minor losses

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minor losses

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You are on page 1of 17

ENGINEERING

PIPE (E4)

1

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

1.0 Objectives

The objective of this experiment is to calculate loss coefficient (K value) and head loss

(hL) in pipes for different water flow rates, pipe diameters and pipe bends.

2.0 Introduction

As an incompressible fluid flows through a pipe, a friction force along the pipe wall is

created against the fluid. The frictional resistance generates a continuous loss of energy

or total head in the fluid and hence decreases the pressure of the fluid as it moves through

the pipe. There are four factors that determine friction losses in pipe:

ii. The size (inside diameter) of the pipe

iii. The direction of flow in the pipe

iv. The length of the pipe

In addition to energy or head loss due to friction, there are always head losses in pipes

due to an enlargement or contraction of the flow section, bends, junctions, and valves

etc., which are commonly known as minor or small losses. When the direction of flow is

altered or distorted, energy losses occur which are not recovered are dissipated in eddies

and additional turbulence and finally lost in the form of heat. However, this energy must

be supplied if the fluid is to be maintained in motion, in the same way, as energy must be

provided to overcome friction. In practice, in long pipe lines of several kilometres the

effect of minor losses may be negligible. For short pipeline the losses may be greater than

those for friction.

3.0 Theory

In Bernoulli's equation as shown below, hf represents the head loss due to friction between

the fluid and the internal surface of the constant diameter pipe as well as the friction between

the adjacent fluid layers

2 2

p1/g + V1 /2g + Z1 = p2 / g + V2 /2g + Z2 + hf (Eq. 1)

This will result in a continuous change of energy from a valuable mechanical form (such as

kinetic or potential energies) to a less valuable thermal form that is heat. This change of

2

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

energy is usually referred to as friction head loss, which represents the amount of energy

converted into heat per unit weight of fluid.

The head losses (hf) in pipe due to friction can be determined using Darcy-Weisback

equation;

2 gD

2gD5

Where:

f = Friction factor

L = Length

V = Mean velocity (Q/A)

g = Gravity

D = Constant diameter

The friction head loss for both laminar and turbulent flows can be expressed by similar

formulas although the original derivation of each one is different:

L V2

hf f (Eq. 4)

D 2g

In laminar flow, the friction factor is only a function of Reynolds number while for turbulent

flow it is a function of Reynolds (Re) number and the relative roughness of the pipe.

VD

Re (Eq. 5)

Based on the nature of the flow, friction factor (f ) can be estimated using the following

correlations

Re

3

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

Equation (7) is Blausius Equation and only valid for smooth pipe and 3000 < Re< 105.

The value of f for turbulent flow can be obtained experimentally from the Moody Chart.

Moreover, for turbulent flow, the relationship between hf and V takes the form

n

(Eq. 8)

hf = K. V

where K is a loss coefficient and n ranges from 1.7 to 2.0 (depending on the value of Re and

ks/D). This equation can be written as

Experimentally, one can obtain the head loss by applying energy equation between any two

points along a constant diameter pipe. This is done in Eq. 1 and by noticing that the pipe is

horizontal and the diameter is constant. The pressure heads of a fluid between 2 points, h1

and h2, are measured by using Piezometer tubes. The total head loss can be determined

experimentally by applying the Bernoulli’s equation as follows:

Energy losses are proportional to the velocity head of the fluid as it flows around an

elbow, through an enlargement or contraction of the flow section, or through a valve.

Experimental values for energy losses are usually reported in terms of a resistance or loss

coefficient K as follows:

KV 2

hL = (Eq. 11)

2g

where hL is the minor loss, K is the resistance or loss coefficient, and V is the average

velocity of flow in the pipe in the vicinity where the minor loss occurs. The resistance or

loss coefficient is dimensionless because it represents a constant of proportionality

between the energy loss and the velocity head. The magnitude of the resistance

coefficient depends on the geometry of the device that causes the loss and sometimes on

the velocity of flow.

When a fluid flows from a smaller pipe into a larger pipe through a sudden enlargement,

its velocity abruptly decreases, causing turbulence, which generates an energy loss.

4

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

where,

V1 = velocity at small cross-section (upstream)

V2 = velocity at large cross-section (downstream)

The minor loss (hL) due to sudden enlargement of the pipe can be estimated by

integrating the momentum, continuity and Bernoulli equations between positions 1 and 2

to give

V1 V2 2

hL (Eq. 12)

2g

Substituting again for the continuity equation to get an expression involving the two

areas, (i.e. V2=V1(A1/A2) gives

2

KV1

hL (Eq. 13)

2g

2

A1

2

D 2

Where , K 1 1 1

A2

D2

When a fluid flows from a larger pipe into a smaller pipe through a sudden contraction,

the fluid streamlines will converge just downstream of the smaller pipe, known as vena

contraction phenomena, creating a turbulence region from the sharp corner of the smaller

pipe and extends past the vena contracta, which subsequently generates an energy loss.

5

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

In a sudden contraction, flow contracts from point 1 to point 1', forming a vena

contraction. It is possible to assume that energy losses from 1 to 1' are negligible (no

separation occurs in contracting flow) but that major losses occur between 1' and 2 as the

flow expands again

If the vena contract area is A1’=Ac, then the minor loss (hL) can be estimated by

integrating the momentum , continuity and Bernoulli equations between positions 1 and 2

to give

2

AC V22

hL 1 (Eq. 14)

A2 2 g

The above equation is commonly expressed as a function of loss coefficient (K) and the

average velocity (V2) in the smaller pipe downstream from the contraction as follows;

2

KV2

hL (Eq. 15)

2g

2

A

Where K 1 C

A2

As the difference in pipe diameters gets large (A1/A2 0) then this value of K will tend

towards 0.5 which is equal to the value for entry loss from a reservoir into a pipe. The

value of K depends upon the ratio of the pipe diameters (D2/D1) as given below;

D2/D1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

K 0.5 0.45 0.412 0.39 0.36 0.33 0.28 0.15 0.15 0.06 0

6

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

Losses in fittings such as elbow, valves etc have been found to be proportional to the

velocity head of the fluid flowing. The energy loss is expressed in the general form,

KV 2

hL = (Eq. 16)

2g

where,

K = loss coefficient (dependent on the ratio of total angle of bending to

radius of bending (R/d) of the curves as the bending occurs)

In the experiment the pressure heads before and after a fluid undergoing sudden change

in pipe diameter or flow direction, h1 and h2, are measured by using Piezometer tubes. The

total head loss (major and minor losses) can be determined experimentally by applying

the Bernoulli’s equation as follows:

2 2

P1/g + Vl / 2 g + Z1 = P2/g + V2 / 2 g + Z2 + hL (Eq. 17)

7

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

2 2

hl + Vl / 2 g + Z1 = h2 + V2 / 2 g + Z2 + hL (Eq. 18)

V12 V22

and since Z1 = Z2 , then hL h1 h2 (Eq. 19)

2g

4.0 Apparatus

8

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

9

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

10

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

0 999.8 1.781

5 1000.0 1.518

10 999.7 1.307

15 999.1 1.139

20 998.2 1.002

25 997.0 0.890

30 995.7 0.798

40 992.2 0.653

50 988.0 0.547

60 983.2 0.466

70 977.8 0.404

80 971.8 0.354

90 965.3 0.315

11

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

1) Open all outlet valves of pipes I, II, III, IV and V (valves are in parallel with the

pipes). Make certain that the flow control valve in the base module is in closed

position (turn clockwise).

2) Switch on the pump and slowly open the control valve (turn counter-clockwise)

until maximum, and wait for a while in order to remove any air bubble in the

flowing pipe.

3) Identify which inlet flowing pressure (H1) and outlet flowing pressure (H2) during

installation of water manometer rubber tube

4) Determine the direction of water inflow and outflow through the pipe.

5) Perform measurement

Adjust desired flow by way of inflow valve.

Read off differential pressure as difference in height between the two

water columns.

Estimate mean value if reading fluctuates. When taking differential-

pressure measurements, it is more important to achieve reproducible

readings than absolute accuracy.

During the process, if air bubbles present in the flowing pipe, the air will

move through the water manometer rubber tube. Air bubbles will move to

the peak of the higher tube. Remove the air bubbles up to the manometer

glass tube.

6) Determine 5 (five) suitable flow rates Q (let the increment as large as possible).

Record the values of H1 and H2 in millimeter (mm) of the inlet and the outlet of

water manometer flowing pressures as Q is changed.

7) Operate on all the following types of flow.

12

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

Q h1 h2 Δh

Pipe

(1/min) (mm) (mm) (m)

Sudden

Enlargement

Sudden

Contraction

13

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

Q h1 h2 Δh

Pipe

(1/min) (mm) (mm) (m)

Y Type

T Type

14

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

Q h1 h2 Δh

Pipe

(1/min) (mm) (mm) (m)

90° angle

90° bend

45° angle

15

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

16

LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

7.0 Discussion

a) Calculate the loss of coefficient (K) and head loss (n) for each of the flow types; A, B

and C as in section 5.0.

b) Compare the calculated value with the theoretical value (refer to Fluid Mechanics text

book or equation provided in section 3.0) and discuss the possible reasons for different

values.

c) Discuss the effect of fluid velocity, pipe roughness and pipe diameter on the value of

loss coefficient (K) and hence friction loss in pipe.

d) Briefly discuss factors contributing to errors or inaccuracy in experimental data and

propose recommendation to improve the results.

17

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