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Semester Project on

Data Analysis, Interpretation and Presentation:


West Shewa, Oromia, Ethiopia

Presentation Techniques in Urban Design (URPD 6321)

Author: Oliyad Mitiku (GSR/7840/10)

Advisor: Esubalew Nebebe

Ethiopian Institute of Architecture, Building Construction and City Development, Addis


Ababa University

Addis Ababa, Feb 2018


Acknowledgement
Former of all, I would like to thank our “Presentation Technique in Urban Design” instructor Mr. Esubalew
Nebebe who made this project happen. I pay my regards for his consistent, rational and skillful professional
consulting throughout the preparation of this project. Secondly I also send my regards to my fellow class mate
and 2nd year Urban Design & Development students for their advice and logical suggestions

It is clear from the most cursory glance at this proposal that it has drawn lightly on the work of others. Much
of the materials on the literature review have come from secondary sources. All those of significance quotes
have been referenced in the proposal and are listed in the references section.

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Abstract

During recent years, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a powerful tool have had a tremendous impact
on research techniques in the realm of geography and spatial analysis. The integrative ability of GIS to capture,
store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and finally present all types of geographical spatial data, has drawn many
attentions to it. Processing a different kinds of data in GIS requires modeling and analyzing data with different
spatial resolutions. Therefore, GIS could definitely be utilized as a suitable tool for solving different resources
problems from local to global scale. This paper tries to present the analysis of West Shewa Zone physical
dimension with the application of GIS. Not only this, larger scheme of the benefits for the applications of GIS
in different aspects will be covered. The fundamental reason for the need of integrating GIS and in different
modeling is briefly discussed and different tools are introduced. Also, various GIS application are presented to
create a better understanding. Finally, the benefits of GIS utilization in the analysis of West Shewa zone will be
discussed and summarized.

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Table of Content
Acknownledgement ......................................................................................................................................................................... i

Abstract ................................................................................................................................................................................................ ii

List of Tables ...................................................................................................................................................................................... v

List of Figures ..................................................................................................................................................................................... v

List of Acronyms ............................................................................................................................................................................... v

CHAPTER ONE : INTRODUCTION

1.1. Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................................1

1.2. Statement of the Problem...............................................................................................................................................1

1.3. Objective of The Study .................................................................................................................................................... 2

1.3.2 General Objective .............................................................................................................................................................. 2

1.3.3. Specific Objective ............................................................................................................................................................. 2

1.4. Scope of The Study .......................................................................................................................................................... 2

1.5. Limitation of The Study ................................................................................................................................................... 2

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. The Concept of GIS .................................................................................................................................................................. 3

2.1.1. Application Arenas of GIS .............................................................................................................................................. 4

2.2. Importance of Topographic Analysis ................................................................................................................................ 5

2.3. Importance of Hydrological Analysis ................................................................................................................................ 5

2.4. Relevance/Significance of GIS to Project Site ................................................................................................................ 6

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1. Site Selection Justifications .................................................................................................................................................... 7

3.2. Sources of data ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

3.3. Methods of data collection ................................................................................................................................................... 7

3.4. Methods of data analysis ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

3.5. Analytical Framework .............................................................................................................................................................. 7

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1. Project Site Description .......................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2. Digital Elevation Model Derivative Maps & Description ............................................................................................ 9

4.2.1. Topography Description of the Site .......................................................................................................................... 9

4.2.2. Slope Description of the Site ....................................................................................................................................... 9

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4.2.3. Aspect Description of the Site ................................................................................................................................... 10

4.2.4. Hill Description of the Site .......................................................................................................................................... 10

4.3. Hydrological Analysis Maps & Description ................................................................................................................... 16

4.3.1. Flow Direction Description of the Site .................................................................................................................... 16

4.3.2. Flow Accumulation Description of the Site .......................................................................................................... 16

4.3.3. Watershed Analysis Description of the Site ......................................................................................................... 16

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1. Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................................................ 22

5.2. Recommendation .................................................................................................................................................................. 22

Reference .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 23

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List of Tables
Table 4.1_ Slope classification & application area

List of Figures
Figure 3.1 - Analytical Frame Work
Figure 4.1 - GIS analyzed location map of the project area
Figure 4.2 – Topography Map
Figure 4.3 – Slope Map
Figure 4.4 – Contour Map
Figure 4.5 – Aspect Map
Figure 4.6 – Hillshade Map
Figure 4.7 - Watershed Analysis Graph
Figure 4.8 – Flow Direction Map
Figure 4.9 – Flow Accumulation Map
Figure 4.10 – Stream Network Map
Figure 4.11 – Stream Order Map
Figure 4.12 – Watershed Map
List of Acronyms
GIS - Geographic Information System
CAD – Computer Aided Design
NCGIA – National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis
USGS – United States Geological Survey
ESRI – Environmental Systems Research Institute
NASA – National Aeronautics and Space Administration
DEM – Digital Elevation Model

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1. Introduction
GIS are commonly defined as an information system that manages, manipulates, and analyzes spatial data.
Historically in the natural resource management area, but increasingly for business, health, marketing, and
other fields. A key characteristic of GIS is the linkage between geographic features represented on a map
with attribute data that describe the geographic feature. GIS are typically distinguished from other systems
that manipulate spatial data, such as Computer-aided Design (CAD), by their ability to perform complex
spatial operations and analyses.

The interconnected grouping of data, algorithms, display, management, and people, GIS can be seen as a
coordinated system. This system includes the combination of software, hardware, and geographic data.
Visualization and analysis of geographic data is the key to transforming geographic data into powerful,
useful information.

Generally, there are four groups of functions that GIS software and hardware provide:

input, management, analysis, and output. Geographic data are input into a GIS through a variety of
mechanisms. A common form of data collection is through digitizing or scanning existing paper maps. For
example, the US Geological Survey creates Digital Line Graphs by digitizing its topographic series to create
political boundaries, roads, contour lines, etc., while Digital Raster Graphics are created by scanning
topographic maps to create geo-referenced images that can serve as a reference or base for other
geographic data. data are collected by Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to create high-quality data about
features such as parcel boundaries, roads, wildlife movement, fire boundaries, etc. Data are also collected
through remote sensing methods that include satellite imagery (e.g., Landsat or SPOT) and aerial
photography.

Once these geographic data are input into a GIS, they require management. There can be massive volumes
of data that would quickly overwhelm users without tools to handle large geographic data sets. Data need
to be stored in such a manner that they can be easily maintained and retrieved.

Analysis: the creation of information from data. Geographic information is created by a user’s queries of
an individual data set, through overlaying number of different layers of geographic data, and through
complex modeling and simulation. The most common way to visualize the results of queries and analyses
is through map.

Output. A map can be output via a printer or large-format plotter, included in an electronic report (e.g., in
PDF format), or exported as an interactive map (e.g., through dynamic HTML). Graphs and summary
statistics are often created and output in a report.

1.2. Statement of the Problem


An understanding of the physical features of any territorially delimited region is a prerequisite for possible
investigation and analysis of the potentiality of the regional natural resource bases, their conservation and
rational utilization. The proper implementation of conservation endeavors and the rational utilization of
the existing natural resources require well organized planning.
The characteristics of the earth’s cover can be investigated from its components: relief, topography, slope,
stream network etc. These are ingredients of environment. An environment is conceived not purely in its

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natural form but also in its totality as produced by man, i.e. population as a living factor in the environment.
Thus humans form one of the elements of environment. These elements of environment are the natural
resource bases of any geographical region. Understanding these elements will bring different
opportunities. As a result, detail analysis is need. So to get precise information to analyze, to manage and
store digital analysis is the best way in the 21 st century. Which is GIS.
Lack of proper documentation ties the development of the area through many aspects, also it is tough to
locate the potential area for different activities. As we all know in 21st century for proper resource utilization
documentation is the powerful tool. But before documentation the data’s must be analyzed through the
application of modern world knowledge. Which is using digital method for to get accurate information for
documentation.
Our country Ethiopia is rich in natural and human resources, it is ranged as one of most backward country
as a result of enabling to develop and protect its resource. Oromia is also not out of the situation and so
do West Shewa zone. To handle these and other problems, documented that manifest the physical aspect
of the region in general and West Shewa zone in particular should be prepared for different users, it may
be either for the government, investor or for those who have interest for research purpose.

1.3. Objective of The Study


General Objective
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the different physical characteristics of West Shewa and Identify
potential and weakness of the site by optimizing detailed analysis using GIS.

Specific Objective
- To investigate physical factors, like topography, slope, aspect, and so on
- To assess the challenges of the site.
- To suggest different activities
- To produce standard map

1.4. Scope of The Study


The study is concerned with the analysis of different physical features of West Shewa zone using GIS. So
the study mainly focuses digital analysis method of the physical environment through software and
relevant data.

1.5. Limitation of The Study


During the study time, I faced many limitations especially, in case of data collection. Among the
limitations that faced me are mentioned below.

- Lack of adequate time


- Lack of up to date written materials related to the study topic and Lack of well-organized data in
most organizations
- Financial limitation
- Lack of experience
- Unwillingness of few organizations, Offices and Individuals in giving available information /data/.

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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. The Concept of GIS
The fundamentals of GIS involve an understanding about data types, projections, data quality (accuracy
and precision), how to collect data and elementary spatial analysis, exposure to geospatial technology/
terminology, types of GIS data, data sources, and methods of obtaining data, basic cartography, types of
spatial analyses and when to use them. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have emerged as a key
technology to manipulate and analyze geographic data. Though there are many roots of GIS (and they are
often intertwined).

Like the field of geography, the term Geographic Information System (GIS) is hard to define
Definition-1
It represents the integration of many subject areas. No absolutely agreed upon definition of a GIS
(deMers, 1997).
Definition-2
A broadly accepted definition of GIS is the one provided by the National Centre of Geographic
Information and Analysis:
A GIS is a system of hardware, software and procedures to facilitate the management, manipulation,
analysis, modeling, representation and display of georeferenced data to solve complex problems regarding
planning and management of resources (NCGIA, 1990)
Definition-3
Burrough in 1986 defined GIS as, "Set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will, transforming
and displaying spatial data from the real world for a particular set of purposes"
Definition -4
Arnoff in 1989 defines GIS as, "a computer based system that provides four sets of capabilities to
handle geo-referenced data: data input ,data management (data storage and retrieval) ,manipulation and
analysis , data output."
Definition-5
A system of hardware, software and procedures designed to support the capture , management,
manipulation, analysis, modeling and display of spacially-referenced data for solving complex planning
and management problems(Cowen, 1989)
Definition-6

“In the strictest sense, a GIS is a computer system capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and
displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
Practitioners also regard the total GIS as including operating personnel and the data that go into the
system.” ~ USGS“
Definition-7

A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer-based tool for mapping and analyzing things that
exist and events that happen on earth. GIS technology integrates common database operations such as

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query and statistical analysis with the unique visualization and geographic analysis benefits offered by
maps.” ~ Esri

Definition-8

“GIS is an integrated system of computer hardware, software, and trained personnel linking topographic,
demographic, utility, facility, image and other resource data that is geographically referenced.” ~ NASA

Definition-9

“A geographic information system is a special case of information systems where the database consists of
observations on spatially distributed features, activities or events, which are definable in space as points,
lines, or areas. A geographic information system manipulates data about these points, lines, and areas to
retrieve data for ad hoc queries and analyses” (Kenneth Dueker,Portland State University, 1979).

Finally, we can define Geographic Information System as:

"A system of computer hardware, software and procedures designed to support the capture, management,
analysis, modeling and display of geographically referenced data for decision making. It is a way in which
to begin to represent and model the real world."

Also we can define GIS into two categories based on the general and detail definition:

General Definition: a geographic information system is any manual or computer-based set of procedures
used to store and manipulate geographically referenced data.

Specific Definition: A geographic information system is a computer-based system that provides four sets of
capabilities to handle georeferenced data: 1) Input, 2) Data Management, 3) Manipulation and Analysis, 4)
Output.

2.1.1. Application Arenas of GIS


Major areas of GIS application can be grouped into five categories as follows.
- Facilities Management
Large scale and precise maps and network analysis are used mainly for utility management. Like
locating underground pipes & cables, planning facility maintenance, telecommunication network
services, energy use tracking & planning and so on.
- Environment and Natural Resources Management
Medium or small scale maps and overlay techniques in combination with aerial photographs and
satellite images are used for management of natural resources and environmental impact analysis.
E.g. Suitable study for agricultural cropping, management of forests, agricultural lands, water
resources, wetlands, environmental impact analysis, disaster management and mitigation, waste
facility site location etc.
- Street Network
Large or medium scale maps and spatial analysis are used for vehicle routing, locating house
and streets etc.
E.g. Car navigation (routing & Scheduling), locating houses and streets, site location, ambulance
services, transportation planning and so on.
- Planning and Engineering
Large or medium scale maps and engineering models are used mainly in civil engineering.

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E.g. Urban Planning, regional planning, route location of highways, development of public
facilities etc.
- Land Information System
Large scale cadaster maps or land parcel maps and spatial analysis are used for cadaster
administration, taxation etc.
E.g. Cadaster administration, taxation, zoning of land use, land acquisition etc.

2.2. Importance of Topographic Analysis


Topography plays a fundamental role in modulating Earth surface and atmospheric processes. So
strong is this linkage that understanding of the nature of terrain can confer understanding of the nature
of these processes directly, in both subjective and analytical terms. Thus, analyses and representations of
terrain have provided cardinal examples for many activities in GIS and environmental modelling. They have
stimulated directly the development of new methods for obtaining digital environmental data (Barnsley,
Chapter 32; Dowman, Chapter 31; Lange and Gilbert, Chapter 33), new spatial interpolation methods (Mitas
and Mitasova, Chapter 34; Hutchinson 1996), and new methods for assessing data quality (see below).
Since 3-dimensional representations of topography form natural backgrounds for the display of spatially
distributed quantities and entities, representations of topography have also played a prominent role in the
development of methods for conceptualization (Raper, Chapter 5; Weibel and Dutton, Chapter 10) and
visualization (Neves and Câmara, Chapter 39; Kraak, Chapter 11) of 3-dimensional data. Of central
importance for the assessment and management of natural resources is the accuracy and spatial coverage
that can be achieved in environmental modelling by incorporating appropriate dependencies on terrain.

Digital models of topographic elevation data form an integral part of geographic information
systems (GIS) and are most often used for:

 Hydrological modelling including flood simulation, delineation and analysis of watersheds and
drainage networks,
 Soil erosion and sediment transport modelling,
 Delineation and study of physiographic units,
 Soil and ecological studies,
 Geomorphological evaluation of landforms,
 Civil engineering and military applications such as site and route selection, landslide hazard
assessment, visibility analysis (viewshed analysis), and
 Remotely sensed image enhancement for 3D analysis. Groundwater and climatic models also
use digital topographic data as essential components. Digital elevation models provide an
opportunity to characterize quantitatively land surface in terms of slope gradient and curvature
and yield digital terrain information not blurred by land cover features which is often a problem
in stereo-aerial photograph interpretation and remotely sensed image analysis.

GIS software can easily perform most of the analyses but some procedures may be very difficult
to implement. Digital terrain analysis requires the use of an integrated system of many analytical and
software tools.

2.3. Importance of Hydrological Analysis


Occurrence of water in nature varies in time, such crucial dynamic parameters as incoming, outgoing and
groundwater flows, precipitation, evapotranspiration, runoff and other features are displayed. The
possibilities for analysis are huge (or maybe I’m getting too enthusiastic), and include predicting flood-

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vulnerable or water-scarce areas, and finding out the possible impact of global warming on the regional
hydrological situation. The conclusions and decisions come directly from the previous. We can decide what
hydrological projects to implement to protect water bodies, and which projects should be reconsidered or
cancelled. With the help of watershed GIS, we can create a risk management system for floods and
droughts and develop a restoration plan if the worst has already happened.

The ability of GIS to integrate data from multiple sources such as boreholes and wells, subsurface isopach
(or structure contour) maps, and surface geology maps also allows data to be used simultaneously to
develop a groundwater model. Water quality issues associated with regional changes in land use, such as
urbanization and large-scale agriculture, can also be analyzed effectively using GIS. On a local scale, GIS
can be useful for landfill siting and the selection of groundwater development and artificial recharge sites.
These local-scale analyses also must consider a wide range of data such as land use, property ownership,
geology, soil types, and distance from the source (such as distance from the water source for an artificial
recharge site.

GIS applications are especially helpful for watershed-scale analyses, for instance integrated surface and
modeling of underground water, also regional underground water modeling, and analyses of water quality.
Locally, GIS can be useful for the selection of underground water development sites and places where
depleted groundwater resources can be artificially replenished. These analyses must take into
consideration a broad range of data, namely: use of land, property ownership, geology, types of soil, and
distance from the source.

In addition, GIS has the very beneficial possibility to integrate data from various sources, namely: vegetation
and land cover, boreholes and wells, satellite imagery and surface geology. And importantly, this
information can be utilized immediately to design a clearer understanding of surface water movement and
subsurface water movement and their interactions.

2.4. Relevance/Significance of GIS to Project Site


It is necessary to produce a brief review of the physical characteristics which could eventually be a source
of information on natural resource bases of the zone for the professional planners and other interested
bodies.

Analyzing the enriched potential of the zone with GIS gives precise information of the site. Which later on
this data’s will be applied for different purposes to enhance the development the zone. So applying the
knowledge of GIS in the projects site helps for many things. Here is the basic relevance of GIS to the project
site:

 To manage different zonal physical data’s properly,


 To utilize resource,
 To manage risks related to topography and hydrology and
 Identifying location for different activities. Ex. Agriculture, forest, and so on.

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CHAPTER THREE:
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1. Site Selection Justifications
The main reason behind project site selection is geographical location (i.e. near to the largest market
center like Addis Ababa) the zone has a great advantage of accessing the locale product to the market
and creates ideal condition for provision of the demanded commodities to the local communities. While
the second one is my home town Ambo is the capital city of West Shewa zone. Which will in turn help
me to gather different zonal data’s easily. Because all zonal offices are located within the town, Ambo.

3.2. Sources of data


To achieve these objectives, we will use both types of data sources. i.e. primary data source and secondary
data source. The primary data will be collected from United States Geological Survey (USGS) website and
government body concerned with the research area and other stake holders. Further, secondary data will
be collected from international and local case studies, documentations, articles, journals and books.

3.3. Methods of data collection


The study will be based on both primary and secondary data’s. We will collect primary data through DEM
(Digital Elevation Model) which is download from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) website
www.usgs.gov and interview from concerned governed bodies and other stake holders.

Secondary data will be obtained through review of selected materials especially from documents;
international & local case studies, scientific research and local publications related to the topic area.

3.4. Methods of data analysis


After the data will be collected it will be analyzed based on its nature. In general, the collected data will be
analyzed by using software. Mainly by ArcMap 10.5 and Microsoft Word 2016, and interpreted by using
descriptive method of analyzing the data. Percentage is will be used for the interpretation and analysis of
data.

3.5. Analytical Framework

Figure 3.1: Analytical Frame Work

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CHAPTER FOUR:
DATA PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1. Project Site Description
West Shewa zone one of the zones in Oromia region, it is found between 80 o 17” north to 90o 60” North
latitude and 370 17” East to 380 45’East longitude. It is located in the central part of Regional state, though
some part of its areas do inclined to the western part. The zone is adjacent to Amhara Region in the north,
East Wollega and Horo Guduru in the west and north west, Jimma zone in south west, south West Shewa
zone in south east and north Shewa zone in the south east whereas the zone is 170kms long from north
to south it is 183kms wide from east to west.

On the bases of current border delineation, the has an area of 15185 km2 it covers 4.15% of the total area
of Oromia. Since most of the zones topography is a leveled field, it is suitable for crop production and
livestock development.

The zone is divided in to 18 districts and 1 urban local administration. In these administrations there are
529 rural and 39 urban Kebeles, whereas different nations and nationalities are found in the zone; Afan
Oromo and Amharic are the widely spoken language. Ambo town is the capital town of the zone.

It is conducive for farming activities, extraction of construction and industrial materials. The geological
formation of the Zone had depicted that West Shewa zone has a good potential for the development of a
wide range of mineral resources. However, so far the zone minerals deposits exploration did not deeply
investigate, but the currently, very essential mineral extraction had been conducting by Mugger cement
Enterprise, Derba Cement, Habesha Cement, Ambo Mineral Water Factory , Senkele Limestone that can
cited as indicator of essential minerals.

Figure 4.1 - GIS analyzed location map of the project area

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4.2. Digital Elevation Model Derivative Maps & Description
4.2.1. Topography Description of the Site
The topography The site topography of the project site ranges from 921m – 3388m. According to the
classification Huffnage (1961), Ethiopia classified into 4 major regions based on altitude. ‘Kolla’ ranges at
altitudes below 1800 m, ‘Weyna Dega’ from altitudes between 1800 – 2400 m, and ‘Dega’ for areas above
2400 m. Based on this the project site classified into 3 main regions in Ethiopia, Weyna Dega, Dega and
Wurch.
NB: Please refer figure 4.2
4.2.2. Slope Description of the Site
The slope is classified according to slope aspect of West Shewa Zone. <2 % flat, 2.1 – 10 % moderately
sloping, 10 – 15 % hillside, 15 – 30 % steep hillside and over 30 % very steep. Land surface of West Shewa
zone with a slope gradient of below 2% is almost about 30% of the zonal area. This section of the Region
has drainage constraint to be utilized for agricultural production. Land surface having a slope gradient of
above 2.1-10% cover 54.5%. While the slope 10.1 – 15% cover an area of 16.18%. The slope which ranges
from 15.1-30% scores 15.32% from the total area. Slope having 30% which accounts 2.59% of the zonal
land surface is rather characterized by severe erosion risks and is less utilizable for agriculture. Peripheral
edges of plateaus and valleys, rims of rift scarp and deeply incised river valleys are of slope gradients of
more than 30%.
On the other hand, 70.7% of the zone is potentially utilizable from the point of view of good surface
drainage and low risks of soil erosion. In addition, on such land surface with slope gradient of 2 to 15%
mechanization can be easily utilized for grain production.

<2 2.1-10 10.1-15 15-30


Industry Large scale, linear Having a gentle Economically ×
development, Increase  slope i.e., 1%10% Impractical
construction cost. (a slope between
Commercial Expensive due to drainage 2% and 8% is Special shopping ×
system  highly area/Mostly
recommendable). Impractical/
Residence “ “ Considered Hill side individual Single residence

functional in all residence
Road Standing water and fog areas also by Special construction, Cut and
 performing the High cost fill/increase coast/
appropriate
Airport Drainage and expensive measures. Economically ×

Impractical
Recreation Hiking and Camping Trails and
 
camping
Agriculture   Forests Forests
Rail Road Must be parallel to ×
 
the slop ,and coasty
Table 4.1: Slope classification & application area

NB: Please refer figure 4.3

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4.2.3. Aspect Description of the Site
The Aspect tool identifies the direction the downhill slope faces. The values of each cell in the output raster
indicate the compass direction the surface faces at that location. It is measured clockwise in degrees from
0 (due north) to 360 (again due north), coming full circle. Flat areas having no downslope direction are
given a value of -1.

Aspect analysis of the site tries to identify a direction of inclination and the
demanding factors to produce appropriate physical and functional
Development and it is skillful arrangements of doors and windows in the
external walls of a building/In individual unit Case/ which allows the Domains
to enjoy the natural gifts such as: sunshine, breeze, scenery and etc. It is one
of the basic principle of building planning and neighborhood development.

NB: Please refer figure 4.5.

4.2.4. Hill Description of the Site


Hill shade analysis of the project done by considering the sun’s azimuth and altitude, opining and
orientation character of a building/Direct and indirect sunlight usage/, solar study is to figure out where
solar heat gain is most extreme and the best way to mitigate it. The properties altitude and azimuth
together indicate the sun's relative position that will be used for creating any 3D model (hillshade or shaded
relief). Altitude is the sun's angle of elevation above the horizon and ranges from 0 to 90 degrees. A value
of 0 degrees indicates that the sun is on the horizon, that is, on the same horizontal plane as the frame of
reference. A value of 90 degrees indicates that the sun is directly overhead.

Azimuth is the sun's relative position along the horizon (in degrees). This position is indicated by the angle
of the sun measured clockwise from due north. An azimuth of 0 degrees indicates north, east is 90 degrees,
south is 180 degrees, and west is 270 degrees

NB: Please refer figure 4.6.

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280000 320000 360000 400000 440000 480000

West Shewa Zone Topography

µ
1100000

1100000
1050000

1050000
1000000

1000000
950000

950000
1 cm = 13 km
0 10 20 40 60 80
Kilometers
900000

280000 320000 360000 400000 440000 480000

Source:
Legend Coordinate System: Adindan UTM Zone 37N
Projection: Transverse Mercator
921 - 1,800 Datum: Adindan
1,800.1 - 2,400
Units: Meter
2,400.1 - 3,388 Date: 12/30/2017
Mapped By: Oliyad Mitiku

Figure 4.2 11 | Page


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West Shewa Zone Slope

µ
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1000000

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950000
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0 10 20 40 60 80
Kilometers
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280000 320000 360000 400000 440000 480000

Legend
Source:
<2 Coordinate System: Adindan UTM Zone 37N
2.1 - 10 Projection: Transverse Mercator
10.1 - 15 Datum: Adindan
Units: Meter
15.1 - 30
>30 Date: 12/30/2017
Mapped By: Oliyad Mitiku

Figure 4.3 12 | Page


280000 320000 360000 400000 440000 480000

West Shewa Zone Contour

µ
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950000
1 cm = 13 km
0 10 20 40 60 80 900000
Kilometers

280000 320000 360000 400000 440000 480000

Source:
Legend Coordinate System: Adindan UTM Zone 37N
Projection: Transverse Mercator
Major
Datum: Adindan
Minor Units: Meter
Date: 12/30/2017
Mapped By: Oliyad Mitiku

Figure 4.4 13 | Page


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West Shewa Zone Aspect


1100000

1100000
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Kilometers

280000 320000 360000 400000 440000 480000

Legend
Flat (-1)
North (0-22.5)
Northeast (22.5-67.5)
Source:
Coordinate System: Adindan UTM Zone 37N
East (67.5-112.5)
Projection: Transverse Mercator
Southeast (112.5-157.5)
Datum: Adindan
South (157.5-202.5) Units: Meter
Southwest (202.5-247.5) Date: 12/30/2017
West (247.5-292.5)
Mapped By: Oliyad Mitiku
Northwest (292.5-337.5)
North (337.5-360) 14 | Page
280000 320000 360000 400000 440000 480000

West Shewa Zone Hillshade

µ
1100000

1100000
1050000

1050000
1000000

1000000
950000

950000
1 cm = 12 km
0 10 20 40 60 80
Kilometers
900000

280000 320000 360000 400000 440000 480000

Legend Source:
Coordinate System: Adindan UTM Zone 37N
High : 254 Projection: Transverse Mercator
Datum: Adindan
Units: Meter
Low : 0 Date: 12/30/2017
Mapped By: Oliyad Mitiku

Figure 4.6
15 | Page
4.3. Hydrological Analysis Maps & Description
4.3.1. Flow Direction Description of the Site
The project site creates a raster of flow direction from each cell to its steepest downslope neighbor. The
output of the Flow Direction tool is an integer raster whose values range from 1 to 255. The values for each
direction from the center are the following:

For example, if the direction of steepest drop was to the left of the current processing
cell, its flow direction would be coded as 16.

NB: Please refer figure 4.8

4.3.2. Flow Accumulation Description of the Site


A drainage basin is an area of land drained by a river and its tributaries. Its boundary is marked by ridge
of high land beyond which any precipitation drain in to adjacent basins. This boundary refers to a
watershed or loiter parting. West Shewa zone has their drainage basins, many big rivers and high potential
of ground water; the three drainage basin Abay, Gibe and Awash. Abay River basin occupies targets
(12235km) surface area of the zonal drainage basin. From the total zonal area and drains the wholes areas
of Gindaberate, Jeldu, Adaberga, Metarobe and Ambo wereda and some parts of Dendi , Nono ,Chaliya,
Tiqur Inchini ,and Ejere woredas. It has large area of irrigable land along riverbanks, which are so far not
utilized.

The Gibe Drainage Basin is the second largest basin occupying (2495 km) surface area of the zonal drainage
basin. It includes the whole areas of Bako Tibe ,Dano, and some area of Cheliya ,Nono and Tikur Inchini
Wereda. Beside it has large area of potentially irrigable land. The third drainage basin is the awash basin.
The awash drainage basin covers some part of Ejera and dandi weredas. Even though the Awash drainage
Basin is relatively small in its coverage, its potential for irrigation is high. This is because the topography of
Awash Drainage Basin is more suitable for irrigation system.

NB: Please refer figure 4.9.

4.3.3. Watershed Analysis Description of the Site


Watershed is the region of land within which water flows down into specified body, such as a river, lake,
sea, or ocean; a drainage basin. The word watershed is sometimes used interchangeably with drainage
basin or catchment. Ridges and hills that separate two watersheds are called drainage. The watershed
analysis of the project site identifies 5 catchment areas. These catchment areas are identified to assess
flood risk and suitable area for the construction of dam.

Based on the Analysis Catchment 2


(Awash basin) is identified as a potential
area for construction of dam. Also,
extensive undulating to rolling land
surface with high potentiality for
agriculture and hydro-electric power. Its
high accessibility (developed
infrastructure), proximity to Addis
Ababa and physical feasibility have
accounted for its better development.
NB: Please refer figure 4.12 Figure 4.2 - Watershed Analysis Graph

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280000 320000 360000 400000 440000 480000

West Shewa Zone Flow Direction

µ
1100000

1100000
1050000

1050000
1000000

1000000
950000

950000
1 cm = 12 km
0 10 20 40 60 80
Kilometers
900000

280000 320000 360000 400000 440000 480000

Legend
1 Source:
2 Coordinate System: Adindan UTM Zone 37N
4 Projection: Transverse Mercator
Datum: Adindan
8
Units: Meter
16
Date: 12/30/2017
32
64 Mapped By: Oliyad Mitiku
128
Figure 4.8 17 | Page
280000 320000 360000 400000 440000 480000

West Shewa Zone Flow Accumulation

µ
1100000

1100000
1050000

1050000
1000000

1000000
950000

950000
1 cm = 12 km
0 10 20 40 60 80
Kilometers
900000

280000 320000 360000 400000 440000 480000

Source:
Legend Coordinate System: Adindan UTM Zone 37N
High : 4.71481e+006 Projection: Transverse Mercator
Datum: Adindan
Units: Meter
Low : 0
Date: 12/30/2017
Mapped By: Oliyad Mitiku

Figure 4.9 18 | Page


280000 320000 360000 400000 440000 480000

West Shewa Zone Stream Network

µ
1100000

1100000
1050000

1050000
1000000

1000000
950000

950000
1 cm = 13 km
0 12.5 25 50 75 100
Kilometers
900000

280000 320000 360000 400000 440000 480000

Source:
Legend Coordinate System: Adindan UTM Zone 37N
Projection: Transverse Mercator
Stream Network Datum: Adindan
West Shewa Border Units: Meter
Date: 12/30/2017
Mapped By: Oliyad Mitiku

Figure 4.10 19 | Page


280000 320000 360000 400000 440000 480000

West Shewa Zone Stream Order

µ
1100000

1100000
1050000

1050000
1000000

1000000
950000

950000
1 cm = 13 km
0 12.5 25 50 75 100
Kilometers
900000

280000 320000 360000 400000 440000 480000

Legend Source:
Coordinate System: Adindan UTM Zone 37N
1 Projection: Transverse Mercator
2 Datum: Adindan
Units: Meter
3
4 Date: 12/30/2017
Mapped By: Oliyad Mitiku
West Shewa Border

Figure 4.11 20 | Page


280000 320000 360000 400000 440000 480000

West Shewa Watershed

µ
1100000

1100000
1050000

1050000
1000000

1000000
950000

950000
1 cm = 13 km
0 12.5 25 50 75 100
Kilometers
900000

280000 320000 360000 400000 440000 480000

Legend
Source:
Catchment 0 Coordinate System: Adindan UTM Zone 37N
Catchment 1 Projection: Transverse Mercator
Datum: Adindan
Catchment 2 Units: Meter
Catchment 3
Date: 12/30/2017
Catchment 4
Mapped By: Oliyad Mitiku
Border

Figure 4.12 11 | Page


CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1. Conclusion
With physical environment becoming increasingly complex, due to greater environmental and social
involvement and pressures, GIS is likely to play an increasingly central role. Developments in greater band
width, web based technology and wireless communication will provide much greater opportunities for
information access even in more remote areas. This will allow real time online data capture and query in the
field.

The range of applications reviewed in this study is clear evidence to the significant value of GIS to aid a
management. Despite the diversity of applications, however, a number of broad conclusions can be reached
about the role of GIS in physical environment. GIS applications can strongly benefit from remote sensing and
image processing technologies.

Stronger tools are necessary for the analytical resolution of conflicting suitability’s and choices in resource
allocation. In a sense, forestry applications embody the full scope of GIS technology. Thus its study provides
an excellent overview of the state of the technology and its potential as a management tool for natural resource
concerns.

5.2. Recommendation
For proper planning and formulation of the zonal economic development policy, provision of basic information
on various resource potentials and constraints for development prospects is a prerequisite. In this study,
geographic approach is employed for elucidation of the natural resource bases of West Shewa. Attempt is
made to quantify the spatial extents of the resource bases so as to arrive at fairly reasonable but generalized
summation of their distribution pattern. The rationale behind this undertaking is to present an appraisal of the
regional natural resources to be of value for researchers, planners and policy makers. But a study like this needs
to be done in each Woreda’s to get more accurate data for further development.

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Reference
- Yazachew E. & Kasahun D. (2011), Physical and Socio Economic Profile of West Shewa Zone and Districts,
Bureau of Finance and Economic Development – Regional Data and Information Core Process
- Sonti SH (2015). Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) in Forest Management, Bellville
South Industrial
- Gyozo J. Digital Terrain Analysis in a GIS Environment. Concepts and Development
- Sina K. and Bahram K. (2014). Benefits of GIS Application in Hydrological Modeling: A Brief Summary,
VATTEN – Journal of Water Management and Research
- Otto H. and Rolf A (2009). Principles of Geographic Information System. ITC, Enschede, The Netherlands

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