You are on page 1of 2

# 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝐾𝐾

Frame
Frame
Deflection
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
Deflection ,∆ 𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏
=∆𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏 𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 = 𝐿𝐿𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝐿𝐿 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤   𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
Frame Deflection 𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝑃𝑃𝑢𝑢
𝑃𝑃𝑢𝑢𝑃𝑃𝑢𝑢
Frame Deflection
Frame Deflection ∆∆ 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 =
Brace 𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏 Stiffness
= Calculations Approximate Stiffness Modification Factors, KF1,2, 7 Approximate Stiffness Modification Factors, KF1, 2,7(cont’d)

Frame Deflection
∆
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓= 𝐾𝐾
∆𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝐾𝐾 𝑃𝑃
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
𝑢𝑢

∆𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 = ∆ 𝑃𝑃
=𝐾𝐾  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝑢𝑢 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑃𝑃𝑢𝑢 𝐹𝐹  𝐿𝐿 Sizes shown are representative of typical BRB sizes. Information on intermediate and larger sizes is available upon request. Sizes shown are representative of typical BRB sizes. Information on intermediate and larger sizes is available upon request.
𝐹𝐹

𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝐹𝐹   ∆ ∆
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 = 𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒   Stiffness
=  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
𝐹𝐹  𝐿𝐿
𝐹𝐹  𝐿𝐿
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
∆∆ 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 = 𝐹𝐹     ∆∆ 𝐾𝐾
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
==
𝐾𝐾  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 Determination
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
2 𝜃𝜃
of a· Composite Element Fysc = 38 ksi (262 MPa) Bay Width, ft (m) Fysc = 38 ksi (262 MPa) Bay Width, ft (m)
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓==𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 ∆𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 =𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴 𝐹𝐹  𝐸𝐸  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
𝐿𝐿  𝐸𝐸  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐

∆𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 2 𝜃𝜃     𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 2 2
𝐹𝐹 2 𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴
𝐹𝐹  𝐿𝐿 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝜃𝜃
∆𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 = 𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
𝐹𝐹   𝐹𝐹    𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
2 𝜃𝜃𝜃𝜃

∆𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 =𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴
= = 𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝐹𝐹  𝐿𝐿
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠  𝐸𝐸  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝜃𝜃
2 𝜃𝜃
Asc3 Py_axial4 15 (4.6) 20 (6.1) 25 (7.6) 30 (9.1) 35 (10.7) 30 (9.1) 35 (10.7) 40 (12.2) 45 (13.7) 50 (15.2) Asc3 Py_axial4 15 (4.6) 20 (6.1) 25 (7.6) 30 (9.1) 35 (10.7) 30 (9.1) 35 (10.7) 40 (12.2) 45 (13.7) 50 (15.2)
∆𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
∆ = = 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝐾𝐾   𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 2 𝜃𝜃 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 ∆ 𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴
𝐸𝐸 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
2
in2 (cm2) kip (kN) SINGLE DIAGONAL CHEVRON/V in2 (cm2) kip (kN) SINGLE DIAGONAL CHEVRON/V
𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
2 𝜃𝜃 2 𝜃𝜃
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠  𝐸𝐸  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠  𝐸𝐸  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝜃𝜃
𝜃𝜃 2
Frame Stiffness
Frame Stiffness 𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 2.0 (13) 68 (306) 1.37 1.34 1.31 1.29 1.28 1.33 1.30 1.27 1.25 1.24 2.0 (13) 68 (306) 1.29 1.27 1.25 1.23 1.22 1.29 1.25 1.24 1.22 1.21
Frame Stiffness 3.0 (19) 103 (448) 1.36 1.33 1.31 1.29 1.27 1.32 1.29 1.27 1.25 1.23 3.0 (19) 103 (448) 1.28 1.26 1.24 1.23 1.22 1.28 1.25 1.23 1.21 1.20
The effective horizontal stiffness can be
TheFrame Stiffness
effective
byhorizontal stiffness can
bebe

## STORY HEIGHT: 18ft (5.5m)

STORY HEIGHT: 14ft (4.3m)
4.0 (26) 137 (613) 1.47 1.42 1.37 1.35 1.32 1.42 1.37 1.34 1.31 1.29 4.0 (26) 137 (613) 1.36 1.33 1.30 1.28 1.26 1.36 1.32 1.29 1.27 1.25
The effective
summarized
Frame Stiffness horizontal stiffness
the following can
statement:
summarized
Frame
summarized byby
Stiffness thethe following
following statement:
statement: 5.0 (32) 171 (754) 1.41 1.37 1.34 1.31 1.29 1.36 1.33 1.30 1.28 1.26 5.0 (32) 171 (754) 1.32 1.29 1.27 1.25 1.24 1.31 1.28 1.26 1.24 1.22
The effective horizontal stiffness can be
The effective horizontal
summarized
The effective stiffness can be can
by thestiffness
horizontal following statement:
be Stiffness Determination of Composite Element 6.0 (39) 205 (919) 1.51 1.45 1.40 1.37 1.34 1.45 1.41 1.37 1.34 1.31 6.0 (39) 205 (919) 1.39 1.35 1.32 1.29 1.27 1.39 1.34 1.31 1.29 1.27
Stiffness Determination
summarized by the following statement: of of Composite Element
BRACE STIFFNESS CALCULATIONS summarized by the following statement:     Stiffness Determination Composite Element
Stiffness Determination of a Composite Element
7.0 (45)
8.0 (52)
239 (1060)
274 (1225)
1.48
1.53
1.42
1.47
1.38
1.42
1.35
1.38
1.33
1.36
1.43
1.47
1.38
1.42
1.35
1.38
1.32
1.35
1.30
1.33
7.0 (45)
8.0 (52)
239 (1060)
274 (1225)
1.37
1.41
1.33
1.37
1.30
1.33
1.28
1.31
1.27
1.29
1.37
1.41
1.32
1.36
1.30
1.33
1.28
1.30
1.26
1.28

BOLTED
BRACE 𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹*   STIFFNESS STIFFNESS CALCULATIONS 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴  𝐸𝐸  𝐸𝐸
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 BRACE CALCULATIONS
StiffnessStiffness
Determination of Composite Element
𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 = = 𝐹𝐹 ∆
𝐾𝐾 = 𝐴𝐴  𝐸𝐸     • A• xial
Determination
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 Axial stiffness
of Composite Elementof yielding 9.0 (58) 308 (1367) 1.54 1.47 1.42 1.39 1.36 1.48 1.43 1.39 1.36 1.33 9.0 (58) 308 (1367) 1.42 1.37 1.34 1.31 1.29 1.41 1.36 1.33 1.31 1.29
𝐾𝐾𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 = *∆∆𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓   * 𝐾𝐾 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 core projected
stiffness of yielding from
core
_𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤== 𝐿𝐿𝐴𝐴
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓   𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤

BOLTEDLUG
10.0 (65) 342 (1532) 1.59 1.51 1.45 1.41 1.38 1.52 1.47 1.42 1.38 1.35 10.0 (65) 342 (1532) 1.45 1.40 1.36 1.33 1.31 1.44 1.39 1.36 1.33 1.31
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝐾𝐾 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
_𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝐿𝐿𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤   𝐸𝐸
Axial stiffness
• projected workpoint
Axial stiffness fromof of yielding
workpoint
yielding to core
to workpoint
core
𝐾𝐾 BRACE
= 𝐹𝐹* BRACE STIFFNESS
𝐹𝐹 STIFFNESS 2CALCULATIONS

CALCULATIONS 𝐾𝐾𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝐴𝐴 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠  𝐸𝐸= 𝐴𝐴 𝐿𝐿𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
𝐸𝐸 workpointfrom workpoint to to
projected from workpoint 11.0 (71) 376 (1673) 1.60 1.51 1.46 1.41 1.38 1.53 1.47 1.43 1.39 1.36 11.0 (71) 376 (1673) 1.46 1.40 1.36 1.33 1.31 1.45 1.40 1.36 1.33 1.31
BRACE STIFFNESS CALCULATIONS
projected
𝐾𝐾 = _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 • Axial stiffness of yielding core
workpoint
−1 BRACE STIFFNESS
BraceForce
Brace Force
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 ∆= 𝐻𝐻
= 𝐾𝐾
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 *𝐾𝐾
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 ∆
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒

𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐

2
𝜃𝜃𝜃𝜃     CALCULATIONS
2 𝐾𝐾𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝐾𝐾 = = 1   𝐿𝐿𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤   •  A xial workpoint
stiffness of yielding from
• Axial projected
core workpoint to
stiffness of yielding core
12.0 (77) 410 (1814) 1.67 1.57 1.50 1.45 1.41 1.59 1.53 1.47 1.43 1.39 12.0 (77) 410 (1814) 1.51 1.44 1.40 1.36 1.33 1.50 1.44 1.40 1.37 1.34
𝜃𝜃𝐾𝐾 𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 =
=𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 ( 𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝑊𝑊
-  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝜃𝜃
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝐾𝐾
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
= 𝐿𝐿𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤

1 1
𝐿𝐿 projected from
projected
workpoint
workpoint
Effective
from
to
(Actual)
workpoint tostiffness 14.0 (90) 479 (2121) 1.60 1.52 1.46 1.42 1.39 1.53 1.47 1.43 1.40 1.37 14.0 (90) 479 (2121) 1.46 1.40 1.37 1.34 1.31 1.45 1.40 1.36 1.34 1.31
𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒== 𝑛𝑛
Brace Force 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
workpoint
11     • composite • E ffective
workpoint
(Actual)
of composite
• Effective
stiffness
element
(Actual) stiffness
of
of
2 16.0 (103) 547 (2427) 1.69 1.59 1.52 1.47 1.43 1.61 1.54 1.49 1.44 1.41 16.0 (103) 547 (2427) 1.53 1.46 1.41 1.37 1.35 1.52 1.45 1.41 1.38 1.35
Brace
Brace ForceForce 𝐾𝐾𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝐾𝐾 = 𝐾𝐾 =
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
𝐾𝐾 𝜃𝜃
𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
2
𝜃𝜃 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝐾𝐾 1 =∑ 𝑛𝑛 1 Effective (Actual) element stiffness of
EQ# Brace Force
Brace Force
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓

𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒   ∑ 𝑖𝑖=0
𝑛𝑛 1 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑖𝑖 1
composite element
= 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒= ∑𝑖𝑖=0
composite element
• Effective (Actual) stiffness of 18.0 (116) 616 (2733) 1.69 1.59 1.52 1.47 1.43 1.61 1.54 1.49 1.45 1.41 18.0 (116) 616 (2733) 1.53 1.46 1.41 1.38 1.35 1.52 1.45 1.41 1.38 1.35
fness 𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝐾𝐾   𝑖𝑖=0 𝑛𝑛𝑘𝑘 • E  𝑖𝑖ffective • (Actual)
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑛𝑛 1𝐾𝐾∑ 𝑖𝑖composite Eelement
stiffnesselement
composite
ffective
of
(Actual) stiffness of 20.0 (129) 684 (3040) 1.66 1.57 1.50 1.46 1.42 1.59 1.52 1.47 1.44 1.40 20.0 (129) 684 (3040) 1.51 1.44 1.40 1.36 1.34 1.50 1.44 1.40 1.37 1.34

 1
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑘𝑘𝑖𝑖 composite
𝑖𝑖=0

∑ ∑𝐾𝐾 𝑛𝑛 𝐾𝐾 • Axial Stiffness element Adjustment Factor 22.0 (142) 752 (3346) 1.76 1.65 1.57 1.51 1.47 1.68 1.60 1.53 1.48 1.44 22.0 (142) 752 (3346) 1.58 1.50 1.45 1.41 1.37 1.57 1.50 1.45 1.41 1.38
𝑢𝑢  𝐿𝐿𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑃𝑃

𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹
𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹= ==𝑘𝑘
𝑖𝑖=0
𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖=0 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝑘𝑘 • Axial
• supplied
Axial
Axial Stiffness
Stiffness
by CoreBrace
Factor
= 𝑢𝑢4𝐾𝐾
2 𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹 𝐾𝐾 𝐾𝐾 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑖𝑖
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 supplied
Factor
supplied
by
supplied
by CoreBrace
CoreBrace
by 24.0 (155) 821 (3652) 1.81 1.68 1.59 1.53 1.47 1.69 1.61 1.57 1.52 1.48 24.0 (155) 821 (3652) 1.61 1.52 1.47 1.42 1.39 1.60 1.52 1.47 1.43 1.40
𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠   𝐸𝐸 BraceElongation
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 Brace Elongation&&StiffnessStiffness 𝐾𝐾𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 = 𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝜃𝜃 𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒=
𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
• CoreBrace
Axial Stiffness Adjustment Factor 26.0 (168) 889 (3959) 1.82 1.69 1.60 1.54 1.46 1.66 1.58 1.59 1.53 1.48 26.0 (168) 889 (3959) 1.62 1.53 1.47 1.43 1.39 1.61 1.53 1.48 1.44 1.41
Brace Elongation & Stiffness (Elastic) 𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹 =   𝐾𝐾𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴  𝐸𝐸 • Axial supplied
Stiffness by
Factor
CoreBrace
𝐸𝐸 & Stiffness BRACE BRACE STIFFNESSSTIFFNESS CALCULATIONS
CALCULATIONS
Brace Elongation & Stiffness Adjustment Factor
Brace Elongation
𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴
Brace
&
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
Elongation
Stiffness 𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹
𝐾𝐾 𝐾𝐾 = = 𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
supplied

𝐸𝐸
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠  𝐸𝐸 by
supplied
•
CoreBrace
E ffectiveby CoreBrace
stiffness of BRB for use in
28.0 (181) 958 (4265) 1.83 1.70 1.61 1.55 1.48 1.69 1.61 1.59 1.54 1.49 28.0 (181) 958 (4265) 1.62 1.53 1.48 1.43 1.40 1.61 1.53 1.48 1.44 1.41
𝑃𝑃𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢  𝐿𝐿
𝐿𝐿𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝐾𝐾

COREBRACE
,∆ 𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 =Brace Elongation 𝑃𝑃
& Stiffness
𝑃𝑃
𝑃𝑃𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒==
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠   • E ffective analysisof BRB forfor
stiffness of BRB use in 30.0 (194) 1026 (4571) 1.81 1.69 1.60 1.54 1.49 1.70 1.62 1.58 1.53 1.48 30.0 (194) 1026 (4571) 1.62 1.53 1.47 1.43 1.40 1.61 1.53 1.48 1.44 1.40

 ∆ = 𝐿𝐿(𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤   𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤  • deflection
Effective stiffness use in
𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏

∆ 𝐿𝐿𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑃𝑃
==  𝐿𝐿 𝑃𝑃 =
= 44 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝐴𝐴 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 ∙  𝐸𝐸)
𝐿𝐿 Effective
deflection stiffness of BRB
analysis Workpoint Length, ft (m)
𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠  𝐸𝐸
20.5 (6.3) 24.4 (7.4) 28.7 (8.7) 33.1 (10.0) 37.7 (11.5) 20.5 (6.3) 22.4 (6.8) 24.4 (7.4) 26.5 (8.1) 28.7 (8.7) Workpoint Length, ft (m) 23.4 (7.1) 26.9 (8.2) 30.8 (9.4) 35.0 (10.7) 39.4 (12.0) 23.4 (7.1) 25.1 (7.7) 26.9 (8.2) 28.8 (8.8) 30.8 (9.4)
𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏
𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏
∆𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏
𝑢𝑢
= = 𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴 𝑃𝑃
𝐴𝐴
𝐿𝐿
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝐿𝐿= 𝑃𝑃𝑢𝑢
𝐸𝐸𝑢𝑢4 𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝐾𝐾
= 𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴 𝐿𝐿𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤  𝐸𝐸 E ffective
deflection
for analysis
use in stiffness
• Effective deflection of BRB for use in
𝐸𝐸𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾  𝐸𝐸
𝑢𝑢 𝑃𝑃𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
∆𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏
Brace
Brace Force
Force 𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑢
𝑃𝑃
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤=
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
𝐿𝐿 𝐾𝐾4 𝑃𝑃 𝐾𝐾 𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒Rigid=Assumption

𝐿𝐿   𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠• Effective • stiffness of BRBanalysis
analysis
deflection for use in Bay Width
Bay Width Bay Width
Bay Width Bay Width
Bay Width Bay Width
Bay Width
𝑢𝑢 𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 =
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒   stiffness of BRB for use in
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴 𝐸𝐸 = 4𝑃𝑃 𝑢𝑢   𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 Rigid 𝐿𝐿𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝐿𝐿 the𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
Assumption deflection
analysis
= 𝐾𝐾 4𝐾𝐾
𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑢𝑢
∆ =𝐴𝐴 𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 𝐸𝐸
𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏 𝐴𝐴𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾  𝐸𝐸
𝐸𝐸 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒   Rigid Assumption deflection analysis

 𝑃𝑃
𝑃𝑃 𝑃𝑃𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴 𝐸𝐸 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴  𝐸𝐸 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 If ke and kt are assumed rigid, above equation for W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97
𝐾𝐾 =
𝑃𝑃 , 𝑢𝑢 𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 ==
𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴  𝐸𝐸 𝐸𝐸
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠   𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 kRigide Rigid Assumption
Assumption

COREBRACE
If k and k are assumed rigid, the above equation for
∆ 𝐾𝐾 = = 𝑃𝑃 𝑃𝑃 ,∆∆
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
= , 𝐾𝐾 𝐾𝐾 = 𝐴𝐴
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑢𝑢 𝑢𝑢   𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏 𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾
𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
IfKF
Rigid Assumption
simplifies
and k aret to:
assumed rigid, the above equation for

W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109

W14×211

W14×211

W14×211

W14×211
W14×211

W14×211

W14×211

W14×211
𝐾𝐾 = =𝐿𝐿 𝐿𝐿 𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴
e t

(4.3m)
(4.3m)

(4.3m)
(4.3m)
KF simplifies to:

(5.5m)

(5.5m)
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒

(5.5m)

(5.5m)

𝐾𝐾 𝐾𝐾
𝐾𝐾 =  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
=∆,∆,

𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏       𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 Rigid
KF Assumption
simplifies to:

14ft

18ft

18ft
14ft

14ft
14ft
𝑢𝑢
𝐿𝐿 assumed rigid,
1 the

18ft

18ft
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏
𝐸𝐸 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 If k and k tare
If k and k are assumed rigid, the above equation for

≅≅𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿 == 11 ==1.67
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝐹𝐹  𝐿𝐿𝑃𝑃𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝐿𝐿𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
e
𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 e
If ke and kt are assumed t the
rigid, to: above equation for
𝐹𝐹   ∆Frame Frame = 𝐾𝐾Deflection
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 =
𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏
𝑢𝑢(Elastic)
,∆   𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 =   𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾
KF simplifies to:
KF simplifies
If kabove equation
e and kt are
𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾≅
assumed 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 for
rigid,KF
thesimplifies to: for
above equation
1.67
Frame Frame
Frame
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 Deflection
Deflection
Deflection
𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠  𝐸𝐸  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
Deflection 𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏
2𝜃𝜃 

𝐿𝐿 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 KF simplifies to:
𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤= 0.6 0.6 1 = 1.67
W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97
𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 2 𝜃𝜃 Frame Deflection sub from
𝑃𝑃𝑢𝑢 𝑃𝑃
sub from 
𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 𝐿𝐿 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 ≅ 𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 1
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 = 0.61 = 1.67
Brace Elongation && ∆𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏
Stiffness 𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 ≅𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 ≅ =𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝐿𝐿𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 == 0.6 1.67

Brace
Frame
Elongation
∆𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
Deflection
Stiffness
= ∆𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏   ∆ ∆𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 ∆
∆ =
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 = =
= 𝑢𝑢𝑃𝑃𝑢𝑢
𝐿𝐿𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝐾𝐾𝐿𝐿𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 0.6≅ 0.6 =
1.67   Fysc = 38 ksi (262 MPa) Bay Width, ft (m) Fysc = 38 ksi (262 MPa) Bay Width, ft (m)
∆𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 = 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐

∆𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 =  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐

𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝐾𝐾𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 1.67𝐾𝐾
≅≅1.67𝐾𝐾 1.67𝐾𝐾
𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐

𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦 Rev 1 - 4/1/13𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
Rev 𝑃𝑃 𝑃𝑃  𝐿𝐿
𝐿𝐿
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝐹𝐹  𝐿𝐿 𝑃𝑃 𝐾𝐾 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
· 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
_𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤   Asc3 Py_axial4 15 (4.6) 20 (6.1) 25 (7.6) 30 (9.1) 35 (10.7) 30 (9.1) 35 (10.7) 40 (12.2) 45 (13.7) 50 (15.2) Asc3 Py_axial4 15 (4.6) 20 (6.1) 25 (7.6) 30 (9.1) 35 (10.7) 30 (9.1) 35 (10.7) 40 (12.2) 45 (13.7) 50 (15.2)
2Φ( . )  𝐻𝐻 1 -𝑢𝑢 𝐹𝐹
𝑢𝑢
4/1/13
Rev 1 - 4/1/13 𝐹𝐹   𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝐹𝐹 𝐹𝐹
sub 𝑃𝑃
𝑃𝑃 from 
𝑢𝑢 𝑢𝑢 ∆ ∆ = = 𝐹𝐹  𝐿𝐿
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝐹𝐹 𝐿𝐿 𝐹𝐹
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝑢𝑢 𝐿𝐿
𝐹𝐹  𝐿𝐿 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
·
𝐾𝐾 ≅ 1.67𝐾𝐾 in2 (cm2) kip (kN) SINGLE DIAGONAL CHEVRON/V in2 (cm2) kip (kN) SINGLE DIAGONAL CHEVRON/V
𝐸𝐸 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 ∆ ∆
∆𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 == = 𝐹𝐹   = =   4 4 ∆
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 ∆     𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓= = 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤2   𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝐾𝐾 ≅ UT1.67𝐾𝐾 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤

 𝐾𝐾 ∆ = 𝐾𝐾  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏
∆∆ =   𝐾𝐾
𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏 ∆𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴
=𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴  𝐸𝐸  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝜃𝜃West
∆1 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
Rev𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
=𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴
𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴
=  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
Rev 1 - 9/24/16
𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
2𝐸𝐸
𝜃𝜃
𝐸𝐸
2

𝜃𝜃222𝜃𝜃 of Composite Element𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝐴𝐴  𝐸𝐸  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴
𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 5789
𝐸𝐸 2 𝜃𝜃
𝐸𝐸  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
2

𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
Wells Park 2 𝜃𝜃2

𝜃𝜃
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
West Jordan, 𝐾𝐾 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 84081 ≅ 1.67𝐾𝐾
ph: 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
801-280-0701   www.corebrace.com
_𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤   2.0 (13) 68 (306) 1.33 1.30 1.28 1.26 1.25 1.30 1.27 1.25 1.23 1.22 2.0 (13) 68 (306) 1.28 1.24 1.22 1.21 1.20 1.28 1.24 1.22 1.21 1.19
- 4/1/13 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝐸𝐸 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝜃𝜃

𝐾𝐾 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐

𝐹𝐹   𝜃𝜃𝜃𝜃
𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾  𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠2𝜃𝜃 Rev 1 - 4/1/13 𝐾𝐾
Stiffness
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
Determination 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝐹𝐹  𝐿𝐿 3.0 (19) 103 (448) 1.32 1.29 1.27 1.25 1.24 1.29 1.27 1.25 1.23 1.21 3.0 (19) 103 (448) 1.27 1.23 1.22 1.21 1.20 1.27 1.23 1.21 1.20 1.19
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦
𝑃𝑃𝑢𝑢𝑃𝑃𝑢𝑢=,(Elastic)   2   𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 ∆=𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴
𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴 =𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠  𝐸𝐸  𝐸𝐸 This assumption can result in significant error as the

## STORY HEIGHT: 16ft (4.9m)

4.0 (26) 137 (613) 1.41 1.37 1.33 1.31 1.29 1.38 1.34 1.31 1.29 1.27 4.0 (26) 137 (613) 1.35 1.30 1.27 1.25 1.24 1.34 1.30 1.27 1.25 1.24

## STORY HEIGHT: 20ft (6.1m)

2Φ(Frame Stiffness 7Alternate )   ∆𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
𝐾𝐾 =Forms = 𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴  𝐸𝐸  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 ratio

2 𝜃𝜃 of Lwp/Lsc increases and can underestimate elastic
∆𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 Frame 𝐾𝐾
𝐸𝐸 Stiffness
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 = , ∆𝐹𝐹∆𝐾𝐾 𝐴𝐴  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
𝐸𝐸 𝜃𝜃 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒       𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 5.0 (32) 171 (754) 1.36 1.32 1.30 1.28 1.26 1.33 1.30 1.28 1.26 1.24 5.0 (32) 171 (754) 1.31 1.26 1.24 1.23 1.22 1.30 1.26 1.24 1.22 1.21
𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿

𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 deformations. However, since the elastic deformations of
= = TheThe Frame
Frame FrameStiffness Stiffness
Stiffness 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏
effective horizontal 𝐾𝐾𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
stiffness can =
𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏𝑏 be 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤

BRBBRB
effective
horizontal _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
stiffness ! can be   • Axial stiffness of yielding core
non-yielding regions calculated with non-rigid assumptions 6.0 (39) 205 (919) 1.44 1.39 1.35 1.33 1.30 1.41 1.37 1.34 1.31 1.29 6.0 (39) 205 (919) 1.37 1.32 1.29 1.27 1.25 1.37 1.32 1.29 1.27 1.26
𝐻𝐻𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾  𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠2𝜃𝜃
summarized
The The by
effective
the following
effective
The effective horizontal stiffness
summarized by the 2Φ(
horizontal
horizontal
following
statement:
stiffness
stiffness
statement: )  𝐻𝐻
𝐸𝐸 can be   𝐿𝐿 can 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
can !" be be
projected from workpoint to
are amplified by Cd to calculate their inelastic deformations 7.0 (45) 239 (1060) 1.42 1.37 1.34
Bay
Bay Width
Width 1.31 1.29 1.39 1.35 1.32
Bay
Bay Width
Width 1.30 1.28 7.0 (45) 239 (1060) 1.36 1.30 1.28
Bay Width
Bay Width 1.26 1.24 1.35 1.30 1.28
Bay Width
Bay Width 1.26 1.24
Frame
Frame ∆
summarized
summarized
summarized Deflection
Deflection
!"#\$%
Frame Stiffness = by the following statement:
bybythethefollowing
followingstatement: statement:
workpoint
(which over-predicts these deformations , the rigid
Bay Width
Bay Width Bay Width
Bay Width Bay Width
Bay Width Bay Width
Bay Width
𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾  𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠2𝜃𝜃   1 Stiffness Determination of Composite
Stiffness Determination assumption
of Compositemay
Element
Element more accurately predict the total inelastic
8.0 (52) 274 (1225) 1.46 1.41 1.37
W18×97
W18×97
1.34 1.32 1.43 1.39 1.35
W18×97
W18×97
1.33 1.30 8.0 (52) 274 (1225) 1.39 1.33 1.30
W18×97
W18×97
1.28 1.26 1.39 1.34 1.31
W18×97
W18×97
1.28 1.27
The effective 𝐾𝐾
horizontal
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 = stiffness

can   be 𝐹𝐹! • Effective (Actual) stiffness of 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 Stiffness Determination of a Composite Element 9.0 (58) 308 (1367) 1.47 1.42 1.37
W18×97
W18×97 1.34 1.32 1.44 1.39 1.36
W18×97
W18×97 1.33 1.31 9.0 (58) 308 (1367) 1.40 1.34 1.31
W18×97
W18×97 1.28 1.26 1.39 1.34 1.31
W18×97
W18×97 1.29 1.27
∆!"#\$% 1 2Φ( )   element 𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 Stiffness Determination
Stiffness deformationsof
Determination ofofComposite
athe element.
Composite Element Element

W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109

W14×211
W14×211

W14×211
W14×211

W14×211
W14×211

W14×211
W14×211

𝐸𝐸∆

(4.3m)
(4.3m)

(4.3m)
(4.3m)

(5.5m)
(5.5m)

(5.5m)
(5.5m)
summarized by𝐹𝐹the =following ∑𝑛𝑛𝑖𝑖=0 statement:   composite
∆   𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓= = 10.0 (65) 342 (1532) 1.51 1.45 1.40 1.36 1.34 1.47 1.43 1.39 1.35 1.33 10.0 (65) 342 (1532) 1.43 1.36 1.33 1.30 1.28 1.42 1.37 1.33 1.31 1.29

18ft
18ft

18ft
18ft
14ft
14ft

14ft
14ft
𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆  𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷 =   𝑘𝑘   𝐴𝐴    𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝐴𝐴  𝐸𝐸  𝐸𝐸

W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109

W14×211

W14×211

W14×211

W14×211
W14×211

W14×211

W14×211

W14×211

(4.9m)
(4.9m)

(4.9m)
(4.9m)
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓

(6.1m)

(6.1m)
(6.1m)

(6.1m)
stiffness can be
𝐾𝐾 = * 𝐹𝐹 𝐾𝐾 𝐾𝐾  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐

20ft

20ft
16ft
16ft

16ft
16ft

20ft

20ft
𝐾𝐾𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 = ∆*
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝐻𝐻!"   𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾  𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠2𝜃𝜃
𝑖𝑖 𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 = = Approximate 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝐴𝐴   𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠   𝐸𝐸• Axial• Astiffness 11.0 (71) 376 (1673) 1.51 1.45 1.40 1.37 1.34 1.48 1.43 1.39 1.36 1.33 11.0 (71) 376 (1673) 1.43 1.36 1.33 1.30 1.28 1.43 1.37 1.34 1.31 1.29
owing statement:
∆𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒   • Axial Stiffness Adjustment Factor 𝐾𝐾_𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
𝐾𝐾_𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝐿𝐿𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 = xialfrom stiffness Stiffness
of yielding core
of yielding coreModification Factor
𝐹𝐹 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝐹𝐹  𝐿𝐿 𝐹𝐹  𝐿𝐿 𝐿𝐿 Stiffness 𝐴𝐴 𝐴𝐴
Determination
projected
𝐸𝐸
𝐸𝐸 workpoint oftoofComposite core Element 12.0 (77) 410 (1814) 1.57 1.50 1.44 1.40 1.37 1.54 1.48 1.43 1.40 1.37 12.0 (77) 410 (1814) 1.48 1.40 1.36 1.33 1.31 1.47 1.41 1.37 1.35 1.32

TABLES

For𝐾𝐾 LRFD =
𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹
design, =
use* 𝐹𝐹   Φ 𝐹𝐹   = 0.9   in   addition to any 2.25
_𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝐾𝐾
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝐿𝐿 =
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
workpoint projected
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
• Axial from stiffnessworkpoint yielding
to W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97

𝐾𝐾∆ ∆ 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
of= == =
𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 ∆𝐾𝐾
𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓2
𝜃𝜃from
supplied
∆∆by
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓==
CoreBrace
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝐾𝐾𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠REGION _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 =
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 workpoint

projected

from workpoint to
• A• xial Axialstiffness
stiffnessofofyielding yieldingcore core 14.0 (90) 479 (2121) 1.53 1.47 W18×97
W18×97
1.42 1.38 1.35 1.50 1.43 W18×97
W18×97
1.39 1.36 1.33 14.0 (90) 479 (2121) 1.44 1.36 W18×97
W18×97
1.33 1.31 1.29 1.43 1.37 W18×97
W18×97
1.34 1.31 1.29
𝜃𝜃𝐿𝐿
2
𝐾𝐾
factor𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 safety 𝐾𝐾
𝐾𝐾 𝐾𝐾resulting  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 2𝜃𝜃 2
𝜃𝜃    the ratio of the
𝜃𝜃

𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠1  𝐸𝐸  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴  𝐸𝐸  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
1HIGH 22 𝜃𝜃𝐿𝐿𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 workpoint
projectedfrom
projected fromworkpoint workpointtoto 16.0 (103) 547 (2427) 1.59 1.51 1.46 1.41 1.38 1.55 1.49 1.44 1.41 1.38 16.0 (103) 547 (2427) 1.50 1.41 1.37 1.34 1.32 1.49 1.42 1.38 1.35 1.33
required 𝐾𝐾𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
Asc to = 𝐹𝐹
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
the provided *𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴 A𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠sc. 2  𝐸𝐸
𝐾𝐾 𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 = = 𝑛𝑛= STRAIN
OF
1 1   composite
1 •  E ffective
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤(Actual)
𝐴𝐴 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 (Actual)  𝐸𝐸 Stiffness
stiffness
within
workpoint
workpoint of
modification factors for braces lying
the enveloped region may not vary linearly
𝐹𝐹* 𝐾𝐾𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝐾𝐾= ∆𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓   𝐾𝐾in𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝐾𝐾 = 11• composite Effective stiffness of 18.0 (116) 616 (2733) 1.60 1.52 1.47 1.42 1.39 1.56 1.49 1.45 1.41 1.38 18.0 (116) 616 (2733) 1.50 1.41 1.37 1.34 1.32 1.49 1.43 1.38 1.36 1.33
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝐾𝐾=  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝜃𝜃     • deflection ∑𝑖𝑖=0
Effective stiffness of BRB for use element • the
Axial stiffness of graph
yieldingiscore
∆𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓   Frame Stiffness
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝐿𝐿𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 analysis ∑ 𝑛𝑛 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑛𝑛_𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝑘𝑘𝑖𝑖= 1 𝐿𝐿
• Effective   across
element (Actual) region.
stiffness ofThis intended to show
20.0 (129) 684 (3040) 1.58 1.50 1.45 1.41 1.38 1.54 1.47 1.43 1.39 1.36 20.0 (129) 684 (3040) 1.48 1.40 1.36 1.33 1.31 1.47 1.41 1.37 1.34 1.32
∑ projected from workpoint to workpoint
Stiffness Modification Factor, KF

2.00
𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖=0
= 𝑘𝑘 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 composite element
the general relationship of KF to

TABLES
Frame Stiffness 𝑖𝑖=0 𝑘𝑘
Frame Stiffness 𝑖𝑖   • E workpoint
ffective (Actual) stiffness of
𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
length • E ffective and (Actual)
core area. stiffness
Actual of
KF values should be 22.0 (142) 752 (3346) 1.65 1.56 1.50 1.45 1.41 1.61 1.54 1.49 1.45 1.41 22.0 (142) 752 (3346) 1.55 1.45 1.41 1.37 1.34 1.54 1.46 1.42 1.39 1.36
𝑛𝑛𝑖𝑖• Axial Stiffness
𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 2 𝜃𝜃   The effective
𝐾𝐾
The effective Rigid
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
horizontal
The effective horizontal stiffness can be2
=
horizontal
Assumption𝐾𝐾
stiffness 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 stiffness
can
𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐be
can2 be
𝜃𝜃
𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹 == 𝐾𝐾
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝐾𝐾   𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑖𝑖=0
∑∑ 𝑛𝑛
𝑖𝑖=0
supplied •
A1𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘by𝑖𝑖• ACoreBrace
xial Stiffness
coordinated composite
composite
Factor element
element
with
Factor
CoreBrace. 24.0 (155) 821 (3652) 1.71 1.61 1.53 1.48 1.44 1.66 1.57 1.51 1.47 1.43 24.0 (155) 821 (3652) 1.57 1.47 1.42 1.38 1.35 1.56 1.48 1.43 1.40 1.37
summarized
summarized summarized 𝐾𝐾by bythe
If k by
the
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 =kthe
and
following
following 𝐾𝐾assumed
are following
statement:
statement:
simplifies to:𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
rigid, the 𝜃𝜃 statement:
above equation for 𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 𝐾𝐾𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠= 𝐾𝐾_𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 =
supplied 𝑖𝑖 supplied xialCoreBrace
26.0 (168) 889 (3959) 1.72 1.62 1.54 1.49 1.44 1.67 1.57 1.52 1.47 1.43 26.0 (168) 889 (3959) 1.58 1.47 1.42 1.37 1.34 1.56 1.48 1.43 1.40 1.37
1.75 𝐾𝐾𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
e t
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒   • Effective (Actual) stiffness of
KF
𝐾𝐾 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝐾𝐾
𝐾𝐾 𝑛𝑛 1 by CoreBrace

𝐾𝐾𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 = 𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝐿𝐿 21
𝜃𝜃 𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴
𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴 =  𝐸𝐸 ∑ 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 • A •  A
xial
composite element
xialStiffness
(194 cm ) Factor
28.0 (181) 958 (4265) 1.72 1.62 1.55 1.49 1.45 1.68 1.58 1.52 1.47 1.44 28.0 (181) 958 (4265) 1.58 1.47 1.43 1.38 1.35 1.57 1.49 1.44 1.40 1.37
𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠    𝐸𝐸 𝑖𝑖=0 ffective𝑘𝑘
Stiffness 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 Determination
Stiffness Determination ofof of Composite
Composite
2
Afor=use inElement
30Element
2
𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 ≅ =     = 1.67   𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 = 𝐴𝐴 (𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 • E
∙ 𝐸𝐸)   stiffness
𝑖𝑖 BRB in 30.0 (194) 1026 (4571) 1.71 1.62 1.54 1.49 1.45 1.67 1.57 1.51 1.47 1.43 30.0 (194) 1026 (4571) 1.58 1.47 1.42 1.38 1.36 1.56 1.48 1.43 1.40 1.37
𝐾𝐾 supplied
supplied of BRBbyfor byCoreBrace
CoreBrace
sc
𝐾𝐾 = 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 •  E ffective stiffness use in
𝐿𝐿𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 0.6 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 = 𝐿𝐿𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
deflection analysis
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠_𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝐾𝐾_𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
•  E ffective stiffness of BRB for use in
𝐿𝐿𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 deflection analysis Workpoint Length, ft (m) 21.9 (6.7) 25.6 (7.8) 29.7 (9.0) 34.0 (10.4) 38.5 (11.7) 21.9 (6.7) 23.7 (7.2) 25.6 (7.8) 27.6 (8.4) 29.7 (9.0) Workpoint Length, ft (m) 25.0 (7.6) 28.3 (8.6) 32.0 (9.8) 36.1 (11.0) 40.3 (12.3) 25.0 (7.6) 26.6 (8.1) 28.3 (8.6) 30.1 (9.2) 32.0 (9.8)
sub from  𝐿𝐿 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 deflection analysis
• A xial Stiffness Adjustment Factor
𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹 1.50 𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹 𝐴𝐴 =𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝐴𝐴 𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴(𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠  𝐸𝐸  𝐸𝐸𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠∙  𝐸𝐸)  𝐸𝐸 • E• supplied Bay
Bay Width
Width Bay
Bay Width
Width Bay Width
Bay Width Bay Width
Bay Width
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 == **
Rigid Assumption by CoreBrace
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 ∆𝐾𝐾∆ 𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓

≅ 1.67𝐾𝐾𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
Rigid Assumption
Rigid 𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝐾𝐾 𝐾𝐾𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
Assumption
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
_𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤= ===equation 𝐾𝐾 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠for _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤     • A   • xial
Axial E ffective
ffective
stiffness
stiffness
stiffness
stiffness
of of of of
yielding
yielding BRB BRB for
core use
core for useinin
If k and k are assumed
If k and to:
KF simplifies k are assumed rigid, the above 𝐿𝐿
e rigid,

## to: k are assumed rigid, the𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤

e
t the above
t
𝐿𝐿 𝐿𝐿
equation 𝐿𝐿
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
for projected projected deflection
deflection fromfrom analysis
analysisworkpoint
workpoint to to
W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97
*However, this assumption can result in significant error and KF simplifiesIf k and
𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴
above equation for
𝐸𝐸 workpoint

W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 workpoint

W14×211
W14×211

W14×211
W14×211

W14×211
W14×211

W14×211
W14×211
e t

(4.9m)
(4.9m)

(4.9m)
(4.9m)

(6.1m)
(6.1m)

(6.1m)
(6.1m)
1.25𝐿𝐿Rigid = 51
should not be used for design.
𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐22𝜃𝜃𝜃𝜃
KF simplifies to:
𝐾𝐾 =

20ft
20ft

20ft
20ft
𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 =𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾

16ft
16ft

16ft
16ft
• Effective stiffness of BRB for use in
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 = 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒  𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐
A in (32 cm )
2 2
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝐿𝐿
Rigid Assumption
Assumption 1 1=
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤= 1
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑓 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 ≅ ≅ 𝐿𝐿= =1 1.67
sc
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 1.67𝐿𝐿   deflection analysis
k=
𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 𝐿𝐿If𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
≅ = 0.6 =assumed = 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
1.67
𝐿𝐿
If𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
k𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 kandKF
and
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
kvalues
𝐿𝐿𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠(360mm)
are are
e e assumed0.6 in thisrigid,
t
0.6t chart
rigid,   the
11columnscomposite
the are
above above based • ffective
• Eequation E
equation on afor
ffective 45°
for brace
(Actual)
(Actual) angle,of of
stiffness
stiffness W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97

## For design assistance KFKF 14˝ to:to:𝑛𝑛 𝑛𝑛

∑ deep and composite 18˝ (460mm) elementdeep beams.
simplifies
simplifies
5789 West Wells Park Road, West Jordan, UT 84081 ph: 801-280-0701 www.corebrace.com Rigid Assumption ∑ 𝑖𝑖=0𝑖𝑖=0𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘
element
1.00 𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 If k ≅ and k1.67𝐾𝐾
𝐿𝐿 𝐿𝐿 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑖𝑖 11
𝑖𝑖rigid, NOTES: 1. KF = Keff / Ksc_wp where Keff is the actual WP to WP stiffness of the installed brace and Ksc_wp is the stiffness of the indicated core area if it occurred from WP to WP.
Rev 1 - 4/1/13 contact CoreBrace: 𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 10 𝐾𝐾 𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾
KF𝐾𝐾
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 ≅
simplifies ≅ ≅ are
15e

𝐾𝐾
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
1.67𝐾𝐾
assumed
to:𝐾𝐾 1.67𝐾𝐾
t
= =
20 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤the
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤(7.6) =
above equation for
25

= 1.67 1.67 30
(9.1)
35 40 45 50 The indicated KF factors are expected “base value” (minimums). These can be adjusted upwards somewhat, but doing so can affect overstrength factors and may have
undesirable effects. Coordinate with CoreBrace.
Rev 1 - 4/1/13
5789 West Wells Park Road, West Jordan, UT 84081 𝐿𝐿
(3.0) 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹== 𝐿𝐿𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤     Workpoint
(4.6)
𝐿𝐿 801-280-07010.6
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 (6.1)
0.6 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 • A• xial Axial Stiffness
Stiffness
(10.7)
(12.2)
Factor
Factor
(13.7) (15.2)
Rev 1 - 9/24/16
5789 West Wells Park Road 𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹 ph:𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 www.corebrace.com
1supplied supplied Length,
byby CoreBrace
CoreBrace feet (m) 2. Indicated KF factors are approx values for the indicated frame geometry and beam/column sizes. Different beam and/or column sizes will result in different KF values.

## 𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 𝐾𝐾≅ 𝐾𝐾 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠

_𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤 = = 1.67
3. Indicated core area is minimum cross sectional area of yielding portion of BRB core.
West Jordan, UT 84081 𝐿𝐿𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠≅ 0.6 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
4. Py_axial is the design yield strength of the BRB equal to: øFyAsc based on the lower-bound of the yield stress range. Typ yield stress range = 42 ksi ± 4 ksi (290MPa ± 28MPa)

## 801.280.0701 𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴 𝐾𝐾𝐹𝐹  𝐴𝐴

𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 ≅𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠1.67𝐾𝐾 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 1.67𝐾𝐾
𝐸𝐸  𝐸𝐸 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
5. Where a KF is not given in the table, the brace orientation may result in an unacceptable level of strain. Contact CoreBrace for project specific details.
5789 West Wells Park Road, 𝐾𝐾 = • E• ffective
Ewww.corebrace.com
ffective stiffness of of BRB forfor use in in
Rev
Rev 1 -14/1/13- 9/24/16
www.corebrace.com 𝐾𝐾 West Jordan,
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 = UT 84081 ph: 801-280-0701

stiffness BRB use 6. The area of the “Connection Region” (WP to Tip of gusset) is taken to be on average 5× stiffer than the “End Region” of the brace, which results in a semi-rigid offset.
𝐿𝐿 𝐿𝐿 𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤≅ 1.67𝐾𝐾
deflection
deflection analysis
analysis 7. Values given are intended for schematic design only. Contact CoreBrace for project specific information.
𝐾𝐾𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 _𝑤𝑤𝑤𝑤
8. Brace sizes and Stiffness Modification Factors in addition to those shown are available upon request.
Rev 1 - 4/1/13 9. This table was created by considering core strain at 2% story drift minimum as required by AISC 341-10. For other story drifts, values may be different.
9/2016 Rigid
Rigid Assumption
Assumption
IfIf kkIfee kand
e and
and kare
t are
kktt are assumed
assumed
assumed rigid,
rigid,
rigid, thethe
the above
above
above equation
equation
equation forfor
for
KFKF
KF simplifies
simplifies
simplifies to:to:
to:
11stst-Mode
-Mode Euler
Euler Buckling
Buckling

Approximate Casing Sizes1, 8 in (mm) Approximate Casing Sizes1, 8 in (mm) (cont’d) Bolted Lug Brace and Casing Information
BOLTED LUG BRACE AND CASING INFORMATION

Sizes shown are representative of typical BRB sizes. Information on intermediate and larger sizes is available upon request. Sizes shown are representative of typical BRB sizes. Information on intermediate and larger sizes is available upon request.

Fysc = 38 ksi (262 MPa) Bay Width, ft (m) Fysc = 38 ksi (262 MPa) Bay Width, ft (m) BOLTED LUG1st1st-Mode
BRACE
-Mode EulerAND
EulerCASING
BucklingBuckling INFORMATION
Asc3 Py_axial4 15 (4.6) 20 (6.1) 25 (7.6) 30 (9.1) 35 (10.7) 30 (9.1) 35 (10.7) 40 (12.2) 45 (13.7) 50 (15.2) Asc3 Py_axial4 15 (4.6) 20 (6.1) 25 (7.6) 30 (9.1) 35 (10.7) 30 (9.1) 35 (10.7) 40 (12.2) 45 (13.7) 50 (15.2) -Mode Euler
𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛thth-Mode Euler Buckling
Buckling
in2 (cm2) kip (kN) SINGLE DIAGONAL CHEVRON/V in2 (cm2) kip (kN) SINGLE DIAGONAL CHEVRON/V BOLTED LUG BRACE AND CASING INFORMATION
2.0 (13) 68 (306) 2.0 (13) 68 (306) 1st-Mode Euler Buckling

t7 (t178) t7 (t178) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t7 (t178) t7 (t178) t7 (t178) t7 (t178) t8 (t203) t7 (t178) t7 (t178) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t7 (t178) t7 (t178) t7 (t178) t8 (t203) t8 (t203)
3.0 (19) 103 (448) 3.0 (19) 103 (448) Elastic (Euler) Buckling
t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t10 (t254) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) 2E 1st-Mode Euler Buckling

## STORY HEIGHT: 18ft (5.5m)

STORY HEIGHT: 14ft (4.3m)
4.0 (26) 137 (613) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t10 (t254) 4.0 (26) 137 (613) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t10 (t254) t10 (t254)

Compression Strength
(KL/r)2 𝑛𝑛th-Mode Euler Buckling

5.0 (32) 171 (754) t8 (t203) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t8 (t203) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) 5.0 (32) 171 (754) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254)

where

6.0 (39) 205 (919) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) 6.0 (39) 205 (919) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t12 (t305) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) where     𝑛th-Mode Euler Buckling
𝑛𝑛th-Mode Euler Buckling
7.0 (45) 239 (1060) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t12 (t305) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) 7.0 (45) 239 (1060) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254)
8.0 (52) 274 (1225) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t12 (t305) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) 8.0 (52) 274 (1225) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254)     𝑛𝑛th-Mode Euler Buckling

9.0 (58) 308 (1367) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) 9.0 (58) 308 (1367) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254)
where
BOLTED COREBRACE BRB TABLES

10.0 (65) 342 (1532) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) 10.0 (65) 342 (1532) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254)
11.0 (71) 376 (1673) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) 11.0 (71) 376 (1673) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t14 (t356) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305)

where

12.0 (77) 410 (1814) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) 12.0 (77) 410 (1814) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t14 (t356) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305)
Casing Demands Proportional
14.0 (90) 479 (2121) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) 14.0 (90) 479 (2121) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t14 (t356) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305)Casing Demands
t12 (t305)
where
Limit
16.0 (103) 547 (2427) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) 16.0 (103) 547 (2427) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) Inelastic
Buckling
18.0 (116) 616 (2733) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) 18.0 (116) 616 (2733) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t16 (t406) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356)

Casing Demands
20.0 (129) 684 (3040) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) 20.0 (129) 684 (3040) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356)

22.0 (142) 752 (3346) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) 22.0 (142) 752 (3346) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406)
Slenderness
24.0 (155) 821 (3652) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) 24.0 (155) 821 (3652) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) Casing Demands

## 26.0 (168) 889 (3959)

28.0 (181) 958 (4265)
t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406)
t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406)
t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406)
t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406)
26.0 (168) 889 (3959)
28.0 (181) 958 (4265)
t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) p18 (p457)
t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) p20 (p508)
t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406)
t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406)
Casing Demands
Casing Demands Approximate Casing Size
24
30.0 (194) 1026 (4571) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) 30.0 (194) 1026 (4571) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p20 (p508) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) (610)
This graph is intended to show the general relationship of casing width
Workpoint Length, ft (m) 20.5 (6.3) 24.4 (7.4) 28.7 (8.7) 33.1 (10.1) 37.7 (11.5) 20.5 (6.3) 22.4 (6.8) 24.4 (7.4) 26.5 (8.1) 28.7 (8.7) Workpoint Length, ft (m) 23.4 (7.1) 26.9 (8.2) 30.8 (9.4) 35.0 (10.7) 39.4 (12.0) 23.4 (7.1) 25.1 (7.7) 26.9 (8.2) 28.8 (8.8) 30.8 (9.4) to work point length and core area. Actual casing sizes should be
22 coordinated with CoreBrace. Circular casings are assumed for casings
Bay
Bay
Width
Width Bay
Bay
Width
Width Bay Width
Bay Width Bay Width
Bay Width (559)
wider than 16” (406mm). Sizes may not be the most economical.
t = square tube t = square tube FSB = Factor of safety against buckling. Should include
20

## Casing Width, in (mm)

p = round pipe W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97
p = round pipe W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97 code-prescribed phi factor, factor to account for initial (508)
Compression Overstrength Factors (β) for
braces longer than 40’ (12.2m) have been
(rectangular (rectangular out-of-straightness, and any additional factors as
W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109

W14×211

W14×211

W14×211

W14×211
W14×211

W14×211

W14×211

W14×211
adjusted to account for length effects.
(4.3m)
(4.3m)

(4.3m)
(4.3m)

(5.5m)

(5.5m)
(5.5m)

(5.5m)
14ft
14ft

14ft
14ft

18ft

18ft
deemed necessary.

18ft

18ft
casings also casings also 18
(457)
available) available) Asc = 30 in2 (194 cm2)
W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
Brace
Brace Strength
Strength Strength
Determination
Determination
Determination 16
(406)

## Asc = 20 in2 (129 cm2)

Fysc = 38 ksi (262 MPa) Bay Width, ft (m) Fysc = 38 ksi (262 MPa) Bay Width, ft (m) 𝑃𝑃𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 =
𝑃𝑃 = 𝛽𝛽𝛽𝛽𝐹𝐹
𝛽𝛽𝛽𝛽𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦𝐴𝐴
𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠    (𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐)
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠    (𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐)
14
(355)

Py_axial4 15 (4.6) 20 (6.1) 25 (7.6) 30 (9.1) 35 (10.7) 30 (9.1) 35 (10.7) 40 (12.2) 45 (13.7) 50 (15.2) Py_axial4 15 (4.6) 20 (6.1) 25 (7.6) 30 (9.1) 35 (10.7) 30 (9.1) 35 (10.7) 40 (12.2) 45 (13.7) 50 (15.2) 𝑐𝑐 𝑦𝑦 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑃𝑃 = 𝛽𝛽𝛽𝛽𝐹𝐹 𝐴𝐴    (𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐)
Asc3 Asc3 𝑃𝑃𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 =
𝑃𝑃 = 𝜔𝜔𝐹𝐹
𝜔𝜔𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 𝐴𝐴
𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠          (𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡)
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠          (𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡)
in (cm2)
2
kip (kN) SINGLE DIAGONAL CHEVRON/V in (cm2)
2
kip (kN) SINGLE DIAGONAL CHEVRON/V 𝑃𝑃𝑡𝑡 = 𝜔𝜔𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦 𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠          (𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡)   (305)

2.0 (13) 68 (306) t7 (t178) t7 (t178) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t7 (t178) t7 (t178) t7 (t178) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) 2.0 (13) 68 (306) t7 (t178) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t7 (t178) t7 (t178) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) • • FFyy of
of material
material used
used to
to fabricate
fabricate brace
brace yielding
yielding cores to
cores 𝑃𝑃
toBrace = 𝛽𝛽𝛽𝛽𝐹𝐹
be𝑐𝑐established
be established
Strength 𝑦𝑦 𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠    (𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐)
Determination Asc = 10 in2 (65 cm2) Casing sizes in this chart are
based on
based
Fy oftesting
on coupon
coupon material
testing used plates.
of individual
of individual to fabricate
plates. suchbrace
Inmaterial
In such cases,
cases,
yielding
R
used toR may brace cores to 10 based on a 45° brace angle,
3.0 (19) 103 (448) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t10 (t254) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) 3.0 (19) 103 (448) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t10 (t254) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) • Fy of yy may
fabricate yielding cores to be established (254)
be taken
be taken as be established
as equal
equal to 1.0
to 1.0 in
in the based
the above
above on
basedcoupon
equations.
equations. on coupon
(See
(See testing
AISC
AISC 𝑐𝑐 341)ofof
testing
341) individual
individual
𝑦𝑦 plates. In such cases, Ry may
𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠     𝛽𝛽𝛽𝛽𝐹𝐹𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴          (𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡)
𝑃𝑃 = 𝜔𝜔𝐹𝐹    (𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐) 14˝ (360mm) deep columns
𝑡𝑡 𝑦𝑦 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 and 18˝ (460mm) deep beams.

## STORY HEIGHT: 16ft (4.9m)

4.0 (26) 137 (613) 4.0 (26) 137 (613) plates. In such cases, Rbe y may be taken equal to 1.0 in

## STORY HEIGHT: 20ft (6.1m)

t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) taken as equal to 1.0 in the above equations. (See AISC 341) Asc = 5 in2 (32 cm2)
8
5.0 (32) 171 (754) t8 (t203) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t8 (t203) t8 (t203) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) 5.0 (32) 171 (754) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) the above equations. (See AISC
• Fy of 341)
material 𝑃𝑃𝑡𝑡 =
used 𝜔𝜔𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦 brace
to fabricate 𝐴𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠yielding
(𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡)
cores to be established
(203)
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
based on coupon testing of individual plates. In such cases, Ry may (4.6) (6.1) (7.6) (9.1) (10.7) (12.2) (13.7) (15.2)
6.0 (39) 205 (919) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) 6.0 (39) 205 (919) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t12 (t305) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) be taken as equal to 1.0 in the above equations. (See AISC 341)
• Fy of material used to fabricate brace yielding cores to be established
7.0 (45) 239 (1060) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10Bay(t254)
Bay Width t12 (t305)
Width t12 (t305) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 Bay
(t254)
Bay
Width t10 (t254) t10 (t254)
Width 7.0 (45) 239 (1060) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10Bay Width
Bay Width t12 (t305)
(t254) t12 (t305) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 Bay Width
Bay
(t254)Width
t10 (t254) t10 (t254) based on coupon testing of individual plates. In such cases, Ry may Workpoint Length, ft (m)
Bay
Bay
Width
Width BayBay
Width
Width Bay Width
Bay Width Bay Width
Bay Width
8.0 (52) 274 (1225) 8.0 (52) 274 (1225) be taken as equal to 1.0 in the above equations. (See AISC 341)
t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254)
BRB Protected Zones
FLAT CRUCIFORM MATERIAL SPECS
W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97
9.0 (58) 308 (1367) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t12 (t305) t12 (t305)
W18×97
W18×97 t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 W18×97
(t254)
W18×97 t10 (t254) t10 (t254) 9.0 (58) 308 (1367) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305)
W18×97
W18×97 t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 W18×97
(t254)
W18×97 t10 (t254) t12 (t305)

W14×211
W14×211

W14×211
W14×211

W14×211
W14×211

W14×211
W14×211
W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109

(5.5m)
(5.5m)

(5.5m)
(5.5m)
(4.3m)
(4.3m)

(4.3m)
(4.3m)

10.0 (65) 342 (1532) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) 10.0 (65) 342 (1532) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t10 (t254) t12 (t305)

18ft
18ft

18ft
18ft
W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109
14ft
14ft

14ft
14ft

W14×211

W14×211

W14×211

W14×211
W14×211

W14×211

W14×211

W14×211

ROUND SQUARE
(4.9m)
(4.9m)

(4.9m)
(4.9m)

(6.1m)

(6.1m)
CORE PL: A36 CONTROLLED YIELD

(6.1m)

(6.1m)

CASING CASING
20ft

20ft
16ft
16ft

16ft
16ft

20ft

20ft
11.0 (71) 376 (1673) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t14 (t356) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) 11.0 (71) 376 (1673) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t14 (t356) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) STIFFENER PL: A36 (Fy = 249 MPa)
12.0 (77) 410 (1814) 12.0 (77) 410 (1814) LUG PL: A572 GR-50 (Fy = 345 MPa)
t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t14 (t356)
W18×97
W18×97 t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 W18×97
(t305)
W18×97 t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t14 (t356)
W18×97
W18×97 t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 W18×97
(t305)
W18×97 t12 (t305) t12 (t305) CASING: A500 GR-B (Fy = 318 MPa)
W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97 W18×97 W18×97
14.0 (90) 479 (2121) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t14 (t356) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) 14.0 (90) 479 (2121) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 W18×97
(t305) t12 (t305) t14 (t356) W18×97
t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) t12 (t305) Rev 1 - 4/1/13 5789 West Wells Park Road, West Jordan, UT 84081 ph: 801-280-0701GR-50
GUSSET/REPAD PL: A572 (Fy = 345 MPa)
www.corebrace.com
Rev 11 -- 4/1/13
Rev 4/1/13 5789 West
5789 West Wells
Wells Park
West Jordan,
Jordan, UT
UT 84081
84081 ph: BOLTS:
ph: 801-280-0701
801-280-0701 www.corebrace.com
www.corebrace.com A490/F2280 (FU = 1035 MPa)
16.0 (103) 547 (2427) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) 16.0 (103) 547 (2427) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356)
18.0 (116) 616 (2733) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t16 (t406) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) 18.0 (116) 616 (2733) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) Rev 1 - 4/1/13 5789 West Wells Park Road, West Jordan, UT 84081 ph: 801-280-0701 www.corebrace.com
20.0 (129) 684 (3040) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t16 (t406) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) 20.0 (129) 684 (3040) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) t14 (t356) CORE PL: A36 CONTROLLED YIELD
STIFFENER
West Jordan,PL: A36 (Fy = www.corebrace.com
249 MPa)
22.0 (142) 752 (3346) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) 22.0 (142) 752 (3346) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) Rev 1 - 4/1/13 5789 West Wells Park Road,
LUG PL:
UT 84081 ph: 801-280-0701
A572 GR-50 (Fy = 345 MPa)
24.0 (155) 821 (3652) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) 24.0 (155) 821 (3652) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) CASING:
ROUND HSS: A500 GR-B (Fy = 290 MPa)
26.0 (168) 889 (3959) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) p18 (p457) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) 26.0 (168) 889 (3959) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) p18 (p457) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) PIPE: A53 GR-B (Fy = 242 MPa)
28.0 (181) 958 (4265) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) p20 (p508) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) 28.0 (181) 958 (4265) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) p20 (p508) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) t16 (t406) GUSSET/REPAD PL: A572 GR-50 (Fy = 345 MPa)
BOLTS: A490/F2280 (FU = 1035 MPa) BRB PROTECTED ZONES
30.0 (194) 1026 (4571) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p20 (p508) p20 (p508) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) 30.0 (194) 1026 (4571) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p20 (p508) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p18 (p457) p18 (p457)
Workpoint Length, ft (m) 21.9 (6.7) 25.6 (7.8) 29.7 (9.0) 34.0 (10.4) 38.5 (11.7) 21.9 (6.7) 23.7 (7.2) 25.6 (7.8) 27.6 (8.4) 29.7 (9.0) Workpoint Length, ft (m) 25.0 (7.6) 28.3 (8.6) 32.0 (9.8) 36.1 (11.0) 40.3 (12.3) 25.0 (7.6) 26.6 (8.1) 28.3 (8.6) 30.1 (9.2) 32.0 (9.8)
Bay
Bay
Width
Width Bay
Bay
Width
Width Bay Width
Bay Width Bay Width
Bay Width Schematic BRB Behavior
t = square tube t = square tube
p = round pipe W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97 p = round pipe W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97
(rectangular (rectangular

W14×211
W14×211

W14×211
W14×211

W14×211
W14×211

W14×211
W14×211
W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109

W14×109
W14×109

(6.1m)
(6.1m)

(6.1m)
(6.1m)
(4.9m)
(4.9m)

(4.9m)
(4.9m)

20ft
20ft

20ft
20ft
16ft
16ft

16ft
16ft

## casings also casings also

available) available) Casing

W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97 W18×97
W18×97 Grout Fill

NOTES: 1. CoreBrace BRB Casing Sizes are approx square minimums for the indicated frame geometry and beam/column sizes. Different beam/column sizes will affect brace
For design assistance
Interface
length and casing size. More economical sizes or shapes may be used unless specifically required otherwise. Round or rectangular casings are also available. Material
2. Indicated core area is minimum cross sectional area of yielding portion of BRB core.
3. Py_axial is the calculated yield force of the BRB equal to: øFyAsc based on the lower-bound of the yield stress range.
Typ yield stress range = 42 ksi ±4 ksi (290 MPa ±28MPa). please contact CoreBrace: Air Gap

Core
4. Where casing size is controlled by fit up, alternate core configurations (width × thickness) may allow for reduced casing sizes, on a project specific basis.
Contact CoreBrace for details.
5. Casing buckling checks include a FS of 1.3 accounting for code prescribed phi factors and casing initial out-of-straightness in addition to BRB overstrength (and