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MODULE 2/ PROBLEM SOLVING (QUALITATIVE)

SKILL: ANSWER SCHEME 8 Modification Explanation


1 Modification Explanation Smooth surface / coat with Reduce water resistance
Uses step down To produce small output wax or low friction material
transformer voltage Streamline shape Reduce water resistance
Soft iron core Easy to magnetise and Low density material Easy to float // light
demagnetised Water-proof material // low Lighter sail and not easy to
Laminating iron core To reduce eddy current density material // strong tear-off // water resistance
The poles for a U-shaped To reduce loss of energy material
electromagnet are closer Wide size Trap more wind // produce
together larger force

Uses larger diameter of To reduce the resistance 9 Modification Explanation


wire An inner core of higher Light ray is reflected more
refractive index easily through total
2 Modification Explanation internal reflection
Increase cross-sectional To increase the output Outer layer of medium Light ray is reflected more
area of the large piston force since the pressure is with a lower refractive easily through total
constant index internal reflection
Lower density The optical fibre will be
3 Modification Explanation lighter
Draw correct functional 2 marks The thickness of the glass Save pace/ can be used in
diagram is thin narrow
R2 replaced by LDR Relay switch can switch on space
the power supply for the Strong and flexible Does not break easily and
bell the shape can be adjusted
Potential difference across Ic is high
R1 is high // 10 Modification Explanation
Resistance of R1 is higher 2 marks body made from strong not easily damage
material
4 Modification Explanation streamlined body reduce air friction
Draw correct functional 2 marks angle of launching 45o the rocket can achive
diagram maximum distance
LED replaced by relay Relay switch can switch on volume of water 1/3 of the to produce optimum
the power supply for the botol momentum
bell the roket has functional fin increase stability
LDR replaced by to detect heat
thermistor 11 Modification Explanation
Potential difference across Ic is high Made from strong material Long lasting
R1 is high // Made from light material Pot is light
Resistance of R1 is higher 2 marks Made from material which So no harmful chemical
does not easily integrate disolved into food
5 Modification Explanation by heat
Cylinder with a bigger bulb To avoid overturn Made from small spesific Becomes hot faster so food
Bulb with lead shots at the To avoid overturn heat capasity material cooked in short time,
bottom consume less fuel
Small capillary tube Small reading scale can be Has knob to adjust the Adjusted for different kind
incorporated temperature of cooking
Longer stem The stem can stil visible in
avery low density of liquid 12 Modification Explanation
The hydrometer float in Mark the liquid level Convex miror The image formed is
alcohol, (upper level) virtual, upright an
The hydrometer float in Mark the liquid level (lower diminished
higher density liquid, level) Large diameter Wider field view
6 Modification Explanation More curved mirror Wider field view
Retaining wall that is not To prevent reflection Less thickness Avoid multiple image
smooth surface formed
Retaining wall with narrow To promote diffraction of Top corner Can look easily by
gap wave observer
Retaining wall must be To avoid spill over
high 13 Modification Explanation
Built in bay region Low amplitude, calm area Convex miror The image formed is
Built in bay region Low amplitude, calm area virtual, upright an
diminished
7 Modification Explanation Large diameter Wider field view
Replace the slip ring with To make the coil rotate in More curved mirror Wider field view
commutator one diraction Less thickness Avoid multiple image
Increase magnetic field To increase the rate of formed
rotation Top corner Can look easily by
Uses rectifier Convert a.c to d.c observer
14 Modification Explanation
Resistance of wire is low To prevent power loss due
to heat
Melting point is high To prevent the wire from
melting
Density of wire is low To reduce the mass of the
wire
Rate of rusting is low To prevent it from rusting
easily
Rate of expansion of wire To prevent lengthening of
wire

15 Modification Explanation
Large size To accommodate a lot of
people
The inner wall is fitted with To reduce echo
soft material
Uses cushioned seat To reduce echo
The speaker is positioned Reduce interference to
in certain distance increase the quality sound
Uses efficient spotlight Suitable for different
activity with sufficient
lighting

15 Modification Explanation
Pole need to be earthed To carries extra charges
Porcelin is fixed at the Avoid the metal pole from
connecting area touching the cable directly
Red light is fixed at the To warn incoming plane
cable
Low resistance cable To reduce loss of energy
Cable is insulated To reduce wear and tear