You are on page 1of 42

1

CHAPTER I

The Problem and Its Background

Introduction

“The internet has made connection so easy that it is taken

for granted.”

Internet was designed for the free exchange of information

across border and chat with other people in an active and lively

way. Internet has unquestionably changed life for the better by

spreading knowledge, fostering creativity and encouraging

connectivity. And yet, many people are addicted. They check

their gadgets on average of 150 times a day, with around 50

percent of them updating their statuses or posting and sharing

thoughts lingering on their minds. Twitter users tweet 400

million times a day, whilst Facebook processes over 500

terabytes of new data every single day. (Alex Beattie, 2013)

Social media is an interaction with the use of electronic

devices. It is a driver behind connection that aids in

conversing with old friends and maintaining relationships with

loved ones on the other side of the world or just down the road.

Connection via social media ingrained an important part in

everyday living that it is having an adverse effect on every

well-being or the level of happiness. It causes depression to


2

the user in a way that it affects their emotional aspect.

Somehow, social media tends to hurt feelings and downfall to

others. It is not a perfect tool in aiding miles of distance for

emotional satisfaction; rather it is a tool in messing with

other users’ business. Personal factor is not a hindrance but

the best factor to harm other emotionally, the user does not

care about respect and courtesy that a personal friend is

holding.

Social media is also a way of expressing imperfections

because it displays the characteristics of the user. Happiness

and sadness, beauty and ugliness, as well as pride and

humbleness that leads to emotional distress, feeling pain and

hurt. This interaction is not the effective way to conquer

longingness but another way that contributes to emotional

offense.

Theoretical Framework

Numerous theories have cropped up around emotion but

considered more broadly, the study of emotions in social media

has great potential. In pandemics for example, sentiment

analysis can identify clusters of individuals who have negative

attitudes towards a vaccine since information seems to be shared


3

among users’ similar sentiment. Because there is a positive

relationship between the expression of sentiment and retweeting

of information, this increases the likelihood that affective

information about vaccines or illnesses will be shared.

Appraisal theories of emotion see-action-tendencies as

essential for emotion. Likewise, discourse analysts see the

expression of emotion as functional. In relation to social media

then, it is important to ask, “When people express emotion about

illness or health, what are they trying to accomplish? What

behaviors are they trying to stimulate or repress?” This will

help to explain health behaviors that arise through social

media. (Zhu,J. and Thagard,P., 2002)

Students’ Profile Social Media


Engagement
- Gender
- Daily allowance - Social
- Family income Interaction
- Entertainment

Figure 1. Conceptual framework of

Social Media Engagement


Emotional Effects

-Moods
4

The key outcome of social media engagement is the emotional

effect. The reasons why people are engaged in social media are

usually for entertainment, to build social interaction with

other people, and to get along with the latest trends in the

cyber world. With this engagement, netizens maybe exposed to

different hazards including emotional effects.

Statement of the Problem

The objective of this study is to conduct a research on the

Emotional Effects of Social Media to Grade-10 Students of Allen

National High School, Allen, Northern Samar. And, to identify

the percentage of those students who had experienced the said

effects of social networking sites.

Specifically, this study aims to answer the following

questions:

1. What is the profile of Allen National High School (ANHS)

Grade-10 students in terms of:

1.1 Gender (boy, girl, lesbian, and gay)

1.2 Daily Allowance

1.3 Family Income

2. What is the usual mood of Grade-10 students as they engaged

in social media?
5

3. What is the percentage of the students who are active in

social media?

4. Is there a significant relationship between the social

media engagement of Grade-10 Allen National High School

students and their moods while engaged in it?

Null Hypothesis

There is no significant relationship between the social

media engagement of Grade-10 Allen National High School

students and their moods while engaged in it.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study is limited only on the emotional effects of

social media to the Grade-10 students of Allen National High

School, Allen, Northern Samar who are actively using the said

networking sites.

This research study was conducted in Magallanes St. Sabang

1, Allen, Northern Samar within the month of June, 2017 to

March, 2018 using the Chi-Square Test of Independence in gaining

the sample needed.


6

Significance of the Study

Social networking has caused profound changes in the way

people communicate and interact. Particularly to the students or

millennials who were mostly called the “users” of the networking

site. Social networking sites, such as Facebook, Twitter,

Instagram and Messenger, are now widely used in communication.

But, such activity may affect the users’ well-being.

The conduct of this study may awaken the minds of every

person about certain effects of social media to the following:

Millennials, who are the top most users of the social media,

tend to feel disappointed whenever they are not able to open

their accounts for a long time. They may have low self-esteem

when they are in crowd but confident in front of their gadgets

while interacting with others. They consider social media as

their best friend not knowing that it may affect them in any

way.

Parents, who dislike seeing their children as another creature

in their sight because of the changes in their attitudes and

behaviors that were being influenced by other people in the

cyber world. Sometimes, parents blame themselves for they were

not able to take a glimpse on what their children were doing.

For instance, they stay late at night just using their gadgets.
7

Wasting their time doing nonsense things instead of sleeping

early to have enough rest.

Teachers, who disfavor seeing some of their students, use their

mobile phones while in the class. The teachers feel

uncomfortable teaching in front of the class while some of the

students were busy tapping the keyboard of their mobile phones.

That may mean disrespect and insult for them for they seem to be

not interested in the discussion.

Definition of Terms

o Social media- are computer-mediated technologies that

facilitate the creation and sharing of information,

ideas, career interest, and other forms of expression

via virtual communities.

o Emotional effects- one of the main outcomes of too

much contact with social media websites.

- Operationally, this means emotions

or feelings felt by the netizens, such as joy, anger,

frustration and others.

o Social interaction- operationally, it is the way

people talk and act with each other through the use of
8

social media websites like Facebook, Messenger,

Instagram and Twitter.

o Social Networking Site- is an online platform which

people used to build social networks or social

relations with other people who shares similar

personal or career interests, activities, backgrounds

or real life connections.


9

CHAPTER II

Review of Related Literature and Studies

This chapter presents some conceptual and research

literatures, which the researcher used in the course of their

study. This section also provides the different findings and

conclusion of related studies providing areas where the study

has focused.

Over time, our society is likely to become more

technologically advanced, allowing individuals to do almost

anything they please, but in a virtual space. With this

continual advancement in technology and social media, some

people believe we will become more engaged with individuals

globally, and some fear that technology will begin to isolate

people. The researchers are conducting this study to determine

the effects of the prevalence of social media.

Social media is defined as “a group of Internet-based

applications that build on the ideological and technological

foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange

of User Generated Content” (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010, p. 61). In

this definition, Web 2.0 is introduced as an interactive,


10

collaborative, and participatory web experience for users (Solis

& Breakenridge, 2009). The Web 2.0 landscape provides user

generated content, which can be described as content developed

and published by users of these social media sites. Examples of

common social media sites that have millions of users include

Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, and LinkedIn. There are hundreds of

other sites that all serve a unique purpose for an end-user, and

new sites are continually developed to increase two-way

participant communication and interaction. An end-user in this

instance is the individual using these social media sites

benefitting from the increased personalized communication.

In previous studies, social media has been measured by its

frequency of use. Frequency can describe how long the user has

been engaged in a social media platform (i.e., how long they

have had a Facebook account) or how frequently they log in and

use social media in a given day or week. Another standard of

measurement of social media use is the amount of updates on

one’s social networking site and the amount of interaction

between an individual and his/her social media contacts.

Frequency is an important variable to understand in terms of

social media use because it can play a role in an individual’s

interpersonal relationships. It also may play a role in


11

determining what can be defined as social media addiction in a

young adult’s life.

A recent study utilized the Uses and Gratifications Theory to

analyze students’ social media use (Sheldon, 2008). Sheldon

aimed to discover the reasons why students used Facebook, and

what gratifications they received as a result. Sheldon

indicated that checking Facebook has become a routine behavior

for students on the Internet because they are already online

(2008). According to Charney and Greenberg (2001), there are

eight gratification factors for Internet use: to keep informed,

diversion and entertainment, peer identity, good feelings,

communication,sights and sounds, career, and coolness.

Sheldon’s study indicated that relationship maintenance, passing

time, entertainment, and coolness motives were significant

predictors for how often students logged into their Facebook

account and what they expected to get out of their time spent

online (2008). The relationship maintenance and passing time

motives also positively predicted the number of hours spent on

Facebook (Sheldon, 2008). Social media use is the variable

examined in this study to determine the role it plays in

relationship satisfaction.
12

In 2012, Anxiety UK conducted a survey on social media

use and its effects on emotions. The survey found that 53% of

participants said social media sites had changed their behavior,

while 51% of these said the change had been negative. Those who

said their lives had been worsened by using social media also

reported feeling less confident when they compared their

achievements against their friends.

"This problem has definitely gained recent attention," says Dr.

Rauch. "We know that many people on social media sites often

present idealized versions of their lives, leading others to

make upward social comparisons, which can lead to negative

emotions."

Furthermore, the survey revealed that two thirds of participants

reported difficulty relaxing and sleeping after they used the

sites, while 55% said they felt "worried or uncomfortable" when

they were unable to log onto their social media accounts. In a

more recent study, conducted by Dr. Rauch and colleagues, the

team found that social interaction on social media sites,

specifically Facebook, may have a negative impact on face-to-

face encounters for individuals who already have high levels

of anxiety. Another concern regarding social media use is cyber

bullying. As stated earlier in this feature, the majority of

social networking users are under the age of 30, and most of
13

these are adolescents. According to Enough is Enough (EIE) - an

organization that aims to make Internet use safer for children

and families - 95% of teenagers who use social media have

witnessed forms of cyber bullying on social networking sites and

33% have been victims of cyber bullying. But Dr. Rauch believes

it is not purely the use of social media that is getting out of

control, but our need to be electronically connected at all

times. She adds: "I think parents should be aware that their

adolescent children are living at a time where they are

constantly 'on' and connected. I would encourage any parent to

explore ways to encourage or even mandate 'off' time, not just

away from social media sites, but away from the devices. That is

probably good advice for all of us."

Although many studies point to the negative impacts of

social media on mental health and well-being, some researchers

say they could have the opposite effect. Social networking sites

could be a useful tool in identifying individuals with mental

health issues.

The team found that people who shared fewer pictures on the site

communicated less frequently, had a longer profile and fewer

Facebook friends, and were more likely to experience social


14

anhedonia - the inability to encounter happiness from activities

that are normally enjoyable, such as talking to friends.

Another study, from the University of California San Diego

(UCSD), suggests that using social media may even spread

happiness. The research team, led by James Fowler of the School

of Medicine at UCSD, found that happy status updates encourage

other users to post happy status updates themselves. "Our study

suggests that people are not just choosing other people like

themselves to associate with but actually causing their friends'

emotional expressions to change," says Fowler. "We have enough

power in this data set to show that emotional expressions spread

online and also that positive expressions spread more than

negative."

In fact, the researchers believe that this viral spread of

happiness is so strong that if magnified, it could trigger an

"epidemic of well-being."

"If an emotional change in one person spreads and causes a

change in many, then we may be dramatically underestimating the

effectiveness of efforts to improve mental and physical health.

"Overall, it appears that the exact effects of social media on

our mental health and well-being remain to be seen. But one


15

thing is certain; the use of social networking sites is unlikely

to fade anytime soon.

While many people strongly agree that unplugging or taking

a digital detox now and then is important for mental health, in

reality, only 28 percent of those people periodically switch off

from technology. Across the generations, 48 percent of

Millennial, 37 percent of Gen Xers, 22 percent of Boomers, and

15 percent of Matures are worried about the negative effects of

social media on their physical and mental health. Interactions

on social media can have a major impact on an individual's well-

being and satisfaction. Many studies have observed that more

time spent on social media is associated with an increased risk

of loneliness and depression, which poses the question: Are

unhappy people using social media, or does social media use

affect happiness?

A recent study led by researchers at Indiana University

explored the so-called friendship paradox experienced by users

of social media. The friendship paradox finds that, on average,

most people are less popular than their friends on social media,

which may lead to reduced happiness.

"As far as we're aware, it's never been previously shown that

social media users are not only less popular than their friends
16

on average but also less happy," said lead study author Johan

Bollen, associate professor in the Indiana University School of

Informatics and Computing. "This study suggests that happiness

is correlated with popularity, and also that the majority of

people on social networks aren't as happy as their friends due

to this correlation between friendship and popularity."Overall,

the research found that users of social media might experience

increased levels of social dissatisfaction and unhappiness as a

result of comparing their happiness and popularity to that of

their friends."Happy social media users may think their friends

are more popular and slightly happier than they are and unhappy

social media users will likely have unhappy friends who still

seem happier and more popular than they are on average," Prof.

Bollen explained.

The amount of time spent on social media could also affect

mental health. National analysis led by scientists at the

University Of Pittsburgh School Of Medicine (Pitt) in

Pennsylvania suggests that the more time that adults aged 19 to

32 spend using social media, the more likely they are to be

socially isolated.
17

"This is an important issue to study because mental health

problems and social isolation are at epidemic levels among young

adults," said Brian A. Primack, Ph.D., the director of Pitt's

Center for Research on Media, Technology and Health. "We are

inherently social creatures, but modern life tends to

compartmentalize us instead of bringing us together. While it

may seem that social media presents opportunities to fill that

social void, I think this study suggests that it may not be the

solution people were hoping for."

In another study conducted by Pitt's School of Medicine, it

was also found that spending extended periods on social media is

associated with depression in young adults. Compared with people

who checked social media less frequently, frequent checkers were

2.7 times more likely to develop depression. More than a quarter

of study participants were classified as having high indicators

of depression.

Likewise, settling in for a marathon binge-watching session of

your favorite television show has

been related to fatigue, obesity, loneliness, and depression.

However, research published in Cyber psychology, Behavior, and

Social Networking says that you do not have to quit social media
18

altogether; simply changing your behavior on social networking

sites and taking an occasional break may help to lift your

spirits. "Confirming previous research, this study found that

'lurking' on Facebook may cause negative emotions. However, on

the bright side, as previous studies have shown, actively

connecting with close friends, whether in real life or on

Facebook, may actually increase one's sense of well-being," said

Brenda K. Wiederhold, Ph.D., of the Interactive Media Institute

in San Diego, CA, and Virtual Reality Medical Institute in

Brussels, Belgium.

As the world expands and you meet more people, there is a

need to connect, a strong desire to be accepted or to feel that

you “fit in” while in the process of developing your own

identity and uniqueness as an individual. You want to be

yourself, at the same time you want to be accepted by others.

Adolescents from many relationships at this stage which widen

social spheres and influences. Your interests are also

expanding, oftentimes with the exclusion of family. You have

cliques, sports groups, peers in class, clubs and other social

networks that take different forms in terms of quantity and

quality of relationship you share with them. It is at this point


19

when there is a need for maturity to be able to handle emotions

well, express emotional reactions positively, and communicate

feelings clearly for smooth, interpersonal relationships.

Maturity and emotional stability are important especially when

dealing with people and handling stress. (Ramos 2016)


20

CHAPTER III

Methodology

This chapter encompasses a definition of the research

design, population, and sample of the study. It also pinpoints

respondents of the study, the instrument used, the technique of

collecting data, and the statistical tests used to analyze the

data.

Research Design

This research used the descriptive-correlation design to

determine which of the different variables were related to each

other. The correlation studies conclude the relationship between

points, topics, and different objectives. A correlation study

seeks to understand what kind of relationships naturally

occurring variables have with one another.

The variables noted under investigation from Grade-10

students of Allen National High School, were the profile of the

respondents; the emotional effects as perceived by the

respondents involved in social media engagement; the usual mood

of Grade-10 students as they engaged in social media networks;


21

and their activeness in social media usage. A set of

questionnaires was given to eighty-one Grade-10 students of

Allen National High School.

The interrelationship of the variables involved in the

study was measured and the attained findings were analyzed and

treated with applicable statistical measures like mean,

frequency counts, percentages, and Chi-Square Test of

Independence.

The findings opened up the minds of every social media

users about the possible emotional effect in exploiting

different social networking sites. It gave information and

knowledge about the awareness of what they were in to.

Population and Sampling

Table 1

Distribution of Respondents

Respondents Population Sample Percentage

Grade 10
433 81 18.70%
Students
22

The table 1 above shows the total population of Grade-10

students in Allen National High School which is 433 as of

November, 2017.

However, only 81 students were selected as respondent-

participants in this study through cluster sampling by

considering each section as one cluster.

Respondents of the Study

The respondents of this study were composed of 81 Grade-10

students of ANHS in both Strengthened Technical-Vocational

Education (STVE) and Science Technology and Engineering Program

(STEP) curricula, who were still enrolled as of November, 2017.

The respondents were gathered from different sections. They

were asked whether they are actively engaged in social media or

not and what their personal emotional experiences are while

engaging in social media.

Research Instrument

The research instruments for this study were questionnaires

made for the respondents chosen through cluster sampling.


23

The questionnaire administered to the students contains

questions regarding their profile namely: gender, daily

allowance, and their estimated family income every month.

The second part of the questionnaire dealt with the

possible moods they feel every time they are engaged in social

media. It also tried to determine the amount of time they spend

per day.

The last part of the questionnaire contains questions

regarding their frequency of engagement on specific social media

networks.

Data Gathering Procedure

The gathering of data started from validating the

questionnaire. This was done at Allen National High School.

After validating, correction has been made to the instruments.

Then, the distribution of questionnaires to the respondents

was conducted through cluster sampling. To ensure the

correctness of data, each questionnaire was checked after being

answered. Lastly, after gathering the accomplished

questionnaires, the responses were tallied, recorded, and

interpreted.
24

Statistical Treatment

In the data processing, the following statistical

techniques were used:

The given response from the Grade 10 students’ profile in

terms of gender, daily allowance, and family income, to the

frequency, moods, and the average of the students in social

media usage were computed.

All the collected data from the respondents were recorded

and analyzed by simply listing the tallied information and

calculating the data using Chi-Square Test of Independence.


25

CHAPTER IV

Presentation, Analysis, and Interpretation of Data

This chapter presents the analysis and interpretation of

data. It also provides the implication of findings of the study.

Sub-Problem No.1. What is the profile of the respondents in


terms of:

1.1 Gender

Table 2

Profile of the Respondents in Terms of Gender

Gender Frequency Percentage


Female 50 61.73 %
Male 28 34.57 %
Lesbian 1 1.23%
Gay 2 2.47 %
Total 81 100 %

70
60
50 Female

40 Male
30 Gay
20 Lesbian
10
0
Frequency Percentage

Figure 2. Gender of the Respondents


26

Table 2 presents the gender of respondent-participants of

the study, their frequency and percentages. As shown in the

table, the gender of respondents with the highest percentage

were the female which was 61.73 percent, 34.57 percent from

male, 1.23 percent from lesbian, and gay has 2.47 percent.

1.2 Daily Allowance

Table 3

Profile of the Respondents in Terms of Daily Allowance

Daily Allowance Frequency Percentage


Php 20-50.00 60 74.074 %
Php 51-100.00 14 17.284 %
More than Php 7 8.642 %
100.00
Total 81 100 %

80

70

60

50 Php 20-50.00

40 Php 51-100.00
More than Php 100.00
30

20

10

0
Frequency Percentage

Figure 3. Daily Allowance of the Respondents


27

The table 3 shows that the respondents with the highest

percentage of daily allowance range from Php 20-50.00 which is

74.074 percent, 17.284 percent from Php 51-100.00 and 8.642

percent from more than Php 100.00.

This further indicates that 74 percent of the respondents

whose daily allowance are less than Php 50. This means that

majority of the respondents do not have financial abundance.

1.3 Family Income

Table 4

Profile of the Respondents in Terms of Family Income

Family Income Frequency Percentage


Php 2,000-5,000.00 38 46.914 %
Php 6,000-10,000.00 27 33.333 %
More than Php 16 19.753 %
10,000.00
Total 81 100 %

50

40
Php 2,000-5,000.00
30
Php 6,000-10,000.00
20 More than Php 10,000.00

10

0
Frequency Percentage

Figure 4. Family Income of the Respondents


28

The table 4 presents that the respondents’ family income

with the top most percentage ranges from Php 2,000-5,000 which

was 46.914 percent, 33.333 percent from Php 6,000-10,000 and

19.753 percent from more than Php 10,000.

This implies that 47 percent of the student-respondents

belong to family whose income is less than Php 5,000 per month.

This confirms the high percentage of the student-respondents who

belong to the group with the lowest daily allowance.

Sub Problem No. 2. What are the usual moods of ANHS Grade 10
students as they engaged in social media?

1.1 Positive Moods

Table 5

Positive Moods Felt by the Respondents

Positive Moods Frequency Percentage

Happy 72 40.223 %
Calm 36 20.112 %

Satisfied 22 12.291 %
Contented 20 11.173 %

Energetic 15 8.380 %
Lively 14 7.821 %

Total 179 100 %


29

80
70 Happy
60 Calm
50
Satisfied
40
Contented
30
Energetic
20
10 Lively
0
Frequency Percentage

Figure 5. Positive Moods Felt by the Respondents

The table 5 shows that the positive moods with the highest

percentage of 40.223 percent is happy, 20.112 percent is calm,

12.291 percent is satisfied, 11.173 percent is contented, 8.380

is energetic and 7.821 is lively.

This reveals their perceived happiness when using the

social media sites.

1.2 Negative Moods

Table 6

Negative Moods Felt by the Respondents

Negative Moods Frequency Percentage


Boring 35 35.714 %
Tired 32 32.653 %
Sad 15 15. 306 %
Gloomy 10 10. 204 %
Bad Tempered 3 3. 061 %
Fed up 3 3. 061 %
Total 98 99. 99 %
30

40
35 Boring
30 Tired
25 Sad
20
Gloomy
15
10 Bad Tempered
5 Fed Up
0
Frequency Percentage

Figure 6. Negative Moods Felt by the Respondents

The table 6 presents that the negative moods with the

highest percentage of 35.714 percent is boring, 32.653 percent

is tired, 15.306 percent is sad, 10.204 percent is gloomy, bad

tempered and fed up has the same percentage of 3.061 percent.

This implies that some social media users also get bored

while engaged in social networking.

Sub Problem No.3. What is the percentage of the students


who are active in social media?

Table 7

Activeness and Inactiveness of the Respondents

Students Frequency Percentage

Active 60 74.07 %

Inactive 21 25.93 %

Total 81 100%
31

80
70
60
50 Active
40 Inactive
30
20
10
0
Frequency Percentage

Figure 7. Activeness and Inactiveness of the Respondents

The table 7 shows that the student that has the

highest percentage of 74.07 percent is active and 25.93 percent

is inactive.

This further implies that 74 percent of the

respondents are actively engaged in social media. This means

that majority of the student-respondents are actively engaged in

social media.
32

Sub-Problem No.4. Is there a significant relationship between


the social media engagement of Grade-10 Allen National High
School students and their moods while engaged in it?

Table 8

Tabular Value
n Computed at Decision
X2 Value 0.05 Level of
Significance

81 0.7087 5.991 Do not reject


the Ho.

Table 8 presents that the computed x2 value is less than the

x2 tabular value at 0.05 level of significance, therefore the

null hypothesis cannot be rejected. This means that there is no

significant relationship between the social media engagement as

perceived by the Grade-10 Allen National High School students

and their moods while engaged in it.

Furthermore, this shows that the social media does not

affect the moods, positively or negatively, of ANHS Grade-10

students while engaged in it.


33

Chapter V

Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations

This study determined the emotional effects of social media

as perceived by the Grade-10 students of Allen National High

School, Allen, Northern Samar. It looked into the profile of the

respondent-participants which include gender, daily allowance,

and family income. It determined the usual mood of Grade-10

students as they engage in social media. It also determined the

percentage of the students who were active in social media. It

determined the relationship between the social media engagement

of Grade-10 ANHS students and their moods while engaged in it.

This study used the descriptive-correlation research design

to determine which of the different variables are related to

each other. The variables noted under investigation from Grade-

10 students of ANHS were the profile of the respondents involved

in social media engagement; the usual mood of Grade-10 students

as they engaged in social media; and their activeness in social

media usage. The questionnaire checklist was used in gathering

data. The statistical tools used were frequency counts,

percentage, and Chi-square test of independence to see if there

is a significant relationship between the social media

engagement of Grade-10 ANHS students and their moods while

engaged in it.
34

The findings revealed that majority of respondents were

female with 61.43%, 34.57% male, 2.47% gay, and 1.23% lesbian.

In terms of their daily allowance, the highest percentage ranges

from Php. 20-50 which was 74.074%, 17.284%, from Php. 51-100,

and 8.642% from more than Php. 100. The family with the highest

income ranges from Php. 2,000- Php. 5,000 which was 46.914%,

33.333% from Php. 6,000- Php. 10,000, and 19.753% from more than

Php. 10,000.

It also revealed that 74.07% of the respondents were active

in social media and 25.93% were inactive. The positive moods

felt by the students were happy with 40.223%, calm with 20.112%,

satisfied with 12.291%, contented with 11.173%, energetic with

8.380%, and lively with 7.821%. While the negative moods were

boring with 35.714%, tired with 32.653%, sad with 15.306%,

gloomy with 10.204%, bad tempered and fed up has the same

percentage of 3.061%.

The null hypothesis which says that there is no significant

relationship between the social media engagement of Grade-10

students and their moods while engaged in it was not rejected.


35

Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study, the following

conclusions were formulated:

1. Majority of the respondents were female.

2. Majority of the respondents belong to low-income family.

3. The percentage of the users who felt happiness while using

social media is greater than those who felt boredom while

engaged in it.

4. Majority of the social media users were actively engaged in

social media activity.

5. There is no significant relationship between the social

media engagement of Grade-10 Allen National High School students

and their moods while engaged in it.

Recommendation

Based from the findings and conclusion of this study, the

following recommendations were given by the researchers:

1. In administering the questionnaire to the respondents, it

should contain clear, understandable words, should be

professionally prepared and revised, reviewed and refined.


36

2. Related studies should be conducted in other topic

including mental or psychological effects, physical effects, and

social effects of social networking.

3. The allotted time for the study should be brainstormed and

decided to gain much more accurate results and should be

provided enough budget.

4. The researchers must ask for more assistance from

professionals and other research advisers for the accuracy and

the proper treatment of variables involved.

5. The conduct of the same study using respondents from the

different Grade levels.


37

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A. BOOK

Ramos, M. (2016). Moving Up: A Guide To Personal and Career

Development. Quezon Ave, Quezon City: The Phoenix Publishing

House, Inc.

B. ONLINE SOURCES

www.sternbergclinic.com.au/social-media-and-its-impact-on-mental-

health

https://amp.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/sep/16/social-media-

mental-health

http://metro.co.uk/2013/08/15/social-media-and-its-effects-on-our-

emotional-well-being-3924915/#1x224pLbfpMcQ

http://metro.co.uk/2013/08/15/social-media-and-its-effects-on-our-

emotional-well-being-3924915/#1x224pLerfD6A

https://www.ukessays.com/essays/psychology/theoritical-framework-

of-internet-addiction-psychology-essay.php

http://journals.chapman.edu/ojs/index.php/mc/article/view/3

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/275361.php

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/275361.php

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/275361.ph
38

APPENDIX A

CHI-SQUARE TEST OF INDEPENDENCE

Social Media Positive Negative


Engagement Moods Moods Total

< 10-30 minutes 18 a 10 b 28

31-120 minutes 37 c 27 d 64

> 121 minutes 25 e 21 f 46

Total 80 58 138

80 (28) 58 (28) 80 (64)


Ea = Eb = Ec =
138 138 138

= 16. 23 = 11. 77 = 37. 10

58 (64) 80 (46) 58 (46)


Ed = Ee = Ef =
138 138 138

= 26.90 = 26.67 = 19.33


Social Media Positive Negative
Engagement Moods Moods Total

O E O E

< 10-30 minutes 18 16.23 10 11.77 28

31-120 minutes 37 37.10 27 26.90 64

> 121 minutes 25 26.67 21 19.33 46

Total 80 58 138
39

Computation:
(𝑂−𝐸)2
X2 = ∑
𝐸
(18−16.23)2 (10−11.77)2 (37−37.10)2
= + + +
16.23 11.77 37.10

(27−26.90)2 (25−26.67)2 (21−19.33)2


+ +
26.90 26.67 19.33

= 0.1930 + 0.2662 + 0.0003 +


0.0004 + 0.1045 + 0.1443
X2 = 0.7087
The Ho cannot be rejected.
40

APPENDIX B

SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE

SOCIAL MEDIA AND ITS EMOTIONAL EFFECTS AS PERCEIVED BY THE

GRADE-10 STUDENTS OF ALLEN NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL

Name (optional): _______________________________

Grade and Section: __________________ Age: ________

Please answer the following questions honestly. Whatever


information that you have shared will be kept confidential.

Check your response.

A. Gender

 Male
 Female
 Gay
 Lesbian

B. Daily Allowance

 Php20.00 – Php50.00
 Php51.00 – Php100.00
 More than Php100.00

C. Family Income

 Php2,000.00 – Php5,000.00
 Php6,000.00 – Php10,000.00
 More than Php10 000.00
41

Q1. Check the adjective that describe your mood when using
social media.

POSITIVE NEGATIVE
RESPONSE RESPONSE
MOODS MOODS

Lively Bad-Tempered

Happy Boring

Contented Gloomy

Energetic Fed up

Calm Sad

Satisfied Tired

Q2. On average/approximately, how many minutes per day have you


spent on Facebook?

Less than 10 minutes

10-30 minutes

31-60 minutes

1-2 hours

2-3 hours

More than 3 hours


42

Q3. I feel out of touch when I haven't logged onto Facebook


for a while.

RATE FROM 1-5.

1 2 3 4 5

Q4. Facebook has become part of my daily routine.

RATE FROM 1-5.

1 2 3 4 5

Q5. I have used Facebook to check out someone I met socially.

RATE FROM 1-5.

1 2 3 4 5

Q6. Are you an active user of social media like Facebook or


Messenger?

YES NO

Thank you for the cooperation!

The Researchers