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CE - Interna
ational Jourrnal for Envvironmentaal Rehabilitaation and Conservation
Volume V: No. 2 2014 [2
28 – 34] [ISS
SN 0975 - 62722]

Proceedings of
o National Coonference
“Environmental Conserrvation and Cllean India Proogramme” Deccember 2014, India

An Assessment ofo Water Quality

Q of River Gan
nga at Allaahabad wiith respect to a
Statistical method: Princip
pal Comp
ponent Anaalysis (PCA)

Ruby Paandey, Anup

p Kumar Paandey and D.
D N. Shuklaa

0 2014 ⏐ Acccepted: Deccember 15, 20014 ⏐ Online:: December 31,

Received: November 03, 3 2014

Prinncipal compponent anallysis (PCA)) is an
An exttensive inv vestigation of physicco-
impportant statisstical methood to ascerrtain the
chemicall parameters of water sam mple of Gannga
paraameters respponsible for variability in i water
River att different Ghats of Allahabad
A v
quaality variannce. One latent factoor was
Shringveerpur, Phaaphamau, Daraganj &
idenntified as ressponsible foor the data sttructure,
Sangam during pre-monsoon, monsoon &
explaining 92.991% of tottal variancee in the
post-monnsoon seaso ons in year 2013-14. Ten T
dataaset i.e.; firsst factor expplained 92.991 % of
physico-cchemical paarameters as pH, Electriical
totaal variance inn the datasett. The preseent study
Conductiivity (EC), Dissolved OxygenO (DO
focuuses on the four broad,, often overrlapping,
Biologicaal Oxygen Demand
D (BOOD), Chemiical
phaases under whichw the legal provissions of
Oxygen Demand (COD), ( Tootal Alkalinnity
Indiia can be revviewed.
(TA), Tootal Hardneess (TH), Total T Dissolve
Solids (T T.D.S), Chlloride & Turbidity
T were Keyywords: Gaanga River | physico-cchemical
used to analyse
a the pollution inndex of Gannga paraameters | correlation | Principal
P Com
river at Allahabad.
A Correlation
Coefficient w
was Anaalysis (PCA))
calculateed between different
d pairrs of parameeter
to identiffy the highlyy correlated & interrelatted
water quuality param meters. (Signnificance levvel Watter of adeqquate quanttity and quuality is
0.05). esseential for suustainable development
d (Khalil
andd Ouarda, 2009).
2 Wateer quality performs
For correespondence: impportant role in
i health of human,
h animmals and
Department of Botany, University
U of Allahabad,
A plannts [Pejman (2009) and Zhao et al. (2012)].
Allahabadd, Uttar Pradesh
h, India
Watter quality is the critical
c facttor that
Email: ruubypandeybotan nyau@gmail.ccom
influuences human health as well as the quantity
Pandey et al. /Vol. V [2] 20014 /28 – 34 

and quality of grain production in semi-hum mid Sanngam.

and sem mi-arid area (Zhang, 2012). Hum man
Maaterials and Methods
activitiess are a major factor deetermining the t
quality ofo surface and
a ground water throuugh Desscription of the Study Area
atmospheeric pollutioon, effluent discharges,
d u
use Allaahabad is loccated in the southern paart of the
of agricuultural chemiicals, erodedd soils and laand state of Uttar Pradesh, at a 25°27′N 81°50′E
use (Niem mi, 1990). 25.445°N 81.84°°E, it is an olld and uniquue city in
Increasinng problem of deteriorration of rivver Indiia where tw wo big riveers of the country
water quuality, it is necessary
n to monitoring of nammely Ganga and Yamunna carrying various
water quality
q to evaluate thhe productiion induustrial effluuents have a confluence. The
capacity (Kesharwan ni et al. 20004). The maajor induustrial effluuents as well as domesticd
activitiess responsiblle for riverr pollution in sew
wage/wastes are dispossed in thesee rivers
Allahabaad are duee to sewaage discharrge, eithher with paartial or no pre-treatm ment and
agricultuure and indusstrial effluennts mainly froom hennce increasinng concenttration of different
Naini inndustrial areea, Phapham mau area and a kindds of polluutants includding that of heavy
Phulpur fertilizers factory which w direcctly mettals in the riverine waater (Guptaa et al.,
dischargee into the riiver. The exxisting Sewaage 20009).
Treatmennt plants (STP) at Gaughat and a
Rajapur are not able to cope witth the situatiion
(Jamshedd et al. 201 13). The muultidimensionnal
data anaalysis meth hods are becoming veery
popular in i environmmental studiees dealing with
measurem ment and monitoring
m (AAdebola et al.
2013). The
T most common
c muultidimensionnal
data anallysis method ds used are cluster
c analyysis
(CA), factor
f analyysis/principaal component Fig. 1: Map of Uttar
U Pradesh showing
s Allahhabad city
analysis (FA/PCA), which havee been used to and an enlarged view of Allahaabad city
identify important components/sources thhat showing study
s sites.

explain the variatio ons in wateer quality and a Sam

mple Collecttion
influencee the water system (Andrrade, 2008).
Thee water sammples were collected
c froom four
In the prresent paper an attempt has
h been maade sites viz: Shrinngverpur, Phhaphamau, Daraganj
to assess the physicoo-chemical parameters with
w andd Sangam for f physicoo-chemical analysis
respect tot Principal componennt analysis in duriing three seeasons viz: summer, monsoon
three seaasons viz: su
ummer, monnsoon & winnter andd winter for the
t year 20113-2014. Parrameters
during 20013-14 at diifferent ghatts of Allahabbad likee pH and dissolved oxygen
o (DO
O) were
viz: Shriingverpur, Phaphamau,, Daraganj & estimmated at thhe spot imm mediately after
a the
colllection of the samplles whereass water
Pandey et al. /Vol. V [2] 20014 /28 – 34 

analysis relating to other

o chemiccal factors was
w singgle variable in the stanndardized teest score
done in thhe laboratorry. spacce (Andradee, 2008).

Analyticcal Methodss Ressults and Diiscussion

The waater samples were brrought to the t Thee results of thhe physico-cchemical parrameters
laboratorry in ice booxes and suubjected to thet of the
t samples collected at a different ghats
g of
analysis of BOD (by incubbating dilutted Allaahabad durinng study period shown in table
samples at 250C for 5 days in dark),
d COD (by
( 1. According
A too table 1, pH
p found maximum
dichromaate reflux method using a ferrooin 8.588 in summerr & minimuum 8.12 in winter w at
indicatorr), Alkalinitty (estimateed by titratiion Phaaphamau & Daraganj ghats resppectively
with s
standard sulphuric acid usiing wheereas EC haveh maximmum 541 µS S/cm at
phenolphhthalein an nd methyl orange as Phaaphamau & minimum m 184 µS S/cm at
indicatorr) , Hardnesss (estimateed by titratiion Sanngam. DO shhown maxim mum value 9.2 9 mg/l
with EDT TA solutionn using Erichhrome blackk-T at Sangam & minimuum 6.92 mg/l m at
dye as indicator), TDS (byy Evaporatiion Phaaphamau durring winter & summer seasons
method),, EC (Cond ductivity meeter), Turbiddity resppectively whhereas BOD D and COD found
(Nepheloometer) and d Chloride (by Mohhr’s maxximum 9.7 mg/l m & 22.66 mg/l resppectively
argentommetric metthod usingg Potassiuum at Phaphamau
Ghat while minimum
m 5.44mg/l &
chromatee as indicatorr). 12.99 mg/l resspectively at a Sangam during
summmer & wintter season reespectively. TA, TH
Statisticaal Analysis
andd chloride haave found maximum
m 2887 mg/l,
Principall componen nt analysis (PCA) is a 1755.3 mg/l annd 30.9 mg/l m respectiively at
powerfull pattern recognition toool that attem mpts Phaaphamau Ghhat whereas found minimum as
to explaiin the variaance of a laarge dataset of 1200 mg/l, 92.3 mg/l, and 13 1 mg/l resppectively
intercorreelated variabbles with a smaller set of at Sangam
S duriing monsoonn & winter seasons
independdent variablees (Simeonow w et al., 20007). founnd respecctively whhereas Maximum M
In this sttudy, PCA of
o the normaalized variabbles turbbidity and TDS
T as 28.22 NTU & 310 mg/l
were exeecuted to ex xtract signifficant princippal resppectively at Phaphamau
P while minimmum 7.3
componeents (PCs) and a to furthher reduce thet NTU U & 238 mg/l m at Sanngam and Daraganj
contributtion of variables with minnor duriing monsoonn & winter season respeectively.
significannce; these PCs were subjected to Tabble 2 showss that pH exhibited
e siggnificant
varimax rotation generating facctors (Shresttha posiitive correlaation with alll parameters except
and Kazzama, 2007 7). PCs weere de- finned DO whereas DO D showed negative
n corrrelation
accordingg to the criteerion that onnly factors thhat withh all parameeters, thus itt can be servved as a
account for variaance greateer than one o singgle useful poollution indeex of water quality,
(eigenvallue-one criteerion) shoulld be includded. as with
w rise in the value of o these parrameters
The ratioonale for thhis is that any
a component decrreases the DOD concentrration (Khaiwal et
should account
a for more variaance than any a al., 2003).
Pandey et al. /Vol. V [2] 20014 /28 – 34 

F 2: Assessm
Fig. ment of water quality

Table 3 represented the deteermined inittial reprresents moree than 90%% of the variance in
Principall Component (PC) and a its Eiggen watter quality of the river Ganges.
G Total 91.92
values, percent
p of variance annd cumulative % by
b PC 1. Taable 4 depictted that the first PC
percent ofo variance contributedd in each PC.P accoounting for 91.92 % of the total variance
The figuure shows thhe Scree ploot of the Eiggen wass positive coorrelated witth all param
meters as
value foor each co omponent inn which tw wo pH, EC, TA, TH T ,TDS, BO OD ,COD, Chloride
Principall Componentt were obtainned with Eiggen andd Turbidity whereas DO D show negative
value >1. Eigen valuues accounts that first PC
C is conntribution to this
t variancee.
the most significant component
c w


Cl Turbiddity TDS
Shringverrpur Sum
mmer 8.488 370 7.110 9.40 21.2 169 152 25.2 13.300 273
nsoon 8.222 361 7.883 9.18 19.3 174 167.8 27.8 25.5 290.6
nter 8.155 433 8.115 5.90 18.5 140 135.60 15.0 8.900 249
mau Sum
mmer 8.588 541 6.992 9.70 22.6 248 162 26.7 15.122 289
nsoon 8.422 527 7.225 9.46 19.5 287 175.3 30.9 28.200 310
nter 8.200 448 7.990 6.20 18.9 142 140.6 15.8 10.022 250.3
Daraganj Sum
mmer 8.42 285 7.220 9.00 16.30 150 126 23.2 11.900 270
nsoon 8.322 269 7.996 8.84 15.7 163 132.2 25.8 19.6 300
nter 8.122 410 8.550 5.40 13.8 134 116 15.1 8.200 238
m Sum
mmer 8.388 184 7.440 8.90 15.6 146 120.4 18.2 9.800 270
nsoon 8.277 166 8.339 8.63 14.3 160 128 21.4 12.300 290.5
nter 8.222 375 9.220 5.40 12.9 120 92.3 13.0 7.300 250
Table 1

Pandey et al. /Vol. V [2] 20014 /28 – 34 

Corrrelation Matriixa
Parameter pH EC
TH Cl Turbidityy T.D.S
pH 1.000
EC 0.934 1.000
DO -0.935 -1
1.000 1.000
BOD 0.970 0.993 -0.9993 1.000
COD 0.602 0.848 -0.8445 0.778 1.000
TA 0.989 0.976 -0.9777 0.995 0.712 1.000
TH 0.668 0.890 -0.8888 0.829 0.996 0.769 1.000
Chloride 0.918 0.999 -0.9999 0.987 0.869 0.966 0.909 1.0000
Turbidity 0.812 0.967 -0.9666 0.930 0.955 0.888 0.977 0.9777 1.000
T.D.S 0.995 0.966 -0.9667 0.990 0.681 0.999 0.741 0.9544 0.868 1.000
a. This matrix is not positive definite.
Table 2
Componentt Initial Eigen values
Total % off Variance Cumulativee %
1 9.192 9
91.924 91.924
2 0.808 8.076 100.0000
3 8.162E-166 8.162E-15 100.0000
4 2.544E-166 2.5544E-15 100.0000
5 1.812E-166 1.8812E-15 100.0000
6 9.243E-177 9.2243E-16 100.0000
7 1.368E-177 1.3368E-16 100.0000
8 -1.395E-16 -1.395E-15 100.0000
9 -1.450E-16 -1.450E-15 100.0000
10 -2.804E-16 -2.804E-15 100.0000
Extraction Method:
M Princip
pal Componentt Analysis
Table 3: Total
T variance explained

Componeent Matrixa
Chlorride 1.000
ECC 1.000
DOO -1.000
BOD 0.989
Turbiidity 0.973
TAA 0.970
T.D.S. 0.958
H 0.924
H 0.902
COOD 0.862
Extraction Meethod: Principaal Component Analysis.
a. 1 components extracted
Table 4

Conclusiion of a large datasset of inter correlated variables

withh a smallerr set of inddependent variables
The PC CA is poweerful patterrn recognitiion
Prinncipal Compponent (Mishhra, 2010)
techniquee that attemp
pts to explaiin the variannce
Pandey et al. /Vol. V [2] 20014 /28 – 34 

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