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Mid Term Project Report

Submitted by

(Student Name)
(Reg. No.)

Under the Supervision of

(Name of the External Supervisor) (Name of the Internal Supervisor)

(Designation, Department Name) (Designation, Department Name)

Department of Electrical Engineering


March 2018
Project Details

Student Details
Student Name
Register Number Section / Roll No
Email Address Phone No (M)
Project Details
Project Title
Project Duration Date of reporting
Organization Details
Organization Name
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with pin code
Website address
External Supervisor Details
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Internal Guide Details
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with pin code
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This is to certify that the above project is being carried out under my supervision and guidance


(Supervisor signature with Seal)

Industrial instruments failures have many causes and one of the main causes is over load. The primary
of the distribution transformer or any other transformer is designed to operate at certain specific
current if that current flowing through that instrument is more than the rated current, then immediately
the system may burn because of over load, through this project we are going to protect the bus bar
from over load condition .In this project if more loads are applied to the circuit will be tripped. To trip
the circuit we are using one relay which will control through our microcontroller.


Power system protection is a very important consideration in the design of an electrical power system.
There is need to protect electrical power components from dangerous faults. This is warranted by the
need to increase the life of the components, avoid unnecessary expenditure in frequent replacement of
obsolete components and to ensure that there is a continuous supply of power to serve the needs of the
ever growing economy. This project therefore seeks to design a microcontroller based system that will
intelligently monitor faults and prompt a safety measure to protect the feeder in case of power


Vimalraj et al (2013) described the GSM Bas ed Controlled Switching Circuit between Supply Mains
and Captive Pow er Plant. The suggested system will be a powerful, flexible and secured tool that will
offer this service at any time, and from anywhere with the constraints of the technologies being ap
plied. However, the GSM system poses some potential threats. But the sugge sted system can be used
as a reference o r as a base for realizing a scheme to be implemented in other projects of greater level.
Further it is hoped that it will serve as a basis for further stud y of industrial power management st
rategies. The end product will have a si mplistic design making it easier for the users to interact with.

Solomon N unoo & Edward Kofi Mahama (2013) presented the Investigation into Re mote
Monitoring of Power Transformers using SCADA. Remote monitoring s ystem using Supervisory
Control and D ata Acquisition (SCADA) has been discussed. The parameters to monitor were selected
based partly on a research which showed that the major causes of pow er transformer failure are
overvoltage, overload, excessive temperature and b ushing failure. Remote monitoring of power

transformer will help to save ru nning costs of transmission and dist ribution systems by optimizing
maintena nce schedules. It will also help increase safety for personnel and reduc e the risk of
catastrophic failure to the power transformer.

Nagisetty S asidhar & Monica Suresh (2014) prese nted an ARM microcontroller based Wireless
Industrial Automation Syste m. The sensor module is an ARM microcontroller for monitoring and
controlling the various parameters of a pla nt. The coordinator is implemented us ing the ARM

The ARM microcontroller is used at the senso r modules and they are programmed using embedded C.
The sensor modules a re successfully created by interfacin g the sensors with the ARM controlle r. The
data or values received from the sensors and controlling the corresponding devices is according to the
plant operation.

Jinghui Wu et al (2014) presented Fault passage pr otection based on IDMT relaying wi th IEC61850-
90 inter-substation communications. This paper describes the f indings of an investigation into extend
ing IEC61850 beyond the substation in order to provide network wide com munications. It introduces
the basis f or Fault Passage Protection for protecting distribution feeders using an asso ciated internet
communications scheme. This protection builds on widely esta blished techniques based on instantane
ous and IDMT overcurrent relaying and provides reduced tripping times fo r faults on the protected

Darwish et al (2011) have presented the design of A Novel Overcurrent Relay with universal
characteristics based on rela y characteristic modelling. The relay algorithms have been implemented
using Digital Signal Processor (DSP) on a real time basis and simulated in com puter only for
overcurrent protection . The designed relay has the flexibility in selecting the appropriate characteri
stic for the system requirement. This n umerical relay offers only the overcurrent function.


 Over current protection against earth faults.

 Relay coordination for earth fault relays.

 Need for adaptive relaying.
 Automatic reclosing.


Feeder protection from over load and earth fault


 Load Current Measuring

 Earth Fault Finding
 Control Relay By Microcontroller


In this project bus bar can be protected from the over current condition. Industrial instruments
failures have many causes and one of the main causes is over load. The primary of the distribution
transformer or any other transformer is designed to operate at certain specific current if that
current flowing through that instrument is more than the rated current, then immediately the
system may burn because of over load, through this project we are going to protect the bus bar
from over load condition .In this project work for generating high current more loads are applied
to the circuit will be tripped. to trip the circuit we are using one relay which will control through
our microcontroller. When over load is occurred relay will trip the total circuit and buzzer will on
to indicate over load.



 5v dc regulated power supply

 Microcontroller (AT 89S52)
 ADC (mcp32o4)
 LCD (16X2A)
 Buzzer (5V)
 Current transformer (10:1)

Components Description
A suitable ready-built mains power supply unit, such as those used to control model trains, will
include a transformer. I wouldn't recommend building your own due to the safety

Considerations when dealing with mains voltages if such a unit does not incorporate smoothing,
rectification, and regulation, then you will need to build these blocks as described in part 1 of this series.
If the unit does not have a fuse or a cut-out on the output of the transformer, you will also need to add a
fuse of an appropriate rating. This fuse is in addition to the mains fuse in the unit's plug and is needed to
protect the low voltage winding of the transformer and any circuits you connect to it. Although we won't

be building the transformer block of our 5V regulated power supply, it is interesting to know how it

The purpose of a rectifier is to convert an AC waveform into a DC waveform. There are two
different rectification circuits, known as 'half-wave' and 'full-wave' rectifiers. Both use components called
diodes to convert AC into DC.

The circuit in figure 3 addresses the second of these problems since at no time is the output
voltage 0V.

Fig 4.9: Full-wave rectifier

Fig 4.10: Full-wave rectification

When the AC input is positive, diodes A and B are forward-biased, while diodes C and D are
reverse-biased. When the AC input is negative, the opposite is true - diodes C and D are forward-biased,
while diodes A and B are reverse-biased.

While there are many circuits that will tolerate a smoothed power supply, some must have a
completely regular supply with no ripple voltage.


There are many types of regulator IC and each type will have different pin-outs and will need to be
connected up slightly differently. Therefore, this article will only look at one of the common ranges of
regulator, the 78xx series.

Type Number Regulation voltage Maximum current Minimum voltage

7805 +5V 1A +7V

7812 +12V 1A +14.5V

Regulator voltage representation

If you are using a regulator after the smoothing block of the power supply, then you shouldn't
need to worry about the ripple voltage, since the whole point of using a regulator is to get a stable,
accurate, known voltage for your circuits.

Wiring up a regulator IC



• 8K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory

• Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles
• Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz
• 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
• 32 Programmable I/O Lines
• Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
• Eight Interrupt Sources
• Programmable Serial Channel
• Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes


The AT89C52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 8Kbytes of

Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The on-chip Flash allows the program
memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By
combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C52 is a powerful
microcomputer, which provides a highly memesible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control


Pin diagram of 89S52.


VCC - Supply voltage.

GND - Ground.

Port 0:
Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bi-directional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink
eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high-impedance inputs. Port
0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses to external
program and data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes
during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during program verification. External pull-ups are
required during program verification.

Port 1:
Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers
can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by the internal
pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source
current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. In addition, P1.0 and P1.1 can be configured to be the
timer/counter 2 external count input (P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX),


P1.0 T2 (external count input to Timer/Counter 2), clock-out

P1.1 T2EX (Timer/Counter 2 capture/reload trigger and direction control

Port 2:
Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers
can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled high by the internal
pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source
current (I IL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches
from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that uses 16-bit addresses
(MOVX @ DPTR). In this application, Port 2 uses strong internal pullups when emitting 1s. During
accesses to external data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of
the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals
during Flash programming and verification.

Port 3:
Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pullups. The Port 3 output buffers can
sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high by the internal
pullups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source
current (I IL) because of the pullups. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the
AT89C51. Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification.


P3.0 RXD (serial input port)

P3.1 TXD (serial output port)
P3.2 INT0 (external interrupt 0)
P3.3 INT1 (external interrupt 1)
P3.4 T0 (timer 0 external input)
P3.5 T1 (timer 1 external input)
P3.6 WR (external data memory write strobe)
P3.7 RD (external data memory read strobe).

Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device.

Address Latch Enable is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during
accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during flash programming.
In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for
external timing or clocking purposes. However, that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to
external data memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH.
With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly
pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode.

Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory. When the AT89C52
is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except
that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory.


External Access Enable (EA) must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to
fetch code from external pro-gram memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. However, if lock bit
1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal
program executions. This pin also receives the 12V programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash
programming when 12V programming is selected.

Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.

It is an output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.






P0 P1 P2 P3 Tx Rx


Architecture of 89S52


XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier, which
can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be
used. To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1
is driven. There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the
internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high
and low time specifications must be observed.


In idle mode, the CPU puts itself to sleep while all the on-chip peripherals remain active.
The mode is invoked by software. The content of the on-chip RAM and all the special functions registers
remain unchanged during this mode. The idle mode can be terminated by any enabled interrupt or by a
hardware reset. It should be noted that when idle is terminated by a hardware reset, the device normally
resumes program execution, from where it left off, up to two machine cycles before the internal reset
algorithm takes control. On-chip hardware inhibits access to internal RAM in this event, but access to the
port pins is not inhibited. To eliminate the possibility of an unexpected write to a port pin when Idle is
terminated by reset, the instruction following the one that invokes Idle should not be one that writes to a
port pin or to external memory.


Oscillator Connections

Note: C1, C2 = 30 pF ± 10 pF for Crystals

= 40 pF ± 10 pF for Ceramic Resonators

External Clock drives Configuration.


Liquid crystal display is a type of display which used in digital watches and many portable
computers. LCD displays utilize two sheets of polarizing material with a liquid crystal solution between
them. An electric current passed through the liquid causes the crystals to align so that light cannot pass
through them. Each crystal, therefore, is like a shutter, either allowing light to pass through or blocking
the light.

The liquid crystals can be manipulated through an applied electric voltage so that light is allowed to
pass or is blocked. By carefully controlling where and what wavelength (color) of light is allowed to pass,
the LCD monitor is able to display images. A back light provides LCD monitor’s brightness.
Other advances have allowed LCD’s to greatly reduce liquid crystal cell response times.
Response time is basically the amount of time it takes for a pixel to “change colors”. In reality response
time is the amount of time it takes a liquid crystal cell to go from being active to inactive.

They make complicated equipment easier to operate. LCD’s come in many shapes and
sizes but the most common is the 16 character x 4 line (16x4) display with no backlight. It requires only
11 connections – eight bits for data (which can be reduced to four if necessary) and three control lines (we
have only used two here). It runs off a 5V DC supply and only needs about 1mA of current. The display
contrast can be varied by changing the voltage into pin 3 of the display,


From this description, the interface is a parallel bus, allowing simple and fast
reading/writing of data to and from the LCD. This waveform will write an ASCII Byte out to the LCD's



While VCC and VSS provide +5V and ground respectively, VEE is used for controlling LCD


1 VSS -- Ground
2 VCC -- +5V power supply
3 VEE -- Power supply to
control contrast
4 RS I RS=0 to select
command register
RS=1 to select data
5 R/W I R/W=0 for write
R/W=1 for read
6 EN I/O Enable
7 DB0 I/O The 8-bit data bus
8 DB1 I/O The 8-bit data bus
9 DB2 I/O The 8-bit data bus
10 DB3 I/O The 8-bit data bus
11 DB4 I/O The 8-bit data bus
12 DB5 I/O The 8-bit data bus
13 DB6 I/O The 8-bit data bus
14 DB7 I/O The 8-bit data bus

The three control lines are referred to as EN, RS, and RW.

The EN line is called "Enable". This control line is used to tell the LCD that you are
sending it data. To send data to the LCD, your program should first set this line high (1) and then set the
other two control lines and/or put data on the data bus. When the other lines are completely ready, bring
EN low (0) again. The 1-0 transition tells the 44780 to take the data currently found on the other control
lines and on the data bus and to treat it as a command.

The RS line is the "Register Select" line. When RS is low (0), the data is to be treated as a
command or special instruction (such as clear screen, position cursor, etc.). When RS is high (1), the data
that is sent is a text data which should be displayed on the screen. For example, to display the letter "T"
on the screen you would set RS high.

The RW line is the "Read/Write" control line. When RW is low (0), the information on the
data bus is being written to the LCD. When RW is high (1), the program is effectively querying (or
reading) the LCD. Only one instruction ("Get LCD status") is a read command. All others are write
commands, so RW will almost be low.

Finally, the data bus consists of 4 or 8 lines (depending on the mode of operation selected by the
user). In the case of an 8-bit data bus, the lines are referred to as DB0, DB1, DB2, DB3, DB4, DB5, DB6,
and DB7.

The ASCII code to be displayed is eight bits long and is sent to the LCD either four or
eight bits at a time.

If four bit mode is used, two "nibbles" of data (Sent high four bits and then low four bits
with an "E" Clock pulse with each nibble) are sent to make up a full eight bit transfer.

The "E" Clock is used to initiate the data transfer within the LCD. Deciding how to send
the data to the LCD is most critical decision to be made for an LCD interface application.

Eight-bit mode is best used when speed is required in an application and at least ten I/O
pins are available. The "R/S" bit is used to select whether data or an instruction is being transferred
between the microcontroller and the LCD. If the Bit is set, then the byte at the current LCD "Cursor"
Position can be written. When the Bit is reset, either an instruction is being sent to the LCD or the
execution status of the last instruction is read back.

LCD interfacing with 8051 is a real-world application. In recent years the LCD is finding
widespread use replacing LED’s (seven segment LED’s or other multi segment LED’s).
This is due to following reasons:
1. The declining prices of LCD’s.

2. The ability to display numbers, characters and graphics. This is in contrast to LED’s, which are
limited to numbers and a few characters. An intelligent LCD displays two lines, 20 characters per line,
which is interfaced to the 8051.

3. Incorporation of a refreshing controller into the LCD, thereby relieving the CPU to keep displaying the

4. Ease of programming for characters and graphics.

For a LCD module to be used effectively in any piece of equipment, a microprocessor or a micro
controller is usually required to drive it. However, before attempting to wire the two together some initial
experiments can be performed by connecting a series of switches to the pins of the module. This can be a
quite beneficial step, if even you are thoroughly conversant with the workings of microprocessors.


When LCD is powered up the display should show a series of dark squares, possibly only
on part of display. These characters are actually in their off state, so the contrast control should be
adjusted anti-clockwise until the squares are just visible.
The display module resets itself to an initial state when power is applied, which curiously the display
has blanked off so that even if characters are entered, they cannot be seen. It is therefore necessary to
issue a command at this point, to switch the display on.


The circuit can be wired up on a “plug-in-style” prototyping board, using dual-in-line switches
for the data lines (S1-S8). A toggle switch for the RS input (S10) and a momentary action switch (or
macro switch) for usage.
Most of the LCD modules conform to a standard interface specification. A 14pin access is
provided having eight data lines, three control lines and three power lines. The connections are laid out in
one of the two common configurations, either two rows of seven pins, or a single row of 14 pins.

One of the, pins are numbered on the LCD’s print circuit board (PCB), but if not, it is quite easy to locate
pin1. Since this pin is connected to ground, it often has a thicker PCB track, connected to it, and it is
generally connected to metalwork at same point.

G +5V -5v

1 2 3

07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 4 5 6

D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 RS R/W EN

The LCD plays a major role in the entire operation as it has the ability to display the certain data that the
user has entitled. LCD display varies from input to input as there is no specific outline for it to operate.


 Keill compiler
 Pcb designe orcad
 Embedded “C”


Many companies provide the 8051 assembler, some of them provide shareware version of
their product on the Web, Kiel is one of them. We can download them from their Websites. However, the
size of code for these shareware versions is limited and we have to consider which assembler is suitable
for our application.


This is an IDE (Integrated Development Environment) that helps you write, compile, and
debug embedded programs. It encapsulates the following components:
. A project manager
. A make facility
. Tool configuration
. Editor
. A powerful debugger
To get start here are some several example programs

9. Results Analysis


protective device was achieved in this work. The device supplies power to the connected load whenever the
load current is within the required pre-set value, thereby protecting the output connected loads from un-
necessary damages. The device is found to be economical, easier to maintain and repair. The use of
microcontroller based relay is that the same circuit can be used over current relay.


(a) Jan 2016

Refer the all related papers

(b) Feb 2016

Selecting suitable hard ware and software tools

(c) Mar 2016

Study about hard ware and software tools

(d) Apr 2016

Peppier the circuit diagram and code

(e) May 2016

Assemble hardware, Software and testing

Overall Project Status: Behind Schedule / On Schedule

12. Technical References

Journal / Conference Papers

1. IEEE Std. C57.91-1995 IEEE Guide for Loading Mineral-Oil-Immersed Transformers.

2. Swift, G and Zhang, Z, “A Different Approach to Transformer Thermal Modeling,” to be
presented at the IEEE Transmission and Distribution Conference, New Orleans, April 12-16,

3. IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) Standard 354 Second Edition, 1991-09,
Loading guide for oilImmersed power transformers,” pp. 143-145.

Reference / Hand Books

1. Sobel, Dava (1995). Longitude. London: Fourth Estate. p. 103. ISBN 0-00-721446-4. One of the
inventions Harrison introduced a bi-metallic strip.
2. Ragnar Holm (1958). Electric Contacts Handbook (3rd ed.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin / Gottingen /
Heidelberg. pp. 331– 342.