# Source: Electric Motor Handbook

Chapter

2
Terminology and Definitions
N.Ghai
2.1 Types of Motor There are many ways in which electric motors may be categorized or classified. Some of these are presented below and in Fig. 2.1. 2.1.1 AC and DC One way of classifying electric motors is by the type of power they consume. Using this approach, we may state that all electric motors fall into one or the other of the two categories, viz., AC or DC. AC motors are those that run on alternating current or AC power, and DC motors are those that run on direct current, or DC power. 2.1.2 Synchronous and induction Alternating current motors again fall into two distinct categories, synchronous or induction. Synchronous motors run at a fixed speed, irrespective of the load they carry. Their speed of operation is given by the relationship

where f is the system frequency in Hz and P is the number of poles for which the stator is wound. The speed given by the above relationship is called the synchronous speed, and hence the name synchronous motor. The induction motor, on the other hand, runs very close to but less than

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Figure 2.1

Classification of AC and DC motors.

the synchronous speed. The difference between the synchronous speed and the actual speed is called the slip speed. The slip speed of any induction motor is a function of its design and of desired performance. Further, for a given motor, the slip speed and the running speed vary with the load. The running speed decreases as the load on the motor is increased. 2.1.3 Salient-pole and cylindrical-rotor Synchronous motors fall into two broad categories defined by their method of construction. These are salient-pole motors and cylindricalrotor motors. High-speed motors, those running at 3600 r/min with 60 Hz supply, are of the cylindrical-rotor construction for mechanical strength reasons, whereas slower speed motors, those running at 1800 r/min and slower, are mostly of the salient-pole type. 2.1.4 Single-phase and three-phase motors All AC motors may also be classified as single-phase and multiphase motors, depending on whether they are intended to run on single-phase supply or on multiphase supply. Since the distribution systems are universally of the three-phase type, multiphase motors are almost always of the three-phase type. Single-phase motors are limited by the power they can produce, and are generally available in sizes up to only a few horsepower, and in the induction motor variety only. Synchronous motors are usually available in three-phase configurations only. 2.1.5 Other variations Many variations of the basic induction and synchronous motors are available. These include but are not limited to the synchronous-induction motor, which is essentially a wound-rotor-induction motor supplied with DC power to its rotor winding to make it run at synchronous speed; the

Terminology and Definitions

Terminology and Definitions

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TABLE 2.1

Operating Temperatures for Insulation System Classes

TABLE 2.2 Allowable Temperature Rises

permanent-magnet motor in which the field excitation is provided by permanent magnets; the reluctance motor in which the surface of the rotor of a squirrel-cage induction motor is shaped to form salient-pole structures causing the motor to run up to speed as an induction motor and pull into synchronism by reluctance action and operate at synchronous speed; and the ac-commutator motor or universal motor, which possesses the wide speed range and higher starting torque advantages of DC motor, to name a few. One could also include here single-phase induction motor variations based on the method of starting used—the split-phase motor, the capacitor-start motor, the resistancestart motor, and the shaded-pole motor. 2.2 Insulation System Classes The classification of winding insulation systems is based on their operating temperature capabilities. These classes are designated by the letters A, E, B, F, and H. The operating temperatures for these insulation classes are shown in Table 2.1. These temperatures represent the maximum allowable operating temperature of the winding at which, if the motor were operated in a clean, dry, free-from-impurities environment at up to 40 hours per week, an operation life of 10 to 20 years could be expected, before the insulation deterioration due to heat destroys its capability to withstand the applied voltage. The temperatures in the Table 2.1 are the maximum temperatures existing in the winding, or the hot spot temperatures, and are not the average winding temperatures. It is generally assumed that in a welldesigned motor, the hot spot is approximately 10°C higher than the average winding temperature. This yields the allowable temperature rises (average, or rises by resistance) in an ambient temperature not exceeding 40°C, that one finds in standards. These are shown in Table 2.2. Class A insulation is obsolete, and no longer in use. Class E insulation is not used in the United States, but is common in Europe. Class B is

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the most commonly specified insulation. Class F is slowly winning favor, although for larger motors in the United States, the users tend to specify class F systems with class B temperature rises to improve the life expectancy of the windings. Class H systems are widely specified in synchronous generators up to 5 mW in size. 2.3 Codes and Standards Both national and international standards exist for electric motors. For the most part, these apply to general purpose motors. However, in the United States, some definite purpose standards also exist which are industry or application specific. Examples of the latter are the IEEE 841, which applies to medium size motors for petroleum and chemical applications, American Petroleum Institute standards API 541 (large induction motors) and API 546 (large synchronous motors), both for petroleum and chemical industry applications, and the American National Standards Institute standard ANSI C50.41 for large induction motors for generating station applications. In the United States, in general, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) writes standards for motor testing and test methods, and the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) writes standards for motor performance. In the international field, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), which is a voluntary association of countries, writes all standards applicable to electric motors. U.S. and international standards that apply to electric motors are:
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NEMA MG1-1993, Rev 4, “Motors and Generators.” IEEE Std 112–1996, “IEEE Standard Test Procedure for Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators.” IEEE Std 115–1983, “IEEE Guide: Test Procedures for Synchronous Machines.” IEEE Std 522–1992, “IEEE Guide for Testing Turn-to-Turn Insulation on Form-Wound Stator Coils for Alternating Current Rotating Electric Machines.” IEC 34–1, 1996, 10th ed., “Rotating Electrical Machines, Part 1: Rating and Performance.” IEC 34–1, Amendment 1, 1997, “Rotating Electrical Machines, Part 1: Rating and Performance.” IEC 34–2, 1972, “Rotating Electrical Machines, Part 2: Methods of Determining Losses and Efficiency of Rotating Electrical Machinery from Tests.” IEC 34–2, Amendment 1, 1995 and Amendment 2, 1996, “Rotating Electrical Machines, Part 2: Methods of Determining Losses and Efficiency of Rotating Electrical Machinery from Tests.”

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IEC 34–5,1991, “Rotating Electrical Machines, Part 5: Classification of Degrees of Protection Provided by Enclosures of Rotating Electrical Machines (IP Code).” IEC 34–6, 1991, “Rotating Electrical Machines, Part 6: Methods of Cooling (IC Code).” IEC 34–9, 1990 and 2/979/FDIS, 1997, “Rotating Electrical Machines, Part 9, “Noise Limits.” IEC 34–12, 1980, “Rotating Electrical Machines, Part 12: Starting Performance of Single-speed, Three-phase Cage Induction Motors for Voltages up to and Including 600 Volts.” IEC 34–14, 1990 and 2/940/FDIS, 1996, “Rotating Electrical Machines, Part 14: Mechanical Vibration of Certain Machines with Shaft Heights 56 mm and Larger.” IEC 34–15,1995, “Rotating Electric Machines, Part 15: Impulse Voltage Withstand Levels of Rotating AC Machines with Form-wound Coils.” IEC 38, 1983, “IEC Standard Voltages.” IEC 72–1, 1991, “Dimension and Output Series for Rotating Electrical Machines.”