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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill

Current Affairs- September to December 2017

Country’s Name Continent Capital Currency
Sri Lanka
Somalia (2)
Marshal Island
Brazil (2)
South Sudan
Czech Republic
Montenegro &
West Indies
South Korea

Prepared by: M. Bilal Asif


“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill

Prepared by: M. Bilal Asif


“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill

Current Affairs- October 2017

Oct 1, 2017.  ISPR Chief Maj Gen Asif Ghafoor.
 Sost or Sust is a village in Gojal, Upper  Nawaz Sharif wife is undergoing
Hunza, Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan. It is lymphoma (Throat Cancer) treatment in
the last town inside Pakistan on the London.
Karakoram Highway before the Chinese  US health secretary in Trump
border. Administration, Tom Prince resigned due
 Sana Mir; women 100 ODI century to use costly private jets for government
winner and she was abdicated for the post travel. He was a orthopaedic surgeon
of captain due to dismal performance in doctor.
the year’s world cup.  The Czech Republic (Central Europe,
 New captain is Bismah Mahroof and Capital: Prague and currency Koruna)
coach Sabih Azhar.  Slovakia (Its Capital is Bratislava and
 South Sudan: (Capital; Juba and currency Euro.
currency; pound).  Montenegro and Serbia: (Its capital
 Kosovo: (Its capital Pristina and Belgrade and currency is Dinar).
currency Euro)  Montenegro(Podgorica and currency
 Palau: (Oceania; Its capital is Euro)
Ngerulmud and Currency United States  Eritrea: ( It is East African country its
Dollar). Capital is Asmara and Currency nakfa).
 FIA DG is Bashir Ahmed.
 Bin Ali Yaldrim is current PM of Turkey.

South Sudan: (Capital; Juba and currency; pound) South Sudan declared independence from
Sudan on July 9, 2011, after a violent war with the ethnically Arab north that had lasted
decades. Almost 99pc of voters had supported independence in a referendum, and the new
country was swiftly recognised by the international community. The United States played a
key role in South Sudan’s journey to statehood.
Kosovo: (Its capital Pristina and currency Euro) Kosovo declared independence from Serbia
on Feb 17, 2008. The country had been administered by the United Nations since 1999, when
Nato bombed Serbia and forced then-president Slobodan Milosevic to withdraw his troops
from the ethnically divided province.

Montenegro and Serbia: (Its capital Belgrade and currency is Dinar) The single nation of
Serbia and Montenegro, formed after the collapse of Yugoslavia in 1991, changed into the State
Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003, and finally into the two separate states of Serbia and
Montenegro in 2006. It was Montenegro that ultimately ended the relationship, with a
referendum on May 21, 2006, that found just over 55pc wanted to end its ties with Serbia. On
June 3, Montenegro declared independence. A few days later, Serbia followed suit. Note:
Montenegro (Podgorica and currency Euro) and Montenegro and Serbia are two different

Prepared by: M. Bilal Asif


“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill

East Timor: (Its capital is Dili and currency is US Dollar) Southeast Asian country, East
Timor, now also known as Timor-Leste, achieved independence on May 20, 2002, but the
country had effectively voted for independence years before, when a referendum delivered a
vote that clearly rejected the proposed “special autonomy” within Indonesia. After that
referendum, there was brutal violence in the region with pro-Indonesian militias attacking
citizens, and a special UN force had to be deployed to the country.

Palau: (Oceania; Its capital is Ngerulmud and Currency United States Dollar) Geographically
part of the larger Micronesia island group in the western Pacific Ocean, Palau is the least
populated country on this list, with a little over 21,000 people living on about 250 islands. It
became independent on Oct 1, 1994, 15 years after it had decided against becoming part of
Micronesia due to cultural and linguistic differences.

Eritrea: ( It is East African country its Capital is Asmara and Currency nakfa) The United
Nations established Eritrea as an autonomous region within the Ethiopian federation in 1952.
However, when Ethiopia, under emperor Haile Selassie, annexed the region in 1962, it sparked
a civil war that lasted 30 years. In 1991, the Eritrean People’s Liberation Front (EPLF) ousted
the Ethiopian forces, and on April 27, 1993, the country declared independence after a
The Czech Republic (Central Europe, Capital: Prague and currency Koruna) and Slovakia
(Its Capital is Bratislava and currency Euro.: On Jan 1, 1993, Czechoslovakia was dissolved
by parliament into two countries: The Czech Republic and Slovakia. After the “Velvet
Revolution” ended one-party Communist rule, it was the “Velvet Divorce”. Immediately after
the split, there appeared to be some trepidation: The New York Times noted “wide regret” at
the end of the nation that was formed after World War I. However, the contemporary view is
that the split was a (relative) success: “The split was really smooth,” Slovakian journalist Pavol
Mudry told the BBC in 2013.

Oct 2, 2017.  There is no issue due to Yome-Ashura.

 There is no issue due to Yome-Ashura.

Dr. Rajendra Pradad was a Chairman of Constitutional Assembly. The members of the
committee appointed Dr. Bim Rao Ambetkar as Chairman of Drafting Committe who drafted
a rough modal constitution. After many rounds of discussions finalised and voted on 26th
November 1949 and finaly came into force on 26th January 1950.
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar was Chairman of Indian Constitution Drafting Committee.
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956), popularly known as Baba
Saheb, was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer. He was Independent
India's first law minister, the principal architect of the Constitution of India and a founding
father of the Republic of India. In his early career he was an economist, professor, and lawyer.
His later life was marked by his political activities; he became involved in campaigning and
negotiations for India's independence, publishing journals, advocating political rights and
social freedom for Dalits, and contributing significantly to the establishment of the state of

Prepared by: M. Bilal Asif


“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
India. In 1956 he converted to Buddhism, initiating mass conversions of Dalits. In 1990,
the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award, was posthumously conferred upon Ambedkar.

Oct 3, 2017.  ABC, CBS and Fox news are the news
 In US, LAS VEGAS, a 64-year-old agencies of America.
Nevada resident named Stephen Craig  Manchester is the city of England as well
Paddock opened a fire in crowded as America.
musical concert.  Pakistani renowned painter Tasaduq
 Jason Alden was America’s best selling Sohail passed away on Monday. He was
country singer. 87.
 Orlando nightclub deasly attack took  He was born in in Jalandhur in 1930,
place in June 2016. British India. After 1947, he migrated
 IS propaganda media channel name is Lahore and in 1955 he moved to Karachi.
“Amaq”.  Tolo, is Afghan news agency.
 M. H. Askari Pakistani poet, he wrote  October 3rd is German reunification day.
“Tanhai Ka Safer”.  Uzbekistan capital is Tashkent.
 NAB chairman will retire on October 10,  Ismail Hanyia is Hamas leader and
after completion his four year term. Palestine PM Rami Hamdallah.
 Three Americans “Jeffery C. Hall”  Taj Mahal is 17th century Mughal
“Michael Rosbash” and “Michael W. monument in Uttar Pardesh along the
Young won Nobel prize in Physiology or bank of Jumna river.
Medicine.  Uttar Pardes (UP) is India’s most
 Rajhistan is India’s biggest state by area. populous state.
 Pakistan got independence from Britain  Government made Islamabad its Capital
in August 14, 1947. in 1960.
 At the time of independence Karachi was  In 1962, Government moved to
the capital. Islamabad and finally in 1967 all offices
 President Ayub Khan visited Rawalpindi transferred to Islamabad.
in 1959 and ordered for work new  October 3rd is National Day of Republic
capital. of Korea (South Korea). It got
independence in 1945.

Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara: (Argentina) Special Report. October 03, 2017.

 Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara was born in Argentina, city of Rosario and hanged in Bolivia
in October 09, 1967. He travelled across Latin America in 1952 and 1953 and
shocked to see the economic disparity in the region. This road trip that was
immortalised in the 2004 film The Motorcycles Diaries. It convened him violence
was necessary to overturn Latin America’s unjust social order.
 His life was dramatically changed when he met with Fidel Castro in Mexico in 1955
and he joined his guerrilla expedition to Cuba.
 Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara was Cold War revolutionary icon and Cuban revolution hero.
 Juan Martin Guevara is the real brother of Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara.
 Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara was patient of Asthma.
 Fidel Castro called him (Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara) an artist of revolutionary warfare.
 Current president of Cuba Raul Castro and his brother Fidel Castro fought alongside
Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara in the Cuban revolution in 1959.

Prepared by: M. Bilal Asif


“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
 Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara overthrew dictator Fulgencio Batista in Cuba.
 After resolution in 1960 he worked with Fidel Castro to consolidate revolution. In
1965, he resined his post and letter of Fidel Castro in which he wrote “Other nations
of the world summon my modest efforts for assistance. After leading a group of
Cuban revolutionaries fighting with Marxist guerrillas in Congo. Ernesto ‘Che’
Guevara travelled to Bolivia in late 1966.
 In 1967, Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara was captured by Bolivian army and two Cuban-
American CIA agents. Bolivian president, staunch anti-communist “Rene
Barrientos” gave the order to execute the wounded Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara.
 Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara was hanged on October 09, 1967.
Nobel laurates: This prize is announced by “Sweden’s Royal Academy of Science”.
Nobel Prize is named after dynamite inventor Alfred Nobel and has been established in 1900
and awarded from 1901 for achievements in science (Physics, Chemistry, Bio), literature
and peace in accordance with his will. Moreover, 1968 Economics was added in the list of
Nobel Prize.
 Physiology and Medicine: Three Americans “Jeffery C. Hall” “Michael Rosbash”
and “Michael W. Young won Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2017.
 Physics: Rainer Weiss, (German-born American), Barry Barish and Kip Thorne are
three US-based scientists won Nobel Physics prize 2017. They worked on
gravitational waves predicted a century ago by Albert Einstein.
 Chemistry: A trio of Swiss “Jacques Dubochet”, American (German born
American) “Jaochim Frank” and British “Richard Henderson” scientists won the
Nobel Prize in Chemistry. They developed cryo-electron microscopy.
 Literature: Japanese-British born Kazuo Ishiguro, author The Remains of the Day,
won the Noble Prize for Literature. He mixed Franz Kafka with Jane Austen. Ishiguro
is the first Briton to win the world’s most prestigious literary award in a decade, since
Doris Lessing’s recognition in 2007. His Latest novel is The Buried Giant.
 Peace: World Council of Churches (WCC) spokesperson Marianne Ejdersten,
Nuclear disarmament group International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons
(ICAN) executive director Beatrice Fihn, ICAN coordinator Daniel Hogsten and
ICAN member of the steering committee Grethe Ostern, ICAN won the Nobel Peace

Chakrabarti Rajagopalachari (10 December 1878 – 25 December 1972) informally

called Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian politician, independence activist, lawyer, writer and
statesman. Rajagopalachari was the last Governor-General of India June 21, 1948 to January
26, 1950). Rajagopalachari founded the Swatantra Party and was one of the first recipients of
India's highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna. He vehemently opposed the use of nuclear
weapons and was a proponent of world peace and disarmament. During his lifetime, he also
acquired the nickname 'Mango of Krishnagiri'. He favoured talks with both Muhammad Ali
Jinnah and the Muslim League and proposed what later came to be known as the C. R. formula.
In 1946, Rajagopalachari was appointed Minister of Industry, Supply, Education and Finance
in the Interim Government of India, In 1959, he resigned from the Indian National Congress
and founded the Swatantra Party, which stood against the Congress. He died on Christmas Day
in 1972 at age 94. He has been criticised for introducing the compulsory study of Hindi.
Rajagopalachari was described by Gandhi as the "keeper of my conscience".

Prepared by: M. Bilal Asif


“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
KARACHI, Jan 23: Noted writer and columnist Mirza Hasan Askari, 80, died here on
Friday after a brief illness. He was laid to rest at the Gizri graveyard on Friday afternoon.
M.H. Askari was born in Delhi in 1924. After schooling in Delhi, he did his graduation from
Lucknow University in 1944 and joined the Indian army's public relations section.
Released from the army at the end of the war, he joined The Statesman, Delhi, and worked
there for a year before joining Dawn, Delhi, as a senior reporter. Migrating to Pakistan, M.H.
Askari worked with Radio Pakistan's news department for several years, but later went back to
Inter-Services Public Relations. In 1972, M.H. Askari was posted as press counsellor at the
Pakistan embassy in Paris and later was minister for press at the high commission in New
Delhi. When he settled in Karachi in 1980, he renewed his association with Dawn as a
columnist and then as assistant editor, specializing in South Asian affairs. Even after he left
Dawn, he continued to write a weekly column for the paper.
Close to the literary circles of his time, M.H. Askari had kept company with eminent writers
and was himself a writer of short stories. He was a founder member of the Pakistan Writers

Marjorie Hussain: She was renowned art critic, author, curator and painter, Marjorie Husain
is an incredible one-person database of the history and development of art and artists in
Pakistan. But that does not make her a computer, for insight and intellect, peppered with
spontaneous anecdotes and humour, define her thoughts and demeanour. Someone should
clone the woman.

Iftikhar Hussain Arif (born 21 March 1943) (Urdu: ‫)افتخار حسین عارف‬, commonly known
as Iftikhar Arif, is an Urdu poet, scholar and littérateur from Pakistan. His style is
romantic Urdu poetry. He has headed the Pakistan Academy of Letters and the National
Language Authority. He has received the Hilal-e-Imtiaz, Sitara-e-Imtiaz and Presidential Pride
of Performance awards, which are the highest literary awards given by the Government of
Pakistan. Iftikhar Arif is an Urdu poet. Three collections of his poetry, Mehr-i-Doneem, Harf-
i-Baryab and Jahan-e-Maloomhave been published.

Oct 4, 2017. I solemnly swear the finality of  The book “Neighbouring in Arms” is
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). written by former US senator Larry
 Law minister is Zahid Hamid. Pressler.
 Article # 184 deals the original  Mr. Presller was sponsor of Pressler
jurisdiction of supreme court. Amendment, which banned most
 Pakistan stands top 10 among economies economic and military assistance to
in term of its internet users. Pakistan over its nuclear programme.
 Berlin wall fell in 1989 and reunification  Myanmar president spokesperson Zaw
of Germany in 1990. Htay.
 In 2017; Germany celebrates 27th  Ancient amphitheatre / Colosseum was
anniversary of German reunification. opened for visitor in Rome, Italy.
 Germany president Frank-Walter  M. Jawad Zarif is Iranian foreign
Steinmeier. minister.
 German chancellor Angela Merkel.  Ex-Iraqi president and Kurdish leader
 Rainer Weiss, (German-born American), Jalal Talabani died in Germany
Barry Barish and Kip Thorne are three yesterday.
US-based scientists won Nobel Physics  US defence secretary James Mattis is
prize 2017. They worked on gravitational succeeded Ashton Carter.

Prepared by: M. Bilal Asif


“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
waves predicted a century ago by Albert  US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson
Einstein. succeeded John Kerry.
 Ankara is Turkey’s Capital, and Tehran  US National Security Advisor Gen H. R.
is Iran’s Capital. McMaster.
 October 4, worlds animal days.
Zafar Mehmood Abbasi will be new Pakistan Navy chief on October 07, 2017.
 Zafar Mehmood Abbasi will succeeded Admiral M. Zakaullah as Chief of Naval
Staff on Saturday, October 7, 2017.
 President Mamnon hussian promoted vice Admiral Zafar Mehmood Abbasi to the
rank of Admiral on Tuesday and appointed him the Pakistan Navy Chief.
 The appointment was made on the advice of PM Shahid Khakan Abbasi.
 Navy chief Admiral Zafar Mehmood Abbasi was commissioned in the nay’s
operation branch June 1981. He got training at Britain’s Royal Naval College,
 He was also served in Bahrain and command of a multi-national combined task force.
He won the coveted Sword of Honour from Pakistan Naval Academy after getting

Holocaust: The word “Holocaust,” from the Greek words “holos” (whole) and “kaustos”
(burned), was historically used to describe a sacrificial offering burned on an altar. Since 1945,
the word has taken on a new and horrible meaning: the mass murder of some 6 million
European Jews (as well as members of some other persecuted groups, such as Gypsies and
homosexuals) by the German Nazi regime during the Second World War. To the anti-Semitic
Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, Jews were an inferior race, an alien threat to German racial purity
and community. After years of Nazi rule in Germany, during which Jews were consistently
persecuted, Hitler’s “final solution”–now known as the Holocaust–came to fruition under the
cover of world war, with mass killing centers constructed in the concentration camps of
occupied Poland.
Anti-Semitism in Europe did not begin with Adolf Hitler. Though use of the term itself dates
only to the 1870s, there is evidence of hostility toward Jews long before the Holocaust–even
as far back as the ancient world, when Roman authorities destroyed the Jewish temple in
Jerusalem and forced Jews to leave Palestine. The Enlightenment, during the 17th and 18th
centuries, emphasized religious toleration, and in the 19th century Napoleon and other
European rulers enacted legislation that ended long-standing restrictions on Jews. Anti-
Semitic feeling endured, however, in many cases taking on a racial character rather than a
religious one.
Did You Know?
Even in the early 21st century, the legacy of the Holocaust endures. Swiss
government and banking institutions have in recent years acknowledged their
complicity with the Nazis and established funds to aid Holocaust survivors and
other victims of human rights abuses, genocide or other catastrophes.

Prepared by: M. Bilal Asif


“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
The roots of Hitler’s particularly virulent brand of anti-Semitism are unclear. Born in Austria
in 1889, he served in the German army during World War I. Like many anti-Semites in
Germany, he blamed the Jews for the country’s defeat in 1918. Soon after the war ended,
Hitler joined the National German Workers’ Party, which became the National Socialist
German Workers’ Party (NSDAP), known to English speakers as the Nazis. While imprisoned
for treason for his role in the Beer Hall Putsch of 1923, Hitler wrote the memoir and
propaganda tract “Mein Kampf” (My Struggle), in which he predicted a general European war
that would result in “the extermination of the Jewish race in Germany.” Hitler was obsessed
with the idea of the superiority of the “pure” German race, which he called “Aryan,” and with
the need for “Lebensraum,” or living space, for that race to expand. In the decade after he was
released from prison, Hitler took advantage of the weakness of his rivals to enhance his party’s
status and rise from obscurity to power. On January 20, 1933, he was named chancellor of
Germany. After President Paul von Hindenburg’s death in 1934, Hitler anointed himself as
“Fuhrer,” becoming Germany’s supreme ruler.


The twin goals of racial purity and spatial expansion were the core of Hitler’s worldview, and
from 1933 onward they would combine to form the driving force behind his foreign and
domestic policy. At first, the Nazis reserved their harshest persecution for political opponents
such as Communists or Social Democrats. The first official concentration camp opened
at Dachau (near Munich) in March 1933, and many of the first prisoners sent there were
Communists. Like the network of concentration camps that followed, becoming the
killinggrounds of the Holocaust,Dachau was under the control of Heinrich Himmler, head of
the elite Nazi guard, the Schutzstaffel (SS), and later chief of the German police. By July
1933, German concentration camps (Konzentrationslager in German, or KZ) held some
27,000 people in “protective custody.” Huge Nazi rallies and symbolic acts such as the public
burning of books by Jews, Communists, liberals and foreigners helped drive home the desired
message of party strength.

In 1933, Jews in Germany numbered around 525,000, or only 1 percent of the total German
population. During the next six years, Nazis undertook an “Aryanization” of Germany,
dismissing non-Aryans from civil service, liquidating Jewish-owned businesses and stripping
Jewish lawyers and doctors of their clients. Under the Nuremberg Laws of 1935, anyone with
three or four Jewish grandparents was considered a Jew, while those with two Jewish
grandparents were designated Mischlinge (half-breeds). Under the Nuremberg Laws, Jews
became routine targets for stigmatization and persecution. This culminated in Kristallnacht,
or the “night of broken glass” in November 1938, when German synagogues were burned and
windows in Jewish shops were smashed; some 100 Jews were killed and thousands more
arrested. From 1933 to 1939, hundreds of thousands of Jews who were able to leave Germany
did, while those who remained lived in a constant state of uncertainty and fear.

BEGINNING OF WAR , 1939-1940

In September 1939, the German army occupied the western half of Poland. German police
soon forced tens of thousands of Polish Jews from their homes and into ghettoes, giving their
confiscated properties to ethnic Germans (non-Jews outside Germany who identified as
German), Germans from the Reich or Polish gentiles. Surrounded by high walls and barbed
wire, the Jewish ghettoes in Poland functioned like captive city-states, governed by Jewish

Prepared by: M. Bilal Asif


“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
Councils. In addition to widespread unemployment, poverty and hunger, overpopulation made
the ghettoes breeding grounds for disease such as typhus.
Meanwhile, beginning in the fall of 1939, Nazi officials selected around 70,000 Germans
institutionalized for mental illness or disabilities to be gassed to death in the so-called
Euthanasia Program. After prominent German religious leaders protested, Hitler put an end to
the program in August 1941, though killings of the disabled continued in secrecy, and by 1945
some 275,000 people deemed handicapped from all over Europe had been killed. In hindsight,
it seems clear that the Euthanasia Program functioned as a pilot for the Holocaust.


Throughout the spring and summer of 1940, the German army expanded Hitler’s empire in
Europe, conquering Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and France.
Beginning in 1941, Jews from all over the continent, as well as hundreds of thousands of
European Gypsies, were transported to the Polish ghettoes. The German invasion of the Soviet
Union in June 1941 marked a new level of brutality in warfare. Mobile killing units called
Einsatzgruppen would murder more than 500,000 Soviet Jews and others (usually by
shooting) over the course of the German occupation.
A memorandum dated July 31, 1941, from Hitler’s top commander Hermann Goering to
Reinhard Heydrich, chief of the SD (the security service of the SS), referred to the need for
an Endlösung (final solution) to “the Jewish question.” Beginning in September 1941, every
person designated as a Jew in German-held territory was marked with a yellow star, making
them open targets. Tens of thousands were soon being deported to the Polish ghettoes and
German-occupied cities in the USSR. Since June 1941, experiments with mass killing methods
had been ongoing at the concentration camp of Auschwitz, near Krakow. That August, 500
officials gassed 500 Soviet POWs to death with the pesticide Zyklon-B. The SS soon placed
a huge order for the gas with a German pest-control firm, an ominous indicator of the coming


Beginning in late 1941, the Germans began mass transports from the ghettoes in Poland to the
concentration camps, starting with those people viewed as the least useful: the sick, old and
weak and the very young. The first mass gassings began at the camp of Belzec, near Lublin,
on March 17, 1942. Five more mass killing centers were built at camps in occupied Poland,
including Chelmno, Sobibor, Treblinka, Majdanek and the largest of all, Auschwitz-Birkenau.
From 1942 to 1945, Jews were deported to the camps from all over Europe, including German-
controlled territory as well as those countries allied with Germany. The heaviest deportations
took place during the summer and fall of 1942, when more than 300,000 people were deported
from the Warsaw ghetto alone.
Though the Nazis tried to keep operation of camps secret, the scale of the killing made this
virtually impossible. Eyewitnesses brought reports of Nazi atrocities in Poland to the Allied
governments, who were harshly criticized after the war for their failure to respond, or to
publicize news of the mass slaughter. This lack of action was likely mostly due to the Allied
focus on winning the war at hand, but was also a result of the general incomprehension with
which news of the Holocaust was met and the denial and disbelief that such atrocities could
be occurring on such a scale. At Auschwitz alone, more than 2 million people were murdered
in a process resembling a large-scale industrial operation. A large population of Jewish and
non-Jewish inmates worked in the labor camp there; though only Jews were gassed, thousands
of others died of starvation or disease. During the summer of 1944, even as the events of D-
Day (June 6, 1944) and a Soviet offensive the same month spelled the beginning of the end

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
for Germany in the war, a large proportion of Hungary’s Jewish population was deported to
Auschwitz, and as many as 12,000 Jews were killed every day.


LIVES, 1945
By the spring of 1945, German leadership was dissolving amid internal dissent, with Goering
and Himmler both seeking to distance themselves from Hitler and take power. In his last will
and political testament, dictated in a German bunker that April 29, Hitler blamed the war on
“International Jewry and its helpers” and urged the German leaders and people to follow “the
strict observance of the racial laws and with merciless resistance against the universal
poisoners of all peoples”–the Jews. The following day, he committed suicide. Germany’s
formal surrender in World War II came barely a week later, on May 8, 1945.
German forces had begun evacuating many of the death camps in the fall of 1944, sending
inmates under guard to march further from the advancing enemy’s front line. These so-called
“death marches” continued all the way up to the German surrender, resulting in the deaths of
some 250,000 to 375,000 people. In his classic book “Survival in Auschwitz,” the Italian
Jewish author Primo Levi described his own state of mind, as well as that of his fellow inmates
in Auschwitz on the day before Soviet troops arrived at the camp in January 1945: “We lay in
a world of death and phantoms. The last trace of civilization had vanished around and inside
us. The work of bestial degradation, begun by the victorious Germans, had been carried to
conclusion by the Germans in defeat.”


The wounds of the Holocaust–known in Hebrew as Shoah, or catastrophe–were slow to heal.
Survivors of the camps found it nearly impossible to return home, as in many cases they had
lost their families and been denounced by their non-Jewish neighbors. As a result, the late
1940s saw an unprecedented number of refugees, POWs and other displaced populations
moving across Europe. In an effort to punish the villains of the Holocaust, the Allies held
the Nuremberg Trials of 1945-46, which brought Nazi atrocities to horrifying light. Increasing
pressure on the Allied powers to create a homeland for Jewish survivors of the Holocaust
would lead to a mandate for the creation of Israel in 1948.
Over the decades that followed, ordinary Germans struggled with the Holocaust’s bitter
legacy, as survivors and the families of victims sought restitution of wealth and property
confiscated during the Nazi years. Beginning in 1953, the German government made
payments to individual Jews and to the Jewish people as a way of acknowledging the German
people’s responsibility for the crimes committed in their name.

Oct 5, 2017. World Teachers Day  National Assembly Speaker Ayaz Sadiq.
 US secretary of State Rex Tillerson (He  Pakistani world-renowned fashion
was Ex-CEO Exxion Mobile) and designer Nilofer Shahid.
Pakistani Foreign minister Khawaja Asif  Ambassador of Pakistan to France Moin-
meet at State Department, Washington, ul-Haque.
USA.  First artificial satellite “Sputnik” was
 Operation Rah-i-Rast was launched in launched in October 04, 1957 by Russia
2009. former USSR.
 During Tashkent Declaration Jan 10,  Sputnik was put into orbit on Oct 4, 1957
1966. USSR President was Podgorny, from testing range in Kazakhstan, the
Premier Kosygin and Soviet Communist future Baikonur Cosmo drome.
Party chief Brezhnev.

Prepared by: M. Bilal Asif


“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
 Premier Kosygin was mediator between  Sergei Korolyo was founder of Soviet
India and Pakistan and provide his office Space programme.
for arbitration.  Sputnik-1 had 58cm diameter, weight
 Tashkent Declaration was singed 83.6 kilos, orbit 947 km, altitude, one
between Indian and Pakistan on Jan 10, orbit the earth in 96 minutes. It was
1966. In behalf of India, PM Lal Bahadur burned up in the earth’s atmosphere on
Shastri and President Ayub Khan, as January 04, 1958.
president of Pakistan signed declaration.  Sputnik was in orbit 92 days, making
 In July 15, 2016 night, military coup de 1440 circles around the earth.
etate was abortive.  Russian president Vladimir Putin meets
 First US vice president and Second his Venezuela counterpart Nicolas
American president was John Adam. Maduro.
 Mike Pence succeeded Joe Bidden as US  Russian president spokesperson is
vice president. Dmitry Peskov.

Mushtaq Ahmad Yusufi ‫ مشتاق احمد يوسفی‬born 4 September 1923) is

an Urdu satire and humour writer from Pakistan. Yousufi has also served as the head of several
national and international governmental and financial institutions. He received Sitara-i-
Imtiaz Award in 1999 and Hilal-i-Imtiaz Award in 2002, the highest literary honours by
the Government of Pakistan.

 Chiragh Talay (1961)

 Khakam-ba-dahan (1969)
 Zarguzasht (1976)
 Aab-i-gum (1990)
 Sham-e-Shair-e-Yaaraan

Adolf Hitler (source:

Dictator, Military Leader (April 20, 1889–April 30, 1945)
Adolf Hitler wanted to be a painter in his youth, but his applications to obtain proper
schooling were rejected.


Hitler personally designed the Nazi party banner, appropriating the swastika symbol
and placing it in a white circle on a red background.


Hitler was a vegan.
Vegan: A person who does not eat any animal products such as meat, milk or eggs.
Some vegans do not use animal products such as silk or leather. He’s a strict vegan.


Hitler avoided multiple assassination attempts by chance.

Braunau am Inn, Austria

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill

Berlin, Germany

Adolf Hitler was the leader of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945. He initiated fascist policies
that led to World War II and the deaths of at least 11 million people, including the mass murder
of an estimated 6 million Jews.
“Those who want to live, let them fight, and those who do not want to fight in this world of eternal
struggle do not deserve to live.” —Adolf Hitler

Who Was Adolf Hitler?

Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 to April 30, 1945) was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945,
serving as dictator and leader of the Nazi Party, or National Socialist German Workers Party,
for the bulk of his time in power. Hitler’s policies precipitated World War II and led to the
genocide known as the Holocaust, which resulted in the deaths of some six million Jews and
another five million non combatants. With defeat on the horizon, Hitler committed suicide with
wife Eva Braun on April 30, 1945, in his Berlin bunker.

Birthday: Adolf Hitler was born in Braunau am Inn, Austria, on April 20, 1889.

Family:The fourth of six children, Adolf Hitler was born to Alois Hitler and Klara Polzl. As a
child, Hitler clashed frequently with his emotionally harsh father, who also didn't approve of
his son's later interest in fine art as a career. Following the death of his younger brother,
Edmund, in 1900, Hitler became detached and introverted.

Early Life and Painting: Hitler showed an early interest in German nationalism, rejecting the
authority of Austria-Hungary. This nationalism would become the motivating force of Hitler's

In 1903, Hitler’s father died suddenly. Two years later, Adolf's mother allowed her son to drop
out of school. After her death in December 1907, Hitler moved to Vienna and worked as a
casual laborer and watercolor painter. Hitler applied to the Academy of Fine Arts twice and
was rejected both times. Lacking money outside of an orphan's pension and funds from selling
postcards, he stayed in homeless shelters. Hitler later pointed to these years as the time when
he first cultivated his anti-Semitism, though there is some debate about this account. In 1913,
Hitler relocated to Munich. At the outbreak of World War I, he applied to serve in the German
army. He was accepted in August 1914, though he was still an Austrian citizen. Although Hitler
spent much of his time away from the front lines (with some reports that his recollections of
his time on the field were generally exaggerated), he was present at a number of significant
battles and was wounded at the Somme. He was decorated for bravery, receiving the Iron Cross
First Class and the Black Wound Badge.

Hitler became embittered over the collapse of the war effort. The experience reinforced his
passionate German patriotism, and he was shocked by Germany's surrender in 1918. Like other
German nationalists, he purportedly believed that the German army had been betrayed by
civilian leaders and Marxists. He found the Treaty of Versailles degrading, particularly the

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
demilitarization of the Rhineland and the stipulation that Germany accept responsibility for
starting the war.

Hitler and the Nazis: After World War I, Hitler returned to Munich and continued to work for
the German military. As an intelligence officer, he monitored the activities of the German
Workers’ Party (DAP) and adopted many of the anti-Semitic, nationalist and anti-Marxist ideas
of party founder Anton Drexler. In September 1919, Hitler joined the DAP, which changed its
name to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) — often abbreviated to

Hitler personally designed the Nazi party banner, appropriating the swastika symbol and
placing it in a white circle on a red background. He soon gained notoriety for his vitriolic
speeches against the Treaty of Versailles, rival politicians, Marxists and Jews. In 1921, Hitler
replaced Drexler as the Nazi party chairman. Hitler's fervid beer-hall speeches began attracting
regular audiences. Early followers included army captain Ernst Rohm, the head of the Nazi
paramilitary organization the Sturmabteilung (SA), which protected meetings and frequently
attacked political opponents.
(Fervid: Feeling something too strongly; showing feelings that are too strong.)

Beer Hall Putsch: On November 8, 1923, Hitler and the SA stormed a public meeting featuring
Bavarian prime minister Gustav Kahr at a large beer hall in Munich. Hitler announced that the
national revolution had begun and declared the formation of a new government. After a short
struggle that led to several deaths, the coup known as the "Beer Hall Putsch" failed. Hitler was
arrested and tried for high treason and sentenced to nine months in prison.

Hitler’s Book, 'Mein Kampf': During Hitler’s nine months in prison in 1924, he dictated most
of the first volume of his autobiographical book and political manifesto, Mein Kampf ("My
Struggle"), to his deputy, Rudolf Hess. The first volume was published in 1925, and a second
volume came out in 1927. It was abridged and translated into 11 languages, selling more than
five million copies by 1939. A work of propaganda and falsehoods, the book laid out Hitler's
plans for transforming German society into one based on race.

In the first volume, Hitler shared his Anti-Semitic, pro-Aryan worldview along with his sense
of “betrayal” at the outcome of World War I, calling for revenge against France and expansion
eastward into Russia. The second volume outlined his plan to gain and maintain power. While
often illogical and full of grammatical errors, Mein Kampf was provocative and subversive,
making it appealing to the many Germans who felt displaced at the end of World War I.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill

Rise to Power: With millions unemployed, the Great Depression in Germany provided a
political opportunity for Hitler. Germans were ambivalent to the parliamentary republic and
increasingly open to extremist options. In 1932, Hitler ran against 84-year-old Paul von
Hindenburg for the presidency. Hitler came in second in both rounds of the election, garnering
more than 36 percent of the vote in the final count. The results established Hitler as a strong
force in German politics. Hindenburg reluctantly agreed to appoint Hitler as chancellor in order
to promote political balance. Hitler used his position as chancellor to form a de facto legal
dictatorship. The Reichstag Fire Decree, announced after a suspicious fire at parliament,
suspended basic rights and allowed detention without trial. Hitler also engineered the passage
of the Enabling Act, which gave his cabinet full legislative powers for a period of four years
and allowed for deviations from the constitution.

Having achieved full control over the legislative and executive branches of government, Hitler
and his political allies embarked on a systematic suppression of the remaining political
opposition. By the end of June, the other parties had been intimidated into disbanding. On July
14, 1933, Hitler's Nazi Party was declared the only legal political party in Germany. In October
of that year, Hitler ordered Germany's withdrawal from the League of Nations.
Military opposition was also punished. The demands of the SA for more political and military
power led to the Night of the Long Knives, which took place from June 30 to July 2, 1934.
Rohm, a perceived rival, and other SA leaders, along with a number of Hitler's political
enemies, were rounded up and shot. The day before Hindenburg's death in August 1934, the
cabinet had enacted a law abolishing the office of president, combining its powers with those
of the chancellor. Hitler thus became head of state as well as head of government and was
formally named leader and chancellor. As head of state, Hitler became supreme commander of
the armed forces.

Hitler as a Vegan: Hitler’s self-imposed dietary restrictions included abstinence from alcohol
and meat (or veganism). Fueled by fanaticism over what he believed was a superior Aryan race,
he encouraged Germans to keep their bodies pure of any intoxicating or unclean substances
and promoted anti-smoking campaigns across the country.

Hitler’s Laws and Regulations Against Jews: From 1933 until the start of the war in 1939,
Hitler and his Nazi regime instituted hundreds of laws and regulations to restrict and exclude
Jews in society. These Anti-Semitic laws were issued throughout all levels of government,
making good on the Nazis’ pledge to persecute Jews. On April 1, 1933, Hitler implemented a
national boycott of Jewish businesses. This was followed by the “Law for the Restoration of
the Professional Civil Service" of April 7, 1933, which excluded Jews from state service. The
law was a Nazi implementation of the Aryan Paragraph, which called for the exclusion of Jews
and non-Aryans from organizations, employment and eventually all aspects of public life.

Additional legislation restricted the number of Jewish students at schools and universities,
limited Jews working in medical and legal professions, and revoked the licenses of Jewish tax
consultants. The Main Office for Press and Propaganda of the German Student Union also
called for "Action Against the Un-German Spirit,” prompting students to burn more than
25,000 “Un-German” books, ushering in an era of censorship and Nazi propaganda. By 1934,
Jewish actors were forbidden from performing in film or in the theater.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
On September 15, 1935, the Reichstag introduced the Nuremberg Laws, which defined a "Jew"
as anyone with three or four grandparents who were Jewish, regardless of whether the person
considered themselves Jewish or observed the religion. The Nuremberg Laws also set forth the
"Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour," which banned marriage
between non-Jewish and Jewish Germans; and the Reich Citizenship Law, which deprived
"non-Aryans" of the benefits of German citizenship. In 1936, Hitler and his regime muted their
Anti-Semitic rhetoric and actions when Germany hosted the Winter and Summer Olympic
Games, in an effort to avoid criticism on the world stage and a negative impact on tourism.
After the Olympics, the Nazi persecution of Jews intensified with the continued "Aryanization"
of Jewish businesses, which involved the firing of Jewish workers and takeover by non-Jewish
owners. The Nazis continued to segregate Jews from German society, banning them from
public school, universities, theaters, sports events and "Aryan" zones. Jewish doctors were also
barred from treating "Aryan" patients. Jews were required to carry identity cards and, in the
fall of 1938, Jewish people had to have their passports stamped with a "J."
On November 9 and 10, 1938, a wave of violent anti-Jewish pogroms swept Germany, Austria
and parts of the Sudetenland. Nazis destroyed synagogues and vandalized Jewish homes,
schools and businesses. Close to 100 Jews were murdered. Called Kristallnacht, the "Night of
Crystal" or the "Night of Broken Glass," referring to the broken glass left in the wake of the
destruction, it escalated the Nazi persecution of Jews to another level of brutality and violence.
Almost 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and sent to concentration camps, signalling more
horrors to come.

Persecution of Homosexuals and People with Disabilities: Hitler's eugenic policies also
targeted children with physical and developmental disabilities, later authorizing a euthanasia
program for disabled adults. His regime also persecuted homosexuals, arresting an estimated
100,000 men from 1933 to 1945, some of whom were imprisoned or sent to concentration
camps. At the camps, gay prisoners were forced to wear pink triangles to identify their
homosexuality, which Nazis considered a crime and a disease.
Eugenics: The study of methods to improve the mental and physical characteristics of the
human race by choosing who may become parents

The Holocaust and Concentration Camps: Between the start of World War II, in 1939, and
its end, in 1945, Nazis and their collaborators were responsible for the deaths of at least one
million noncombatants, including about six million Jews, representing two-thirds of the Jewish
population in Europe. As part of Hitler's "Final Solution," the genocide enacted by the regime
would come to be known as the Holocaust.

Deaths and mass executions took place in concentration and extermination camps including
Auschwitz-Birkenau, Bergen-Belsen, Dachau and Treblinka, among many others. Other
persecuted groups included Poles, communists, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses and trade
unionists. Prisoners were used as forced laborers for SS construction projects, and in some
instances they were forced to build and expand concentration camps. They were subject to
starvation, torture and horrific brutalities, including having to endure gruesome and painful
medical experiments. Hitler probably never visited the concentration camps and did not speak
publicly about the mass killings. However Germans documented the atrocities committed at
the camps on paper and in films.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill

World War II: In 1938, Hitler, along with several other European leaders, signed the Munich
Agreement. The treaty ceded the Sudetenland districts to Germany, reversing part of the
Versailles Treaty. As a result of the summit, Hitler was named Time magazine's Man of the
Year for 1938. This diplomatic win only whetted his appetite for a renewed German
dominance. On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland, sparking the beginning of World
War II. In response, Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later.

In 1940 Hitler escalated his military activities, invading Norway, Denmark, France,
Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Belgium. By July, Hitler ordered bombing raids on the
United Kingdom, with the goal of invasion. Germany’s formal alliance with Japan and Italy,
known collectively as the Axis powers, was agreed upon toward the end of September to deter
the United States from supporting and protecting the British. On June 22, 1941, Hitler violated
the 1939 non-aggression pact with Joseph Stalin, sending a massive army of German troops
into the Soviet Union. The invading force seized a huge area of Russia before Hitler temporarily
halted the invasion and diverted forces to encircle Leningrad and Kiev. The pause allowed the
Red Army to regroup and conduct a counter-offensive attack, and the German advance was
stopped outside Moscow in December 1941.

On December 7, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Honoring the alliance with Japan,
Hitler was now at war against the Allied powers, a coalition that included Britain, the world's
largest empire, led by Prime Minister Winston Churchill; the United States, the world's greatest
financial power, led by President Franklin D. Roosevelt; and the Soviet Union, which had the
world's largest army, commanded by Stalin. Though initially hoping that he could play the
Allies off of one another, Hitler's military judgment became increasingly erratic, and the Axis
powers could not sustain his aggressive and expansive war. In late 1942, German forces failed
to seize the Suez Canal, leading to the loss of German control over North Africa. The German
army also suffered defeats at the Battle of Stalingrad (1942-43), seen as a turning point in the
war, and the Battle of Kursk (1943).

On June 6, 1944, on what would come to be known as D-Day, the Western Allied armies landed
in northern France. As a result of these significant setbacks, many German officers concluded
that defeat was inevitable and that Hitler's continued rule would result in the destruction of the
country. Organized efforts to assassinate the dictator gained traction, and opponents came close
in 1944 with the notorious July Plot, though it ultimately proved unsuccessful.

What is the difference between the Caribbean and the West Indies?
The Caribbean islands, consisting of the Greater Antilles on the north and the Lesser Antilles
on the south and east (including the Leeward Antilles), are part of the somewhat larger West
Indies grouping, which also includes the Lucayan Archipelago (comprising the Bahamas and
Turks and Caicos Islands) north of the ...

West Indie: Caribbean country, Capital is Kingston. Currency is

Jamaica: Caribbean country, capital Kingston, Currency Dollar. National
language: Jamaican Patois (de facto).

On October 12, 1492, Christopher Columbus landed on a small island he called San
Salvador. Columbus believed he had reached the Indies, or the islands southwest of India that

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
include Indonesia and Malaysia. Columbus died believing he had reached the east by sailing
west, but instead he had discovered a “new world."

Indigenous peoples were the first inhabitants of theWest Indies. ... After the first of the voyages
of Christopher Columbus to the Americas, Europeans began to use the term West Indies to
distinguish the region from the East Indies of South Asia and Southeast Asia.

In 1912, the British West Indies were divided into eight colonies:
The Bahamas,Barbados, British Guiana, British Honduras, Jamaica (with its
dependencies theTurks and Caicos Islands and the Cayman Islands), Trinidad and Tobago,
the Windward Islands, and the Leeward Islands.

Etymology: 'Indies' in the name West Indies indeed come from India. Christopher Columbus
set out to find a faster sea route to India in the late 15th century. ... He landed in the Caribbean
islands instead of his destination in Asia, but he thought that he had reached India and therefore
called the place 'Indies'.

The islands of the Caribbean are part of the West Indies. The West Indies received its name
because Columbus believed the native people of the Caribbean Islands were Indians. The
Caribbean Sea is named for the Carib, nomadic sea-faring warriors who lived in the region
when Columbus arrived.

In addition to being part of the Anglophone Caribbean, Guyana is one of the few Caribbean
countries that is not an island in the West Indies. CARICOM, of which Guyana is a member,
is headquartered in Guyana's capital and largest city, Georgetown.

Is the East Indies a country?

In a second, larger sense, East Indies refers to the Malay Archipelago (including the
Philippines), which now is more commonly called insular (or archipelagic) Southeast Asia.
Finally, in its broadest context, the term East Indies encompasses the foregoing plus all of
mainland Southeast Asia and India.

Oct 6, 2017.  Baluchistan home minister was Sarfraz

 Pir Rakhyal Shah in the Fatehpur area in Bughti.
the district Jhal Magsi, Naseer Abad  IB, Director is General Aftab Sultan.
division.  British Royal Air Force aerobatic team is
 Gauri Lankesh from India and Gulalai the Red Arrows and Pakistan Air Force
Ismail from Pakistan won Anna participated in aerobatic exercise in
Politkovskaya Award. This award mark Karachi.
the 11th anniversary of the killing of  On October 5, World Teachers Day was
Politkovskaya, a Russian investigative observed with slogan “Teaching in
reporter who uncovered state corruption Freedom, Empowering Teachers”.
and rights abuses, especially in  Indian Air Force Chief is B. S. Dhanoa.
Chechnya. She was shot dead in the  US State Department Spokesperson
lobby for Moscow apartment block at the “Heather Nauert”.
age of 48 on Oct 7, 2006.  FCR stands for Frontier Crimes
 Gilgat-Baltistan Chief Minister Hafiz Regulation.
Hafeez-ur-Rehman and Governor Mir  Xenophobia is a fear or hatred of
Gazanfar Ali Khan. strangers of foreigners.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
 Japanese-British born Kazuo Ishiguro,  Nobel Prize is named after dynamite
author The Remains of the Day, won the inventor Alfred Nobel and has been
Noble Prize for Literature. He mixed established in 1900 and awarded from
Franz Kafka with Jane Austen. 1901 for achievements in science
 Ishiguro is the first Briton to win the (Physics, Chemistry, Bio), literature and
world’s most prestigious literary award peace in accordance with his will.
in a decade, since Doris Lessing’s Moreover, 1968 Economics was added in
recognition in 2007. His Latest novel is the list of Nobel Prize.
The Buried Giant.  Russian president Vladimir Putin and
 Ishiguro takes his place beside past Saudi Arabia king Salman bin Abdulaziz
winners including Alexander meet in Moscow, Russia’s capital.
Solzhenitsyn, Toni Morrison, Samuel  It is a first visit by Saudi Arabian
Beckett and Ernest Hemingway. monarch in the history of our relations.
 Saudi Foreign minister is Adel al-Jubeir President Putin welcomed 81-year old
and Russian is Sergei Lavrov. king Salman to Moscow in an ornate
 2018-FIFA World Cup will host Russian glided Kremlin hall.
in Luzhniki Stadium.  Brazilian Olympic Committee president
is “Carlos Nuzman.
Brazil: Paraguay:

Oct 7, 2017.  Douma is the city of Syria near

 Minister for religious affairs Sardar Damascus.
Muhammad Yousaf.  Attorney General of Pakistan was Ashtar
 US chairman of Joint Chief of Staff Ausaf Ali.
Joseph Dunford.  International Court of Justice (ICJ) is
 Chinese ambassador Sun Weidong meets principal judicial organ of the UN which
PM Shahid Khaqan Abbasi to bid was established in June 1945. ICJ is
farewell after completing his four year located Peace Palace in The Hague,
tenure. Netherlands.
 CPEC is the project of One Belt One  ICJ president Ronny Abraham.
Road under $56 billion.  Pakistan foreign affairs Director General
 Joint Cooperation Committee (JCC) -the Dr. Mohammad Faisal.
apex decision making body on the CPEC.  Marvi Memon was chairperson of
 World Council of Churches (WCC) Benazir Income Support Programme.
spokesperson Marianne Ejdersten,  Inter-Provincial Coordination Minister
Nuclear disarmament group International Riaz Hussian Pirzada.
Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons  NA assembly deputy speaker is Murtaza
(ICAN) executive director Beatrice Fihn, Javed Abbasi.
ICAN coordinator Daniel Hogsten and  Princely state Bahawalpur acceded to
ICAN member of the steering committee Pakistan on October 3, 1947 signed late
Grethe Ostern, ICAN won the Nobel Emir Sadiq Muhmmad Khan Abbasi and
Peace Prize. Quaid-i-Azzam signed the historic
 Noor Mahal is historic building in document at Al-Shammas in Malir
Bahawalpur. Karachi.
Austria: Hungry:
Sharmeen Obaid Chinoy:

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
 Award-wining filmmaker Sharmeen Obaid Chinoy has added another prestigious
accolade to her name, winning the ‘Best Documentary’ award at the 38th Annual
News and Documentary Emmy Award held in New York.
 A Girl in the River: The Price of Forgiveness, which last year 2016 won an Oscar for
best documentary. In 2017, this documentary got Emmy Award in New York.
 Chinoy holds the record of being only Pakistani to win two Oscars, her first being for
Saving Face in 2012.
 Besides, Pakistani director Muhammad Naqvi’s Among The Believers nominated ib
the category ‘Outstanding Politics and Government Documentary’ but in lost our to
The Choice 2016 which is based on US president Donald Trump and first lady Hilary

Winston Churchill
Prime Minister
November 30, 1874
January 24, 1965
Brunswick School, Royal Military College (Academy) at Sandhurst, St. George's
School, Harrow School
Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, England
Hyde Park Gate, London, England
As prime minister of the United Kingdom, Sir Winston Churchill rallied the British people
during WWII, and led his country from the brink of defeat to victory.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
Born to an aristocratic family in 1874, Winston Churchill served in the British military and
worked as a writer before going into politics. After becoming prime minister in 1940, he helped
lead a successful Allied strategy with the U.S. and Soviet Union during WWII to defeat the
Axis powers and craft post-war peace. Elected prime minister again in 1951, he introduced key
domestic reforms. Churchill died at age 90 in 1965.

Early Life:
Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill was born to an aristocratic family on November 30, 1874.
As his life unfolded, he displayed the traits of his father, Lord Randolph Churchill, a British
statesman from an established English family, and his mother, Jeanette "Jennie" Jerome, an
independent-minded New York socialite.

As a young child, Churchill grew up in Dublin, Ireland, where his father was employed by his
grandfather, the 7th Duke of Marlborough, John Spencer-Churchill. When he entered formal
school, Churchill proved to be an independent and rebellious student. He did poorly at his first
two schools and in April 1888, he was sent to Harrow School, a boarding school near London.
Within weeks of his enrolment, he joined the Harrow Rifle Corps, which put him on a path to
a military career.

At first it didn't seem the military was a good choice for Churchill. It took him three tries to
pass the exam for the British Royal Military College. However, once there, he did well and
graduated 20th in his class of 130. Up to this time, his relationship with both his mother and
father was distant, though he adored them both. While at school, Churchill wrote emotional
letters to his mother, begging her to come see him, but she seldom came. His father died when
he was 21, and it was said that Churchill knew him more by reputation than by any close
relationship they shared.

Churchill enjoyed a brief but eventful career in the British Army at a zenith of British military
power. He joined the Fourth Hussars in 1895 and served in the Indian northwest frontier and
the Sudan, where he saw action in the Battle of Omdurman in 1898. While in the Army, he
wrote military reports for newspapers The Pioneer and the Daily Telegraph, and two books on
his experiences, The Story of the Malakand Field Force(1898) and The River War (1899).

In 1899, Churchill left the Army and worked as a war correspondent for the Morning Post, a
conservative daily newspaper. While reporting on the Boer War in South Africa, he was taken
prisoner by the Boers while on a scouting expedition. He made headlines when he escaped,
traveling almost 300 miles to Portuguese territory in Mozambique. Upon his return to Britain,
he wrote about his experiences in the book London to Ladysmith (1900).

Early Careers: Government and Military

In 1900, Churchill became a member of Parliament in the Conservative Party for Oldham, a
town in Manchester. Following his father into politics, he also followed his father's sense of
independence, becoming a supporter of social reform. Unconvinced that the Conservative Party

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
was committed to social justice, Churchill switched to the Liberal Party in 1904. He was elected
a member of Parliament in 1908, and was appointed to the prime minister's cabinet as president
of the Board of Trade. That same year, he married Clementine Ogilvy Hozier, after a short

As president of the Board of Trade, he joined newly appointed Chancellor Lloyd George in
opposing the expansion of the British Navy. Also in 1908, he introduced several reforms for
the prison system, introduced the first minimum wage, and helped set up labor exchanges for
the unemployed and unemployment insurance. Churchill assisted in the passing of the People's
Budget, which introduced new taxes on the wealthy to pay for new social welfare programs.
The budget passed the House of Commons in 1909, but was initially defeated in the House of
Lords, before being passed in 1910. He also drafted a controversial piece of legislation to
amend the Mental Deficiency Act of 1913, mandating sterilization of the feeble-minded. The
bill eventually passed both Houses with only the remedy of confinement in institutions.

In January 1911, Churchill showed his tougher side when he made a controversial visit to a
police siege in London. Police had surrounded a house where two robbers had been caught.
Churchill's degree of participation is still in some dispute. Some accounts have him going to
the scene only to see for himself what was going on; others state that he allegedly gave
directions to police on how to best storm the building. What is known is that the house caught
fire during the siege and Churchill prevented the fire brigade from extinguishing the flames,
stating that he thought it better to "let the house burn down," rather than risk lives rescuing the
occupants. The bodies of the two robbers were found inside the charred ruins.

While serving as first lord of the Admiralty, Churchill helped modernize the British Navy,
ordering that new warships be built with oil-fired instead of coal-fired engines. He was one of
the first to promote military aircraft and set up the Royal Navy Air Service. So enthusiastic
was he about aviation that he took flying lessons to understand firsthand its military potential.
Though not directly involved in the disastrous Battle of Gallipoli, Churchill resigned his post
because he felt responsible for proposing the expedition. For a brief period, he rejoined the
British Army, commanding a battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers on the Western Front and
seeing action in "no man's land." In 1917, he was appointed minister of munitions for the final
year of the war, overseeing the production of tanks, airplanes and munitions.

From 1919 to 1922, Churchill served as minister of war and air and colonial secretary under
Prime Minister David Lloyd George. As colonial secretary, Churchill was embroiled in another
controversy when he ordered air power to be used on rebellious Kurdish tribesmen in Iraq, a
British holding. At one point, he suggested that poisonous gas be used to put down the
rebellion. This proposal was considered but never enacted, though the conventional bombing
campaign was and failed to end the resistance.

Fractures in the Liberal Party led to the defeat of Churchill as a member of Parliament in 1922,
and he re-joined the Conservative Party. He served as chancellor of the exchequer, returning
Britain to the gold standard, and took a hard line against a general labor strike that threatened
to cripple the British economy. With the defeat of the Conservative government in 1929,
Churchill was out of government. He was perceived as a right-wing extremist, out of touch

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
with the people. He spent the next few years concentrating on his writing and published A
History of English Speaking Peoples.

World War II
Though not at first seeing the threat that Adolf Hitler posed when he rose to power in 1933,
Churchill gradually became a leading advocate for British rearmament. By 1938, as Germany
began controlling its neighbors, Churchill had become a staunch critic of Prime Minister
Neville Chamberlain's policy of appeasement toward the Nazis.

On September 3, 1939, the day that Britain declared war on Germany, Churchill was appointed
first lord of the Admiralty and a member of the war cabinet, and by April 1940, he became
chairman of the Military Coordinating Committee. Later that month, Germany invaded and
occupied Norway, a setback for Neville Chamberlain, who had resisted Churchill's proposal
that Britain preempt German aggression by unilaterally occupying vital Norwegian iron mines
and sea ports.

In May, debate in Parliament on the Norwegian crisis led to a vote of no confidence toward
Prime Minister Chamberlain. On May 10, King George VI appointed Churchill as prime
minister and minister of defense. Within hours, the German Army began its Western Offensive,
invading the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg. Two days later, German forces entered
France. Britain stood alone against the onslaught.

Quickly, Churchill formed a coalition cabinet of leaders from the Labor, Liberal and
Conservative parties. He placed intelligent and talented men in key positions. On June 18,
1940, Churchill made one of his iconic speeches to the House of Commons, warning that "the
Battle of Britain" was about to begin. Churchill kept resistance to Nazi dominance alive, and
created the foundation for an alliance with the United States and the Soviet Union. Churchill
had previously cultivated a relationship with U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1930s,
and by March 1941, he was able to secure vital U.S. aid through the Lend Lease Act, which
allowed Britain to order war goods from the United States on credit.

After the United States entered World War II, in December 1941, Churchill was confident that
the Allies would eventually win the war. In the months that followed, Churchill worked closely
with U.S. President Roosevelt and Soviet Union leader Joseph Stalin to forge an Allied war
strategy and post-war world. In meetings in Teheran (1943), Yalta (February 1945) and
Potsdam (July 1945), Churchill collaborated with the two leaders to develop a united strategy
against the Axis Powers, and helped craft the post-war world with the United Nations as its
centerpiece. As the war wound down, Churchill proposed plans for social reforms in Britain,
but was unable to convince the public. He was defeated in the general election in July 1945.

During the next six years, Churchill became the leader of the opposition party and continued
to have an impact on world affairs. In March 1946, while on a visit to the United States, he
made his famous "Iron Curtain" speech, warning of Soviet domination in Eastern Europe. He
also advocated that Britain remain independent from European coalitions and maintain its

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
After the general election of 1951, Churchill returned to government. He was appointed
minister of defense between October 1951 and January 1952, and became prime minister in
October 1951. In 1953, Churchill was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II. He introduced reforms
such as the Mines and Quarries Act of 1954, which improved working conditions in mines, and
the Housing Repairs and Rent Act of 1955, which established standards for housing. These
domestic reforms were overshadowed by a series of foreign policy crises in the colonies of
Kenya and Malaya, where Churchill ordered direct military action. While successful in putting
down the rebellions, it became clear that Britain was no longer able to sustain its colonial rule.

Later Years and Death:

Churchill had shown signs of fragile health as early as 1941, while visiting the White House.
At that time, he suffered a mild heart attack and, in 1943, he had a similar attack while battling
a bout of pneumonia. In June 1953, at age 78, he suffered from a series of strokes at his office.
The news was kept from the public and Parliament, with the official announcement stating that
he had suffered from exhaustion. He recuperated at home, and returned to his work as prime
minister in October. However, it was apparent even to him that he was physically and mentally
slowing down. Churchill retired as prime minister in 1955. He remained a member of
Parliament until the general election of 1964, when he did not seek re-election.

There was speculation that Churchill suffered from Alzheimer's disease in his last years, but
many medical experts feel that his reduced mental capacity was more a result of the strokes he
had suffered. Despite his poor health, Churchill was able to remain active in public life, albeit
mostly from the comfort of his homes in Kent and Hyde Park Gate, in London.

On January 15, 1965, Churchill suffered a severe stroke that left him gravely ill. He died at his
London home nine days later, at age 90, on January 24, 1965. Britain mourned for more than
a week.

A pessimist see the difficulty in every opportunity; an optimist sees the opportunity in every
By Winston Churchill
Oct 8, 2017. National Disaster Management  Federal Minister for Industries Ghulam
Day observed on October 8. Murtaza Jatoi.
 Dashat area is located in Mastung and Pir  In Pakistan, Sindh is a highest producer
Ghalib area in Bolan district of of Gas.
Baluchistan.  Federal Minister for climate change
 Karimabad valley in Chitral, tomato is Mushahidullah Khan.
main crop of Chitral region.  Charter of Democracy was signed
 President of Pakistan appointed Admiral between Nawaz Sharif and Benazir
Zafar Mahmood Abbasi as Chief of Bhutto in London in 2005.
Naval Staff.  Ahsan Iqbal interior minister of Pakistan
 He succeeded Admiral Zakaullah. belonged to Narowal.
 Formal ceremony was held in PNS Zafar,  Mahinda Rajapaksa was former prime
in which Admiral Zakaullah handed over minister of Sri Lanka.
the command of Pakistan Navy by

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
presenting the traditional scroll to  Ernesto Che Guevara was guerrilla
Admiral Abbasi. fighter of Cuba belonged to Argentina.
 Dungi Dam two miles off Gujjar Khan On October 7, 2017 his 50th death
and 30 miles from Rawalpindi anniversary commemorated in
inaugurated by President Ayub Khan. Vallegrande, Santa Curz, Bolivia.
Sri Lanka Bolivia

Oct 9, 2017. World Postal Day  On October 09, 1874 Universal Postal
 RAW’s former chief Amarjit Singh Dulat Union (UPU) was founded in Berne,
and ISI ex-director general Ehsan-ul-Haq Switzerland. The day was declared the
meets in London. World Postal Day by a UPU Congress in
 AJK PM Raja Nisar Ahmed Khan. Tokyo in 1969.
 London Airport is also called Heathrow  Mangi Dam is being constructed in
Airport. Quetta, Baluchistan
 South Korean leader Kim Jong Un.  Yemeni PM Abdel Aziz bin Habtoor.
 Hurricane Nate, a tropical depression  Al-Jazeera TV channel home country is
coming ashore in Mississippi, USA. Qatar and Al-Arabiya TV home country
 Al-Salam Palace is Saudi Royal palace is Saudi Arabia.
in which official business conduct during 
South Korea: Yemen:
Justice Javed Iqbal:
 Justice Javed Iqbal was appointed as New NAB chairman. NAB chairman appointed
by president and nominated by prime minister with consultation opposition leader.
 Justice Javed Iqbal will succeed Qamar Zaman Ch, his term expires on October 10,
 He was one of them the judges of superior courts who took a fresh oath under Gen.
Pervez Musharraf’s controversial Provisional Constitutional Order (PCO) in 1999,
which in effect abrogated the country’s constitution.
 Born in 1936, Justice Iqbal has headed two important commission; the Abbottabad
Commission formed probe the preludes and causes of the US raid in Abbottabad in
2011 that led to the death of Osama Bin Laden.
 He also headed the Commission of Inquiry on Enforced Disappearances, constituted
on the Supreme Court’s orders by the Interior ministry.
Orange Line Metro Train Project: (OLMTP):
 CM Punjab, Shahbaz Sharif unveiled the first orange line train. This mega project
was launched in May 2014. It will cover distance of 27 km from Ali Town to Dera
Gujjran from two-and-half hours to 45 minutes.
 The train corridor comprises an elevated portion of 25.4 km and an underground
portion of 1.72 km (Cut and cover Station). There are 26 stations -24 elevated and
two underground, depots and stabling yards.
 The project consists of 27 trains and each consisting of five carriages and energy-
saving-air-conditioning system.
 According to government, the estimated cost of the project is Rs. 165 billion, of
which a major chunk of Rs. 150 billion has been provided by china under a soft loan
agreement outside the financial framework of the China-Pakistan-Economic-
Corridor (CPEC) (ECCP).
Lt: Gen. Rizwan Akhtar:

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
 A three star general, who has served as Chief of the Inter-services-Intelligence (ISI),
has announced his plans to seek early retirement from service.
 He replaced retired Lt. Gen Zaheerul Islam as chief of the premier intelligence
agency of the country in 2014 after heading the Sindh Rangers in 2012.
 Lt Gen Akhtar is a graduate of Command and Staff College, Quetta, the National
Defence University and Army War College, USA.
 He got commission in the Pakistan Army’s Frontier Regiment in September 1982
and has commanded the infantry brigades and division in the FATA.

Oct 10, 2017.  Aston Carter was defence secretary in

 Claustrophobia is extreme or irrational Obama Administration.
fear of confined places.  Jean Rochefort was French actor passed
 Kalsom Nawaz is suffering a cancer of away.
the lymphodes and she was undergoing  Sikh performed ritual on 483rd birthday
treatment for lymphoma. of Guru Ram Das at Chuna Mandi
Oct 11, 2017.  Power minister Awais Leghari.
 Minister for privatisation Daniyal Aziz.  IB chief is Aftab Sultan.
 Article # 27 states that In interest of  London’s mayor is Sadiq Khan, Pakistani
national integrity and harmony, adequate born British.
representation in the service of Pakistan  Defence minister is Khuram Dastgir.
for person belonging to any class or area  Article # 17 states that Freedom of
only possible when the period is further Association.
extended.  Solomon’s pool located in
 In USA, October 9, is celebrated BETHLEHEM, west bank. Israel.
Christopher Columbus Day.  Orange is the city of USA and located in
the State of California.
Bulgaria: Morocco:
Tunisia: Portugal:

Oct 12, 2017. National Day of Spain  Ambassador of Pakistan to Spain is Mr.
 Ambassador of Spain to Pakistan is Mr. Rafat Mahdi.
Carlos Morales.  Leader of opposition in senate is Atizaz
 FPCCI stands for Federation of Pakistan Ahsaan.
Chambers of Commerce and Industry.  Chief Election Commission (CEC) is
 US consul in Pakistan is Elizabeth retired Justice Sardar Muhammad Raza.
Trudeau.  Foreign Secretary Tehmina Janjua
 Spain’s National Day is October 12. attends the SCO contact group of
 Spanish PM is Mariano Rajoy. Pakistan.
 Parcel Island is controlled (and occupied)  Pablo Picasso is Spanish painter, his
by the People's Republic of China, and mansion is in NICE, French Riviera.
also claimed by Taiwan (Republic of  21st Chief Justice of Pakistan, Tassaduq
China) and Vietnam. Hussian Jillani nominated judge in ICJ
 ICJ president is Ronny Abraham. on ad hoc basis in Jadhav case.
 ICJ is in Peace Palace, Hague,  Indian side judge is Dalveer Bhandari.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill

Justice Jillani served as a judge of the Supreme Court from July 31, 2004 to Dec 11, 2013 and
subsequently as the 21st chief justice from Dec 11, 2013 to July 5, 2014. In his short stint as
chief justice, Justice Jillani earned accolades despite the prevailing environment of rising
intolerance and bigotry, when through a judgement he ordered the government to protect the
constitutional rights of minorities, and ordered law enforcement agencies to promptly register
criminal cases over the desecration of their places of worship.

Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social
hierarchy and social inequality. ... The term left wing can also refer to "the radical, reforming,
or socialist section of a political party or system".

Mata Hari, byname of Margaretha Geertruida MacLeod, née Zelle (born Aug. 7,
1876, Leeuwarden, Neth.—died Oct. 15, 1917, Vincennes, near Paris, France), dancer and
courtesan whose name has become a synonym for the seductive female spy. She was shot by
the French on charges of spying for Germanyduring World War I. The nature and extent of her
espionage activities remain uncertain, and her guilt is widely contested. The daughter of a
prosperous hatter, she attended a teachers’ college in Leiden. In 1895 she married an officer of
Scottish origin, Capt. Rudolph MacLeod, in the Dutch colonial army, and from 1897 to 1902
they lived in Java and Sumatra. The couple returned to Europe but later separated, and she
began to dance professionally in Paris in 1905 under the name of Lady MacLeod. She soon
called herself Mata Hari, a Malay expression for the sun (literally, “eye of the day”). She and
MacLeod divorced in 1906. Tall, extremely attractive, superficially acquainted with East
Indian dances, and willing to appear virtually nude in public, Mata Hari was an instant success
in Paris and other large cities. Throughout her life she had numerous lovers, many of them
military officers.

The facts regarding her espionage activities remain obscure. According to one account, in the
spring of 1916, while she was living in The Hague, a German consul is said to have offered to
pay her for whatever information she could obtain on her next trip to France. After her arrest
by the French, she acknowledged only that she had given some outdated information to a
German intelligence officer. According to statements that Mata Hari supposedly made, she had
agreed to act as a French spy in German-occupied Belgium and did not bother to tell French
intelligence of her prior arrangement with the Germans. She had intended to secure for the
Allies the assistance of Ernest Augustus, duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg in Germany and heir to
the dukedom of Cumberland in the British peerage.

The French began to suspect her of duplicity, and on Feb. 13, 1917, she was arrested in Paris.
She was imprisoned, tried by a military court on July 24–25, 1917, sentenced to death, and shot
by a firing squad. The German government publicly exculpated her in 1930, and the French
dossier documenting her activities reportedly indicated her innocence. Viewed by only a few
people, the dossier was scheduled for public release in 2017.

Oct 13, 2017. If you have knowledge, let  October 11 is observed “World Obesity
others light their candles at it. (Margret Day”.
Fuller)  American National Caitlan Coleman and
her husband Joshua Boyle had been in

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
 The US Deputy Assistant to President captivity of terrorists since 2012, they
and National Security Council Director have been released (Freed).
for South Asia is Lisa Curtis.  Foreign Minister is Khawaja Asif and
 US ambassador to Pakistan David Hale. Interior minister is Ahsan Iqbal.
 Federal Minister for Defence Production  Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle
Rana Tanveer Hussain. was a French general and statesman. He
 Ukraine Minister for Defence General was the leader of Free France and the
Stepan Poltorak. head of the Provisional Government of
 UNESCO. United Nations Educational, the French Republic.
Scientific and Cultural Organization.  French President is Emmanuel Macron.
 Snub. 1- snub somebody to insult  Derisive comment. unkind and showing
somebody, especially by ignoring them that you think somebody/something is
when you meet. SYNONYM COLD- ridiculous. She gave a short, derisive
SHOULDER. I tried to be friendly, but she laugh. His voice was savagely derisive.
snubbed me completely.  Reinvigorate.
2- snub something to refuse to attend or reinvigorate something/somebody to
accept something, for example as a give new energy or strength to
protest. SYNONYM BOYCOTT. All the something/somebody. We need to
country's leading players snubbed the reinvigorate the economy of the area. I
tournament. felt reinvigorated after a rest and a
 Yearning. a strong and emotional desire. shower.
SYNONYM LONGING. yearning (for  The Sargasso Sea is a region of the North
somebody/something) a yearning for a Atlantic Ocean bounded by four currents
quiet life. yearning (to do forming an ocean gyre. Unlike all other
something) She had no great yearning to regions called seas, it has no land
go back. boundaries
Hungary: Capital is Budapest and currency Bulgaria: Capital is Sofia.

Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( 22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a
French general and statesman. He was the leader of Free France (1940–44) and the head of
the Provisional Government of the French Republic (1944–46). In 1958, he founded the Fifth
Republic and was elected as the President of France, a position he held until his resignation in
1969. He was the dominant figure of France during the Cold War era and his memory continues
to influence French politics.
Born in Lille, he graduated from Saint-Cyr in 1912. He was a decorated officer of the First
World War, wounded several times, and later taken prisoner at Verdun. During the interwar
period, he advocated mobile armoured divisions. During the German invasion of May 1940,
he led an armoured division which counterattacked the invaders; he was then appointed Under-
Secretary for War. Refusing to accept his government's armistice with Nazi Germany, de
Gaulle exhorted the French population to resist occupation and to continue the fight in
his Appeal of 18 June. He led a government in exile and the Free French Forces against
the Axis. Despite frosty relations with Britain and especially the United States, he emerged as
the undisputed leader of the French resistance. He became Head of the Provisional Government
of the French Republic in June 1944, the interim government of France following its
Liberation. As early as 1944, de Gaulle introduced a dirigiste economic policy, which included

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
substantial state-directed control over a capitalist economy which was followed by 30 years of
unprecedented growth, known as Les Trente Glorieuses ("The Glorious Thirty").
Frustrated by the return of petty partisanship in the new Fourth Republic, he resigned in early
1946 but continued to be politically active as founder of the Rassemblement du Peuple
Français (RPF) party, which means "Rally of the French People." He retired in the early 1950s
and wrote a book about his experience in the war titled War Memoirs,which quickly became a
classic of modern French literature. When the Algerian War was ripping apart the
unstable Fourth Republic, the National Assembly brought him back to power during the May
1958 crisis. He founded the Fifth Republic with a strong presidency, and he was elected to
continue in that role. He managed to keep France together while taking steps to end the war,
much to the anger of the Pieds-Noirs (Frenchmen settled in Algeria) and the military; both
previously had supported his return to power to maintain colonial rule. He granted
independence to Algeria and progressively to other French colonies.
In the context of the Cold War, de Gaulle initiated his "Politics of Grandeur," asserting that
France as a major power should not rely on other countries, such as the US, for its national
security and prosperity. To this end, de Gaulle pursued a policy of "national independence"
which led him to withdraw from NATO's military integrated command and to launch an
independent nuclear development program that made France the fourth nuclear power. He
restored cordial Franco-German relations to create a European counterweight between the
Anglo-American and Soviet spheres of influence through the signing of the Élysée Treaty on
January 22, 1963. However, he opposed any development of a supranational Europe, favouring
a Europe of sovereign nations. De Gaulle openly criticised the US intervention in Vietnam and
the "exorbitant privilege" of the US dollar. In his later years, his support for an independent
Quebec and his two vetoes against Britain's entry into the European Economic
Community generated considerable controversy.
Although re-elected President in 1965, in May 1968 he appeared likely to lose power amid
widespread protests by students and workers, but survived the crisis with backing from the
Army and won an election with an increased majority in the Assembly. De Gaulle resigned in
1969 after losing a referendum in which he proposed more decentralization. He died a year
later at his residence in Colombey-les-Deux-Églises, leaving his Presidential memoirs
unfinished. Many French political parties and figures claim the Gaullist legacy.
De Gaulle was ranked as "Le Plus Grand Français de tous les temps" (the Greatest Frenchman
of All Time).
(1) Nothing great will ever be achieved without great men, and men are great only if they
are determined to be so.
(2) Silence is the ultimate weapon of power.
(3) In order to become the master, the politician poses as the servant.
2. Amendment of Article 106 of the Constitution.
In the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan hereinafter referred to as the
Constitution, in Article 106, in clause (3), after the words "communities" the words and
brackets "and persons of Quadiani group or the Lahori group (who call themselves
'Ahmadis')" shall be inserted.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
3. Amendment of Article 260 of the Constitution.
In the Constitution, in Article 260, after clause (2) the following new clause shall be added,

(3) A person who does not believe in the absolute and unqualified finality of The
Prophethood of MUHAMMAD (Peace be upon him), the last of the Prophets or claims
to be a Prophet, in any sense of the word or of any description whatsoever, after
MUHAMMAD (Peace be upon him), or recognizes such a claimant as a Prophet or
religious reformer, is not a Muslim for the purposes of the Constitution or law.

Oct 14, 2017.  Pervez Hoodbhoy is author of the

 UK army chief Gen Sir Nicolas Patrick book Islam and Science: Religious
Carter. Orthodoxy.
 PM Abbasi launched a commemorative  Federal Interior and Planning minister is
postage stamp in recognition of the Ahsan Iqbal.
service rendered by Maulana Mufti  PM Abbasi inaugurated one of the largest
Mahmood for religion and politics in the oil reserve Jhandial Well. It is the first
country. major discovery in the country. Jhandial
 US State Department’s spokesperson well is located in Ikhlas block in
Heather Nauret. Northern Potohar, about 83 km
 PPP was founded by late, former PM southwest of Islamabad in Attock
Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto on November 30, district.
1967.  Afghan Interior Ministry spokesperson
 Somalia’s defence minister Abdirashid Najib Danish.
and army chief Ahmad Mohammad  Former French culture minister is Audrey
Jimale Irfid both resigned. Azoulay was selected to head the
 Somalia’s capital is Mogadishu and embattled UN cultural agency UNESCO,
currency Shilling. Paris, France.

Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma: (born 12 April 1942) is a South African politician. He has served
as the President of South Africa since 2009. Zuma is the President of the African National
Congress (ANC), the governing political party, and was Deputy President of South Africa from
1999-2005. He was first elected by parliament following his party's victory in the 2009 general
election. He was re-elected in the 2014 election

Oct 15, 2017. International Day for Rural  Foreign office spokesperson is Nafees
Woman Zakaria.
 Kendo, Iaido and Karate are the Japan’s  Federal Minister for Ports and shipping is
games. Mir Hasil Khan Binzenjo.
 Japanese ambassador to Pakistan is  Karachi governor is Mohammad Zubair.
Takashi Kurai.  Cambodian PM is Hun Sen. Capital is
 Mala Yousafzai was awarded Nobel Phenom Phen.
prize in 2014.  Actor Nusrat Ara, Bil Batori has passed

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
 Ivory Coast African country, its capital
is Yamoussoukro and currency CFA

Oct 16, 2017. World Food Day  Alice Well is acting US secretary of state
 Reuters is the British newspaper agency. and acting special representative for
 UNCHR stands for United Nations Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Commission for Refugees.  Taliban leader Mullah Akhtar Mansoor
 Mesut Kacmaz is Turkish teacher was was killed in May 2016 in Baluchistan.
abducted and sent back Turkey.  Afghan foreign ministry spokesperson
 Turkish abortive coup was in July 16, Shekib Mustaghni.
2016. Its mastermind was Fatehullah  IG Punjab is Arif Nawaz Khan.
Gulen, his movement name is called  October 16, is observed death
Hizmat. anniversary of first prime minister of
 Hurricane Ophelia approaching the Pakistan, Liaquat Ali Khan.
Azores island in the Atlantic ocean.  FAO observes October 16, World Food
 MARAWI is the place of Mindanao Day.
island, Philippines fighting their  FAO headquarter is in Rome, Italy.
independent kingdom.
 Khalilah Camacho Ali, a former wife of
the late world heavyweight champion
Muhmmad Ali.
Muscat: 

Muhammad Ali (born Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr.; January 17, 1942 – June 3, 2016) was an
American professional boxer and activist. He is widely regarded as one of the most significant
and celebrated sports figures of the 20th century. From early in his career, Ali was known as
an inspiring, controversial, and polarizing figure both inside and outside the ring.[10][11]
Cassius Clay was born and raised in Louisville, Kentucky, and began training as an amateur
boxer when he was 12 years old. At age 18, he won a gold medal in the light
heavyweight division at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome and turned professional later that
year. At age 22 in 1964, he won the WBA, WBC, and lineal heavyweight titles from Sonny
Liston in a big upset. Clay then converted to Islam and changed his name from Cassius Clay,
which he called his "slave name", to Muhammad Ali. He set an example of racial pride
for African Americans and resistance to white domination during the Civil Rights Movement.
In 1966, two years after winning the heavyweight title, Ali further antagonized the white
establishment by refusing to be drafted into the U.S. military, citing his religious beliefs and
opposition to American involvement in the Vietnam War. He was eventually arrested, found
guilty of draft evasion charges, and stripped of his boxing titles. He successfully appealed the
decision to the U.S. Supreme Court, which overturned his conviction in 1971, by which time
he had not fought for nearly four years and thereby lost a period of peak performance as an
athlete. Ali's actions as a conscientious objector to the war made him an icon for the
larger counterculture generation.
Ali is regarded as one of the leading heavyweight boxers of the 20th century. He remains the
only three-time linealheavyweight champion, having won the title in 1964, 1974, and 1978.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
Between February 25 and September 19, 1964, Ali reigned as the undisputed heavyweight
champion. He is the only boxer to be named The Ring magazine Fighter of the Year six times.
He was ranked as the greatest athlete of the 20th century by Sports Illustrated, the Sports
Personality of the Century by the BBC, and the third greatest athlete of the 20th century
by ESPNSportsCentury. Nicknamed "The Greatest", he was involved in several historic boxing
matches. Notable among these were the first Liston fight; the "Fight of the Century", "Super
Fight II", the "Thrilla in Manila" versus his rival Joe Frazier, and "The Rumble in the Jungle"
versus George Foreman.
At a time when most fighters let their managers do the talking, Ali thrived in and indeed craved
the spotlight, where he was often provocative and outlandish. He was known for trash talking,
and often freestyled with rhyme schemes and spoken word poetry, both for his trash talking in
boxing and as political poetry for his activism, anticipating elements of rap and hip hop music.
As a musician, Ali recorded two spoken word albums and a rhythm and blues song, and
received two Grammy Award nominations.[23] As an actor, he performed in several films and
a Broadway musical. Additionally, Ali wrote two autobiographies, one during and one after his
boxing career.
As a Muslim, Ali was initially affiliated with Elijah Muhammad's Nation of Islam (NOI) and
advocated their black separatist ideology. He later disavowed the NOI, adhering to Sunni
Islam, practicing Sufism, and supporting racial integration, like his former mentor Malcolm X.
After retiring from boxing in 1981, Ali devoted his life to religious and charitable work. In
1984, Ali was diagnosed with Parkinson's syndrome, which his doctors attributed to boxing-
related brain injuries. As his condition worsened, Ali made limited public appearances and was
cared for by his family until his death on June 3, 2016, in Scottsdale, Arizona.

Oct 17, 2017.  Pakistan won a seat in United Nations

 Parachinar is the headquarter of Kurram Human Right Council (UNHRC). The
agency. General Assembly elected 15 countries to
serve on the 47-member body.
Slovakia: Ukraine:
Ex-CJP Ajmal Mian Passed away: Ajmal Mian belonged to the Dehli Punjabi Saudagraan
business community. He was graduated from the University of Karachi in economics and
political science in 1953, was called to the bar as a member of the Society of Lincoln’s Inn,
London, on Feb 5, 1957. He later enrolled as advocate of the High Court of West Pakistan,
Karachi bench, on April 22 of that year. He was appointed an additional judge of the Sindh
High Court (SHC) in March 1978. He became a confirmed judge of the SHC in 1980.
He served as acting Chief Justice of Pakistan four times in 1997. He was named Chief Justice
of Pakistan and retired from service in that position on June 30, 1999. Justice Ajmal Mian’s
name evokes a controversial chapter in the country’s judicial history. He arguably allowed a
‘coup’ within the Supreme Court against Chief Justice Sajjad Ali Shah in Nov 1997 when
Nawaz Sharif was the prime minister. Justice Sajjad headed a bench which was hearing a
contempt case against Mr Sharif, who was asked to appear in court on Nov 28. But the day
set off a chain of events that casts a stigma on the political class, as well as on the judiciary,
to this day. An unruly mob, allegedly instigated by the ruling Pakistan Muslim League,
stormed the Supreme Court building, forcing Chief Justice Sajjad Ali Shah to put off the
hearing. He authored a book, A Judge Speaks Out, in 2004.The book contains insights into
major events in the judiciary’s history, especially the ’97 crisis.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
Oct 18, 2017.  Sartaj Aziz is deputy chairman of
 Jama Bandi means land revenue record. Planning Commission.
 GARDEZ is the city of Afghanistan.  Russian was defeated by Japan in 1905.
 Russian revolution centennial years  Reconciliation: Islam, Democracy, and
October 17, 1917 to October 17, 2017. West is last book of Benazir Bhutto.
 Arab News is the news agency of UAE.  Malta (Valletta) PM is Joseph Muscat.
 George Saunder won the Man Booker
Prize Award.

Oct 19, 2017.  Iris Shun-Ru Chang was an American

 Privatization minister is Danyial Aziz. author and journalist. She is best known
 Ibid means In the same source (used to for her best-selling 1997 account of the
save space in textual references to a Nanking Massacre, The Rape of
quoted work which has been mentioned Nanking.
in a previous reference)  Tomb of Syed Muhammad Ishaq, known
as Miran Badshah” is in Masjid Wazir
Khan, Lahore.

Oct 20, 2017.  The Sicilian Mafia, also known as

 US envoy to UN Nikki Haley. simply the Mafia, is a criminal syndicate
 World XI side led by Faf du Plessi. in Sicily, Italy. It is a loose association of
 Saidpur is a historic Pakistani village criminal groups that share a common
located in a ravine in the Margalla Hills, organisational structure and code of
near Islamabad and the Daman-e-Koh conduct.
overlook. The village's historic core, its  TTP chief Hakim-Ullah Mehsud was
abandoned Hindu temple, and its Sikh killed in North Waziristan in 2013 by
gurdwara, were restored in 2006. drone strike.
 Jacinda Ardern youngest PM of New  CIA director Mike Pompeo.
Zealand in 150 years.  UNIDO stands for United Nations
 PLRA stands for Punjab Land Record Industrial Development Organization.

Hobbesian state of nature: Hobbes describes sovereignty as the soul of the Leviathan. State
of Nature - The "natural condition of mankind" is what would exist if there were no
government, no civilization, no laws, and no common power to restrain human nature. ... Life
in the state of nature is "nasty, brutish and short."

Saidpur (Punjabi and Urdu: ‫ )سیدپور‬is a historic Pakistani village located in a ravine in
the Margalla Hills, near Islamabad and the Daman-e-Koh overlook. The village's historic core,
its abandoned Hindu temple, and its Sikh gurdwara, were restored in 2006. The village now
houses several high-end restaurants, and attracts Islamabad residents and tourists alike.
Condoleezza "Condi" Rice: Born November 14, 1954) is an American political scientist and
diplomat. She served as the 66th United States Secretary of State, the second person to hold

Prepared by: M. Bilal Asif


“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
that office in the administration of President George W. Bush. Rice was the first female
African-American Secretary of State, as well as the second African-American Secretary of
State (after Colin Powell), and the second female Secretary of State (after Madeleine
Albright). Rice was President Bush's National Security Advisor during his first term, making
her the first woman to serve in that position.
Rice was born in Birmingham, Alabama, and grew up while the South was racially segregated.
She obtained her bachelor's degree from the University of Denver and her master's degree in
political science from the University of Notre Dame. She worked at the State Department under
the Carter administration and then pursued an academic fellowship at Stanford University,
where she later served as provost from 1993 to 1999. On December 17, 2000, she left her
position and joined the Bush administration as National Security Council as the Soviet and
Eastern Europe Affairs Advisor to President George H. W. Bush during the dissolution of the
Soviet Union and German reunification.
Following her confirmation as Secretary of State, Rice pioneered the policy
of Transformational Diplomacy directed toward expanding the number of responsible
democratic governments in the world and especially in the Greater Middle East. That policy
faced challenges as Hamas captured a popular majority in Palestinian elections, and influential
countries including Saudi Arabia and Egypt maintained authoritarian systems with U.S.
support. She has logged more miles traveling than any other Secretary of State. While in the
position, she chaired the Millennium Challenge Corporation's board of directors.
In March 2009, Rice returned to Stanford University as a political science professor and the
Thomas and Barbara Stephenson Senior Fellow on Public Policy at the Hoover Institution. In
September 2010, she became a faculty member of the Stanford Graduate School of
Business and a director of its Global Center for Business and the Economy.
She is currently on the Board of Directors of Dropbox and Makena Capital Management, LLC.
and in October 2013, she was selected to be one of the 13 inaugural members of the College
Football Playoff, Playoff, Postseason, Selection Committee.

Oct 21, 2017.  D-8 is the organization of Bangladesh,

 Human rights Commission Pakistan Eygpt, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia,
chief is I. A. Rehman. Nigeria, Pakistan and Turkey.
 Zeenat Shahzadi, a kidnapped journalist  Turkey heads the D-8 9th summit in
was freed from the captive. Istanbul in 2017, PM Shahid Khaqan
 NAB incumbent chairman Justice Javed Abbasi went on Turkey.
Iqbal, he succeeded Qamar-uz-Zaman.  D-8 8th summit headed in Pakistan in
 Lifta is the village of Palestine was 2012.
abandoned during Arab-Israel war 1948.  Mehter, A historic military band of army
 Japanese emperor Akihito is likely to in Turkey.
abdicate at the end of March 2019 and  The treaty was signed in New Delhi by
Crown Prince Naruhito. It is Heisei Era, the Prime Minister Jawahar
which started in 1989. Lal Nehru and the Prime
 He will be succeeded by Naruhito. MinisterLiaquat Ali Khan on April 8,
 Asahi is the Japanese news agency. 1950. The treaty was the outcome of six
 Bashir Gemayel’s was a Lebanese days of talks sought to guarantee the
supporter of Syrian regime was rights of minorities in both countries after
assassinated on September 14, 1982.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
 Shartouni was arrested in 1983 but was the Partition of India and to avert another
mysteriously released from prison in war between them.
October 1990 during Syrian-led
offensive that ousted former prime
minister Michael Aoun.
Oct 22, 2017.  Privatisation minister is Danyal Aziz.
 Pakistan’s high commissioner to India is  Turkish PM is Binali Yildrim. He
Sohail Mahmood. succeeded Ahmet Devoltu.
 Russian revolution of Bolshevik  John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy,
occurred on October 17, 1917 led by commonly referred to by his initials JFK,
Vladmir Lenin and Leon Trostsky. was an American statesman who served
 Zimbabwe president Robert Mugabe was as the 35th President of the United States
named a goodwill ambassador for the from January 1961 until his assassination
WHO by first African leader. Later on his in November 1963.
name was removed.
Estonia: Latvia:
Lithuania: Belarus:

Simon Commission, group appointed in November 1927 by the British Conservative

government under Stanley Baldwin to report on the working of the Indian constitution
established by the Government of India Act of 1919.

Simon Commission, group appointed in November 1927 by the

British Conservative government under Stanley Baldwin to report on the working of the Indian
constitution established by the Government of India Act of 1919. The commission consisted
of seven members—four Conservatives, two Labourites, and one Liberal—under the joint
chairmanship of the distinguished Liberal lawyer, Sir John Simon, and Clement Attlee, the
future prime minister. Its composition met with a storm of criticism in India because Indians
were excluded. The commission was boycotted by the Indian National Congress and most
other Indian political parties. It, nevertheless, published a two-volume report, mainly the work
of Simon. Regarded as a classic state document, the report proposed provincial autonomy in
India but rejected parliamentary responsibility at the centre. It accepted the idea of federalism
and sought to retain direct contact between the British crown and the Indian states. Before its
publication its conclusions had been outdated by the declaration of October 1929, which stated
that dominion status was to be the goal of Indian constitutional development.

Oct 23, 2017.  Freedom of Information Ordinance

 Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff passed and promulgated in 2002.
Committee is Gen Zubair Mehmood  American president John F. Kennedy
hayat. was assassinated on November 22, 1963
 On October 22 was Trafalgar day by CIA and Oswald.
observed in London to mark the  Jimmy Carter was 39th former Democrat
anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar. It US president who served 1977-1981. He
was fought by British Navy in 1805 also served as governor of Georgia
against the combined fleets of the French before president ship. He was preceded
and Spanish navies during Napoleonic by Gerald Ford and Succeeded by Ronald
era. Regan.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
 The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921 was  Einstein was German born physicist. He
awarded to Albert Einstein"for his was nominated for Nobel prize in 1921
services to Theoretical Physics, and and got 1922.
especially for his discovery of the law of  Jordan king Abdullah meets Palestine
the photoelectric effect". Albert Einstein president Mahmood Abbas.
received his Nobel Prize one year later,
in 1922.

The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli,
or the Battle of Çanakkale (Turkish: Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World
War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman
Empire between 17 February 1915 and 9 January 1916. The peninsula forms the northern bank
of the Dardanelles, a strait that provided a sea route to the Russian Empire, one of the Allied
powers during the war. Intending to secure it, Russia's allies, Britain and France, launched a
naval attack followed by an amphibious landing on the peninsula, with the aim of capturing the
Ottoman capital of Constantinople (modern Istanbul). The naval attack was repelled and after
eight months' fighting, with many casualties on both sides, the land campaign was abandoned
and the invasion force was withdrawn to Egypt.
The campaign was the only major Ottoman victory of the war. In Turkey, it is regarded as a
defining moment in the nation's history, a final surge in the defence of the motherland as the
Ottoman Empire crumbled. The struggle formed the basis for the Turkish War of
Independence and the declaration of the Republic of Turkey eight years later, with Mustafa
Kemal (Kemal Atatürk) as President, who rose to prominence as a commander at Gallipoli.
The campaign is often considered to be the beginning of Australian and New Zealand national
consciousness; 25 April, the anniversary of the landings, is known as "Anzac Day", the most
significant commemoration of military casualties and veterans in the two countries,
surpassing Remembrance Day (Armistice Day).
The Turkish War of Independence (Turkish: Kurtuluş Savaşı "War of Liberation", also
known figuratively as İstiklâl Harbi "Independence War" or Millî Mücadele "National
Campaign"; May 19, 1919 – July 24, 1923) was fought between the Turkish National
Movement and the proxies of the Allies – namely Greece on the Western front, Armenia on the
Eastern, France on the Southern and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in
Constantinople (now Istanbul) – after parts of the Ottoman Empire were occupied and
partitioned following the Ottomans' defeat in World War I. Few of the occupying British,
French, and Italian troops had been deployed or engaged in combat.
The Turkish National Movement (Kuva-yi Milliye) in Anatolia culminated in the formation of
a new Grand National Assembly (GNA; Turkish: BMM) by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his
colleagues. After the end of the Turkish-Armenian, Franco-Turkish, Greco-Turkish fronts
(often referred to as the Eastern Front, the Southern Front, and the Western Front of the war,
respectively), the Treaty of Sèvres was abandoned and the Treaties of Kars (October 1921)
and Lausanne (July 1923) were signed. The Allies left Anatolia and Eastern Thrace, and the
Grand National Assembly of Turkey decided on the establishment of a Republic in Turkey,
which was declared on October 29, 1923.
With the establishment of the Turkish National Movement, the partitioning of the Ottoman
Empire, and the abolition of the sultanate, the Ottoman era and the Empire came to an end, and
with Atatürk's reforms, the Turks created the modern, secular nation-state of Turkey on the

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
political front. On 3 March 1924, the Ottoman Caliphate was officially abolished and the last
Caliph was exiled.
William Jefferson Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the
United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to the presidency, he was the Governor of Arkansas
from 1979 to 1981, and again from 1983 to 1992.

Oct 24, 2017.  Spin Boldak border crossing between

 Pinktober is an international campaign Pakistan and Afghanistan.
of awareness about breast cancer.  Indian Interior minister Rajnath Singh.

Oct 25, 2017.  Indian intelligence agency RAW ex-

 Pakistan’s foreign minister is Khawaja chief Dineshwar Sharma will appoint
Asif, Interior minister Ahsan Iqbal, interlocutor for IOK.
Defence minister Khurram Dastgir,  Shiny View Ltd is Jahangir Tareen
Foreign secretary Tehmina Janjua, Chief offshore company name.
of Army Staff Gen Qamar Javed Bajwa,  Public office holder definition:
and ISI Director General Lt. Gen Naveed “Anybody who gets financial benefits
Mukhtar. from the national exchequer falls in the
 Senate elections will be held March category of public office holder”.
2018.  All Pakistan Hurrayt Conference leader
 Oscar and 90th Academy Awards is Maulvi Abbas Ansari.
nominates on Jan 23, 2018 and awards on  Chinese president Xi-Jinping becomes
March 04, 2018. most powerful leader in china his name is
 Indian movie Newton and Pakistani engraved in Chinese constitution with
movie Saawan are nominated for Oscar Mao Z Tung.
 King Faisal was assassinated in 1975.

Oct 26, 2017.  Pakistan’s population according to 6th

 Pakistan’s NA general seats are 272 current population census is 207.77
through direct election, 60 reserved for million and annual growth rate is 2.4%.
women and 10 for minorities. These  Chinese president Xi-Jinping earned the
seats last made by General Pervez name as “Chairman of Everything”.
Musharraf in 2002 by 17th constitutional  Xi-Jinping was the leader of chinses
amendment. communist party, his father was purged
 Brazilian president Michel Temer was by Mao.
hospitalised on Wednesday with a  Raila Odinga is opposition leader of
urinary obstruction. Kenya.
 Indian National security adviser Ajit  H1B is a specific visa which is issued by
Doval. American to foreigners for seeking their
professional expertise.

Oct 27, 2017.  Defence secretary retired Lt Gen Zamir-

 Japan is the largest importer of LNG. ul-Hasan Shah.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
 The newly appointed chief of the anti-  “Even if a person reads and teaches a
graft watchdog is Justice retired Iqbal. hundred thousand books on intellectual
 PIN stands for Personal Identification and knowledge issues but does not act on
Number. any of it. Then it will not act on any of it,
 Thailand king Bhumibol Adulyadej died then it will not benefit from him at all” by
on October 27, 2016. He was crowned in Imam Ghazali.
1950.  ICAN won the Nobel Peace Prize 2017,
with it a Hiroshima survivor Setsuko
Thurlow won Nobel Peace Prize.

An aide-de-camp: French expression meaning literally helper in the [military] camp) is a

personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank, usually a senior military, police or
government officer, a member of a royal family, or a head of state.

Oct 28, 2017.  The ceasefire violations is serious breach

 UAV stands for Unmanned Aerial of the November 2003 truce agreement.
Vehicle.  Zafar Hijazi is suspended chairman of
 Pakistan captured and downed the SECP who tempered the record in the
Indian Drone Spy on October 27th 2017. favour of ousted PM Nawaz Sharif.
 On June 10th, 2002, an Israel operated  IG prison Mian Farooq Nazir is replaced
UAN launched from Indian territory. with Shahid Saleem Baig.
 Ayub Khan celebrated his 10 years  South Korean defence Secretary is Song
tenure on October 27 1967. It termed as Yong-Moo.
“Revolution Day”.  Republic of Burundi is the country in
 Turkmenistan celebrated its 26th east-central Africa. It is the first nation
Independence Day on October 27. It got who left International Criminal Court. It
independence in the collapse of USSR was set up 15 years ago to prosecute
in 1991. those who behind the world’s worst
 Ashkhabad is the Capital of atrocities.
Turkmenistan.  Burundi’s withdrawal from the Rome
 Multan 778th Urs of Sheikh Bahaudin Statute will take effect on October 27,
Zakrya was celebrated. 2017.

Burundi: Tajikistan:

Oct 29, 2017.  Article # 17 states that Freedom of

 Afghan province Kunar Depty Governor Association.
Qazi Muhammad Nabi Ahmadi was  October 27th as the Black Day in the
kidnapped. history of Kashmir, because in 1947
 Legion of honour is the most prestigious India entered its forces into Kashmir for
medal that is awarded to French citizens, accession.
but often also to foreigners.  Bern is the capital of landlocked
 The Czech Republic is European country Switzerland.
a landlocked country in Central Europe.  A country is "doubly landlocked" or
The country is bordered by Germany to "double-landlocked" when it is
the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia surrounded entirely by one or

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
to the east and Poland to the north. Its more landlocked countries (requiring
capital and largest city, with 1.3 million the crossing of at least two national
inhabitants, is Prague borders to reach a coastline). There are
currently two such countries:
Liechtenstein in Central Europe,
surrounded by Switzerland and Austria.
Squeamish: Excessively fastidious, 
meticulous; The squeamish (plural)

Oct 30, 2017.  Baluchistan six district on coastal line are

 The Rebel Optimist is made by Mahera Lasbela, Gwadar, Kecth, Punjur,
Umar in the life of Parven Rehman. Washuk, and Chaghi.
 Sarfraz Ahmed is Pakistani cricket team
Heir Apparent.  Scintillating
Heir presumptive.  Raucous.
 Contingent Ramification.
Madagascar: 

Current Affairs- November 2017

Ascension Day: (in the Christian religion) the 40th day after Easter when Christians remember
when Jesus left the earth and went into heaven.
Nov 1, 2017.  Minister for Housing is Akram Durani.
 NADRA stands for National Database  LCIA stands for London Court of
and Registration Authority. International Arbitration.
 Minister for Parliamentary Affairs is  Mehdi Honardoost is the ambassador of
Aftab Sheikh. Iran to Pakistan.
 Drap stands for Drug Regulatory  Cambodian movie First They Killed My
Authority of Pakistan. Father is selected final nominees for
 Balfour declaration was made by British Oscar Award 2018. It will be granted
foreign minister Arthur Balfour on January 2018.
November 2, 1917.  In the six day Arab Israel war of 1967,
 Israel state would be founded in 1948. Israel occupied the West bank, east
Jerusalem and Gaza Strip.
Vocabulary:  Prorogue.
 Government should eradicate the sale of  Viscosity.
spurious drugs.  Substandard and contaminated milk
 University professors have become
demigod to students.
Bolivia: officially known as Yamen, officially called Republic of Yemen,
the Plurinational State of Bolivia, country it is located in middle east Asia. Its capital is
in south America. Its capital is Sucre and La Saana, Aden (provisional, Adi) and currency
Paz is the seat of government and currency is is Rial.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus
appearing to "drift" across the ocean bed.[2] The speculation that continents might have 'drifted'
was first put forward by Abraham Ortelius in 1596. The concept was independently and more
fully developed by Alfred Wegener in 1912, but his theory was rejected by some for lack of a
mechanism (though this was supplied later by Arthur Holmes). The idea of continental drift
has been subsumed by the theory of plate tectonics, which explains how the continents move.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the Greek: τεκτονικός "pertaining to
building")[1] is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and
the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic
processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago. The model builds on the concept
of continental drift, an idea developed during the first decades of the 20th century.
The geoscientific community accepted plate-tectonic theory after seafloor spreading was
validated in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
The lithosphere, which is the rigid outermost shell of a planet (the crust and upper mantle), is
broken into tectonic plates. The Earth's lithosphere is composed of seven or eight major plates
(depending on how they are defined) and many minor plates. Where the plates meet, their
relative motion determines the type of boundary: convergent, divergent,
or transform. Earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain-building, and oceanic trench formation
occur along these plate boundaries (or faults). The relative movement of the plates typically
ranges from zero to 100 mm annually.[2]
Tectonic plates are composed of oceanic lithosphere and thicker continental lithosphere, each
topped by its own kind of crust. Along convergent boundaries, subduction, or one plate moving
under another, carries the lower one down into the mantle; the material lost is roughly balanced
by the formation of new (oceanic) crust along divergent margins by seafloor spreading. In this
way, the total surface of the lithosphere remains the same. This prediction of plate tectonics is
also referred to as the conveyor belt principle. Earlier theories, since disproven, proposed
gradual shrinking (contraction) or gradual expansion of the globe.[3]
Tectonic plates are able to move because the Earth's lithosphere has greater mechanical
strength than the underlying asthenosphere. Lateral density variations in the mantle result
in convection; that is, the slow creeping motion of Earth's solid mantle. Plate movement is
thought to be driven by a combination of the motion of the seafloor away from spreading
ridges due to variations in topography (the ridge is a topographic high) and density changes in
the crust (density increases as newly formed crust cools and moves away from the ridge). At
subduction zones the relatively cold, dense crust is "pulled" or sinks down into the mantle over
the downward convecting limb of a mantle cell. Another explanation lies in the different forces
generated by tidal forces of the Sun and Moon. The relative importance of each of these factors
and their relationship to each other is unclear, and still the subject of much debate.

Nov 2, 2017.  Al-Qaeda founder and leader Osama Bin

 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Laden, he was Saudi born
headquarter is in Langley, Virginia, fundamentalist, was killed in Pakistan on
USA. May 2, 2011 in compound in
 CIA director is Mike Pompeo. Abbottabad. US Navy took part in this
 The Elizabeth Tower, commonly called operation.
Big Ben located in London.  After the debacle of East Pakistan,
Tripartite clemency accord singed

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
 Pakistan High Commissioner in Dhaka is between India, Pakistan and Bangladesh
Rafi-uz-Zaman Siddiqui. in 1974. It is also called Delhi
 Derawar fort located in Bahawalpur near Agreement.
Cholistan desert.
Belarus: officially Republic of Belarus, Garrulous: (Adj) talking a lot, especially
country is Europe. Its capital is Minsk and about unimportant things.
currency is Rubble. It is a landlocked SYNONYM TALKATIVE. He became positively
country in Eastern Europe. garrulous after a few glasses of wine. A
garrulous old woman. Another garrulous

Nov 3, 2017.  Bangladesh long freedom movement

 Founder of Pakistan’s Mr. Jinnah’s culminated in the declaration of
daughter Dina Wadia passed away in independence by Bangabandhu Sheikh
New York. She was 98 years old. Mujib-ur-Rehman on March 26, 1971
 Phenom Phen is the capital of Cambodia. and Pakistan’s subsequent surrender at
 Khartoum is the capital of South Sudan. Dhaka on December 16, 1971.
 The former street Dog “Laika” made a  Cont: The first animal to go into space
history, it was the first living creature in and return alive were a pair of dogs Belka
the space. The United Soviet Socialist and Strelka, whho blasted off in a rocket
Republic (USSR) sent Laika up to space on Aug 19, 1960.
on November 03, 1957 sixty years ago. It  The success of the mission persuaded
followed the first ever Sputnik satellite Soviet authorities highly risky space trip
launched on October 04, 1957. by a first human in space, Yury Gagarin,
 The satellite carrying her remains burnt in April 1961.
in the atmosphere five months later, on
April 14, 1958, above the Antilles Island
group. Cont.
Vocabulary:  Anomaly (Be Zabtgi)
 Gut.  Simmer
 Bend upon.

Nov 4, 2017.  British High Commissioner to Pakistan

 Pakistan’s ambassador to Britain Ibne Thomas Drew.
Abbas.  Foreign secretary Tehmina Janjua.
 Pak-Iran gas pipeline is also called peace  DG Unesco Audrey Azoulay.
pipeline.  Qibla Ayaz has been appointed chairman
 Chief of Naval Staff Zafar Mehmood of Council of Islamic Ideology.
Abbasi.  Nulsi Wadia and Diana Wadia were the
 Federal minister for education and children of Dina Wadia.
professional training Muhammad  Unfortunately, education and health are
Balighur Rehman. not national priorities, and commitment
 In Turkey failed coup in July 15, 2017. to these sectors is limited to lip-service.
 European parliament president Antonio  Israel seized 1,200 square kilometres of
Tajani. the Golan Heights from Syria in the Six-
Day War of 1967 and later annexed.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
 Kenneth Juster as appointed new nest US  Founder of Pakistan Mr. Jinnah motto is
ambassador to India. He succeeded “Unity, Faith and Discipline”.
Richard Varma, the first US ambassador  Quaid-i-Azzam who was elected
of Indian origin in India. president of the All India Postal Staff
Union in 1925.
Vocabulary:  Fraught political climate.
 Veranda.  Such sinister and malicious campaign.
 Dense fog.
 Masters of the colony have turned Pakistan into a warrior state instead of welfare state.
 When armed conflict is glorified in the name of religion the result is violence in the name
of religion.

Nov 5, 2017.  Phnom Pehn is the capital of Cambodia.

 Sri Guru Nanak Dev was born in 1469 in  Bucharest is the capital of Hungary.
the Nankana Sahib in Holy land of  Lebanon’s Prime Minister Saad al-
Punjab. Hariri.
 In 2017, his 548th birthday anniversary is
being observed.

Nov 6, 2017.  Jeddah is also called Red Sea city.

 The US-based International Consortium  Shah Abdul Latif Bhatai 274th Urs
of Investigative Journal released another celebrates in Sindh in 2017.
treasure trove dubbed a Paradise Paper. It  Guru Nanak Dev was the founder of
discloses the about offshore companies. Sikhism. His 549th birth anniversary was
 Pakistani former Prime Minister Shaukat observed in Pakistan.
Aziz named in it.  SANA is the Syrian news agency.
 PTDC stands for Pakistan Tourism  SPA is Saudi news agency.
Development Corporation.  US secretary of state Rex Tillerson and
 Mr. Aziz served as finance minister from Commerce secretary Wilbur Louis Rose
2004 to 2007. He set up Antarctic Trust were named in Paradise Paper.
in his wife name.

Nov 7, 2017.  Jalalabad, Capital of restive Nangarhar

 Iranian president Hassan Rohani province, which borders Pakistan.
succeeded Ahmadi Nijad.  OECD stands for Organisation for
 Mumbai terrorist attack occurred in Economic Cooperation and
November 2008. Development.
 Federal Minister of Kashmir Affairs is  Pakistan National Assembly seats
Barjees Tahir. consists of 342 seats in which 2/3
 Saudi King Salman bin Abdulaziz greets majority is 228 seats.
former Lebanese prime minister Saad  Japanese’s Prime Minister is Shinzo Abe
Hariri. meets American president at Akasaka
 Hazarat Ali Hajveri, Data Ganj Bakhsh Palace. Japan.
974th Urs celebration started in Lahore.  November 9, 2017 Pakistan’s will
celebrate 140 birth day of Allama Iqbal
in Iqbal Manzil, Sialkot.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
Vocabulary: 
 Fox (masculine) Vixen (Feminine)

Nov 8, 2017.  Iranian Defence minister is Brig Gen

 Pakistan electronic Media Regulatory Amir Hatami.
Authority (PEMRA) chief is Absar  Commander-in-chief of the Islamic
Alam. Revolution Guard Corps (IRGC) is
 Article 17 ensures the freedom of Major General Mohammad Ali Jafari.
association.  General Staff for Iranian Armed Forces
 US assistant secretary of state Alice well, General Mohammad Bagheri.
she is also special envoy for Afghanistan  Iranian foreign minister Jawad Zarif.
and Pakistan.  IRNA is Iranian official news agency.
 Pakistan was elected as president for  Nayyar Iqbal shot death in Jalalabad,
UNSC for two years term started Jan Afghanistan. He was Pakistani diplomate
1968 to 1970. India and Israel also voted in Afghanistan.
for Pakistan.  Olympics 2020 will be held Tokyo,
 The membership of UNSC originally Japan. In which includes six new games,
consist on 11 members including five Climbing, surfing, basketball, softball
permanent members. Its membership and karate.
increased upto 15 in Jan 1966.  Bank of china (BoC) opened its branch in
 National Bank of Pakistan founded in Pakistan. BoC returned to this part of
November 8, 1949. In 2017, Bank world in 1942 and opened its branch in
celebrates 68th birth day. Karachi.
 KGB is the secret agency of Russia.  In 1971, Chittagong branch transferred to
 First century of Russian, Bolshevik NBP and closed its operations.
revolution completed in November 7,  Belgium king Phillipe went India on
2017. Russian officials and politicians seven days official tour.
except Vladimir Putin watched ceremony  Indonesia president Joko Widodo and
Lenin, father of Russian revolution in first lady Iriana Widodo.
Red Square, Moscow, Russia.  British foreign secretary Boris Johnson.
 Indonesia is the largest country of
Muslim population. It removed the
religious class in National Identity Card.
Belgium: 

Location of Pakistan:
Pakistan is located on North of tropic of Cancer. Pakistan is located in South Asia and is at the
junction of Central Asia and Middle East, which gives its location great significance. Pakistan's
total land border is 6,774 kilometres long and it borders four countries. Pakistan borders India
in the east, Afghanistan and Iran in the west and China is situated at the northeast. While
surrounded by land from three sides, the Arabian Sea lies in the south. Here we will focus on
Pakistan's international borders and some interesting facts about them.

The border between Pakistan and China is nearly 523 kilometres long and is situated in the
northeast of Pakistan. A number of agreements took place between 1961 and 1965 in which
the borderline was determined between the two countries. The famous agreement called the

Prepared by: M. Bilal Asif


“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
Sino-Pakistan Agreement or the Sino-Pakistan Frontier Agreement, was passed in 1963
between Pakistan and China, according to which both countries agreed on the border between
The Radcliffe Line became the official border between Pakistan and India on August 17, 1947.
As the border was established by Sir Cyril Radcliffe — the chairman of the Indo-Pakistan
Boundary Commission — therefore it was named after him. The Pakistan-India border is
almost 2,912 kilometres long. When discussing Indo-Pak border, Wagah is an important place
for both countries. It is the only road border crossing between India and Pakistan, and lies on
the Grand Trunk Road between the cities of Amritsar and Lahore.

Wagah is also famous for 'the lowering of the flags' ceremony which is held there every
evening, and is witnessed by a large crowd from both the nations. Wagah is actually a village
from which the Radcliffe line was drawn separating India and Pakistan.

The border between Pakistan and Afghanistan is called as the Durand Line and is 2,430
kilometres long. The border came into existence in November 1893 after an agreement between
Afghanistan and the British Empire. The Durand Line got its name from Sir Mortimer Durand,
who was the foreign secretary of the British India. He was appointed by the government of
British India in Afghanistan to resolve numerous issues — settling the border issue was one of

The border between Pakistan and Iran is also called the Pakistan-Iran Barrier and is 909
kilometres long. A concrete wall (three feet thick and 10 feet high) is currently under
construction and would replace the bordering fence. The wall holds a controversial position as
the people of Balochistan oppose its construction as many of their lands are situated at the
Pakistan-Iran border and the wall would create hindrances for them.

The Arabian Sea

The Arabian Sea is located south of Pakistan with a coastline of 1,046-kilometres. Pakistan's
Indus River drains out in the Arabian Sea. The Arabian Sea also serves as an important trade
route between Pakistan and other countries, and Karachi is the major port city for conducting

Nov 9, 2017.  Pakistan Navy headquarter is located in

 Today, 140 birth anniversary of Great Islamabad.
philosopher, poet and thinker of Pakistan,  Pakistan ambassador to UN is Maleeha
Allama M. Iqbal. Lodhi.
 Twitter was founded in 21 March  UN General Assembly members consist
2006, San Francisco, California, United in 193 in which included five permanent
States, CEO: Jack Dorsey, its founding members.
Headquarters: San Francisco,  The plain of Karbala is located in Iraq ,
California, United States in this city a religious ceremony takes
 Mala fide means bad intention. place Arbaeen marks the end of 40 days’
 Ernesto Che Guevara participated in the mourning by Shias in memory of the
1959 Cuban revolution which overthrew

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
the government of dictator Fulgencio seventh century martyrdom of the Imam
Batista, who was protecting corporate Hussain.
interests. Che went to fight other  British aid minister Priti Patel resigned.
revolutionary struggles and met a violent  Tibet, in which located forbidden city
end in the forests of Bolivia when he was “Lasha”.
caught and executed by an army patrol in
October 1967.
Vocabulary:  Round-the-clock
 Hallmark.  Congestion.
 Generic.

There are 48 countries in Asia: Asia is subdivided into 48 countries, three of them (Russia,
Kazakhstan and Turkey) having part of their land in Europe. Asia has extremely diverse
climates and geographic features. Climates range from arctic and subarctic in Siberia to tropical
in southern India and Southeast Asia.

Nov 10, 2017.  Pakistan GDP growth rate is 5.5%.

 Indian Army chief is Bipin Rawat.  World Bank country director is Ilango
 Nato stands for North Atlantic Treaty Patchamuthu.
Organisation.  Baluchistan governor is Mohammad
 US ambassador to Pakistan David Hale. Khan Achakzai.
 Gatala tower was built by the Genoese in  PTI stands for Press Trust India. Its
1348 in Istanbul, Turkey. Indian news agency.
Vocabulary:  Incendiary speech.
 Tremendous pressure.  an act of heroic self-sacrifice
  Douse the fires of revolt.

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD & OCDE is an
intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1960 to
stimulate economic progress and world trade. Headquarters: Paris, France.
Abbreviation: OECD; OCDE. Secretary-General: José Ángel Gurría. Founded: 30
September 1961. Formation: 1948 as the OEEC ; Reformed in 1961 as the OECD.
Nov 11, 2017. World Pneumonia Day.  Ian Fleming's image of James Bond;
 AJK PM is Raja Farooq Haider. commissioned to aid the Daily Express
 CSF stands for Collation Support Fund. comic strip artists. Commander James
 Puisne: (in the UK and some other Bond, CMG, RNVR, is a fictional
countries) denoting a judge of a superior character created by the British journalist
court inferior in rank to chief justices. ‘As and novelist Ian Fleming in 1953. He is
a puisne judge I am entitled to disagree the protagonist of the James Bond series
with what my colleagues have said, of novels, films, comics and video
although I would prefer to follow them if games.
I can.’ Or The puisne judge of supreme  Ashton carter was defence secretary in
court of Pakistan. Obama Administration.
 Shamim Akhtar is the mother of Nawaz  Sohail Mehmood is the Pakistan
Sharif. ambassador to India.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
 Chairperson Benazir Income Support  Ch. Rehmat Ali was buried cemetery in
Programme (BISP) is Marvi Memon. Cambridge, England. He died in Feb 3,
 Kulbhushan Jadev alias, Hussian 1951. He was buried in Cambridge
Mubarak Patel is an Indian spy, temporarily his remain could not be
commander of Indian Navy. shifted to Pakistan. He back to his home
 The Chechen Republic is a federal town of Kamalia.
subject (a republic) of Russia. Its capital  Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic
Grozny. Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is
 Ethiopia, officially the Federal an island countryis the country of Asia.
Democratic Republic of Ethiopia is the Its Capitals are Colombo (Commercial
country of East Africa, located in Capital), Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte
the Horn of Africa. It is a landlocked (Administrative Capital) and currency
country. Its major religious population is is Sri Lankan rupee.
Christen. Its capital is Addis Ababa and  Long bridge between African country
currency is Ethiopian Birr. Egypt and Asian country Saudi Arabia is
 Egypt, officially is the Arab Republic of Sinai Peninsula.
Egypt, country in the East Africa. Its  The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in
capital is Cairo and Currency is pound. Northeast Africa. It juts hundreds of
Alexandria is also the country's most kilometers into the Arabian Sea and
important harbour for exports and Indian Ocean, lying along the southern
imports. side of the Gulf of Aden. The area is the
 Egypt, Sudan, South Sudan and Saint easternmost projection of the African
Helena are African countries. Their continent.
currency is pound.
 Rupee is the Mauritian and Seychellois
currency of African countries.
Why was the name Ceylon changed to Sri Lanka in 1972?
Sri Lanka is to remove all remaining references to Ceylon, its British colonial name, from
state institutions. Ceylon gained independence from Britain in 1948 and changes
its name to Sri Lanka when it became a republic in 1972.
Saint Helena, Island in the Atlantic Ocean. St. Helena island, part of the British Overseas
Territory also encompassing Ascension and Tristan da Cunha islands, is a remote volcanic
outpost in the South Atlantic Ocean. James Town it’s Capital and Pound it’s currency. It's
famous as the place of Napoleon Bonaparte's exile and death, as commemorated by a now-
empty tomb. Climbing destinations include the 699 steps of Jacob's Ladder and Diana's Peak,
sheltering endemic plant and animal life.

The Arab Spring was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-
violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle
East that began on 17 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution. Date: 17
December 2010 – December 2012, Protesters in Tunis (January 2011).
The Tunisian Revolution effect spread strongly to five other
countries: Libya, Egypt, Yemen, Syria and Bahrain, where either the regime was toppled or
major uprisings and social violence occurred, including civil wars or insurgencies. Sustained
street demonstrations took place in Morocco, Iraq, Algeria, Iranian
Khuzestan, Lebanon, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman and Sudan. Minor protests occurred
in Djibouti, Mauritania, the Palestinian National Authority, Saudi Arabia, and the Moroccan-

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
controlled Western Sahara. A major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world is ash-shaʻb
yurīd isqāṭ an-niẓām ("the people want to bring down the regime").
The wave of initial revolutions and protests faded by mid-2012, as many Arab Spring
demonstrations were met with violent responses from authorities, as well as from pro-
government militias and counter-demonstrators. These attacks were answered with violence
from protestors in some cases. Large-scale conflicts resulted—the Syrian Civil War, Iraqi
insurgency and the following civil war, the Egyptian Crisis and coup, the Libyan Civil War,
and the Yemeni Crisis and following civil war.
A power struggle continued after the immediate response to the Arab Spring. While leadership
changed and regimes were held accountable, power vacuums opened across the Arab world.
Ultimately it came down to a contentious battle between a consolidation of power by religious
elites and the growing support for democracy in many Muslim-majority states. The early hopes
that these popular movements would end corruption, increase political participation, and bring
about greater economic equity quickly collapsed in the wake of the counterrevolutionary moves
of the deep state in Egypt, the regional and international interventions in Bahrain and Yemen,
and the destructive civil wars in Syria and Libya.
Some have referred to the succeeding and still ongoing conflicts as the Arab Winter. As of July
2016, only the uprising in Tunisia has resulted in a transition to constitutional democratic
Tarek el-Tayeb Mohamed Bouazizi (Arabic: ‫ ;محمد البوعزيزي‬29 March 1984 – 4 January
2011) was a Tunisian street vendor who set himself on fire on 17 December 2010, which
became a catalyst for the Tunisian Revolution and the wider Arab Spring against autocratic
regimes. His self-immolation was in response to the confiscation of his wares and the
harassment and humiliation inflicted on him by a municipal official and her aides.
Simmering public anger and sporadic violence intensified following Bouazizi's death, leading
to then-president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali to step down on 14 January 2011, after 23 years in
power. The success of the Tunisian protests inspired protests in several other Arab countries,
plus several non-Arab countries. The protests included several men who emulated Bouazizi's
act of self-immolation, in an attempt to bring an end to their own autocratic governments. Those
men and Bouazizi were hailed by Arab commentators as "heroic martyrs of a new Middle
Eastern revolution".
In 2011, Bouazizi was posthumously awarded the Sakharov Prize jointly along with four
others for his and their contributions to "historic changes in the Arab world". The Tunisian
government honored him with a postage stamp. The Times of the United Kingdom named
Bouazizi as "Person of 2011", and "The Protester" was named Time 2011 Person of the Year.

The United Nations World Humanitarian Summit (WHS) was held in Istanbul, Turkey, on
May 23 and 24, 2016. The Summit is an initiative of the Secretary-General of the United
Nations Ban Ki-moon and was organized by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of
Humanitarian Affairs (UN OCHA).
Ban Ki-moon, in his Five-Year Action Agenda, released in January 2012, set out his vision to
develop a humanitarian system that was more global, accountable, and robust. A key aspect of
his agenda was "convening a World Humanitarian Summit to help share knowledge and
establish common best practices among the wide spectrum of organizations involved in
humanitarian action.' The Summit’s goal was to fundamentally reform the humanitarian

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
aid industry to react more effectively to today’s many crises. World leaders were expected to
come to the summit and announce the actions they will take to end the suffering of millions of
women, men and children affected by armed conflicts and disasters. The Summit convened
9000 participants from 173 countries, including 55 Heads of State and Government, hundreds
of private sector representatives, and thousands of people from civil society and
nongovernmental organizations.

Nov 12, 2017.  Miraani Dam. Dasht River south of the

 In Pakistan, there are 136 districts. Central Makran Range in Kech District
 Mirani Dam is located in Gwadar. in Balochistan province of Pakistan. Its
 APEC stands Asia-Pacific Economic 302,000 acre feet reservoir is fed by the
Cooperation summit in the resort of Kech River and the Nihing River. It
Danang, Vietnam. fulfils water requirement of Gwadar.
 Australian PM is Malcolm Turnbull.  Bangladesh chief justice Surender
 UN Economic and Social Commission Kumar Sinha tendered his resign.
for Asia and Pacific HQ in Bangkok,  International Court of Justice sits in the
Thailand. Hague, Peace Palace, Netherland.
 Asia-Pacific Economic Corporation HQ  Suki-Kanari hydro power project being
in Singapore. built in Kaghan under CPEC.
 IMF director Christine Lagarde (left)  (Goose is feminine and Gander is
and Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin masculine)
Salman (center) attend the Future  Nicolas Sarkozy is the former French
Investment Initiative conference in president.
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia dubbed as Davos  Lebanon, Syria, and British Indian Ocean
in the desert. Treaty are Asian countries who use
 Saad Hariri is the Lebanon PM took Pound currency.
hostage in Saudi Arabia.  Philippine is country in Asia. Its capital
 Lebanon is the west Asian country. Its is Manila and currency is Peso.
capital is Beirut and Currency Lebanese  Australian embattled PM is Malcolm
Pound. Turnbull.
 Cigarette was made by French man Jean  Asia-Pacific Economic Summit 2017
Nicot who brought us poisoned gift. was hoisted by Danang, Vietnam.
 As recompense Jeaan Nicot was named  Vietnam is Asian country. Its capital is
Lord of Villemen by the Queen. The Hanoi and Currency is Dong. Vietnam is
plant was now officially grown in the among five
Royal garden and was named nicotiana remaining communist countries today
tabacum as a tribute to its discovery. together with China, Laos, Cuba and, to
 Jean Nicot first academician to publish a a large extent, North Korea.
Latin-French dictionary before dying  In ICJ, total number of judges are 15 and
old age in 1604. elected for 9 years. Every three years 5
 Indian judge Dalveer Bhandari will vie judges are elected for a 9 year term to 15-
English judge Sir Christopher bench of the ICJ.
Greenwood for ICJ judge.  Denmark and Kingdom of Finland is the
 Finland and Republic of Finland is the country of Europe. Its
country of Europe. Its Capital Helsinki Capital Copenhagen, Nuuk, Tórshavn
and currency is Euro. and currency is Danish Krone.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
 Argentina, officially the Argentine  Romania is a south-eastern European
Republicis the country in South (Balkan) country, Its capital is Bucharest
America. Its capital is Buenos Aires and and currency is Romanian leu.
currency is Argentine peso, Argentine
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP or ESCAP),
located in the United Nations Building in Rajadamnern Nok Avenue in Bangkok, Thailand,
is one of the five regional commissions of the United Nations Economic and Social Council,
under the administrative direction of the United Nations headquarters. It was established in
1947 (then as the UN Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, ECAFE) to
encourage economic cooperation among its member states. The name was changed to the
current in 1974. ESCAP has 53 member States and nine Associate members, home to more
than two-third of the world population. As well as countries in Asia and the Pacific, it
includes France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States.
ESCAP's regional focus is managing globalization through programs in environmentally
sustainable development, trade, and human rights. ESCAP is headed by Executive
Secretary Shamshad Akhtar of Pakistan. Following her appointment on 3 February 2014 it
was announced that under her leadership, ESCAP will place a greater emphasis on promoting
higher, well-balanced and sustainable regional growth that helps eradicate poverty and
generates jobs to improve prosperity in the region. Formation in 1947. Headquarter Bangkok,
Thailand. Head Executive Secretary of ESCAP Ms. Shamshad Akhter 2014 to present.

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member

economies that promotes free trade throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Its headquarter is in
Singapore. It was established in 1989 in response to the growing interdependence of Asia-
Pacific economies and the advent of regional trade blocs in other parts of the world; to defuse
fears that highly industrialised Japan (a member of G8) would come to dominate economic
activity in the Asia-Pacific region; and to establish new markets for agricultural products and
raw materials beyond Europe.
An annual APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting is attended by the heads of government of all
APEC members except Republic of China (Taiwan) (which is represented by a ministerial-
level official under the name Chinese Taipei as economic leader).[4] The location of the
meeting rotates annually among the member economies, and a famous tradition, followed
for most (but not all) summits, involves the attending leaders dressing in a national
costume of the host country. APEC has three official observers: the Association of Southeast
Asian Nations Secretariat, the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council and the Pacific
Islands Forum Secretariat.[5] APEC's Host Economy of the Year is considered to be invited
in the first place for geographical representation to attend G20 meetings following G20

Dr. Noeleen Heyzer, a social scientist, served as Under-Secretary-General of the United

Nations (2007 - 2015). She was the first woman to serve as the Executive Secretary of
the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
since its founding in 1947. As the Executive Secretary (August 2007-January 2014), she
strengthened ESCAP's capacity and effectiveness to support the countries of the region,
using its convening powers and standard-setting authority, rigorous analysis, technical and

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
policy assistance to build the economic and social foundations for inclusive and sustainable
development. She worked with key political leaders and decision-makers in 54 Member
States to shape regional policy agendas for Asia Pacific’s transition towards sustainable and
shared prosperity, and established regional cooperation mechanisms to address the "new
normal" of volatility, such as the food-fuel-finance crises and climate change. She focused
on harnessing development opportunities through multi-stakeholder alliances and
partnerships to sustain development gains, reduce poverty and inequalities, transforming the
quality of people’s lives.

Shamshad Akhtar Detho PhD (Urdu: ‫ )ڈاکٹر شمشاد اختر‬is a Pakistani development
economist, diplomat and intellectual who serves as the Under-Secretary General of the
United Nations as the head of UNESCAP. Prior to that, she served as the 14th Governor of
the State Bank of Pakistan, the first woman to assume this position. She also served as a
senior adviser to Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon and the vice-
President at the World Bank.

Nov 13, 2017.  Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an

 Deputy speaker of National Assembly international non-governmental
Murtaza Javed Abbasi. organization that conducts research
 Punjab governor Rafique Rajwana. and advocacy on human rights. HRW is
 CPS stands for Crown Prosecution headquartered in New York City. Human
Service. Rights Watch in 1997 shared in
 Chinese foreign ministry spokeswoman the Nobel Peace Prize as a founding
Hua Chunying. member of the International Campaign to
 a trillion is 1,000,000,000,000 so one Ban Landmines, and it played a leading
trillion is one thousand times one role in the 2008 treaty banning cluster
billion. munitions.
 Bhoja Air BH-123 flight from Karachi
to Islamabad, crashed in Hussainabad
area on April.
Vocabulary:  Trivial / petty issues.

Bhoja Air (Urdu: ‫ )بھوجا ائیر‬was a Pakistani airline based in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.
The airline was founded in 1993 and operated a small domestic network of scheduled passenger
flights. Due to financial difficulties, the airline completely suspended operations between 2000
and 2012. After a brief re-launch, and the subsequent crash of Bhoja Air Flight 213 on the day
of the re-launch, Bhoja Air lost its operational license and ceased operations for the final time
in July 2012.
Motiur Rahman Nizami 31 March 1943 – 11 May 2016) was a Bangladeshi
politician, comprador, and the former leader of the Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami. He was the
leader of the anti-Bangladesh militia group Al-Badr during the Bangladesh Liberation War. On
29 October 2014, he was convicted and sentenced to death for war crimes in 1971 liberation
war of Bangladesh by the International Crimes Tribunal of Bangladesh. He was the Member
of Parliament of Pabna constituency from 1991 to 1996 and again from 2001 to 2006. He also
served as the Bangladeshi Minister of Agriculture and Minister of Industry.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
While various political entities and international organizations had originally welcomed the
trials, in November 2011 Human Rights Watch criticized the government for aspects of their
progress, lack of transparency, and reported harassment of defense lawyers and witnesses
representing the accused. Nizami was the last high-profile suspect to be tried for 1971 war
crimes; the court delayed his verdict in June 2014 because of the state of his health.
In 2004, Nizami was convicted under separate charges for arms trafficking to the state
of Assam, India and was sentenced to death, along with 13 other men in January 2014.
He was hanged at Dhaka Central Jail on 11 May 2016. He is the third minister of Bangladesh
to be hanged. He was frequently listed on The 500 Most Influential Muslims.

Nov 17, 2017. Foreign office spokesperson  According to new delimitation seats NA
is Dr. Muhammad Faisal. seats will remain 272. Punjab will lose 9
 Dr. M. Faisal succeeded Nafees Zakria as seats. KPK will get 5, Baluchistan 3 and
spokesperson of foreign office. Federal 1 new seats. There is no effect on
 Pakistan 25th Chief Justice of Pakistan is the Sindh Province.
Mian Saqib Nisar. He succeeded Anwar  US Defence secretary James Mattis will
Zaheer Jamali. visit Pakistan.
 US Central Command Commander  US president unveiled new south Asia
(Centcom) Gen Joseph Votel. policy on August 22, 2017 from Fort
 Joint Chief of Staff Committee is Gen Myer.
Zubair Mehmood Hayyat.  Total Provincial seats of Punjab 371 and
 Director General of ISI is Gen Naveed NA seats
Mukhtar.  FATA seats of NA are 12.
 Minister for Higher Education Syed Ali  Total senate seats are 104 including 23
Raza. from each province.
 Zimbabwe president Robert Mugabe  Zimbabwe is considered the bread basket
sacked her vice president Emmerson of Africa.
Mnangagwa.  Mnangagwa, a former security chief and
 Robert Mugabe ruled through 37 years lifelong Mugabe confident known as
since independence from Britain in 1980 “The Crocodile”, is the key player.
and dubbed as “Grand Old Man” of  Lebanon president is Michel Auon and
African Politics. prime minister is Saad Hariri.
 French foreign minister Jean-Yves Le  French president Emmanuel Macron
Drain and Lebanese FM is Gibran Basil. succeeded by Francois Hollande.
 National News Agency (NNA) is the  African Unity Square is in Zimbabwe.
state-run news agency of Lebanon.  ZTV is the state-run TV of Zimbabwe.
Vocabulary: Per incuriam: through or characterized by
 The Silicon Valley of India is a nickname lack of due regard to the law or the facts.
of the Indian city of Bangalore. It was "the decision was made per incuriam"
named so because Bangalore is on the  Jaipur is also called Pink city of India.
Mysore Plateau, the area is also  Aphrodisiac: that gives people a strong
sometimes referred to as "Silicon desire to have sex. The aphrodisiac
Plateau". qualities of ginseng.
 Manchester of India is Ahmedabad.  Dubbed “Davos in the desert” — a
 Commander James Bond, CMG, RNVR, reference to the annual World Economic
is a fictional character created by the

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
British journalist and novelist Ian Forum in Switzerland — the conference
Fleming in 1953. He is the protagonist is the first of its kind.
(Hero) of the James Bond series of  HALFWAY TO FREEDOM by
novels, films, comics and video games. Margaret Bourke-White
Angola: Republic of Angola, Southern Finland:
African country. Capital is Luanda and
currency is Angolan Kwanza. It was
Portuguese colony. Angola is a member state
of the United Nations, OPEC, African
Marshal Island: It is the country in Oceania. The Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers of Africa.
It is an island country located near Is Rhodesia and Zimbabwe the same?
the equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly From 12 December 1979 to 17 April
west of the International Date Line. Its 1980, Zimbabwe Rhodesia was again the
capital is Majuro and currency is US$. The British colony of Southern Rhodesia. On 18
islands were historically known by the April 1980, Southern Rhodesia became the
inhabitants as "jolet jen Anij" (Gifts from independent Republic of Zimbabwe.
God). Legislature is Nitijela.
Zimbabwe: East African country, Capital city is Harare and currency is Bitcoin. Officially
the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between
the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers. Zimbabwe has 16 official languages
with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. It became the self-
governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. The conservative white minority
government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international
isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace
agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty in April 1980.
Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, which it withdrew from in December
2003. It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became
Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following
the end of white minority rule; he has been the president of Zimbabwe since 1987 in a one-
party rule. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his
government, as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under
house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. Its major sights in which Victoria
falls one of them.

Nicolae Ceaușescu: ( 26 January 1918 – 25 December 1989) was

a Romanian Communist politician. He was general secretary of the Romanian Communist
Party from 1965 to 1989, and hence the second and last Communist leader of Romania. He was
also the country's head of state from 1967, serving as President of the State Council, from 1974
concurrently as President of the Republic, until his overthrow in the Romanian Revolution in
1989. He is resembled with the deposed president of Robert Mugabe. He also reigned 22 years
and communist leader.
The Silicon Valley of India is a nickname of the Indian city of Bangalore . It was named so
because Bangalore is on the Mysore Plateau, the area is also sometimes referred to as "Silicon
Plateau". The name signifies Bangalore's status as a hub for information technology companies
in India and is a comparative reference to the original Silicon Valley (San Francisco Bay
Area, California), the major hub for information technology companies in the United

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
States and in the world. One of the earliest mentions of this sobriquet occurred in late 2012
by CNN. The more prevalent application of the nickname Bangalore began in the 1990s based
on a concentration of firms specializing in research and
development (R&D), electronics and software production.
Kurt Josef Waldheim was an Austrian diplomat and politician. Waldheim was the fourth
Secretary-General of the United Nations from 1972 to 1981, and the ninth President of Austria
from 1986 to 1992. Born: 21 December 1918, Sankt Andrä-Wördern, Austria. Died: 14 June
2007, Vienna, Austria. Nationality: Austrian. Spouse: Elisabeth Waldheim (m. 1944–2007).
Books: The challenge of peace and The Austrian example.
Dr. Nafis Sadik, Indian born diplomate and enovy, currently Special Adviser to the UN
Secretary General with additional responsibilities as Special Envoy for HIV/AIDS in Asia, and
former head of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFP).
UNESCAP: United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific.
Curriculum Vitae of Spokesperson of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Islamabad
Dr. Mohammad Faisal has served in the Foreign Service of Pakistan for more than 22 years.
He has an LLM from University of Warwick, UK and a Masters in WTO Law from Brussels.
He also holds an MBBS from Rawalpindi Medical College. He has diverse experience of both
bilateral and multilateral diplomacy. Over the course of his career, he has been dealing with
matters related to the United Nations, the European Union, SAARC as well as South Asia, both
in Pakistan and abroad. He will continue as Director General (South Asia & SAARC).

Nov 19, 2017.  Turbat tehsil, Grock mountain area and

 Minister of state for religious affairs Pir Kech district are in Baluchistan.
Muhammad Aminul Hasanat Shah.  UNESCO or Unesco stands for United
 Director general of Archaeology Nations Educational, Scientific and
department Punjab is Ch. Muhammad Cultural Organisation. Its headquarter is
Ijaz. in Paris, France.
 Minister of State for Information and  Sirkap is the archaeological sight is in
Broadcasting Marriyum Auranzaib. outside the Gandharan civilisation city
 Universal Children Day is observed on Taxila, Punjab. Unesco declared its
November 20 every year. It is entirely protected in 1980. It is also known as
different from International Children second city of Taxila and was an ancient
Day. metropolis dating back to the 2nd century
 The girl who stood up for education and BC and 2nd century AD.
was shot by Taliban has been authored by  The first excavation of the old city was
Christina Lamb a British journalist on carried out under the super vision of Sir
Malala Yousafzai. John Marshall from 1912 to 1930. Its
 The scientific names of most civilisation is a sign of superb
cultivated bananas are Musa acuminate. craftsmanship.
 TDAP is the trade development authority  IFAD stands for The International Fund
of Pakistan which promotes and deals for Agriculture Development.
export.  EU cuts funding to Turkey in 2018
 The 23rd UN climate talks, 12 days budget. Germany chancellor Angela
negotiations is held in Bonn, Germany. Markel led calls for a cut to the funds
because of following mass-scale arrests

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
 Fiji is disappearing under rising seas is in the country since Failed July 15, 2016
heading the presidency of COP 23 in coup.
Bonn, Germany in this year.  Zimbabwe ruling party is ZANU-PF.
 Since 2015, The 196-nations Paris  Egyptian president is Abdel Fateh Al-
Agreement adopted, enjoins the world tp Sisi.
cap the rise in temperature at well below  The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam
2⁰ C. UN Climate talks known to COP, or is being built on the Blue Nile. It is a first
Climate of Parties since 2015. major Dam on Blue Nile. It is Africa’s
 COP have focused on working out an largest hydroelectric dam. It is a dispute
operational handbook for the treaty, between Egypt and Ethiopia.
which goes into effect in 2020.  The Red Sea resort is Sharm-el-Sheikh,
 Lebanon president Michel Auon and PM city of Egyptian Sinai peninsula.
Saad Hariri.  PLA is stands for Palestine Liberation
 Lebanon Independence Day is Nov 22. Organisation.
 Foreign Office spokesperson is Dr.  Peninsula: an area of land that is almost
Muhammad Faisal. surrounded by water but is joined to a
 Indian Spy, Kulbhshan captured on larger piece of landthe Iberian
March 3, 2015 in Mashkel near the peninsula (= Spain and Portugal).
border region of Chaman, Balochistan.  NAB Chairman is Justice (R) Javed Iqbal
 Mayo Hospital was built in 1871. and Head of Lahore Bureau is Shazad
Vocabulary:  Cheeky.
 Dupe: ‫بنانا بیوقوف‬, ‫ بنانا پاگل‬to trick or cheat  Schism.
somebody dupe somebody. They soon  Perilous: very dangerous.
realized they had been duped. SYNONYM HAZARDOUS. A perilous
Dupe somebody into doing adventure/journey.
something He was duped into giving  Slough off: (formal) to get rid of
them his credit card. something that you no longer want.
 engorge something (specialist) to cause Responsibilities are not sloughed off so
something to become filled with blood or easily.
another liquid and to swell.  Cataclysm. (Catastrophe)
 Serbia is the European country located in
Balkan. Its capital is Belgrade and
currency is Dinar.

The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China. The former seat of Imperial
Chinese Dragon Throne from the Ming dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty—the years
1420 to 1912, it now houses the Palace Museum.

What is pawpaw?
Ans: Asimina triloba, the papaw, pawpaw, paw paw, paw-paw, or common pawpaw, is a small
deciduous tree native to the eastern United States and Canada, producing a large, yellowish-
green to brown fruit. Scientific name: Asimina trilobal.
IFAD: The International Fund for Agricultural Development is an international financial
institution and a specialised agency of the United Nations dedicated to eradicating poverty and
hunger in rural areas of developing countries. The strategic policy of IFAD is detailed in
Strategic Framework for IFAD 2011–2015: Enabling the Rural Poor to Overcome Poverty. Its

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
headquarters is in Rome, Italy, and is a member of the United Nations Development Group.
Head: Gilbert Houngbo, Founded: December 1977, Rome, Italy, Formation: 1977 Parent,
organization: United Nations.
Sharm el-Sheikh is an Egyptian resort town between the desert of the Sinai Peninsula and
the Red Sea. It's known for its sheltered sandy beaches, clear waters and coral reefs. Naama
Bay, with a palm tree-lined promenade, is filled with bars and restaurants. Ras Muhammad
National Park is a major diving destination, with marine life around the Shark and Yolanda
reefs and the Thistlegorm wreck.
Neelum Valley is a 144 km long bow-shaped thick forested region in Azad Kashmir in
Pakistan Administered Kashmir. It is named after the Neelum river, which flows through the
length of the valley.

what is one word for meat of deer?

Ans: Venison. (meat from a deer).

What is confit?
Ans: Duck or other meat cooked slowly and preserved in its own fat. Duck leg confit. Confit
of goose.

What is meant the dead skin castoff by snake?

Ans: "To cast off" (as the skin of a snake or other animal), 1720, originally of diseased tissue,
from Middle English noun slough "shed skin of a snake" (see slough (n.)). Slough; to lose a
layer of dead skin, etc. Slough something a snake sloughing its skin slough something
off Slough off dead skin cells by using a facial scrub.

Nov 20, 2017.  Mukhtar Masood last book is Harf-e-

 Hazara is a region in the North-Eastern Shooq published posthumously.
part of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa  Mukhtar Masood was born in Sialkot on
province of Pakistan. It is located east of Dec 15, 1926. He spent his childhood in
the Indus River and comprises seven Aligarh where his father was professor of
districts: Abbottabad, Battagram, Economics. He graduated from Aligarh
Haripur, Mansehra, Upper Kohistan, University.
Lower Kohistan, and Torghar.  His writings show musings on historical
 Aligarh University has Strachey Hall. It events, reflection on our political culture
was named after Sir John Strachey, who and semi-philosophical ruminations
helped Sir-Syed acquire the piece of land about life. He was bureaucrat by
to build the college on. profession. He died on April 15, 2017.
 US Joint Chief of Staff Chairman Gen  State Minister for Religious Affairs is Pir
Joseph Dunford will visit Pakistan on Aminul Hasant.
November last week.  Religious Affairs Minister Sardar
 US secretary of Defence James Mattis Muhammad Yousaf.
will visit Pakistan on December 3, 2017.  KPK governor is Zafar Iqbal Jhagra.
 The novel “1984” is written by George  NA Deputy speaker Murtaza Javed
Orwell. Abbasi.
 Jazeera TV is Qatar based TV.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
 Objective Resolution was presented on  The Football Cup 2022 will be hosted by
March 7, 1949 by Liaquat Ali Khan and Qatar.
passed on March 12, 1949.  The Football Cup 2018 will be hosted by
 Sinhalese island is located in Sri Lanka. Russia.
The dispute was occurred between  Egypt foreign minister is Sameh Shoukry
Muslim minority and Sinhalese’s and his Saudi counterpart is Adel al-
minority. Jubeir.
 Zimbabwe president Robert Mugabe was  Brazil, officially the Federative
sacked and Emmerson Mnangagwa Republic of Brazil, is the country in East
became head of ruling party. of South America. Its capital is Brasilia
 Somalia, officially Federal Republic of and currency is Real. It is the largest
Somalia is the country in East Africa. Its country of south America by area and by
capital is Mogadishu and currency is population is also.
shilling.  Croatia is the European country in
 Bosnia and Herzegovina is the European Balkan Territory. Its capital is Zagreb
country located in Balkan territory. Its and currency is Kuna.
capital is Sarajevo and currency is Mark.

Brazil is the largest country in South America by area and population also, encompassing
around half of the continent's land area and population. The remaining countries and
territories are divided among three regions: The Andean States, the Guianas and the Southern
Amir Khusrow is the first Urdu language poet. He was the first one to write a 'Ghazal' in urdu.
Ab'ul Hasan Yamīn al-Dīn Khusrow (1253-1325 CE), better known as Amīr Khusrow (or
Khusrau) Dehlawī , was an Indian musician, scholar and poet of Persian descent.
UN Nobel Prize: The will Alfred Nobel made in 1895 was inspired by belief in the
community of man. The Peace Prize was to be awarded to the person who had done most
for "fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for
the holding and promotion of peace congresses". In 70 years, the United Nations, its
specialised agencies, related agencies, funds, programmes and staff were awarded the
prestigious Nobel Peace Prize eleven times. One agency, the United Nations High
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) received the famous prize in both 1954 and 1981.
Two Secretaries-General, Kofi Annan and Dag Hammarskjöld, were also honoured for
their work by the Norwegian Nobel Committee. After being awarded the prize jointly with the
world body, Secretary-General Kofi Annan in 2001 told UN staff he hoped that winning the
prize "will urge us forward and encourage all of us to tackle our tasks with even greater

"For one hundred years, the Norwegian Nobel Committee has sought to strengthen organized
cooperation between states. The end of the cold war has at last made it possible for the U.N. to
perform more fully the part it was originally intended to play. Today the organization is at the
forefront of efforts to achieve peace and security in the world, and of the international
mobilization aimed at meeting the world's economic, social and environmental
challenges....[The] Norwegian Nobel Committee wishes in its centenary year to proclaim that
the only negotiable route to global peace and cooperation goes by way of the United Nations."

Scandinavia (NDS) is a historical and cultural region in Northern Europe characterized by a

common ethnocultural North Germanic heritage and mutually intelligible North Germanic

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
languages. In English usage, Scandinavia sometimes refers to the area known as
the Scandinavian Peninsula. The term Scandinavia always includes the
three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.

1- Kingdom of Denmark capital is Copenhagen and currency is Danish Krone.

2- Kingdom of Norway capital is Oslo and currency is Norwegian Krone.
3- Kingdom of Sweden capital is Stockholm and currency is Swedish Krone.

The Provisional Constitutional Order (popularly term as PCO), is an emergency and

extra-constitutional order that suspends either wholly or partially the Constitution of
Pakistan— the supreme law of land. The PCO fulfils and act as the temporary order while the
actual constitution is held in abeyance or suspension.

Pearls of Wisdom: It is not life that matters, but the courage, fortitude and determination
you bring to it. M. A. Jinnah.
Nov 21, 2017.  Lisbon is the capital of Portugal. Its
 During the year 2017, economic growth currency is Euro.
of the country is 5.28 %. It will touch at  Philippines’ capital is Manila and
the rate of 6% in 2018. currency is Peso.
 Second LNG plant was inaugurated at  Asian Development Bank headquarter is
Port Qasim, Karachi by PM Abbasi. located in Manila, Mandaluyong,
 Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank Philippines. Its members are 67
head quarter in Beijing, China. It serves countries. It was founded on December
the region of Asia and Oceania. Total 19, 1966. Its region is Asia Pacific. Its
members are 58 and founded on Jan 16, president is Takehiko Nakao, Japanese
2016. Its president is Jin Liqun, is civil servant.
a Chinese politician, banker, and  LNG stands for Liquified Natural Gas.
professor.  Pakistan Air Force (PAF) and People’s
 A pod of Killers Whales known as Orca Liberation Army Ari Force (PLAAF)
and scientifically called Orcinus Orca China took part in air show at Samungli
found in Churna island near Karachi. The PAF Base, Quetta, Pakistan.
killer Whale as the most powerful  France capital is Paris and currency is
predator on earth. It is unique flora and Euro.
fauna found in Pakistan’s aquatic life.  Paris attacks were a series of coordinated
 Balochistan governor Muhammad Khan terrorist attacks by ISIS that occurred on
Achakzai and CM Saana Ullah Zehri. Friday 13 November 2015 in Paris,
 Air Marshall Chief is Sohail Amman. France.
 Chief of Army Staff Gen Qamar Javed  Pakistan ambassador to France is Moin-
Bajwa. ul-Haq.
 Chief of Joint Staff Committee is Gen  Germany is the European country. Its
Zubair Mehmood Hayyat. capital is Berlin and currency is Euro. It
 Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Zafar is the biggest economy of Europe and
Mehmood Abbasi. also Europe Union and second is UK.
 Belgium capital Brussels and currency is  Germany chancellor Angela Markel has
Euro. served 12 years and starts her new four
 Stassi was the East German secret police year term. Leaders often called her
formed in Feb 8, 1950. world’s most powerful woman.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
 Russian president Vladimir Putin was  Brexit means British exit from European
former officer of KGB (Russian secret Union (EU). It will leave in 2019. Its
agency) during fall of Berlin wall 1989. referendum was held on June 23, 2016 in
 Reuter (Oct 1851) and BBC are the news UK.
agency of Britain. BBC nick name is  EU members are 28 members. It was
aunty, it was founded October 18, 1922 founded on November 1, 1993,
in UK. Maastricht, Netherland. Its headquarter
 UN was founded on October 24, 1945 in Brussels, Belgium.
San Francisco, USA. Its headquarter is In  NATO is armament alliance or military
New York. pact of 29 countries, stands for North
 Afghanistan capital is Kabul and Atlantic Treaty Organisation was
currency is Afghani. founded on April 4, 1949 in Washington
 Uighur (Uyghur) is the Chinese’s DC (America’s Capital). Its headquarter
Muslim dominated region. is Brussels, Belgium. Montenegro
 Kenya is African country and lies on becomes a latest member of NATO on
equator (Where days and nights are equal June 5, 2017.
whole of the year). Its capital is Nairobi  Russia formed Warsaw pact in contrary
and currency is Shilling. Its newly to NATO.
elected president is Uhuru Kenyatta,  Syria is the middle east country located
opposition leader Raila Odinga and Chief in Asia. Its capital is Damascus and
Justice David Maraga. currency is Pound.
 Zimbabwe has two houses of legislator.  Zimbabwe president 93-years Robert
 North Korea officially Democratic Mugabe was sacked after his 37 years
Republic of Korea. Its capital is rule. His wife Grace Mugabe 52-years
Pyongyang and currency won. old was also prime position to succeed
 Awais Ahmed Khan Laghari is Federal him but 75-years old Emmerson
Minister for energy. Mnangagwa, who was sacked by Robert
 November 20th is World Children Day. Mugabe. He was in prime position.
  Montenegro: Its capital is Podgorica and
currency is Euro. Montenegro means
“Black Mountain".
 Its capital and largest city is Podgorica,
while Cetinje is designated as the Old
Royal Capital (prijestonica)

Nov 22, 2017.  LTP 17-30 stands for Long Term Plan
 JCC stands Joint Cooperation 2017 to 2030.
Committee.  7th JCC meeting was held in Islamabad
 JWG stands for Joint Working Group. on November 22, 2017.
 Pakistan’s Interior Minister Ahsan Iqbal  6th JCC meeting held in December 2016
and Chinese and Wang Xiaotao attended in Beijing.
7th JCC meeting.  Mr. Iqbal is a Pakistan’s focal person on
 Privatisation Minister is Danyal Aziz. CPEC.
 Sehwen Sharif blast was occurred Feb  Shehzad Roy, is a Pakistani singer is
16, 2017. appointed as Good Will ambassador of
 NFC stands National Finance United Nations Office on Drugs and
Commission. It is awarded within five Crimes (UNODC) for two years.
years.  Uzbekistan’s capital is Tashkent.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
 Former Chairman of Human Rights  Unesco headquarter is in Paris, France.
Commission of Pakistan (HRCP) is I. A.  NAB chairman is Justice Javed Iqbal Rtd.
Rehman.  Leader of the opposition is Justice Javed
 CPEC stands for China Pakistan Iqbal.
Economic Corridor. Under 6th JCC  KCR stands for Karachi Circular
meeting decided to establish 9 economic Railway. Its original feasibility designed
zones. by Japanese firm.
 Pakistan’s ambassador to UN is Maleah  Diamir-Bhasha Dam is being built in
Lodhi. Pakistan’s ambassador to USA is Gilgat-Baltistan. Its generating capacity
Aizaz Ch. is 3,500 MW.
 AGPR stands for Accountant General of

Nov 23, 2017.  Lacoste is the clothing company based

 Mr. Mushahid Ullah Khan is the Federal in France.
Minister for climate change.  Mr. Dar who was finance minister, was
 Special Assisstant to the PM on removed from portfolio. PM Abbasi will
Economic Affairs Miftah Ismail. look after the affairs of his ministry.
 Special Assistant to PM on Revenue is  Shaukat Tareen was finance minister
Haroon Akhtar Khan. during PPP last government.
 Pakistan’s first finance minister is Malik  Dr. Ishrat Hussain was the governor of
Ghulam Muhammad, second was Ch. M. State Bank of Pakistan during military
Ali and third was Syed Amjad Ali. rule 1999 to 2000.
 UNDP stands for United Nations  US Defence Secretary is James Mattis.
Development Programme. Its country  US Military chief is Gen Joseph Dunford.
director is Ignacio Artaza.  John Nicolson, who commands both US
 Japanese ambassador to Pakistan is and NATO forces in Afghanistan.
Takashi Kurai.  The chief spokesman for Pakistan’s
 Durand line is the Pakistan’s western military / DG ISPR is Maj Gen Asif
border adjacent with Afghanistan. Its Ghafoor.
length is 2252 km long. It was  PM Abbasi inaugurated the East Bay
demarcated in 1893 between Sir Expressway in Gwadar. Its cost is Rs. 17
Moritime Durnad and King Abdur billion and 19.5 km long. It will link
Rehman. Gwadar with Makran Coastal Highway.
 Mr. M. Parveez Malik is the federal  Air Marshal chief Sohail Amman visited
minister of Commerce and Textile. Royal College of Defence Studies. UK.
 Minister for Inter Provincial  Article # 189 of the constitution of
Coordination Riaz Pirzada. Pakistan deals Decisions of Supreme
 Tajikistan capital is Dushanbe and Court binding on other Courts.
currency is Somoni.  IGP, KPK is Salahuddin Mehsud.
 Death of Osama bin Laden, Warfare.  PTI stands for Press Trust of India and
Osama bin Laden, the founder and head UPI stands for United Press of India.
of the Islamist group Al-Qaeda, was These are the press agencies of India.
killed in Pakistan on May 2, 2011 shortly  Nepal; officially federal Democratic
after 1:00 am PKT by United States Navy Republic of Nepal. It’s a landlocked
Himalayan, South Asian country. Its

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
SEALs of the U.S. Naval Special capital is Kathmandu (means wood
Warfare Development Group. temple) and currency is rupee. It is only
 Uber is the online Taxi and ridding Hindu state in the world.
acquiring app. It is a brand of San  The largest landlocked is Kazakhstan. Its
Francisco, USA. no border-access to the open ocean
 Zimbabwe; officially Republic of is Kazakhstan,
Zimbabwe is the south African  On Nov 15, 2017. Zimbabwe army coup
landlocked country. Its motto is “unity, de etate and under house arrest in his
Freedom and work”. Its capital is Harare president Robert Mugabe in his palace
and currency is Dollar. It has 16 official “Blue Roof”, he ruled 37 years since its
languages. Shona and Ndebele are ethnic independent from Britain. Zimbabwe’s
groups. head of armed forces Constantino
 Emmerson Managagwa, newly elected Chiwenga.
president of Zimbabwe nick name is
 Mugabe wife Grace Mugabe want to
Crocodile. His supporters are called The
Lacoste faction. become president after him. Mugabe
 Lacoste is the clothing company French sacked his vice president Emmerson
based his monogram resembled with Managagwa. He becomes president on
crocodile. November 24, after Mugabe resigned on
 Guinean president and currently head of November 21, 2017.
the African Union (AU) Alpha Conde.  Zimbabwe Defence forces spokesman
 Guinea; officially is the Republic of Maj Gen Sibusiso.
Guinea. It’s the west African country. Its  Zimbabwe’s speaker of the Parliament is
capital is Conakry and currency is Franc. Jacob Mudenda.
Formerly known as French  South African president Jacob Zuma.
Guinea (French: Guinée française), the  November 22, is the World Toilet Day.
modern country is sometimes referred to  RLNG is Regasified Liquified Natural
as Guinea-Conakry. Gas.
 Presidency of the United Nations General  Presidency of the United Nations
Assembly rotates every year. Security Council rotates every month.

Vocabulary:  The Round Table: The circular table at

 Round-Table (Adj) (of discussions, which the Knights of the Round
meetings, etc.) at which everyone is Table sat. Its shape meant that none of
equal and has the same rights. Round- the knights appeared to be more
table talks. important than any of the others.
 He accounted for every penny.  Esprit de corps: (n) French; A feeling
 Homicide: The crime of killing of pride and mutual loyalty shared by the
somebody deliberately. members of a group. "they developed
SYNONYM MURDER. The jury reached a some esprit de corps through athletics
verdict of justifiable homicide. He has competitions".
been arrested on homicide and assault
 Culpable Homicide: in some countries,
the crime of killing somebody illegally
but not deliberately

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
Most Zimbabweans Christians are Protestants. The Protestant Christian churches with large
membership are Anglican (represented by the Church of the Province of Central Africa),
Seventh-day Adventist and Methodist. There are about one million Roman Catholics in the
country (about 7% of the total population).
By percentage, Nepal has the largest majority of Hindu population in the world followed
by India and Mauritius. There are an estimated 60 to 70 million Hindus who lived
outside India in 2010. Only three countries in the world, in 2010, had a majority of its
population as Hindus - Nepal, India, and Mauritius.
The United States Agency for International Development is the United States Government
agency which is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid. headquarters in
Washington, D.C., United States. Its founder John F. Kennedy. Founded in November 3, 1961.
Motto: "From the American people"
The Naxalite–Maoist insurgency is an ongoing conflict between Maoist groups, known as
Naxalites or Naxals, and the Indian government. The conflict in its present form began after
the 2004 formation of the CPI (Maoist), a rebel group composed of the PWG (People's War
Group) and the MCC (Maoist Communist Centre). In January 2005 talks between the Andhra
Pradesh state government and the CPI-Maoists broke down and the rebels accused authorities
of not addressing their demands for a written truce, release of prisoners and redistribution of
World map showing all the countries with political boundaries. ... World maps are
essentially physical or political. The political world map shows different territorial borders
of countries, while the physical world map displays geographical feature like mountains, land
use, water bodies, vegetations, soil type etc.
The Organisation of African Unity: was established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa, with
32 signatory governments. It was disbanded on 9 July 2002 by its last chairperson, South
African President Thabo Mbeki, and replaced by the African Union (AU).
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on
the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt. It was
established on 26 May 2001 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and launched on 9 July 2002 in South
Africa, with the aim of replacing the Organisation of African Unity (OAU). The most important
decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union, a semi-annual meeting
of the heads of state and government of its member states. The AU's secretariat, the African
Union Commission, is based in Addis Ababa.
The odd man/one out: A person or thing that is different from others or does not fit easily
into a group or set. At school he was always the odd man out. Dog, cat, horse, shoe—which
is the odd one out?

Keep your eyes on the stars and your feet on the ground. By: Theodore Roosevelt.
Nov 24, 2017.  Hafiz Abdul Karim is the Federal
 Engineer Khurram Dastgir is the Federal Minister for Commerce.
Minister for Defence.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
 Pakistan’s lies in the North of Tropic of  The Academy Awards, also known as the
Cancer. Oscars, is a set of 24 awards for artistic
 Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was Commerce and technical merit in the American film
minister before becoming a Foreign industry, given annually by the Academy
minister. of Motion Picture Arts and Science.
 NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION Ceremony date is March 2018 and
(NFC) is a constitutional body presented by: Academy of Motion
constituted under Article 160 of the Picture Arts and Sciences. Country is
Constitution of the Islamic Republic of United States of America first
Pakistan, 1973. awarded: May 16, 1929; 88 years ago.
 Human Rights Commission of Pakistan  Tashkent is the capital Uzbekistan.
is chairperson is Dr. Mehdi Hasan, Co-  UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador is
chairperson: Uzma Noorani. Priyanka Chopra.
 Pakistan Press International (PPI) is a  Attorney General of Pakistan is Ashter
news agency founded in June 1956 as Ausaf.
Pakistan Press Association (PPA).  Article # of the constitution demands that
 Lal Masid (Red Mosque) operation was loyalty to the state and obedience to the
launched July 3-11, 2007. constitution.
 Dr. Muhammad Faisal is the  The UK has voted on June 23, 2016 to
spokesperson of Foreign office of leave the European Union termed as
Pakistan. He succeded Nafees Zakria. Brexit. It is scheduled to depart at 11pm
 Mr. Akram Durani is the Federal UK time on Friday 29 March 2019.
Minister of Housing and Works.  Muhammad Balig-ur-Rehamn is Federal
 ECP decides to observe 7th Decmber as Minister for Education and Professional
National Voters Day to create awareness Traning.
and highlight importance of right to  NCA stands for Natioanl Crime Agency.
franchise. It is the UK’s premier anti-corruption
 Magla Dam was inaugurated in 1967. agency.
 Rwanda is the East African country. Its  Cambodia’s capital is Phnom Pehn. Its
capital is Kigali currency is Franc. currency Rial. Its Pm is Hun Sen. Its
 Saint Helena is the British overseas opposition party is Cambodia National
territory. It is located in the middle of Rescue Party (CNRP). Opposition chief
South Atlantic Ocean. Napoleon is Sam Rainsy.
Bonaparte was emperor of France. He  Garner means accumulate and gather.
was exiled in this island. He was sent in  Chain and slave is the story of the slavery
1815 after defeat his last battle “Battle of in the world.
Waterloo, Belgium” in 1815. He died in  Mumbai attack was occurred on
1821. November 26, 2008.
 Britain abolished slavery in 1807.  Myanmar civilian leader Aung San Suu
 Spain capital is Madrid. Its ousted and Bangladesh’s foreign minister A. H.
Catalan leader Carles Puigdemont. Mahmood Ali.
 Zimbabwe president Robert Mugabe  Sri Lanka’s capital is Colombo. Its PM
resigned on November 21, 2017 and his Wickreme Sihghe.
Vice-president Emmerson Mnangagwa  Djiboutian president is Ismail Omar
takes oath as president on November 24, Guelleh.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
 Magnanimous: (Adj) Kind, generous Time after time, time and (time) again
and forgiving, especially towards an  often; on many or all occasions. You will
enemy or a rivals. A magnanimous get a perfect result time after time if you
gesture. He was magnanimous in defeat follow these instructions.
and praised his opponent's skill.  Suffrage (n) the right to vote in political
elections. Universal suffrage (= the right
of all adults to vote)women’s suffrage

The European Parliament (EP) was formed in September 10, 1952. Its headquarter is in
Brussels, Belgium. EP is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union
(EU). Together with the Council of the European Union (the Council) and the European
Commission, it exercises the legislative function of the EU. The Parliament is composed of
751 members, who represent the second-largest democratic electorate in the world (after
the Parliament of India) and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world
(375 million eligible voters in 2009).
It has been directly elected every five years by universal suffrage since 1979. However, voter
turnout at European Parliament elections has fallen consecutively at each election since that
date, and has been under 50% since 1999. Voter turnout in 2014 stood at 42.54% of all
European voters.
Although the European Parliament has legislative power that the Council and Commission do
not possess, it does not formally possess legislative initiative, as most national parliaments of
European Union member states do. The Parliament is the "first institution" of the EU
(mentioned first in the treaties, having ceremonial precedence over all authority at European
level), and shares equal legislative and budgetary powers with the Council (except in a few
areas where the special legislative procedures apply). It likewise has equal control over the EU
budget. Finally, the European Commission, the executive body of the EU, is accountable to
Parliament. In particular, Parliament elects the President of the Commission, and approves (or
rejects) the appointment of the Commission as a whole. It can subsequently force the
Commission as a body to resign by adopting a motion of censure.
The President of the European Parliament (Parliament's speaker) is Antonio Tajani (EPP),
elected in January 2017. He presides over a multi-party chamber, the two largest groups being
the Group of the European People's Party (EPP) and the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and
Democrats (S&D). The last union-wide elections were the 2014 elections.
The European Parliament has three places of work – Brussels (Belgium), the city of
Luxembourg (Luxembourg) and Strasbourg (France). Luxembourg is home to the
administrative offices (the "General Secretariat"). Meetings of the whole Parliament ("plenary
sessions") take place in Strasbourg and in Brussels. Committee meetings are held in Brussels.
The Council of Europe was formed in May 5, 1949 in UK. Its headquarter Strasbourg, France.
It is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy, rule
of law in Europe and promote European culture. Founded in 1949, it has 47 member states,
covers approximately 820 million people and operates with an annual budget of approximately
half a billion euros.
The organisation is distinct from the 28-nation European Union (EU), although it is sometimes
confused with it, partly because the EU has adopted the original European Flag which was
created by the Council of Europe in 1955, as well as the European Anthem. No country has

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
ever joined the EU without first belonging to the Council of Europe. The Council of Europe is
an official United Nations Observer.
Unlike the EU, the Council of Europe cannot make binding laws, but it does have the power to
enforce select international agreements reached by European states on various topics. The best
known body of the Council of Europe is the European Court of Human Rights, which enforces
the European Convention on Human Rights.
The Council's two statutory bodies are the Committee of Ministers, comprising the foreign
ministers of each member state, and the Parliamentary Assembly, composed of members of the
national parliaments of each member state. The Commissioner for Human Rights is an
independent institution within the Council of Europe, mandated to promote awareness of and
respect for human rights in the member states. The Secretary General heads the secretariat of
the organisation. Other major CoE bodies include the European Directorate for the Quality of
The headquarters of the Council of Europe are in Strasbourg, France. English and French are
its two official languages. The Committee of Ministers, the Parliamentary Assembly and
the Congress also use German, Italian, Russian, and Turkish for some of their work.

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is a regional intergovernmental organisation

comprising ten Southeast Asian states which promotes Pan-Asianism and intergovernmental
cooperation and facilitates. Headquarters is Jakarta, Indonesia. It was founded: 8 August 1967.
Its members are 10 in which Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia,(Muslim) Malaysia,
(Muslim) Philippines, Singapore, Myanmar (Burma), Cambodia, Laos, Brunei (Muslim).
There are three Muslim countries are member of ASEAN.

The European Commission is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing
legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day
business of the EU. Its headquarters: Brussels, Belgium and founded: 16 January 1958.
Tropic of Cancer is a novel by Henry Miller (American Writer) that has been described
as "notorious for its candid sexuality" and as responsible for the "free speech that we now
take for granted in literature". Originally published in 1934.
There are 14 monarchies present in Asia named as Kingdom of Bahrain, Bhutan, Brunei
Darussalam, Kingdom of Cambodia, Japan, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, State of Kuwait,
Malaysia, Sultanate of Oman, State of Qatar, kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of Thailand,
United Arab Emirates.
Diamer-Bhasha Dam is a gravity dam, in the preliminary stages of construction, on the River
Indus in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. Its foundation stone was laid by Prime Minister Yusuf Raza
Gilani of Pakistan on 18 October 2011, Majority funding being provided by Aga Khan
Development Network. Upon completion, Diamer-Bhasha Dam would be the highest roller-
compacted concrete (RCC) dam in the world. The dam site is situated near a place called
"Bhasha" in Gilgit-Baltistan's Diamer District, hence the name.
NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION (NFC) is a constitutional body constituted under
Article 160 of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973. The Order of the
President in the light of the recommendations made by the NFC is known as NFC Award.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
NFC shall be comprised of Federal Finance Minister, Provincial Finance Ministers, and other
persons appointed by the President in consultation with the Governors of provinces.

The functions of the NFC are: (a) The distribution of tax proceeds b/w the Federation and the
provinces; (b) the making of grants in aid by the Federation to the Provincial govts; (c) the
exercise of borrowing powers of the Federation and the provinces; (d) any matter pertaining to
finance referred by President.

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime is a United Nations office that was
established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the
United Nations International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and the Crime Prevention and
Criminal Justice Division in the United Nations Office at Vienna. It is a member of the United
Nations Development Group and was renamed the United Nations Office on Drugs and
Crime in 2002.
The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (Urdu: ‫)تنظیم حقوق انسانی پاکستان‬, or HRCP, is an
independent, non-profit organisation, founded in 1987, which is not associated or affiliated
with the government or any political party. It is committed to act with impartiality and
objectivity in all matters. Among its main aims are spreading awareness of human rights among
the people, mobilising public opinion, collecting information and disseminating knowledge
about human rights abuses, and to monitor and defend human rights in Pakistan.
Human Rights Commission of Pakistan is chairperson is Dr. Mehdi Hasan, Co-
chairperson: Uzma Noorani.
The doctrine of necessity is the basis on which extra-legal actions by state actors, which are
designed to restore order, are found to be constitutional. The maxim on which the doctrine is
based originated in the writings of the medieval jurist Henry de Bracton, and similar
justifications for this kind of extra-legal action have been advanced by more recent legal
authorities, including William Blackstone. In modern times, the doctrine was first used in a
controversial 1954 judgment in which Pakistani Chief Justice Muhammad Munir validated the
extra-constitutional use of emergency powers by Governor General, Ghulam Mohammad. In
his judgment, the Chief Justice cited Bracton's maxim, 'that which is otherwise not lawful is
made lawful by necessity', thereby providing the label that would come to be attached to the
judgment and the doctrine that it was establishing.
Genghis Khan: Mongolian warrior and ruler Genghis Khan created the largest empire in the
world, the Mongol Empire, by destroying individual tribes in Northeast Asia.

QUOTES “I am the flail of God. If you had not committed great sins, God would not have sent
a punishment like me upon you.”—Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan was born "Temujin" in Mongolia around 1162. He married at age 16, but had
many wives during his lifetime. At 20, he began building a large army with the intent to destroy
individual tribes in Northeast Asia and unite them under his rule. He was successful; the
Mongol Empire was the largest empire in the world before the British Empire, and lasted well
after his own death in 1227.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
Nov 25, 2017. International Day for the  Islamic Republic of Pakistan - The name
Elimination of Violence against Women is of the country was adopted as the
marked on November 25 every year and Islamic Republic of Pakistan in first
lasted 16 days till December 10. constitution 1956.
 Every year December 10 is  After nine years of efforts, Pakistan was
commemorated International Day for successful in framing a constitution. The
Human Rights. It has been celebrated Constituent Assembly adopted it on 29
after passing UN International Human February 1956, and it was enforced on 23
Rights Declaration on December 10, March 1956, proclaiming Pakistan to be
1948. an Islamic republic.
 MENA stands for Middle East News  Lal Masijd means Red Mosque operation
Agency. It is Egypt’s state owned was held on July 3-11, 2007.
agency.  There are four countries in the world
 SPA is Saudi Press Agency. which are Islamic Republic. In which
 SANA is the Syrian press agency. first Islamic Republic is Pakistan in 1956,
 AFP stands for Agence France-Presse. It second is Islamic Republic of
was founded in 1835, Paris, France. Mauritania on November 28, 1960, third
 Ukraine is the country of Europe. Its is Islamic Republic of Iran on April 1,
capital is Kiev and currency is Hryvnia. 1979 and fourth and lastly Islamic
 Associated Press of Pakistan (APP) is a Republic of Afghanistan on December
government-operated national news 07, 2004.
agency of Pakistan.  Mali is the west African country. Its
 APS Stands for Associated Press capital is Bamako and currency is CFA
Services of Pakistan. franc.
 Asian Development Bank formation was  Mauritania is the west African country.
conducted on November 24, 1966 and Its capital is Nouakchott and currency is
founded December 19, 1966. Its Mauritanian ouguiya.
headquarter is Manila, Philippines.  Mauritius is the Island country in East
 Chad is the central African and third Africa. Its capital is Port Louis and
largest landlocked country. Iyts capital is currency is Rupee.
N’Djamena and currency is CFA franc.  Flickr is an image- and video-hosting
 Mongolia is the second largest USA based website and web services
landlocked country in the world. suite that was created by Ludicorp in
 Nigeria is the Country in West Africa. Its 2004 and acquired by Yahoo on 20
Capital is Abuja and Currency March 2005. Its founder is Vancouver,
is Nigerian Naira. British Columbia, Canada, 2004. Its
 Senegal is the country in West Africa. Its headquarter in San Francisco, USA.
capital is Dakar and currency is CFA  Prima facie means at first sight.
Franc.  Prima ballerina means the main woman
 Rawada mosque is located in Egypt. It dancer in a ballet company.
was attacked by ISIS. This mosque is  Prima donna (disapproving) a person
believed to have been built near the who thinks they are very important
birthplace of Shaikh Eid al Jariri, a sufi because they are good at something, and
considered the founder of Sufiism in who behaves badly when they do not get
Sinai Peninsula. what they want.
 Egypt president is Abdel Fattah al Sisi.  IMCTC stands for Islamic Military
 Britain foreign minister Boris Johan. Counter Terrorism Coaliation formal
inaugural ceremony was held on

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
 French foreign minister Jean-Yves Le November 26, 2017. Its first commander
Drain. is Pakistan’s former army chief Gen
 Federal Minister for Ports and Shipping Raheel Sharif. This IMCTC initiative
Mir Hasil Khan Bizenjo. was taken by Saudi Price in December
 Senate chairman Raza Rabbani. 2015. Initially only 34 nations was a part
 CPEC initial cost was $46 billion but it of alliance now 41 Muslim countries are
was increased to $56 billion. its member.
 Squalor means dirty and unpleasant  Pakistan Electronic Crimes Act passed in
condition. 2016.
 Army Public School Attack or APS  There are 352 political parties are
attack tragedy occurred on December 16, registered in the Manuel of Election
2014. Commission of Pakistan.
 There are three intelligence agencies of  All Parties Hurriyat Conference was set
Pakistan; Intelligence Bureau (IB), up on July 31, 1993.
Military Intelligence (MI) and Inter  Rabi is the winter crops and Kharif is the
Service Intelligence. In which IB is summer crops.
oldest and founded in August 17, 1947 by  SBP interest rate is 5.75%.
PM of Pakistan.  Model Town Inquiry report is also called
Justice Najafi Report.
Vocabulary:  Panic stations: (British
 Flippant (Adj): Showing that you do not English, informal) a situation in which
take something as seriously as other people feel anxious and there is a lot of
people think you should. A flippant confused activity, especially because
answer/attitude. Sorry, I didn't mean to there is a lot to do in a short period of
sound flippant. You can’t afford to be time. It was panic stations when the
flippant about such matters. deadline was brought forward by a week.
 Despicable attack / barbaric attack.  Congregant: (n) A member of a church
 Despicable (Adj) Very unpleasant or or synagogue. The pastor delivered
evil. A despicable act/crime. I hate you! simple sermons that spoke to
You're despicable. congregants' everyday lives.
 Disparate: (Adj) Made up of parts or  Synagogue: (n): a building where Jews
people that are very different from each meet for religious worship and teaching.
other. A disparate group of individuals. They went to synagogue every Saturday.
(of two or more things) so different from  Desperado (n) a man who does
each other that they cannot be compared dangerous and criminal things without
or cannot work together. A critical study caring about himself or other people
that aims to cover such disparate forms  Desperate (Adj) feeling or showing that
as Anglo-Saxon poetry and the modern you have little hope and are ready to do
novel. anything without worrying about danger
to yourself or others. The prisoners grew
increasingly desperate. Stores are
getting desperate after two years of poor

The Islamic Military Alliance (IMA), officially the Islamic Military Alliance to Fight
Terrorism (IMAFT) (Arabic: ‫)التحالف اإلسالمي العسكري لمحاربة اإلرهاب‬, alternative
translation Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition, is an intergovernmental counter-
terrorist alliance of countries in the Muslim world, united around military intervention against

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
ISIL and other counter-terrorist activities. Its creation was first announced by Mohammad bin
Salman Al Saud, Saudi Arabia's Minister of Defense, on 15 December 2015. The alliance was
to have a joint operations center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
When the coalition was announced there were 34 members. Additional countries joined and
the number of members reached 41 when Oman joined in December 2016. On 6 January 2017,
Pakistan's former Chief of Army Staff, General (Retd.) Raheel Sharif was named the IMA's
first Commander-in-Chief. Its first inaugural ceremony was held in November 26, 2017.
Associated Press of Pakistan (APP) is a government-operated national news
agency of Pakistan. The name APP should not to be confused with Associated Press
Service (APS) is a private independent Pakistani news agency and other the much
larger Associated Press news agency (AP), based in New York, though it is a subscriber to both
AP and Reuters, based in London. APP has News Exchange Agreements with 37 Foreign News
Agencies and more than 500 correspondents.
Summer Crops or Kharif crops or monsoon crops are domesticated plants that are cultivated
and harvested in South Asia during the rainy season, which lasts from April to October
depending on the area.
Winter crops or Rabi crops or Rabi harvest are agricultural crops sown in winter and
harvested in the spring in the South Asia. ... A good rain in winter spoils the Rabi crops but is
good for kharif crops. The major Rabi crop in India is wheat, followed by barley, mustard,
sesame and peas.
The International Criminal Police Organization (French: Organisation internationale de
police criminelle; ICPO-INTERPOL), more commonly known as Interpol, is
an international organization facilitating international police cooperation. It was established as
the International Criminal Police Commission(ICPC) in September 7, 1923; it chose
INTERPOL as its telegraphic address in 1946, and made it its common name in 1956. Its
headquarter in Lyon, France. It has 192 members.
Nov 26,2017.  Federal Minister of Kashmir Affairs
 Article # 245 states that The Armed Barjees Tahir.
Forces shall, under the directions of the  Pemra stands for Pakistan Electronic
Federal Government, aid of civil power Media Authority. It was founded in
when called upon. March 1, 2002.
 Angelina Jolie’s Oscar wining movie is  PTA stands for Pakistan
First They Killed My Father. Telecommunication Authority. It was
 Muhammad Ali Heavy weight Champion founded in 1996.
boycotted the World Olympics 1964 was  Olympics 1972 was held in Munich, west
held in Tokyo, Japan. He won the Germany termed as Bloody Olympics
championship in Rome Olympics 1960. because of some Israeli players were
 On November 15, Zimbabwe army took targeted.
seize control of government under the  Lesbos is the Island of Greek.
operation named “Operation Restore  ANA is the Athens News Agency of
Legacy”. Army took plea as maintain the Greece.
security of president Robert Mugabe.  Argentina president is Mauricio Macri.
 Taiwan director Yang Ya-che’s The  Maharaja Ranjeet Singh captured Lahore
Bold, The Corrupt, and the Beautiful on July 7th, 1799.

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“An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.” —Winston Churchill
domainted the Golden Horse award,
dubbed as Chinese “Oscar”.
Vocabulary:  The First Anglo-Sikh War was fought
 Ergonomics (n) the study of working between the Sikh Empire and the East
conditions, especially the design of India Company between 1845 and 1846.
equipment and furniture, in order to help It resulted in partial subjugation of the
people work more efficiently. There is a Sikh kingdom.
need for formal ergonomics in any design  National opprobrium:
where the designer himself is not an  Full of beans/life: (of a person) having a
experienced user. lot of energy.

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