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was derived from a Latin word fractus which means broken.

Fractals are very complex pictures generated by a computer from a single formula. They are

created using iterations. This means one formula is repeated with slightly different values over and

over again, taking into account the results from the previous iteration.

molecules, plants,

Others − For depicting clouds, coastline and borderlines, data compression, diffusion,

economy, fractal art, fractal music, landscapes, special effect, etc.

Generation of Fractals

Fractals can be generated by repeating the same shape over and over again as shown in the

following figure. In figure a shows an equilateral triangle. In figure b, we can see that the triangle is

repeated to create a star-like shape. In figure c, we can see that the star shape in figure b is

repeated again and again to create a new shape.

recursion is used to create such shapes.

Geometric Fractals

Geometric fractals deal with shapes found in nature that have non-integer or fractal dimensions.

To geometrically construct a deterministic nonrandom self-similar fractal, we start with a given

geometric shape, called the initiator. Subparts of the initiator are then replaced with a pattern,

called the generator.

As an example, if we use the initiator and generator shown in the above figure, we can construct

good pattern by repeating it. Each straight-line segment in the initiator is replaced with four equal-

length line segments at each step. The scaling factor is 1/3, so the fractal dimension is D = ln 4/ln

3 ≈ 1.2619.

Also, the length of each line segment in the initiator increases by a factor of 4/3 at each step, so

that the length of the fractal curve tends to infinity as more detail is added to the curve as shown in

the following figure −

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