290 Inspirator, 193-195
Header, 95-96, 104-105, 109 Insurance, 230-231
box header, 95-96, 109 Integral economizer, 190
sectional header, 91, 95, lU4 - 105, (See al80 Economizers)
107 Int<,gral-furnace boiler (Babcock and
sinuous header, 91, 95, 104-10;" Wilcox ), 125-126
107 Interdeck nipple, 106
Headroom, 75 Internal furnace, 66, 75, 78-80, 82- ·
H eads, 2 83
dished,2 (See also Furnaces)
semielliptical, 2 Internal mud drum, P8, 102
spherical, 2
Heat exchanger, 254 K
Heat-recovery boiler, 145 Keeler watertube boilers, 102, 13,~-
Heat release, permissible in furn aces, 137
270 box header, J02
Heaters, fuel-oil, 203- 204 method of support, 102
Heating surface, chart for deter- CP boiler, J35-137
mining, 338 capaci ties, J37
Heine boiler, 97- 98 circulation, 13G-J 37
baffling of, 97 Korosene, use of, in boilers, 241- 243
hollow staybolts, purpose of, 97
blowdown cOOllections, 98
feed-water diseharge, 97- 98 Lamination, 281, 326
internal mud drum, 97- 98 La Mont boiler, 154, 156
method of support, 98 Lap craok, 9, 275, 276
Holly Loop, 289-290 Lap-riveted seam, 26
H.R.T. boiler, 29-30, 37, 55-64 Largest boiler in world, 129
Mvantages of, 56 Leffel Scotch boiler, 80
Lifting lever for safety valve, 162
capacity, 55
Ligaments, 23-26
oirculation in, 62
Lime, usc of, in boilers, 246
olearan ce in, 57 Liquivator, Morehead, 197- 198
disadvantages of, 56 Load curves, 224
gas flow, 56 Locomotive boilers, 43-44, 64-70
rating of, 63 advantages of, 66
setting, 56-60 ditJadvantages of, 66
Hot-sbort, 320 gas flow in, 66
Huddling cbamber, 162 general details of, 66-68
Huston stay, Z7 rating of, 71
Hydraulio riveting, 19-20 water l('vel in, 70

Loeftler boiler, 14~154 Mud ring, 68, 76

in Caroline Station, 152 Multiple drill, 18
flow diagram of, 149, 151 Murray watertube boiler, 100-102,
pipe joint for, 153-154 115- 117, 120-122
principles of, 150 bent-tube type, 115- 117, 120-122
ratings of, 152-153 baftling, 116
safety valvc for, 153 manholes, 117
starting up, 151 method of support, 116, 120
steam drum, 151 genero.l construction, 100
steam pump, 150 method of Bupport, 100
water-level indicator, 153-1,')4
Log, 222-224 N
Longitudinal seams, 2-4, 6, 8-15,
19, 22, 25-26 National Board stamp, 46
Low-head bent-tube boilers, 12l- 122 Neck (in Union watertube boiler), 98
(See also boilers classified by Neutral sheet, 44
make, as Babcock and Wil- Nick-break test, 326
cox, Murray , etc. Nonreturn traps, 196, 198-199
Low water, 71, 271- 272 (See (,Iso Traps)
Lugs, 36--38 N onreturn valves, 173
operation of, 292
M (See also Valves)

MacGregor stay, 27 o
Magnesium (Mg), 240
Maintenance programs, 2a4--235 Obsolescence, 229--230
Malleable iron, physicA.l pJ'Orerti('~ Ogee flange, 68, 76
of,327 cracks, 274
Mandrel,45 Oil burners, 203
Manganese (Mn ) in st.eel, 320 Oilbilt hoilN, 2-83
Manhole, 30-31, 32, 34, 62, 70 Open feed-water heo.ter, 181- l83
frame, 31- 32, 34 (See also Feed-water heate r~)
reinforcement, 31-32, 34 Open-hearth furnace , 320
Manhole riveting, 32-34 Organic mo.tter in boiler water, 253
Manning boiler, 73- 74 Orsat apparatus, 265
Massachusetts D epartment of I'llb- Overheating, 62, 73, 75-76, 261-
lie Safety lowest factor. of 264, 270-272
safety, 7 by accumulations of solias, 255
Morehead fced-wo.ter regulator, 171l- by flame impingement, 261 - 264,
180 270
(See also Feed-water regulators) of furnace in vertical tubular
Mud drum, 94, 97- 98, 102, 104, 106 boilers, 75-76
for Babcock and Wilcox watertube due to low water, 271- 272
boilors, 94, 106 by Bcale, 240-241
for Heine watertube boilers, 97- 98 of tubes in vertical tubular boilers,
for Keeler watertube boilers, 102 78, 280
for Springfield watertube boilers, of waterwall tubes, 2tO
104 Oxidation (lee Corrosion)
Oxygen, 183-184, 264-267 Pressure, safe working, 6--8
for combustion, 264-267 total, I, 37
removal, 183- 184 unit, 1
Pressure gage, 175---177
P Pressure-reducing value, 199-202
Pressure regulators (see Pressure-
Palm of stay, 27 reducing valves)
Patching, 281, 285-286,330-339 Priming, 252-253
riveted, design of, 330-339 p~'otective coatings, 246--247
welded, 285-286 Apexior, 246
Personnel, 225---226 lime, 246
pH of water, 244--245 Portland cement, 247
Phosphorus in steel (P ), 320 silicate of soda, 246
Physical properties of steel, 321- Pulverizers, coal, 212-217
325,327 Foster Wheeler Tricone type, 215,
Pipe joint, for Loeffler boilel', lS3- 217
154 Riley Atrita, 216--217
Piping, 60, 250, 288-289, 291 unit type, 214--216
capacity, 288 Whiting table-roller type, 214--215
connections to boilers 50, 70, 81, Purchasing, 231, 234
90, 94, 95, 98, 119, 134
drainage of, 291 R
expansion in, 289
maintenance of, 250 Radiant heat, 56
size of, 288 Radiograph (see X ray)
support for, 288 Roar arch, 57
sweating of, cold, 291 Reinforcing strap, 25
Pitch, of boiler, 58 Relief valves, 189, 204
how to determine, 59 for economizers, 189
of stay bolts, 42-43 for fuel-oil heater, 204
of tubes, 24 Replacement of equipmont, 229-230
Plate, 5---7, 10-20, 25 Return traps, 195-198
plate mill, 15---17 Riley steam-generator boilers, 114,
preparing shell plate for rivetinl1:, 123, 124
15---20 Riley watcrtu be boiler, 114, 123-
punching of, 16-17 125, 133-135
rolling of, 15---17 RO boiler, 133-135
thickness of, 5---7, 10-15, 25 capacities, 134
Plate drill, 16--18 gas flow and baffling, 134
Plate planer, 15---16, 18 piping connections, 134
Pneumatic riveting, 20 RP boiler, 124--125
PoroQity, 22 (See also Riley steam-generator
Portland cement, use of, 247 boilers)
Pressure, I, 4-8, 37, 91 Ring oirculation , 123
absolute, 1 Rivet holcs, 19
bUl'!Jting, 4-5 Riveted seams, 8-15, 19
critical, 91 double lap, 9, 11
gage, 1 douhle-riveted b'Jtt, 12-13

Riveted scams, lap, 8-11 Scotch dry-back boiler, 78-82

quadruple-riveted butt, 14-15 advantages of, 78
single lap, 8, 10-11 circulation, 81
triple-riveted butt, 12-13 disadvantages of, 79
Riveter, bull, 19 fusible plug, 82
Riveting,, 12 gas flow in, 80
Rivets, 19-20 lowest safe water level, 81
Rolling mill, 16-17 manholes and handholes, 82
Rupture of tubes, 240, 272, 278 piping connections, 81
Rust (see Corrosion ) of, 82
setting, 81
s Seokh marine boiler (see Seoten
dry-back boiler)
Safe working pressu re, 24-26, 38-40, Scully stay, 27
42-43 Seamless cylinder, 5
for heads, 34 Sediment (see Scale)
Safety, plant, 235-236 Segments, 27, 29-30
Safety rules, 340-342 Semicllipsoidal bead, 35
Safety valves, 153, 160-165, 29 297 Scparator, steam, 195, 196, 259
A.S.M.E. Standard, ]60 Settling of boiler, 60
blowback, 162 Shape, effects of, 2
blowback ring, 162 Shearing strtngth of rivets, 10-15,
capacity, 165 326
chattering, 162 double, 326
connections, 161 single, 326
discharge of, ]61, 163- 165 Shlit schedules, 226-228
escape pipe for, 164 Shore sclcroS<',ope, 325
general, 160-166 Silica, 240
huddling chambcr, 162 Silicate of soda, usc of, 246
lifting lever for, 162 Single shcar, 326
1..0 ffler type, 153 Siphon, 177
Massaohusetts standard, 160 Skelp,44
operation of, 296-297 Slag, 22
purposc of, 160 Smokebox, 61, 68
seat, 161 Soap in boilers, 258
spring, 161 Soap solution, 328-329
stamping, 160 Soda ash, 143- 144, 260, 328
suporheater, 161, 165 recovery of, H3-144
teating of, 296-297 usc of, 260, 328
Sodium hydro).;de, effects of, 252
Salt cake, use of, 142
Soot, blowing of, 269
Scale, 75, 77, 240-243, 260, 328 pinning of heads, 33- 34
effects of, 240-241 Spooling of stays, 30
formation of, 240-241 Spring for safety valve, 161
obstruction by loose, 77 Springfield watertube boiler, 103-106
properties of, 328 method o[ support, 104-105
removal of, 75, 241-243, 260 mud drum. 104
testing of, 328 standard type, 103-104
Stamping a boiler, 46 Stirling boilers, capacity, 120
location of, 46 circulation, 119
Starting up vertical tubular boilers, dry pipe, 120
75 gas flow and baffling, 117-118
Stay bolts, 28, 38-43, 96-97, 282-283 general design, 117- 118
allowable strcss, 40 pipiIlg connections, 119--120
in box header, 96-97 steam nozzles, 119
b rcakage 0 f, 4D-4), 2 2-283 water-circulating tubes, 117- 118
flexible, 282-283 Straight-shell boilers, 73
hollow, 97 Stress, 1-5, 22, 38, 40, 273
pitch of, 42-43 allowable, 38
size of, 42 allowl,hlc for stay bolts, 40
Tate, 282-283 circumferential, 2-3
telltale holes in, 41 concentration, 273
upsetting ends, 40 longitudinal, 2-3
Staying, 27-31, 37-43, 72, J 10, relieving, 22
286-287 unit, 38
arca to be stlLycd, 41-42 Strongback, 28
bowing of stays, 28(j- 2R7 Stu d tu Ges, 126, 211- 212
of Economic boiler, 72 Submerged-head boiJers, 73-74
of Wickes vertical wfLtnrtu be Submorged-tube boilers, 73-74
boiler, J 10 Suhpunching, 16-17
Steam bindlng, 292 Sucker mouth, 69
Steam domes, 43-44, 69 Suction hcad for feed pump, 182
diameter of, 44 Sulphur (S) in steel, 320
neutral sheet of, 44. Superheaters, 107, 114, 124-133,
purpose of, 43 161, 255, 2114
riveting of, 44 advantage of, 205-206
Steam pockets, 263 convection, 114, 118, 124- J25,
Steam temperature, 204 127, 130, 132, 206- 207
Steam traps (see Traps) convection (interdeck), 107
Rtecl, 318-327 flooding of, 294
nhornical properties, 320 for H .R.T. boilers, 206- 207
effects of carbon in, 32J for locomotive boilers, 206
electric furnace, 320 overheating of, 255
identification of, 321-322 protection of, 294
manufacture of, 318-320 radiant, 131-133, 205
open hearth, 318, 320 safety valve for, 161, 165
oxidation of, 318 Surface tension, 253
physical properties of, 321-325. causo of, 253
327 effects of, 253
testing of, 322-325 Suspended setting, 55, 62
Step bames, 124, 127 uspellsion of boiler, 36-38
(See also BafBing)
Stets feed-water rolgulator, 178-179 T
(See also Feed-water regulators) TlLck bolts, 17
Stirling boilers, 117-120 Tacking, 17,27
bridge wall, 119 -Capered-course hoilf'rs, 73-74

Taylor stoker, 216-217 Tubes, removal of, 278

Telltale holes, 41 rupture of, 240, 272, 278
Temperature, 8, 204 safe ending of, 278
effects of, 8 seamless, 44
steam, 204 sheets, 27
Tensile strength, 322-324 thermosiphon aroh, 69-70
of steel, 323 welded, 44
testing of, 322- 324 welding of, 278-280
Test conneotion, 177 Tuyeres, 217
Testing (Jf boiler plan t, 231- 233 Twin-furnace boiler, 129, 131- 133
Thermosiphon arch, 69-70 (See also Foster Wheeler boilers)
Thcr~.nostatic trap, 199 Two-stage furnace boilers, 108
(See also Traps)
Thickness, of furnace sheet, 42-43 u
of head, 34
of steel plate, toleranoe, 327 U-bolt supports, 93
Throat sheet, 67 lJnion watertube boiler, 98-]00
Throttle valve, 69 blowdowns, 98
Through-stay, 27 headers, 98
Through-to-hcad stays, a0-31 internal feed pipe, 98
Tie rod, 60 internal settling chamber, 99
Tile, 122 method of support, 100
Tomlinson boilor (ti!Lbcock nnd neck, 98
Wilooxl , 142-144 Upsetting stay bolts or stays, 40
Transition zone, 141
Traps, 195- 199 v
ball flon t, 199
inverted bucket, 19 199 Valvcij, 160-166, 169-173, 188, 199-
liquivator, Morchend, 197- 198 202,296
nonreturn, 196, 198- 199 blowdown, 169-17]
return, 195-] 98 oheck, 172-173
thermostatic, 199 gate, ]71-172
Trough sheet, 96 globe, 171
Try cocks, 16 , 297 llonreturn, 173
Tubes, 27, 44-46, 90, 96, 1.26, 240, operation of, 292
272,279 pressure reducing, 199-202
Bailey stud tubes, 126 relief valves for economizers, 188
beading of, 44, 46 relief valves for fuel-oil heaten;
bending of, 44-45 204
in box header, 96 safety, 153, 16D-166
caps, 90 operation of, 296- 297
expander, 45 testing of, 296-297
expanding of, 279 Velox boiler, 155-156
fin, for waste heat, 144 flow diagram of, 155
flarin g of, 404-46, 279 in Oslo Station, 156
helical, 141 ratings, 15&
hoies, 44-46 Vertical tubular boiler, 73-78
:reason for bending, 115 advantages of, 74
iNDEX 353
Vertical tubular boiler, capacity 74 Watertube boilel'$, 90-1J3
circulation, 76 advantages of, 90-91
disadvantages of, 74-75 capacities, 91-92
~as flow, 75 disadvantages of, 92
manholes and hand holes, 76 forcing, 92
piping connections, 75-78 manholes and handholes, 90
rating of, 77 rating of, 91
typCij of, 73 water-column connections, 90
Vertical watertube boilers, 109-110 (See also under '1lIssification
Voids, 22 as to type, as Babcock ann
Wilcox, Riley RO, etc.)
w Watertubes, 90
Waterwalls, 208-213
Wage inccntives, 22 225 Welded seams, efficiclJCY of, 22
Walls (boiler side walls), 37, .S8-60 Welding, 20-23, 44, 71, 285-286, 325
Washout plug, 70 eleetric resistance, 44
Wa8te-beat hoiler (Fo8tel' Wheeler), forge, 44
144-146 of patches, 28~286
Water columll, 77, 81, 90, 166-169, testing of, 325
297-298 in tubeR, 71
connection for, 168 Wickes watertuhe boilers, 109-1Jl1,
connections for Scoteh ann H.R.T. 128- 120,136-138
boilers, 81 manholes, 110
connections in verti(:LLI. tubu lar paten ted box headcr, J 09
boilers, 77 stayillg, 11 0
connections for watertuho boilers, three-drum boijor, 12 129
90 tube replaccment, no
ill'ains for, 168 type A boiler, 136-138
loveling of, 168- 169 method of support, 109
vcrtie.\j type, 109-110
material for, 168
Wire drawing, 163
modern type, J66
Wrapper sheet, 40, 68
purpose of, 166 Wrought iron, physical properties
testing of, 297- 298 of, 327
Watel hammer, 255-257
Watcdeg, 68, 75-76 x
restriction of ci rculat ion in, 76 X-raying, 21, 23
Water level in boiler, proper, 259
Water-level indicator, Loeffler type, Y
1.<;3-154 Yield point, 7, 317


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II 1887
Form No. 3
Author Sr~, -na IWlJ'?J'If tn
Title B~\kb' ofelrofolJb ,
AOCD. No. 18' rt