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Textile Progress

Bagging in Textiles

N. G. Şengöz

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Online Publication Date: 01 January 2004 To cite this Article: Şengöz, N. G. (2004) 'Bagging in Textiles', Textile Progress, 36:1, 1 — 64 To link to this article: DOI: 10.1533/jotp.36.1.1.59475 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1533/jotp.36.1.1.59475

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BAGGING IN TEXTILES

N.G. Sengoz* ¸ ¨

1. OVERVIEW 1.1 Introduction

Bagging is a three-dimensional residual deformation, seen in used garments, which causes a deterioration in the appearance of the garment. The places it is seen during wear are elbows, knees, pockets, hips, and heels. The common factor in all of these parts of garments is the force exerted on that area of the fabric from the moving parts of the body. When the fabric covering that part of the body feels this force for a long time and feels it repeatedly, the fabric deforms and starts to take the form the force is trying to give to it. The force coming from the human body is in the transverse direction to the fabric’s plane and the deformation which occurs is spatial. This prolonged and repeated deformation causes the fabric to change its shape, and it usually takes a dome shape, like a part of a sphere, so it is a threedimensional complex deformation that is very diﬀerent from the other kinds of deformation seen in textile materials. In the dictionaries, in its simplest meaning, deformation is deﬁned as a change in form. When a deformation has to be studied, factors such as the amount of the deformation, the extreme point of the deformation, the recoverability of the deformation, the residual amount of the deformation, and the mechanism of the deformation should be investigated. This means that parameters such as bagging height, volume, shape, and anisotropy are the main characters of fabric bagging behaviour where no structural breakdown occurs. Since now, these factors have mostly been the main subjects of fundamental engineering experiences. From the engineering point of view, deformation is studied in any kind of material, textiles being our concern. Since all these materials meet human needs in daily life, a wide range of research, from spacework to foods, are all included in the fundamental engineering investigations, and research were done in the past and will continue to be done in the future. When we take a closer look at the deformation research done in textile materials, we see that it has been carried out for a long time on ﬁbres, yarns, fabrics and all of the semiﬁnished forms of them in the production state, and also the garment form that is the ﬁnal form of usage. Even though many important points have been elucidated, there are still many things to be worked on. With the help of developments in the fundamental theories, the deﬁnition of the problems has become easier, and with the help of improvements, especially in computer technology, the solution of the complex problems has become robust, eventually research showing a rapid development.

1.2 Importance of Bagging All fabrics (apparel, medical, technical) are subjected to various forces during their use in daily life. These forces may be in the form of pressure, stress, impact, puncture, etc. Fabrics can absorb these forces up to a certain extent in their composition and, when the force is lifted, the fabric can recover and take its original shape if the force has acted in

*Author’s Current Address: Afyon Kocatepe University Usak Engineering Faculty, Textile Engineering ¨ ¨ ¨ Department, Bir Eylul Kampusu 64100, Usak-TURKEY sengozgonul@hotmail.com.

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the elastic deformation region of the fabric. Since the elastic recovery of fabrics decreases with time, and since fabrics possess viscoelastic properties and show creep-relaxation behaviour, in some cases, they are prevented by these factors from recovering, cannot overcome the deformation and cannot revert to their original shape. As a result, a permanent or plastic deformation in the fabric occurs.

1.3 Positive Perspectives In some cases, a deformation is a requirement, as in a felted hat – the shape is what we would call a deformed shape when compared with a ﬂat fabric. In a hat made from woven fabric, the fabric is cut and sewn to take the shape of the head, and in a knitted hat, it is easier because the yarns can move relative to each other to make the knitted fabric take the shape of the head. Also, in some technical usages, three dimensional fabrics are produced just in the shape in which they will be used. This is important for the end-use mechanical performance of some industrial fabrics. Possessing a special shape may be regarded as some kind of a deformation in our understanding of fabric. Since these are not our concern, they will not be dealt with here. The purpose of mentioning them is to show that, in some cases, a deformed shape is needed; it is not a fault, but it will be regarded as a fault in the rest of the text. The important thing is that no force is involved in the above explanations. In the meaning of bagging, the application of an external force is necessary, and that is why a change in the form happens. 1.4 Negative Perspectives The phenomenon of bagging, encountered in used garments and seen at elbows, knees, pockets, hips, and heels, is a good example of permanent spherical deformation of fabrics under stress during wear. After the application of prolonged static or repeated force from the moving parts of the human body, the fabric loses its dimensional stability and cannot recover, and permanent residual deformation takes place in the form of a dome – like part of a sphere. Because the appearance of the garment is distorted and because this appearance is important from the aesthetic point of view in the daily use of the garment, such a subject involves a quality factor and must be studied. Bagging occurs with the loss of elastic energy of fabric with wear time, so gradually the shape deteriorates, and this deteriorated shape and the deformed fabric together is perceived as a kind of garment fatigue behavior by people. On the one hand, we want the fabric to stretch and conform to the body and give dynamic comfort to the person wearing if when the body moves; on the otherhand, there are many material and structural factors that prevent the fabric presenting the same behaviour all the time. Even if there is not any structural breakdown in a garment, bagging detracts from its appearance during wear in such a way that it is perceived as an unwanted fault. A fabric’s permanent spatial deformation behaviour depends on the ﬁbre properties of the material, as well as yarn thickness, fabric density and weave, and also the fabric construction properties, namely yarn and fabric parameters. The elastic deformation of the ﬁbres, the viscoelastic deformation of the ﬁbres, stress relaxation due to ﬁbre viscoelastic behaviour, and the friction between ﬁbres and yarns in the fabric structure are all important in bagging of fabrics. These can be grouped into three components – elasticity, viscoelasticity and frictional forces. Permanent spatial deformation behaviour, what we call bagging, can be characterized by parameters such as bagging height, volume, shape, and anisotropy. In subjective judgements of bagging, its degree can vary from one person to another, from one

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garment to another, and from one fabric surface pattern to another. These will be explained later in the text.

2. DEFINITION AND TYPES OF DEFORMATION 2.1 Deﬁnition As stated previously, deformation is a change in form. This form can be in any kind and there may be many factors aﬀecting it. The purpose of research is to determine what these factors are and, with the knowledge obtained, to take control of the occasions and improve the mechanisms of achieving our goal of overcoming or minimizing bagging. So, knowing the various deformation types and the diﬀerences between them are important. 2.2 Deformation Types Lloyd [40] and Amirbayat and Hearle [3] have grouped the deformations seen in fabrics as the following cases:

In-plane deformations: These are the kinds of deformation where a fabric, initially aligned in one plane, is deformed in its own plane. When the force is applied parallel to the fabric plane, every point in the fabric is aﬀected in the same way by this force and shape deterioration is the same in every point. Tensile properties in either the warp or the weft directions are mentioned in this group. No transversal displacement of the fabric plane is seen in this kind of deformation – see Fig. 1(a). (ii) Uniaxial bending: The fabric displaces perpendicular to its own plane and bends to form a curve leading to a circle by the extention of this curve. Good examples for research in this subject are buckling, drape, the forms that the fabric takes and loses during daily wear of a garment, the forms that a curtain takes and loses, and the rolling and opening of a fabric sheet – see Figures 1(b1) and 1(b2). (iii) Torque in the fabric plane: This is the moment occurring in the fabric sheet when force couples acting in opposite directions are applied to the fabric sheet from each side of the sheet and where a twist is also seen in the fabric sheet. In this case, every point of the fabric feels a diﬀerent force, is exerted to a diﬀerent moment, and shows diﬀerent inner displacements, in general. Case (iii) is very diﬀerent from Cases (i) and (ii) in this sense – see Fig. 1(c). (iv) Conforming to a spherical surface: This is the case when the fabric is forced to conform to a spherical surface, and, as a result, bagging occurs. In this case, recovery is mostly not achieved and some permanent spatial deformation is left on the fabric, like a part of a sphere. In this kind of deformation analysis, forces are deﬁned as hydrostatic, which means they are equal in diﬀerent angles starting from the same centre. In research, the elbow, knee, pocket, hip, and heel areas of garments, and the top area before the curvature begins in the drape analysis, are good examples of this kind of deformation – see ﬁg. 1(d ). According to Konopasek [36], there are six kinds of continuum models in mechanics of ﬁbre assemblies, and the deformation in each kind can be written as below: Fibres and yarns are deformed tensile or torsional (1:1); Fibres and yarns are deformed bending in their plane (1:2); Fibres and yarns are deformed bending and torsional in space (1:3); Fabrics are deformed tensile and shear in their plane (2:2); (i)

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Fig. 1

Diﬀerent kinds of deformation seen in fabrics. (a) In-plane deformation of a fabric; (b1) Uniaxial bending of a fabric in a roll; (b2) Uniaxial bending of a fabric on a surface; (c) Torque in the fabric plane; (d ) Conforming of a fabric to a spherical surface

Fabrics are deformed tensile, shear and bending in space (2:3); Fibres and ﬁbre assemblies are deformed complex in space (3:3). The numbers in the ﬁrst column state the independent variables and the numbers in the second column state the dependent variables. There are three kinds in both of them, but their combination is named in six groups because, when worked with one independent geometric variable, the deformations in the other directions are not also neglected. The information about these interdependencies has to be obtained separately and worked in a one-dimensional problem rather than in a three-dimensional problem. Mack and Taylor [43] handle fabric deformation by the concept of ‘ﬁt’. This concept concerns a sphere as a prescribed surface and examines how the weft and warp yarns would cover this area when laid over, still making intersections. They derive diﬀerential equations for the geometry occuring. They give mathematical deﬁnitions of the diﬀerent paths the yarns would follow on the surface. In Fig. 2, woven fabric ﬁtted to a spherical surface with diﬀerent mathematical deﬁnitions is seen. The pictures are modiﬁed to emphisize the path the yarns are making. With those equations, the ﬁtting of a continuum material to spheres, cones,

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Fig. 2

Woven fabric ﬁtted to a spherical surface with diﬀerent mathematical deﬁnitions (Mack and Taylor [43], modiﬁed)

toroids, and spheroids is possible. In their work, Mack and Taylor assume that the woven fabric is made up of inextensible yarns, and that the fabric is perfectly shearable and ﬂexible. Heisey and Haller [31] computerised Mack and Taylor’s work using numerical analysis techniques, and were able to cover surfaces where the mathematical deﬁnition of the surface was hard to make. The coordinates of the fabric which will ﬁt the surface are coded like a map and no restrictions are made about the surface. Their assumptions are the same as Mack and Taylor’s. Their work is also based on the shear properties of the fabric. It is concluded that the in-plane deformation occuring in the fabric is achieved by the shear and the bending characteristics of the fabric. Van West et al. [69] stated that a half-sphere is a good basis for both theoretical and experimental studies and they applied diﬀerential geometry successfully. They modelled the path of the yarns covering a half-sphere and when their drawing from the model coincided with the real photograph, there was a good correlation between the fabric and the graphical simulation — but the distances between the yarns are not equal to each other. The positions of the yarns can be compared, but at particular points they cannot. Heisey et al. [30] later used this concept in the area of garment patterning. The human body resembles some parts of a sphere as seen in double curvature. The algorithm they used is concerned with how a fabric regarding a plane-like shape would fully cover this area without tension. These are all concerns of the subject of garment patterning. The only problem they met is the physical properties of the fabric. In their work, the warp yarns are no longer parallel with each other, but they come to the same meeting point at the top of the curve, like the meridians on the earth. Aono et al. [5] also did some work on the concept of garment patterning. Their assumptions were the same as the earlier researchers. Their mathematical deﬁnitions were more precise, their numerical analysis methods were wider, the surfaces to be ﬁtted were more undulating, computer simulation was easier, and no point was left uncalculated on the surface to be ﬁtted. The lay of the warp yarns were also like the meridians. Terzopoulos et al. [63] worked on elastically deformable models. They wanted to simulate the same movement on the computer screen. They applied diﬀerential equations to rigid curves, surfaces, and solids as a function of time, so that the textile material was dynamic around them like a ﬂag ﬂying in the wind on the screen of the computer. Also this concept was used in computer technology by Ascough et al. [6], to improve the movement of a skirt ﬂying as one turns around, on the computer screen.

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Ramgulam [54] presented a new ﬁtting algorithm to ﬁt woven fabric onto a complex surface. This algorithm could be applied to any surface which was able to be described numerically or analytically. It was based on diﬀerential geometry, but was much stronger and faster than the earlier developed traditional kinetic model-based algorithms. This algorithm allowed more ﬂexible initial conditions. The new one was compared with the earlier ones and seen visually that the newly developed software models the actual ﬁt of the woven fabrics correctly. It was indicated that in-plane shear deformation occurs in woven fabrics when they are forced to conform to a spherical surface, and that this is the most important factor governing this behaviour. The fabric shears until its critical shearing angle, and then wrinkling begins. The limiting shear angle is diﬀerent in every fabric.

2.3 Diﬀerences Between Deformation Types Diﬀerent kinds of deformation are examined diﬀerently in fabric mechanics. As seen in Case (i), in-plane deformations are when the material is in its elastic zone in a force–elongation diagram (Fig. 3). If the force is increased, then the process can go up to tearing, but now the small forces are taken into consideration for all the cases mentioned above. The diﬀerence in Case (ii) is that the fabric takes a diﬀerent shape all by itself when a force is exerted but there is no mention of lateral stress. When the fabric takes a shape special to itself, it still behaves in its elastic zone and no pressure is exerted on it. Case (iii) is a force couple partial condition but the deformation eﬀect occurring in the fabric is still in the elastic zone. The fabric can recover to its initial state. The fabric is behaving freely in all these three cases but in Case (iv) it is not. There, the fabric is under compulsion by a force transversal to its plane. This kind of a deformation takes place in the permanent deformation zone of the material. In Cases (i), (ii) and (iii), the fabric fully recovers after the force is lifted, but in Case (iv), the recovery of the fabric is partial and a certain amount of permanent spatial deformation is left on the fabric. In Case (iv), the material’s frictional and viscoelastic properties start to show themselves. The fabric responds to these deformations by shearing. Although in all four deformation types, the warp and weft yarn groups keep their parallel positions within the group, in the concept of ﬁt, these two yarn groups change their paths to cover the double curvatured surface of a sphere and this path is mathematically deﬁned. Three-dimensional fabrics are produced with this concept and the mathematical deﬁnitions are used in computer simulations.

Fig. 3

A general force-elongation diagram

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Fundamental engineering investigations are usually made for a continuum, but textile material are not continuous. A yarn is composed of single ﬁbres, a fabric is composed of single yarns by their intersections, and mainly all the ﬁbres, yarns and fabrics have very diﬀerent characteristics from one another. However, in the studies of yarn and fabric mechanics, they are considered as a continuum and examinations are done according to those theories. Even though this is the case, very realistic mathematical deﬁnitions are concluded when research is done according to them [57]. There are some assumptions about the physical structure of the textile material. The behaviour of both the natural and synthetic ﬁbres under stress has been subject to many researches. The ﬁbres show fairly complex deformations in their microstructures. With the help of twist, ﬁbres come together and take the form of yarn; then they reach a macrostructure [40] and the situation starts to become more complex, since the ﬁbres, which have ﬁnite lengths, have come together and created an endless structure. In any continuum, there are small particules that make up the molecular structure, but in textile materials there exist large macrostructures, up to many times greater than those of the molecular structure. This makes the use of the continuum concept diﬃcult. For example, if one wants to measure the percentage of extension between two points, it can be inﬁnitely small in a continuum, and so that the diﬀusion of the extension percentage is constant along the continuum. But in the case of textile materials, there is the macrostructure and the smallest structure that can be taken will still possess so many macros, and this will make us think that the diﬀusion of the extension percentage is not constant along the material. The important thing to be assumed here is up to what extent the textile material can be considered as a continuum and the known theories can be applied; and beyond which point the textile material has to be considered as a non-continuum and diﬀerent theories are needed. The main factors giving the yarn its complexity in deformation are ﬁbres with ﬁnite lengths turning into an inﬁnite structure, the internal pressures occurring with twist that holds the ﬁbres together, and the frictional forces occurring between the ﬁbres. The main factors giving the fabric its complexity in deformation are more strict. When the yarns take the form of a fabric, the occasion becomes more complex because the yarns have to intersect with other yarns as a requirement of the macrostructure. Intersecting is formed by the yarns going over and under each other, both in the horizontal and the vertical direction; so a structure as a plane is constructed. The main factors giving the fabric its complexity in deformation are the inversion from a linear continuous structure to a planar continuous structure, and the internal strain added by the intersections of the yarns. In this case, factors coming from the yarns are also added to the factors belonging to the fabric. This phenomena becomes more complex still when the fabric takes the form of a garment, because the planar ensemble is separated by cutting, then it is put together by sewing and it becomes a three-dimensional non-continuous structure. The main factors giving a garment its complexity in deformation are inversion from a planar continuous structure to a spatial non-continuous structure, cutting and sewing again (along a stitch line with a sewing thread), and exposure to diﬀerent strains and movements persistently coming from the inside because there is a human there. The factors existing in the fabrics add up to the factors belonging to the garment. When moving from ﬁbre to yarn, from yarn to fabric, from fabric to garment, in every step there is the continuity from ﬁnite structure to linear continuous structure, from linear continuous structure to planar continuous structure, from planar continuous structure to

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spatial non-continuous structure. Every step shows a more complex deformation behaviour than the former, so the investigation of deformation gets harder at every step. Chapman and Hearle [18] deﬁned how the textile material takes various shapes during the production stages and how the deformation phenomena gets more complex as this proceeds. A single ﬁbre would have natural curves on it, but every ﬁbre follows a migrating helical path in the yarn along the twist. In the fabric, there is the crimp that originates from the underlaying and overlaying movement of the yarns. In addition to all of these complexities, in bagging, there is the force acting on the fabric in the vertical direction to the fabric plane.

3. DEFINITION OF BAGGING

As mentioned before, bagging is a three-dimentional, permanent, spatial, spherically shaped deformation explained in Case (iv). The ﬁnished fabric is in its plane form and, when a force perpendicular to its plane is applied, spatial deformation occurs which is called bagging. The planar continuous structure is deformed by a spatial stress and this imposes a diﬀerence in the material: the force is distributed planar in the fabric, but the application is spatial. The diﬀerence in their characters is the ﬁrst thing that makes this subject complex. Deformations can recover either fully or partially. The theories are precise where the recovery is full but they need to be developed for the conditions where it is not full. In a condition such as bagging, recovery is not full; there is permanent deformation and this is the second thing that makes this subject complex. In research, a textile material which possesses a non-continuous structure is assumed to be a continuous structure, logically this is a contradicting situation. The contrast between a continuous and a non-continuous structure is the third thing that makes this subject complex.

3.1 Basic Theories and Methods In this section, elasticity, elastic theory, viscoelasticity, creep-relaxation, inverse relaxation, plasticity, membrane theory, plate and shell theories, elastica theory, ﬁnite element analysis, energy methods, and shear property are explained brieﬂy. Almost every material shows some measure of elongation when a force acts upon it, but if the same material recovers fully after the force is lifted, it is said that this material is ‘elastic’. Elastic behaviour means that there is no permanent deformation in the material. In an elastic material, strain is simply a function of change in shape. If a textile material shows elastic behaviour, it is also called elastic [48]. In general, there are elastic and non-elastic material kinds [53]. In engineering, there are some cases that the mechanical method of approach is not suﬃcient to solve. Then, elasticity theory, which a diﬀerent method of approach, is needed. In some cases, deeper work of elasticity theory is also needed. The main application of elastic theory is to study the deformation of bodies in which all its three dimensions possess equal importance. For instance, the forces in cylinders or the forces acting upon rollers in bearings can only be solved with elasticity theory. But, elasticity theory cannot explain the intimate strength changes in shafts and bars. As Postle and Norton [50, 51] stated, mathematical elasticity theory had undergone many changes, mainly in tensor notation, linear deviations from geometric and material being, and numerical analysis. Lloyd [40] has stated that the easiest way to handle mechanical properties is with the elasticity theory. Linear elasticity makes for an easier understanding of the complex situations in real textile material behaviour. But, the isotropic assumption in this theory is insuﬃcient in some cases, and another formulation which is anisotropic is required. This formulation is required to deﬁne non-linear elasticity, viscoelastic models and elastic behaviour both related to time and to history.

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If recovery is not full in a material, then behaviour which is not elastic takes place and strain is related both to the change in shape and to its diﬀerential equation according to time [53]. In this case, the Young’s modulus starts to change and superposition principles are applied to the strain properties [15]. Some material behave as elastic solids, whereas others behave like ﬂowing liquids; in some cases this is true for very small elongations. These kinds of material do not deform constantly under constant force. If the material is forced to a constant deformation, then the force needed to keep it in this shape gets less. This kind of material is called viscoelastic [46, 48]. ‘Creep’ is increases in elongation under constant force, and ‘relaxation’ is decreases in force at constant elongation [15]. If, in successive relaxation experiments the relaxation modulus is constant, then this is called ‘linear viscoelasticity’ [53]. If elongation and elongation rate are very small, and the force–elongation relationships according to time can be deﬁned with diﬀerential equations and stable constants, then the material is called ‘linear viscoelastic’ [47]. In their work, Nachane and Sundaram [47] studied ‘inverse relaxation’ in polymeric ﬁbres. In this case, after some amount of elongation the material is pulled again, and if the material feels some force, this force increases with time, ﬁrst a fast increase, then some decrease, then comes to a constant after a long time. There is a late response mechanism in this material and inverse relaxation is taking place. In many studies, materials having an amorphous construction (leather, textiles, etc.) show mostly viscoelastic behaviour and some evidence which supports the theory that plastoelastic mechanism changes into viscoelastic mechanism is gained. A membrane is a perfectly ﬂexable plate, and it does not have bending rigidity. In membrane theory, the membrane deformations take place in-plane of the material [10]. ‘‘Plate and Shell Theories’’ are also concerned with deformations in materials, but their diﬀerence is that in these theories, one dimension of the material under study has a diﬀerent importance than the others. The material then takes the form of a plate or a shell, in which case the thickness is much smaller than the other dimensions. When the thickness of the so called shell is compared with the smallest deﬂection radius, it is assumed to be very small [65]. According to small deformation (deﬂection) theory, elongations which results in membrane elongation because of strain are regarded as normal. These may be eliminated and are very small according to thickness [17]. In large deﬂections, small-strain theory, which gives displacements as much as the thickness, is used. The displacements are small according to plate dimensions. In real large-deformation theory, double curvatures cause extensions at the surface and they also cause ﬁnite membrane elongations to occur. When deformation takes place, it is considered that the elements that are in the vertical direction to the plate or the shell are not deformed, but keep their initial forms. When the perpendicular force component is compared with the others, it is assumed that it causes forces which can be excluded [57]. The thin shell theory is used in the areas of aerospace, maritime (ships, submarines, etc.), pressure pipes, water tanks, locomotives, steam pots, energy production stations, space work (spaceshuttles), petroleum production, parachutes, construction (concrete work), etc. because there are forces with the lateral stress and hydrostatic approach. Also, deﬂection problems of conical and spherical shells are solved with this theory. The deﬂection measurement generally used in thin elastic shell theory is the diﬀerence of the bending tensors taken separately before and after the deformation of the surface [50, 51]. The theory of the thin elastic shell substances has been developed to include deﬂection, plasticity, creep, breakage, sandwich construction, and ﬁbre reinforced composites. As Postle and Norton [50, 51] stated, since Love [17], it had been worked on this theory to be developed how, to include the deﬂection and elongation eﬀects combined; so every problem

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is searched and solved over and over again. When the mechanical model of a fabric is constructed, the mathematics of the model and the physics of the matter should be in coordination with each other. This point is very important for the limiting factors because, from model to model, the limiting factor may be diﬀerent. Postle and Norton [50, 51] studied fabric deformation in the relaxed state, without any strain or stress on it, and chose their equilibrium states freely in the Riemann space. In the model they created, it is possible to deﬁne all the mechanical responses that could occur in any elastic fabric. If the components of the tensor that shows the properties of the material can be contingent upon the environmental factors, then aging, humidity, thermal eﬀects, etc. can also be modelled there. Both the elasticity theory and the plate and shell theories study the behaviour of the material in the elastic zone. There seem to be some missing points for large extension and large elongation percentages which takes place in the viscoelastic zone of the material behaviour. Even though the theories are not perfect for textile materials, it has been possible to calculate nearly precisely the strain and shear deformation in plain woven fabrics [42]. Postle and Postle [52] have stated that the Thin Shell Theory was able to solve most of the complex problems in engineering applications but that this theory was not modelled enough to be applied to textile materials under stress. In textile materials, the strain applied can be very small but the extensions it causes can be very large, and these deformations can have highly non-linear characteristics. In their work, they developed non-linear mathematical methods for both elastic and non-elastic fabric behaviour, in order to solve the problems of fabric crease, wrinkle, and fold. The non-elastic mechanisms of the fabric involve the viscoelasticity of the ﬁbre and the inter-ﬁbre friction, and these properties determine the ability of the fabric to recover after creasing, wrinkling and folding. The recovery period of a fabric is also important from the point of view of its performance during wear. ‘Elastica’ theory studies large elongations with small extension percentages. For some fabric deformations, small deformation theory seems to be suﬃcient, but for textile material in general, the approach of large elongation and extension percentages is needed [40, 41]. The elastica theory for one dimension includes these points: (i) The diﬀerential geometry of the curves in space and the deformation measures derived from them; (ii) The equilibrium equations of the forces and the moments acting upon the diﬀerential element of the curve; (iii) The equations relating the strains and the moments with the deformation measures; (iv) Numerical analysis methods. In the elastica theory, the fabric is treated as a surface in space that includes the same four points in one dimension. When it has been deﬁned in every coordinate, we get a vector zone from the unit vectors that are tangent to the surface and to the coordinate lines, from the unit vectors which are tangent to the surface but perpendicular to the coordinate lines, and from the unit vectors which are perpendicular to the surface and to the coordinate lines. From here, we get the metric tensor of the surface. There is also published work with geodesics [52]. In fabrics that are large continuous constructions, degree of freedom can be inﬁnite; but to study the system and its deformations requires a limited number of degrees of freedom. ‘Finite Element Analysis’ is the formulation of the required equations in the small units that are able to represent the whole system, and each of them possesses a limited number of degrees of freedom; then the equations of the small units are brought together and the whole system is deﬁned. This has been worked with matrixes and there are also computer programs that have been developed for this purpose [40]. Finite element analysis is a kind of numerical analysis.

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The extension method of the Finite Element Method is appropriate for use with small extension percentages and for linear elasticity. The fabric is regarded as a two-dimensional continuous structure and is divided into small pieces that have tip points called ‘knots’. Every knot has a special degree of freedom. Element e would be existing somewhere in the x–y plane and having i–j–k knots; also u and v would be elongations in the x and y directions. The elongations u and v are called membrane deformations. Furthermore, when the shape function is added, the distribution of unknown extensions from a known function can be approximately calculated. The non-linear behaviour generally seen in fabric deformation – non-linear material properties, large elongations and extension percentages – requires some modiﬁcations in the fundamental theory. Time elapses are used in the ‘step-by-step increase’ method of Finite Element Analysis for viscoelastic materials. There are diﬀerent areas of application for the Finite Element Analysis in textiles. This method can be used in yarn mechanics, and fabric structure and mechanics, besides thermal isolation problems, chemical diﬀusions, dyeing, etc.; also in ﬁnding the shape of air-ﬁlling textile materials such as sails, and in ballistic experiments [42]. Energy methods are commonly used in deformation research in textile materials. The deformation occurring at every point of the construction is deﬁned by the density of the deformation energy. In order to obtain the density of the deformation energy, special yarn and fabric properties have to be eliminated, special deformation geometry has to be assumed, and special energy methods have to be used. Postle and Norton [50, 51] were able to deﬁne the recovery behaviour according to time with the formulae they developed. In fabrics, certain extensions are not responded by yarn elongation, but responded by relative turning at the intersection points of the yarns. This is called shear, and Chapman and Hearle [18] state that it is strongly believed that fabrics cover double curvature surfaces by their shear property. Hearle et al. [29] state that the deﬁnition of bending in complex situations is much harder. Shear property plays the most important role in both plate and shell bending. Many other researchers have done much detailed research into shear rigidity and determined that shear behaviour plays the most important role in fabric deformation. Fabric shear behaviour has been studied in many diﬀerent cases such as constructions working with air (parachutes, sails, etc.), conveyer belts, geotextiles, sewing of garments, fabric handle and drape, and covering of double curvature surfaces. Kawabata et al. [32] deﬁned the total shear deformation as a combination of two-sided strain and shear deformation. Shear elongation is a perpendicular shortening as a result of a regular elongation in one dimension. So, the area and the thickness of the material stays constant. Shear force is the perpendicular force acting along one group of yarns in the fabric; thus this has to be equalized by an equal and opposite force, and for equilibrium a force couple has to occur. In practical experiments, the fabric is kept under constant force while the shear force is increased. Compressive force occurs much more slowly, and at the end causes bending. Kawabata et al. [32] state that, compared to strain deformation, a fabric shows very little resistance to shear deformation. When freely put on a double curvature surface, the top part of the fabric where the drape has not started yet, can easily cover that part. Generally, fabrics are subject to large deformations, and under those conditions the combination of both strain and shear deformations is seen. For example, when the knee is bent, the fabric deformation at the knee is a result of double curvature strain and shear. Furthermore, deformations are ﬁnite. Bassett and Postle [11] state that in shear studies, it is assumed that

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the constructive lines are straight before and after deformation and angles and strain forces have not changed. An aluminium foil cannot cover a double curvature surface and is a good example of not deforming in its own plane. But, woven fabrics can do this, and knitted fabrics can cover double curvature surfaces very well because of their diﬀerent elongation characteristics. Asvadi and Postle [8] did a numerical study, considering linear viscoelastic theory, on viscoelastic responses and friction forces in woven wool fabrics, which show shear deformation at large extensions. They state that the conformability of the fabric when it is being sewn, the ability of the fabric to keep the shape given to it, and the recovery after wrinkle, have to be estimated. These properties can be deﬁned by the determination of the mechanical properties at the later stages of bending and shear deformations. In such deformations, most fabrics show some amount of behaviour that is not elastic, such as ﬁbre viscoelasticity and friction between ﬁbres. The mechanics of deformation in textiles is much aﬀected by the shear properties.

3.1.1 Defining Bagging by Membrane Theory According to Lloyd [40], when a ﬂat sheet is deformed in its own plane and no transverse displacement occurs, this means planar deformations are taking place. Strains can be modelled and appropriate mechanical properties formulated and measured. The membrane strains that develop in the plane of the sheet are also called in-plane strains. Even in transverse displacements, there are in-plane strains occuring in the sheet material. In tension membranes, there are transverse displacements of the fabric, but the bending stiﬀness of the fabric is negligible [40]. Extended methods of the membrane theories are applied to the problems in this case. Fabric is a membrane material which can bend to a cylindrical curved surface without deformation [11]. But the fabric has to ﬁt doubly-curved surfaces in a garment, so it will deform in its plane or buckle and fold. Amirbayat and Hearle [2] consider the fabric as a membrane and solve the problem with membrane strains. They state that in the complex buckling of ﬂexible sheet material, membrane strains occur and they are very important. In double curvature over small areas, membrane strains are occuring. They state that solving these kinds of problems with membrane strains is more important than solving them with conventional shell theory. 3.1.2 Defining Bagging by Plate and Shell Theory Womersley’s [73] work is considered to be the ﬁrst step in the general evaluation of strain– elongation relations in fabrics. In his paper, he is the ﬁrst to apply diﬀerential geometry to study fabric deformations under stress. Under ideal conditions, the warp yarns of a woven fabric are parallel to each other, so are the weft yarns, and these two groups of yarns are perpendicular to each other when intersected. Under any kind of a stress, they bend and their newly deformed condition can then be deﬁned by a curved-coordinate system. Womersley has given the general equilibrium equations of a fabric that is stretched from the sides and is under pressure, as in the hydrostatic approach which is perpendicular to the fabric surface, with these assumptions: (i) The fabric is a thin lamina; (ii) The yarns are regular, fully bendable and non-elongating, with round cross-section; (iii) The fabric structure changes very slowly; this means that the changes in the fabric construction when the force is applied are very small and they are the same in consecutive units; (iv) The fabric cannot stand shear forces; in this case, only the strains occuring in the yarn will be taken into consideration; (v) Intersections are stable, they do not slip; in this case, when the size of one

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d1 : Diameter of the warp yarn d2 : Diameter of the weft yarn Dð¼ d1 þ d2 Þ: Fabric thickness p1 : Distance between the centres of two warp yarns p2 : Distance between the centres of two weft yarns h1 =2: Distance between the centre of a warp yarn and the fabric axis h2 =2: Distance between the centre of a weft yarn and the fabric axis y1: The angle between the warp yarns and the fabric axis y2: The angle between the weft yarns and the fabric axis l1 : Length of a warp yarn between two weft yarns l2 : Length of a weft yarn between two warp yarns c1 ¼ l1 =p2 À 1: Crimp of a warp yarn c2 ¼ l2 =p1 À 1: Crimp of a weft yarn Fig. 4 Ideal fabric geometry according to the bendable yarn model of Peirce [49]

unit and the change occurring at the surface by the changes at the axis are compared, the quantities are very small. The fabric construction with these assumptions and the real fabric construction are very diﬀerent because the assumptions are made in order to develop a theory for a fundamental model and most of the fabric properties which make the fabric behaviour complex, such as elasticity, viscoelasticity, friction, compression of yarns, are not taken into consideration. Womersley took Peirce’s [49] fabric geometry as the basis in his work. In Fig. 4, Peirce’s ideal fabric geometry according to the bendable yarn model is illustrated. When we move one intersection aside, and inspect perpendicular to the fabric axis, we get: h1 ¼ fl1 À ðd1 þ d2 Þy1 g sin y1 þ ð1 À cos y1 Þðd1 þ d2 Þ p2 ¼ fl1 À ðd1 þ d2 Þy1 g cos y1 þ sin y1 ðd1 þ d2 Þ ð1Þ ð2Þ

Similar equations apply to h2 and p1. When D ¼ d1 þ d2 ¼ 1, fabric thickness becomes a unit measure. Then, the equations become, h1 ¼ fl1 À y1 g sin y1 þ ð1 À cos y1 Þ p2 ¼ fl1 À y1 g cos y1 þ sin y1 ð3Þ ð4Þ

Also from Fig. 4, it is deduced that h1 þ h2 ¼ D ¼ d1 þ d2 ¼ 1, which is a fundamental relation between fabric constants. Even if the distances p1 and p2 change after deformation, l1 and l2 distances do not change because it is assumed that the yarns do not elongate. When the fabric is in the deformed state, the yarns are taken as the curves of a curvedcoordinate system. The warp yarns perform the v ¼ constant curves and weft yarns perform

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u ¼ constant u þ du ¼ constant v ¼ constant v þ dv ¼ constant Fig. 5

Point A : ðu; vÞ Point B : ðu þ du; vÞ Point C : ðu þ du; v þ dvÞ Point D : ðu; v þ dvÞ o : Angle between the two yarn groups

A bent fabric surface. Womersley [73]}

the u ¼ constant curves; therefore u changes along the warp yarns, and v changes along the weft yarns. A bent fabric surface is seen in Fig. 5. AB and DC correspond to warp yarns; dv is proportional with the number of warp yarns between AB and DC and because p1 is the distance between consecutive warp yarns along u ¼ constant curve, after deformation it becomes, ds ¼ p1 dv and in the similar way, along the v ¼ constant curve, it becomes, ds ¼ p2 du In this case, one unit of fabric surface is deﬁned as: ds2 ¼ p2 du2 þ 2p1 p2 cos o du dv þ p2 dv2 2 1 Since p1 and p2 are dependent variables, any fabric surface is deﬁned as: ABCDðareaÞ ¼ p1 p2 sin o du dv ð8Þ ð7Þ ð6Þ ð5Þ

The warp and the weft yarns intersect and cause tensions between themselves. From Fig. 5, this relation can be written as Eq. (9) because the yarns are considered to be pure bending; ð9Þ T1 sin y1 ¼ T2 sin y2 T1 : Tension in warp yarns T2 : Tension in weft yarns Since the components of T1 and T2 in the fabric surface are F1 and F2, then; F1 tan y1 ¼ F2 tan y2 F1 tan y1 = tan y2 ¼ F2 F2 ¼ wF1 ; w ¼ tan y1 = tan y2 ð10Þ ð11Þ ð12Þ

If w can be written in w( p1,l1,l2) form and p1 is known in terms of u and v, this proportion can be calculated everywhere on the fabric surface.

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P : Pressure applied perpendicular to the fabric dS : Area of the piece P dS : Force applied to the piece Fig. 6 Forces occuring in the fabric

When a force is applied in a perpendicular direction to the fabric plane and the equilibrium equations are written for the fabric, it is seen that these do not depend upon the assumptions of the yarn’s non-elongation and pure bending, but they depend upon the absence of shear forces and the smallness of the construction. The forces occuring on a piece of fabric which is bordered with u À 1=2du; u þ 1=2du; v À 1=2dv; v þ 1=2dv

curves are seen in Fig. 6, where, F1(u, v) ¼ Strain in warp yarns at Point (u, v) F2(u, v) ¼ Strain in weft yarns corresponding the above strain at Point (u, v) When the static equilibrium is considered on this piece of fabric, since the P force is equalized with the strain in the yarns, then these equilibrium equations should be written: F1 ðu þ 1=2du; vÞdv À F1 ðu À 1=2du; vÞdv þ F2 ðu; v þ 1=2dvÞdu À F2 ðu; v À 1=2dvÞdu ¼ PdS If n is a unit vector which is perpendicular to the surface at Point (u, v) [37], then ! P ¼P! n When Equations (8) and (14) are substituted in Equation (13): F1 ðu þ 1=2du; vÞdv À F1 ðu À 1=2du; vÞdv þ F2 ðu; v þ 1=2dvÞdu À F2 ðu; v À 1=2dvÞdu À Pn p1 p2 sin o du dv ¼ 0 When F1 and F2 are deﬁned as partial diﬀerentials, then, F1 ðu þ 1=2du; vÞdv À F1 ðu À 1=2du; vÞdv ¼ @F1 =@u du F2 ðu; v þ 1=2dvÞdu À F2 ðu; v À 1=2dvÞdu ¼ @F2 =@v dv Then, we would get, @F1 =@u þ @F2 =@v À P n p1 p2 sin o ¼ 0 ð18Þ ð16Þ ð17Þ ð15Þ ð13Þ

ð14Þ

If a is the unit vector in the warp direction and b is the unit vector in the weft direction, then a, b and n make the coordinate system of the three. The vector equation of equilibrium can be solved by multiplying a, b, and n scalars in turn. ! ! ! a ð19Þ F 1 ¼ F1 !; F 2 ¼ F2 b

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**can be written. Then the equations take this form:
**

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@F1 =@u þ ab @F2 =@v þ F2 a @b=@v ¼ 0 @F2 =@v þ ab @F1 =@u þ F1 b @a=@u ¼ 0 F2 n @b=@v þ F1 n @a=@u ¼ P p1 p2 sin o k1 is the curvature of the v ¼ constant curve in the tangential way, and k2 is the curvature of the u ¼ constant curve in the tangential way, so n @a=@u ¼ p2 k1 ; Then the equation takes this form, F2 p1 k2 þ F1 p2 k1 ¼ P p1 p2 sin o n @b=@v ¼ p1 k2

ð20Þ ð21Þ ð22Þ

ð23Þ

ð24Þ

and this equation is similar to the equilibrium equation of a foam [73]. If the surface were ﬂat, then the measures b @a/@u and a @b/@v would be related to the curvature of the u and v curves with these equations: b @a=@u ¼ p2 =r1 sin o a @b=@v ¼ Àp1 =r2 sin o ð25Þ ð26Þ

Here r1 ¼ curvature radius of u curve r2 ¼ curvature radius of v curve When the surface is not ﬂat, r1 and r2 become the curvature radii that are perpendicular to the tangent surface, and this means it is the radius of the geodesic arc. Geodesic curvatures are generally shown as g and g0 , so the equilibrium equations take this form: @F1 =@u þ cos o @=@vðw F1 Þ À wF1 g0 p1 sin o ¼ 0 cos o @F1 =@u þ @=@vðw F1 Þ þ F1 gp2 sin o ¼ 0 F1 ðk1 =p1 þ wk2 =p2 Þ ¼ P sin o ð27Þ ð28Þ ð29Þ

In these equations, w and p2 are the known functions of p1, so the three functions of equilibrium contain three unknowns which are F1, p1 and o. In this case, k1, k2 and g, g0 are dependent upon p1, p2 and o. The forces that occur at a special deformation and the pressure in the normal direction which will keep the system in equilibrium can be calculated from Equation (29), even it will be hard. It seems that working with coeﬃcients will be simple [73]. Kilby [33] studied the planar stress–strain relations in a woven anisotropic fabric. He considered the inﬂuence of the fabric anisotropy on fabric mechanical behaviour. In his work, he considered the fabric as an anisotropic elastic lamina. He derived a coeﬃcient that he called the generalised modulus of the fabric, which shows the fabric’s tensile modulus in the test direction. He worked mainly with small strains. Kirk and Ibrahim [34] stated that if the primary requirement from a fabric is performance, then the available stretch level of the fabric should be 20–30%; but if the primary requirement from a fabric is comfort, then the available stretch level should be 25–40%. The fabric tries to be in agreement with the body’s movements by sliding over the skin, leaving some space between the body and the clothing, and by stretching. Fabric stretching causes fabric bagging when the double curvature parts of the body are concerned.

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Postle and Norton [50, 51] later used the application of diﬀerential geometry in fabric deformation. These researchers used tensor analysis to determine the woven fabric ﬁnite deformation, and deﬁned four tensor areas: (i) Tensor area for fabric extension percentage; (ii) Tensor area for normal curvature of the fabric surface; (iii) Tensor area for yarn bending in the fabric surface; (iv) Tensor area for yarn twist in the fabric surface. They drew curved coordinates according to Cartesian coordinates (x1, x2, x3) of the three-dimensional Euclidian space. They developed parameters to provide a coordinate system on the fabric surface and these are also constant as coordinate lines. If the points of the fabric are marked to inﬁnity, then with a single system all the points of the fabric can be deﬁned easily. These are called ‘convected coordinates’; and if the warp or the weft way is taken as the axis, then they are called ‘weave coordinates’. In Postle and Norton’s work, the ﬁrst and the last forms of the fabric are simply evaluated as being positioned in two diﬀerent spaces. The diﬀerences between the tensors of these two positions are deﬁned as the deformation occuring. Some researchers were not concerned with the top area of the fabric where the drape did not start yet when the fabric was bent to conform to a spherical surface, or with the very top part of the fabric when it is thrown in an uncontrolled way to make three-fold buckling [32, 50, 51, 57]. They developed some models and described the uniaxial and biaxial tensile behaviour and shear behaviour of plain woven fabrics. They also calculated the lateral yarn compression and ﬁbre slippage during tensile deformation by using some general graphical analysis methods and empirical calculations. If the ﬁbre viscoelasticity is included in the model it will then be improved. They stated that bagging deformation is composed of biaxial tensile and shearing deformation, and that this kind of deformation is ﬁnite [32]. Some carried out their work to model the energy of the fabric and drew force diagram of the fabric ´ similar to the contour lines in Moire topography [76]. Bassett and Postle [9, 11] took the concept of covering a three-dimensional surface with a fabric in a diﬀerent way and studied how the fabric would cover such a surface with warp and weft yarns keeping their parallel positions relative to each other when force is applied on them. They did work to combine the subjects of fabric sewability, garment appearance and fabric drape, with fabric properties such as shear rigidity, shear hysterisis, bending rigidity and bending hysterisis. They tried to determine the relations between fabric elongation, shear and bending properties, and behaviour in conditions of sewing and deformation in use. The term ‘a deformed state’ has two aspects. One is the study of the in-plane forces reproduced by the applied external forces and how these in-plane forces are distributed in the fabric plane; the other aspect is the study of the changes in the shape of the fabric, which can be planar, spatial or curvature. They state that a fabric having a membrane structure can cover only a cone without deformation (a cylinder is a cone having its top located at inﬁnity). The behaviour of such a fabric can be calculated from the fabric’s bending parameters for various intersecting angles; but in diﬀerent parts of a garment, a fabric has to be able to cover the double-curvature surfaces, so it will either deform in its plane, or crease, or buckle. In the theoretical approach of Bassett and Postle [9], there is the Elasticity Theory on one side, where the elongations and elongation percentages are small and the material is linear isotropic, and the Finite Element Analysis on the other side. This method showed a parallel improvement with the developments in computers, and was adopted by Lloyd [40, 41] to succesfully solve some problems in textile technology. Bassett and Postle [9, 11] in their work considered the fabric as a web of rod elements and evaluated the fabric as if divided into small squares. The forces act as force couples in the way they study the problem. The force couples equilibrate each other when they are vertical

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Textile Progress

to each other, but when they have an angle between them they make themselves work. Bassett and Postle [9, 11] laid a circular piece of fabric on a half-sphere to comform to a spherical surface. Here, the friction between the fabric and the surface it covers is not taken into consideration. The top part of the sphere covers the whole surface very well but towards the bottom, drapes occur. Equal weights were hung at the bottom of the fabric, and as they were hung, the part that covered the sphere surface at the top increased. In this work, it was considered that the rod elements did not elongate but the network changed shape according to the shear forces. The stress and strain distributions in the fabric were calculated by a numerical method developed by the researchers. The approximation of the fabric was like a ﬂexible net-like grid of ‘ball-jointed’ rod elements. The forces, extensions, and shears were calculated by an iterative method. The main focus of their work was on the mechanical behaviour of isotropic fabrics. The points Pu,0 and P0,v take place at the side planes of the coordinate plane when the quarter of the sphere is studied. Point P1,1 is the intersection point of P1,0 and P0,1 which is one intersection away. All the other Pu,v points can be found the same way. It is considered that there is no elongation between the elements in the network when the shear angles are calculated. The shear angle at the point Pu,v can be calculated as euv À fufv (in terms of radians). Here, fu is the f-coordinate of Pu,0 and fv is the f-coordinate of P0,v. The shear force couple in every element can be calculated only if it is taken as a function of the shear angle. If it is taken as an eﬀect of shear, tensile and bending properties, a very complex situation comes about. Since there are weights hanging along the bottom intersections, the force acting upon every element can be calculated. When the limiting factors are taken into consideration, the unknown forces at the bottom edge intersections can be found by solving the equilibrium equations. When all the calculations belonging to the bottom edge are ﬁnished, then one can move to the next inner row, and consecutively, can come up to the point P0,0 and exactly ﬁnd the force distribution. If yarn elongation is important, then ﬁrst, the force–elongation characteristics of the fabric used are worked out. Then, starting from the bottommost edge, the calculations are redone. If the geometry of the system comes out diﬀerently because of the elongations, then the force distribution comes out diﬀerently also. The relation between the weights hanging at the bottom and the curved surface covering the the top was investigated in terms of angle f, but no suﬃcient relation was found. The most important solution found was: When the fabric was ﬁrst laid on top of the sphere, from the point of preventing the bending at the edges, the eﬀect of yarn elongation is only 1% and the amount of weight needed to prevent bending at a speciﬁc angle of f, if elongation is eliminated, is found to be directly proportional to the fabric’s shear resistance. This result conﬁrms the idea that the fabric takes three-dimensional forms according to its shear resistance. The data found to date show that fabrics that gain double curvature, create high pressing forces in themselves, even though the studies were done at low loadings. This may seem contradictionary but the results obtained reﬂect this conclusion [9, 11].

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3.2 Mechanism of Bagging Amirbayat and Hearle [3] stated that fabric’s drape and comformability properties are those that make it diﬀerent from other layered materials. They found that the limiting assumptions of the plate and shell theories are not suﬃcient for investigating the threefold buckling of textile materials, both for the terms used and the methods used. Calladine [17] has made an assumption emphasizing the interaction between bending and extension, but the application of this assumption to buckling textile material is not perfect because it

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considers elastic theory depending upon small elongation–small displacement and plastic theory depending upon large elongation–large displacement. Calladine [17] is not concerned with complex buckling where recovery is possible after large elongation–large displacement. This is the diﬀerence between membrane deformation and bending deformation outside the membrane. At a single curvature, many layers of the material behave the same; but at double curvature, they behave very diﬀerently. The buckling shapes are various in these cases because double curvature needs in-plane elongations. A plane-like sheet covers the doublecurvatured surface like a map of the spherical world laid ﬂat on a sheet of paper. There is no force applied from outside. On the contrary, textile materials and elastic materials can behave according to membrane extensions and, if there is a force application from outside, they can conform to them.

3.2.1 Elastic Effects In garment production, there are areas of the body such as the shoulders where a surface with double curvature has to be covered, and this is achieved in the fabric’s direction of shear rigidity. Lindberg et al. [39], Hearle et al. [29], Amirbayat and Hearle [2, 3], and many others, proved in their works that the relation between drape constant and bending rigidity improves if shear strength is taken into consideration. Amirbayat and Hearle [2] examined the recoverable bending of ﬂexible fabrics under small forces, but did not examine the unrecoverable deformation of rigid material under large forces. They state that in three-fold buckling, two of the buckles occur in the middle layers and one buckle occurs at the side layer. They assumed that there was a smooth passage from one to the other, but there is a strict separation between them because the layers are sensitive to the diﬀusion of energy. They state that the viscoelastic properties and creep-relaxation properties of a fabric play a role at the conformed top part, the behaviour becomes very complex and mainly the fabric is pushed to take the form of a diﬀerent shape. Shanahan et al. [57] in their work state that there is a considerable cooperation between the bending, shear and tensile parameters of the fabric and if their constants were to be calculated then the degree to which they aﬀect each other could be worked out. But Bassett and Postle [11] in their work considered the elongation, shear and bending features independently of each other. Shanahan et al. studied the fabric elastic behaviour at complex deformations. They concentrated on drape in their work and considered the fabric as a twodimensional continuum. They worked with this consideration and studied the behaviour of the material in the linear elastic area. They emphasized that there are large-elongation largedeformation conditions in textile materials, and for both isotropic and elastic material there are non-elastic, non-linear and time-dependent relations. Even at small strains, textile materials will show viscoelastic and frictional slides. That is why the deformation that takes place is non-linear, cannot fully recover and is time-dependent in character. Also, they suggest that a three-dimensional full analysis has to be done including the fabric thickness. It is stated that at large elongations, the force–elongation relations are not elastic, non-linear, and show time-dependent diﬀerences and irregular recoveries. 3.2.2 Viscoelastic Effects Amirbayat and Hearle [3] state that the main reason for not studying this subject earlier was that some of the assumptions in applied mechanics are not in agreement with textile materials. Textile constructions are not continuous; they are made up of smaller pieces. They are not isotropic and linear, they show hysteresis and they are time-dependent in their responses.

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In general, their viscoelastic properties are not taken into consideration. In complex buckling, very complex deformations occur as a result of large elongations and displacements. The reason why this subject is studied now is that, in the last ﬁfty years, there is an increase in the use of man-made ﬁbres and advances in the production methods of textiles. As a result of these, the experiences and the trial–error methods that were exercised before can no longer be used; and they were very expensive and time consuming. Also, new application areas of textiles have been invented such as geotextiles, aerotextiles etc. A diﬀerent performance from the modern fabric is expected. As a result of developing computer technology and its application in textile investigations, work that symbolises the behaviour of the fabric in usage, even when the fabric is at the design stage, has improved a lot [44]. Zhang et al. [80] studied the decaying of internal energy in fabrics when they macroscopically examined the physical mechanism of fabric bagging and the components of stress during bagging. They also looked at the energy changes occuring when the fabric is repeatedly bagged. They developed a test method and abstracted three mechanical criteria for objectively evaluating fabric bagging, which are residual bagging height, bagging fatigue, and bagging resistance. Bagging fatigue also includes the ability of elastic recovery, and bagging resistance also includes the ability to resist deformation. If we name them in deformation energy terms, then we can say elastic and viscoelastic energy of the ﬁbres and plastic deformation which results from frictional slippage between ﬁbres and yarns. They found from the results that fabric bagging is closely related to the viscoelasticity of ﬁbres and frictional restrictions in the fabric construction. They were able to predict the fabric bagging fatigue behaviour and residual bagging height from fundamental ﬁbre–yarn mechanical properties and fabric sturctural parameters. They investigated the relations between the mechanical criteria and ﬁbre–yarn–fabric parameters, both theoretically and experimentally. They found that the ability of the fabric to resist bagging decreased with time and that the decrease had an exponential behaviour. They state that during the bagging process, there is a kind of fatigue behaviour of the textile material. The work of loading in the ﬁrst ﬁve cycles of the bagging test was measured. They included the elastic energy in the fabric and the hysteresis energy, which includes the viscoelastic energy and the plastic energy. The energies decayed with the cycle of deformation. Then they calculated the three mechanical parameters to describe the fatigue process. Diﬀerent ﬁbre compositions and weave structures among the fabrics yielded to diﬀerent mechanical behaviour between the fabrics. They tried to predict the bagging performance from ﬁbre–yarn properties and fabric structural features and to ﬁnd the relation between these two sets of parameters. They also developed a test method for subjective evaluation, they took photographs of the bagged fabric samples, and conducted some psychophysical perceptual tests. They found that subjective perceptions depend mostly on fabric residual height, and the residual bagging shape is also an important stimuli; the shape is related to fabric anisotropy. They found a high correlation between using the photographs and the real bagged fabric samples. In their later researches, they use image information [80].

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4. TEST METHODS FOR BAGGING 4.1 Methods Related to Bagging in International Standards It has previously been stated that the studies done of deformation in woven fabrics also included those where the force was applied to the fabric’s plane in the vertical direction and there was displacement where the recovery was not full. Deformation under hydrostatic

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forces and ball-penetration were used in bursting strength tests. Some researchers worked according to these principles. Their works are summarized here. Sommer [59] in his work used the Schopper bursting strength apparatus (DIN 53861, Parts 1-2-3, 1970) [22]. He worked with diﬀerent weaves and diﬀerent compositions (including rubber), both for woven and knitted fabrics. He evaluated the bursting strength pressure as the main value. This researcher considered that the fabric attained a spherical shape at bursting. According to DIN 53861, Parts 1-2-3, it also is considered that the dome occurring in a bursting strength tester is spherical. Zurek and Bendkowska [85] proved that a circular piece of fabric makes an elliptic dome when bursting in the apparatus. The ball-penetration test of ASTM Standard D231-62 revised to D3887-96, D3786-01, D3787-01 [7]; and TS 7126 [67] exerts a force on a 12.5 cm. diameter knitted fabric with a 2.54 cm. polished steel sphere at a constant speed of 305 mm/min until the ball penetrates the fabric by tearing. The force at tearing is evaluated. In their work, Scardino and Ko [56] used three-dimensional fabric which had yarns intersecting at 608 and measured their extension, shear and bursting deformations in this apparatus. They also did the same measurements with two-dimensional fabric and compared the two groups. They found that the force distribution in the three-dimensional fabric when deformed was more even than that in the twodimensional fabric. Also they found that, at the same force measurement, the threedimensional fabric was deformed permanently but the two-dimensional fabric was torn. In the literature, we meet a Chinese standard, FJ 552. 6-85 [25, 80, 82]. Even though this standard was not seen in preparation of this text, it is understood from the literature that it describes the bagging behaviour by means of bagging height or bagging volume, and wear trials are also used as a subjective method in experimental investigations. In British Standards, there is a standard regarding the woven fabric’s resistance to sagging during wear, BS 4294 [16]. The Turkish Standard TS 6071 [66] is a translation of this standard. Sagging is the stretch deformation occuring in the fabric in daily usage. It is diﬀerent from bagging, but is sometimes confused with bagging.

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4.2 New Methods Developed The kinds of tests we see in the standards and most of the researches which will be explained in Section 5, work with, a sphere pressing against the fabric, either woven or knitted. This pressing sphere method is the one which is mostly used. Another method for measuring bagging behaviour is the wearer test. This method is subjective and is also used by some of the researchers to conﬁrm the test method they had developed. Another method is using the KES-FB apparatus, used by one research worker and which will be explained in the next sections. In that research, bagging behaviour of the fabric was determined by the variables in the KES-FB apparatus. This is a diﬀerent point of view in bagging studies. An image processing method was also used by one group of researchers. This method was then compared with visual tests done on several people, and proved useful for determining the bagging of garments. It can be used both before the fabric is sewn into a garment and after the garment has been used for a period of time. All of these methods will be explained in detail in later sections. 4.3 Other Similar Aspects Williams [72] in his work with parachutes found out that the inner volume of a parachute changes very little because of the elongation of the parachute fabric. In his work, he considered the fabric as a membrane with linear elongation. Ericksen et al. [24] applied

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Textile Progress

longitudinal force to the parachute fabric produced from the synthetic ﬁbre Kevlar 291 (single-ply plain woven) and measured extension and examined the changes occurring in the fabric geometry. When the fabric reached a speciﬁc extention, they removed the force, cut the fabric and took photographs of the cross-section. From these photographs, the changes in the fabric geometry and yarn cross-section could be seen. They postulated that when the fabric ﬁrst starts to feel the force, yarn bending is responsible for the elastic behaviour, but as the force gets stronger, bending turns to elongation, and when the force is extreme, yarn elongation is mainly responsible. The eﬀects of bending and elongation in the yarn crosssection were very clearly detected in their work. The weft density of this parachute fabric was much higher than the warp density. There has also been work done with deformations under pointed forces. Shanks [58] studied the dynamics of coarse nets by means of Finite Element Analysis. The unit area of a net is much larger when compared with that of a fabric. These kinds of nets are used as life protecting vests in airplanes or guards around rotating elements of machines. In these cases, the nets serve as energy absorbers and as mechanisms that distribute the energy throughout their own constructions. During usage, the construction of the net has to minimize the maximum dynamic eﬀect and should not be defective within its own body. Also, in nets that experience strain at high levels, such as tennis rackets or squash rackets, there has to be minimum contact time between the net and the object touching it, and the energy absorbed by the net has to be at the lowest. Shank’s assumptions were such as these: (i) The elements have no bending rigidity and twist, which means when under stress there is no inclination to untwist; (ii) There is pretension given to the net before impact. This is to prevent any crimp that could occur and to guarantee to start the experiments with the same tension every time; (iii) The intersection points are ﬁxed, they do not shear. This cannot be true for textile materials; (iv) The boundary line is also ﬁxed; no slippage occurs there; (v) The material used is linear elastic and is uniform throughout the net; but in cases of large extentions, we can mention geometrical irregularity. Another approach to deformation is the deformation under pointed forces. Ballistic studies are good examples for these. Roylance et al. [55] applied dynamic ﬁnite element analysis, which was developed for single ﬁbres, to model woven surfaces. Their main purpose was to improve the performance of bullet-proof vests. In their research, they found that the ballistic event cannot be treated separately from the construction eﬀect, and that there is a high correlation between the ﬁbre’s ballistic strength and the ballistic strength of the fabric woven from that ﬁbre. When it was ﬁrst studied in the case of a ﬁbre, at the impact of the bullet, the axial elongation waves, which are independent of the velocity of the impact, get away from the impact point. Following these waves, the ﬁbre material starts to ﬂow towards the impact point. Also, waves opposite to these axial waves start to propagate from the point of impact; they propagate slowly and slow down the ﬂow of the material. Since the movement of the material is impeded, every time a wave comes, it vibrates. The most important diﬀerence between the ﬁbre and the fabric is that there is interaction between the axial waves and the opposite waves because there are ﬁbre intersections in the fabric. In every intersection, an opposite wave is reﬂected, the magnitude of the main wave decreases, and the elongation behind the wave increases. At this point, the geometry of the fabric is very important. When a signal which is perpendicular to the surface is studied, only a proportion of the force applied to a certain intersection is passed to the next intersection. Here, the diﬀerence between the continuous material and non-continuous material becomes obvious. The total

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energy passes through every point at the same amount in a continuum where conductance is perfect, but in a non-continuum the signal goes back and forth between intersections so as to decrease. At the beginning the signal is eﬀective at one point, but as it is propagating in wave form, it is distributed to a wide area. In a non-continuum, the density of the energy and related extension proportions decrease if factors of the reﬂectance of energy and the turning of energy into some other kind are not considered. Another diﬀerence between the continuum and a non-continuum is this: In a non-continuum, it takes a long time for a signal to propogate and it has a fading character; on the contrary, in a continuum, the signal keeps all the properties it had when it left its main source, in every point [55]. There are other researchers working on ballistic impact such as Leech [38], Montgomery et al. [45], Cunniﬀ [19, 20] and Lloyd [40]. Lloyd [40] among these applied ﬁnite element analysis to fabric deformation and also used this for ballistic impacts, regarding the time of impact as a cone.

5. RESEARCHES ON BAGGING

Many experimental investigations have been done on bagging but fundamental investigation of bagging progresses slowly. One reason for this is that the deformation during bagging is large and three-dimensional. Another reason is that there are practical diﬃculties in measuring linear and nonlinear, elastic and viscoelastic, anisotropic and frictional properties of textile materials.

5.1 Researches with Woven Fabrics Lindberg et al. [39] made a pioneering study of how a woven fabric covers curved surfaces. They looked at the problem from the garment-making point of view. They state that mechanical properties such as buckling, in-plane compression and shearing are needed in a fabric to make a garment from it, but there have to be upper and lower limits for these requirements. Also in garment making, a ﬂat fabric is turned into a three-dimensional shell and this feature bears relation with mechanical properties. The ‘formability’ property of a garment is introduced in their work. The fabric has to retain the form given to it, which means the fabric has to be set to keep that form, and they explain that stitching with overfeed gives the fabric what it needs to be set. Dimensional stability is discussed according to garment production steps later in their paper. They indicate that a garment is designed to cover the human body, so its shape resembles a body. There are curved regions in the body; for the fabric to take that curved shape, it has to behave like a shell rather than a membrane. In garment production, a plane-like fabric is turned into a three-dimensional shell which has to keep its form and has complex curvatures. When fabric is turned into a cylinder, simple bending takes place. But when it turns into a spherical form or a saddle, distortion of the surface elements are needed. A spherical surface can be formed by extension forces or compression forces. When a fabric is placed in a ring and pressed by a half-sphere, extension forces take place. Biaxial stresses also will be taking place, pressure being constant, and the height of the deformed spherical part will be determined by the biaxial extensibility of the fabric. When a fabric is woven to ﬁt the spherical surface, then compression forces take place. Compressibility, in such a case, is determined by the compressibility of the fabric in various directions. They also emphasied the importance of the bending, shear, and extensibility of a fabric by experiments and by theories. In the photograph they present, a piece of wire gauze has been formed into a halfspherical shape, and by using simple analysis they have calculated the average diagonal

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Textile Progress

extension and circumferential compression of the gauze. But, they did not relate this to the stress distribution that could occur in a similarly deformed fabric [39]. Eeg-Olofsson [23] worked on the subject of deﬁning the shaping ability and what he called ‘comfortability’ of texile fabrics and similar materials. The necessary conditions for a fabric to conceal cylinders, cones, and spheres were studied. The idea of comfortability, which is the ability of a rectangular structure to conceal a spherical structure, was studied. In this work, shaping ability is calculated from strains and compressions of the fabric. The researcher did experiments with rubber fabric, and tried to calculate comfortability from the force exerted and the tensile strength of the fabric obtained by tensile tests. Fleissig [26] developed an apparatus to measure the permanent deformation in knees, elbows, and hips. In this apparatus, a piece of round fabric is pushed with a sphere of the same diameter. The strains in the warp and weft yarns of the fabric pushed with the spherical surface were studied according to membrane theory. He also made some assumptions as follows: (i) The fabric is a homogeneous isotropic membrane with a neglectable constant thickness; (ii) The dome formed when pressed with the sphere is big enough to almost equal the radius of the clamping circle; (iii) Bending moments and shearing forces can be neglected at every point of the membrane; (iv) The membrane is ﬁtted to the clamping circle as a hard ﬁt; (v) The external force applied by the sphere is continuous, constant and perpendicular to the fabric at every point. In other words, the force application is assumed to be hydrostatic; (vi) The frictional forces between the membrane and the spherical surface can be neglected. The intention here was to deform the fabric both in the warp and the weft directions and to study the behaviour of that part which is in the clamped area. When studying the tensile strength of the fabric, only one, the warp or the weft, direction is taken into consideration, but in a work such as this, both of them are taken into consideration in order to wrap up the sphere. The researcher included the deformations which he assumed to be similar to Hookian Laws. So it is proved by these experiments that yarn elasticity is very important at the very top of the curvature where the strain is the maximum. The maximum dome takes place at the maximum strain. Yokura et al. [76] emphasized the tendency of a fabric towards bagging. As stated before, bagging is seen after a force perpendicular to the fabric’s plane is applied to the fabric, so the fabric loses its dimensional stability and cannot recover fully. They developed an objective evaluation method for predicting the bagging propensity of woven fabric. They used the increasing bagging volume to measure this bagging propensity. The researchers named the volume of the dome occurring after the force application as the ‘bagging tendency’. They studied the volume which was formed by constant load resulting in shear deformation. They also measured the mechanical properties of the fabrics. They statistically examined the correlations between the bagging volume and the fabric’s mechanical properties. They placed the sample fabric on a half-sphere which had a 14 cm. diameter, clamped the chucks, loaded with a square frame, waited for ﬁve hours, and left it to recover for 19 hours. In their experiment, load was equally distributed along the warp and the weft directions. They name the creep occurring after repeated shear deformation under constant tension ‘dynamic creep’; and the creep under tension ‘static creep’. Bagging shape was not taken into consideration. They also tried to symbolize the ‘sweaty’ and the ‘normal’ stages of usage by keeping the humidity and the temperature high at the sweaty stage. In the statistical evaluation to predict the bagging volume, they used multiple regression analysis to the variables they obtained from the KES-FB system. The results were in accordance with 500 hours

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of wearing tests they did before with the same fabrics and derived empirical equations for the bagging propensity in terms of mechanical properties [76]. They worked with two groups of woven fabrics: one group of stretch fabrics with developed elastic properties, the other of classical fabrics with normal elastic properties. The stretch fabric group consisted of fabrics made up of PE (textured) yarns and polyurethane yarns. The classical fabric group consisted of fabrics made up of wool yarns, PE (spun) yarns and W/PE (spun) blend yarns. For the stretch fabrics group, the bagging volume gave a high correlation with the hysteresis behaviour in uniaxial tensile strength, bending rigidity and shear deformation in small angles, depending much on inter-ﬁbre and inter-yarn frictions. For the classical fabric group, the residual bagging volume gave a high correlation with the dynamic creep strain and rate values. They also found that in the fabrics mentioned, the residual bagging volume is correlated more on time dependent deformation, i.e. the viscoelasticity of the material. In diﬀerent kinds of deformation, fabric mechanical behaviour is correlated with this approach and one is able to identify possible relationships. In this approach, the roles of ﬁbre mechanical behaviour and yarn–fabric structural characteristics are not involved. The correlation between bagging volume and mechanical properties of the fabric was investigated statistically to predict the bagging propensity of woven fabrics from their mechanical properties obtained from the KES-FB system. The three-dimensional shapes of the bagged fabrics, in other ´ words the bagging volume, were measured by Moire topography, which is a system mainly used in map drawing. The volume can be calculated from the contour waves in that method. It was conceived that bagging in the stretch fabrics depended on the friction between ﬁbres and yarns when compared to the classical fabrics group, but that bagging in the classical fabrics group depended on the deformation over time when compared to the stretch fabrics group [76]. Sengoz [62] studied this subject from the point of view that bagging is a quality factor and ¸ ¨ determined how much bagging there would be when the fabric is in its plane form, before being sewn into a garment. The permanent deformation behaviour of a woven fabric was studied by model experiments analytically. The researcher used a universal tensile testing machine, and hollow cylinder and square frames to press the woven fabric. The curved surface of a half-sphere was pushed on a woven fabric which had a surface contact to form a spread force in between the half-sphere and the fabric. The resistance of the fabric to the forces that occur under this force and the permanent deformation conditions were examined. In her study, she worked with one kind of fabric but changed the experimental parameters many times, aiming to deﬁne the combination of parameters that would clearly determine the permanent deformation of a fabric. One other aim was to work out a suitable test method and to make it a standard laboratory test. It would be a great convenience to work out the relationship between diﬀerent parameters by regression equations, so as to be able to deﬁne one parameter in terms of another and thereby interpret the force, which is very hard to calculate, exerted by the body on the fabric. This work carries importance for examining the eﬀects of viscoelastic properties in diﬀerent kinds of deformation on permanent deformation, and the formation and the alteration of these eﬀects relative to time and pressure; also, to design a fabric which maintains suitable usage performance or to determine the suitable usage conditions of a woven fabric by improving permanent deformation geometry and mechanics. The experiments were done in the laboratory by symbolizing the diﬀerent forces acting upon a woven fabric during usage. For example, experiments such as applying a pointed force to a vertical fabric, pulling the fabric between jaws, grabbing it with jaws, or leaving a weight on it, are the commonest and such tests are all important to survey how the force is distributed in the fabric by such applications.

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However, when the fabric is forced to take the shape of a spherical surface, it is equally important to know the force distribution. Sengoz [62] in this work aimed to ﬁnd out the deformation occurring when a spatial force ¸ ¨ is applied perpendicular to the fabric plane and the permanent deformation related to time. She developed a test method to succeed in these aims. Since there are too many independent variables acting upon deformation in experimentation, these variables were tried and the diﬀerent behaviours of the fabric studied. A combination most suitable for a standard test method was aimed for, with the help of the graphical and statistical analysis. The fabric used was 100% cotton, plain weave, warp and weft yarn count being the same (Ne 30/1), the total number of yarn ends 52, being a square fabric, soft ﬁnished, sanforized, and white. A universal tensile testing machine was used in the compression mode for the experiments. The machine was computer-aided. The kind of experiment to be done, the selection of the parameters suitable for the test, the limitations of the experiment, the sensitivity of the experiment, the repeat number of the experiment, can all be programmed in the computer, and the test can be started from the computer. A photograph of the universal testing machine is seen in Fig. 7 and the testing principle is drawn schematically in Fig. 8 [62]. In the daily usage of the fabric, it deforms to form a dome and exhibits spatial behaviour, and this behaviour includes a third dimension in the ‘z’ axis. Spatial pressing can only be achieved by a hollow frame where it is possible to hold the fabric from the sides. Another sample holder was placed at the top and held the fabric ﬁrmly with the help of the screws placed at regular distances away from each other. Also, the friction between the sample holder surface and the fabric was increased by sticking extra fabric over the holder surfaces. This sample of fabric, which was held freely and ﬁrmly in space, could be pressed easily with a half-sphere. When the half-sphere acted upon the fabric, the fabric moved downwards and elongated the rest of the fabric in its direction. This design is both similar and not similar to the daily usage of a fabric because, although at the elbows and at the knees the fabric would seem to be acting freely, the continuity of the fabric is interrupted with the seams, because it was cut before with the curvatures of the arm, the leg, etc. So in reality the fabric exhibits a limited behaviour. To resemble the most realistic form in the experiments and to achieve the highest permanent deformation possible, it was decided to work with a limited fabric area held in the sample. The deformation depending on the diﬀerent independent variables is

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Fig. 7

Photograph of the universal testing machine

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Fig. 8

Schematic drawing of the testing principle of Sengoz [62] ¸ ¨

performed in this limited area. Another reason why such a construction was chosen is that the fabric has to be laid on the same frame for a second time to measure the permanent deformation. At this time, the measurement has to be done exactly at the same point where the deformation was done at the ﬁrst time. The screw points helped to ﬁnd the same deformation point easily. The possibility of deforming from one point and measuring the permanent deformation from a diﬀerent point was eliminated. The fabric distance from the cut point to ﬁt the screw until the fabric sample body was suﬃcient to hold the fabric ﬁrmly in place and eliminate any slippage [62]. The dimension of the frame is an independent variable in this experiment. The dimensions of the circular frames used are given in Table 1. It was desired to make the area increases to be about double from one frame to the next and to study the deformations accurately, so it was decided to work with ﬁve frames. It was thought that square frames with a side length the same as the diameter of the circular, would also be worth to try, so that a more realistic daily usage of the fabric could be symbolized and also a basis for comparison could be created. A photograph of all the frames is given in Fig. 9. Since we do not know where the force distribution ends in-plane of a fabric in its daily usage, this kind of an approach will be symbolizing both the limited and the

Table 1 Frame Diameter and Sample Fabric Area Diameter (cm) 4 6 8 12 16 Area (cm2) 12.566 28.274 50.266 133.098 201.062

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Fig. 9

Photograph of all the frames

unlimited behaviour of it, so the eﬀect of the frame shape was thought to be helpful at this stage. The dimensions of the square frames used in these experiments are given in Table 2. The idea of keeping the area increase nearly double is still maintained in the square frames. The diﬀerence here is that, while the force distribution is constant at the edges of a circular frame, it is diﬀerent in a square frame because when we go to the corners we move a longer distance and this obviously aﬀects the force distribution at the edges. Its importance was found very clearly after statistical analysis. A half-sphere pressing from above was thought to be suitable since just this part will be in contact with the sample fabric, and it was designed with a suitable attachment to be easily connected to the machine. The dimensions of the spheres used in these experiment is an independent variable.The diameters of the half-spheres were 2, 4, and 8 cm. The surface characteristic of the sphere is also important, and, in order to resemble the small amount of friction between the skin and the fabric and to allow the yarns to elongate, brass material with an even surface was chosen. The weight of the half spheres is not important since they are held by the machine and are only used to press the fabric. Another centralizing frame was constructed to ensure that the pressing comes from exactly the centre and to measure the permanent deformation repeatedly from the centre after some relaxation time of the fabric. A photograph of the spheres and the attachment used are shown in Fig. 10. It was questionable whether the fabric should be pressed until a speciﬁc load or until a speciﬁc displacement, and so pre-experiments were carried out with constant loads and constant displacements. It was ﬁnally decided to take the displacement as an independent variable and to keep the load as a dependent variable because it would then be possible to calculate the force exerted by the body on the fabric with the help of regression equations derived from later statistical analysis. The speciﬁc load and the speciﬁc displacement where the

Table 2 Square Frame Side Length and Sample Fabric Area Side Length (cm) 4 6 8 12 16 Area (cm2) 16 36 64 144 256

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Fig. 10

The spheres and the attachment used in the experiments

fabric starts to tear were calculated and it was decided to work with 2.3, 3.6, 4.9, 6.2, and 7.5 mm displacements conﬁdently, without tearing the fabric. Also, the amount of pre-tension to be applied to the fabric before the experiment starts was decided to be 0.1 N [62]. The rate of pressure exertion is also important. A sudden impact is more eﬀective than a gradual one. The rate is also an independent variable, but in the pre-experiments ﬁve diﬀerent rates were tried and 60 mm/min was decided on because this rate gives enough time for the yarns in the fabric and for the ﬁbres in the yarns to change their places and take a new deformed shape. In the rest of the experiments, this rate was used all the time. The tests were done in two separate groups, one being the half-sphere pressing the fabric up to the speciﬁc displacement and immediately going back, and the other being holding the sphere pressed into the fabric at the speciﬁc displacement for three minutes, which is long enough for a spatial deformation to occur. Immediate release or waiting came out as an independent variable also. Repeated force exertion at the same point is important and is also an independent variable. It is started by being pressed from the smallest displacement measurement and is pressed to one longer in every cycle. In the other group, it is started from the second smallest displacement measurement and is pressed in cyles until the longest. At the last step, it is directly pressed until the longest displacement measurement. Relaxation time is an important independent variable also. One group was relaxed for one hour and the other group was relaxed for forty-eight hours. The number of repeats for one group of testing conditions was tried with ﬁve, ten and ﬁfteen repeats and the results were compared with t-tests. Suﬃcient results were achieved with ten repeats, so from then on ten repeats were used for each group of testing conditions. Sengoz [62] tried many diﬀerent combinations of many diﬀerent parameters aﬀecting ¸ ¨ fabric bagging testing. Hydrostatic pressures and spread loads were both considered in the experiments done. The results were evaluated with both statistical and graphical methods, regression equations were derived, and the relations between parameters were stated, so that it became possible to reach an unknown value with values in hand. The notations in the regression equations are as follows: Fa ¼ Load needed to deform up to a speciﬁc displacement a ¼ Displacement

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Fig. 11

Load vs displacement curve

h1 ¼ Residual bagging height after one hour relaxation time h48 ¼ Residual bagging height after forty-eight hours relaxation time The regression equation derived for the load dependent variable according to the displacement independent variable is: Fa ¼ À0:455 þ 5:247 Â a À 4:304 Â a2 þ 1:515 Â a3 À 0:206 Â a4 þ 0:012 Â a5 ð30Þ

As seen from Fig. 11, the polinomial equation was derived for this relation. The polinomial equation had a correlation coeﬃcient of r2 ¼ 0.9957, which explains the relationship well. The regression equations derived for the residual bagging height of the deformed dome dependent variable according to the displacement independent variable are given for onehour relaxation time and 48-hours relaxation time, separately: h1 ¼ À0:222 þ 0:362 Â a À 0:120 Â a2 þ 0:014 Â a3 ð31Þ

As seen from Fig. 12, the polinomial equation was derived for this relation. The polinomial equation had a correlation coeﬃcient of r2 ¼ 0.8099, which also explains the relationship well.

Fig. 12

Residual bagging height (after one-hour of relaxation time) vs displacement curve

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h48 ¼ À0:810 þ 0:771 Â a À 0:215 Â a2 þ 0:019 Â a3

ð32Þ

As seen from Fig. 13, the polinomial equation was derived for this relation. The polinomial equation had a correlation coeﬃcient of r2 ¼ 0.8044, which also explains the relationship well.

Fig. 13

Residual bagging height after 48-hours of relaxation time vs displacement curve

The one-hour relaxation time values were compared with 48-hour relaxation time values. It was seen that at one hour relaxation, the fabric had not yet completed its recovery hysteresis curve, but at 48-hours relaxation time, the fabric had completed its recovery hysteresis curve. The two sets of values had a high correlation coeﬃcient of r2 ¼ 0.8086 so it was decided to work with one-hour relaxation time values because they were higher, and this can also be seen from Fig. 17. When we relate the load and the residual bagging height at one-hour relaxation time and derive the regression equation between them: F ¼ 4:518 þ 21:690 Â h1 þ 40:999 Â h2 1 ð33Þ

As seen from Fig. 14, the polinomial equation was derived for this relation. The polinomial equation had a correlation coeﬃcient of r2 ¼ 0.7892, which also explains the relationship well. Experiments were also done to continue pressing the fabric up to tearing as in the ball penetration tests and they were statistically studied, but they are not included here. The load and residual bagging height parameters are dependent variables in this experiment. The combination of alternatives which would give the best explanation of residual bagging for the independent variables in this experiment was also searched for; statistical and graphical analysis was done for every kind of combination. Graphical presentations were used especially where no regression equations were derived and how the phenomenon behaves was studied from these. As previously stated, there were two kinds of frames, the circle and the square and ﬁve diﬀerent frame dimensions, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 cm. In Fig. 15, these two parameters are examined together for residual bagging height. As seen from this ﬁgure, the square frame with 6 cm dimension gave the highest residual bagging height value.

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Fig. 14

Load vs the residual bagging height (after one-hour of relaxation time) curve

Fig. 15

Residual bagging height vs frame shape and dimension

There were three diﬀerent sphere dimensions and there were ﬁve diﬀerent displacement measurements, 2.3; 3.6; 4.9; 6.2; and 7.5 mm. The results of 2.3 mm displacement were eliminated because they were too small to be interpreted and the recovery behaviour of the fabric was unsatisfactory. So we see the rest, four displacement measures, in Fig. 16. In this ﬁgure, these two parameters are examined together for residual bagging height. As seen from this ﬁgure, the sphere with 2 cm dimension at 7.5 mm displacement gave the highest residual bagging height value. There were ﬁve diﬀerent pressing speeds, 20, 30, 60, 120, and 180 mm/min and there were two diﬀerent relaxation times, 1 and 48 hours. In Fig. 17, these two parameters are examined together for residual bagging height. As seen from this ﬁgure, the 60 mm/min rate at one hour relaxation time gave the highest residual bagging height value. There were two diﬀerent pressing types, immediate release and waiting for three minutes, and there were ﬁve diﬀerent pressing cyles, starting from 1 up to 5. In Fig. 18, these two parameters are examined together for residual bagging height. As seen from this ﬁgure,

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Fig. 16

Residual bagging height vs sphere dimension and displacement

Fig. 17

Residual bagging height vs pressing rate and relaxation hours

Fig. 18

Residual bagging height vs pressing type and pressing cycle

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waiting for three minutes at the ﬁfth cycle gave the highest residual bagging height value. The immediate release values were compared with waiting for three minutes values. The two sets of values had a high correlation coeﬃcient of r2 ¼ 0.8090 and, since the diﬀerence between immediate release and waiting for three minutes was small, it was decided to work with immediate release. The best combination which gave the highest residual bagging height in a sample fabric was concluded as [62]: Independent Variable Shape Frame Dimension Half-sphere Dimension Displacement Measure Pressing Rate Time Cycle Relaxation Time Repetition Alternative Square 6 cm 2 cm 7.5 cm 60 mm/min Immediate 5 1 hour 10 times

In this work, permanent deformation is regarded as a quality factor and a standard test method that can be worked in a laboratory regularly to ﬁgure out the permanent deformation beforehand in a fabric which is to become a garment has now been developed. The interesting point here is that square frames gave more deﬁnitive general results than the circle frames which were used by all the other researchers. Also, as the load applied to the fabric to be deformed is chosen as a dependent variable, when the other factors are known it will be easy to reach this unknown value. This kind of approach is easy to relate to daily life because, in any one of the used garments, when the permanent deformation is measured, the force applied from the human body to the fabric to cause it to deform when using that garment can easily be calculated with the help of the regression equations given previously. Zhang et al. [77, 78] also examined the bagging behaviour of woven fabrics. They developed a test method using an Instron tensile machine. They clamped the fabric sample in a circular holder and deformed it repeatedly by loading it from the centre, using a steel ball. The relative residual bagging height was measured after ﬁve load cycles. They obtained a loading curve for the ﬁrst cycle and the residual bagging height over ﬁve cycles. But during these tests they emphasized some other ideas. One was bagging resistance, which is the load work in the ﬁrst cycle, and the other is bagging fatigue which is the diﬀerence of the load work between the ﬁrst and the last cycles. They predicted the woven fabric bagging height to be a function of bagging resistance and bagging fatigue by using multiple regression analysis. In their work they also did some subjective assessments. They developed a model for predicting the rating values. They used only the residual bagging height as the independent variable in predicting the rating values. They found that during the deformation process, fabric strain behaved as a nonlinear function of bagging height. They clamped the specimen in a circular ring and had a pre-tension load to keep the fabric ﬂat. The fabric was bagged to a pre-determined height, then returned to its original position on the Instron. This pushing was repeated ﬁve times in succession. They measured the nonrecovered bagging height of each of the cycles under the same pre-tension load. They did ﬁfteen cycles of repeated bagging deformation to ﬁnd out the fabric energy changes. At the end of the ﬁfteenth cycle, the elastic energy still in the fabric was approximately 35–50% of

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the initial internal energy of the fabric [77, 78]. When a single ﬁbre’s relaxation time was measured, it was found to be longer than a single ﬁbre’s relaxation time in a fabric that had bagged. This means that the relaxation of ﬁbre stress during the bagging process is faster than that of the single ﬁbre when averaged. They state that if the strain in the ﬁbres is larger, the stress relaxation is faster. Kisilak [35] studied spherical fabric elongation under cyclic stresses where, in a garment, they are mostly seen, at the knees and the elbows. He developed a new modiﬁed apparatus and a new method to test the spherical deformation of woven fabric. With the algorithm developed, he was able to calculate the elongation of the warp and the weft yarns. So the limit stress a yarn can take could also be calculated. When a garment is worn, the shape of it keeps changing; these changes are due to the elasticity and the viscoelasticity of the ﬁbres. These changes are temporary, but if the stress is too large or if it lasts too long then they are not. Permanent or irreversible deformations occur. It was aimed to develop an algorithm to calculate the deformation of ﬂat textiles under dynamic loads. The procedure developed seems suitable for predicting the quality of fabric from the properties of the constituent ﬁbres. The steps followed by this researcher were: (i) Testing the tendency of textiles to spherical deformation with an artiﬁcial joint, similar to DIN 53860 [21]; (ii) Testing the tendency of textiles to spherical deformation on the modiﬁed apparatus with an artiﬁcial joint; (iii) Developing a new modiﬁed apparatus and a new method for testing spherical deformation of textiles. Diﬀerent methods were used to ﬁx the samples, trying to provide better imitations of wear. Also, exceptional wearing conditions of a garment, such as humid and warm, were also tried [35]. In this experiment, a sphere was ﬁxed to a computer-controlled dynamometer (Instron 6022), trying to create laboratory conditions which were similar to that of wearing the garment in daily life. The size of the sphere was close to the size of the elbow, and the size of the circularly ﬁxed fabric sample was close to the size of the model of the sleeve. The base of the fabric holder was ﬁxed in the lower jaw. The sample stayed between two rings which were ﬁxed with a threaded clamp. The sphere was made of polished metal, and was ﬁxed to the upper jaw from where it pressed fabric. In this way, the simulation of the fabric strain at the knee and the elbow was achieved. The diameter of the fabric sample used was 78 mm; the inner diameter at the clamp was 61 mm. The diameter of the sphere was 48 mm. The test procedure went as follows: Cyclic loading was carried out. The sphere pressed the fabric with 100 N for 15 minutes then was lifted and touched the surface of the fabric with 0.6 N for again 15 minutes. This was repeated ﬁve times, then was relaxed for 3 hours. Then the cycle was repeated two more times. The ﬁnal relaxation was for 15 min. The test takes 13 hours. The computer records the forces and the sphere shifts every time deformation occurs. The fabric is spherically broken at the end. The load is also increased gradually at the end until ﬁbre breakage occurs, the force values and the sphere movements being recorded every 20 seconds [35]. In the graphical picture given in Kisilak’s experiments, the deformed fabric was drawn. There seems to be sharp changes between the conical part and the straight part. There is the truncated cone and a spherical cap at the edge. The surface area of the truncated cone and the surface area of the spherical cap are calculated and added together. The surface area of the fabric sample before deformation is subtracted from this sum. This diﬀerence is divided by the surface area before deformation and the result is expressed as a percentage. In every cycle, this area elongation is recalculated and the evaluation is carried out according to these values. In the experiments, 100% wool and 45/55 wool/polyester fabrics were used because these are worn

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as daily standard suits in business life. There were two diﬀerent weaves; they were woven and ﬁnished under controlled conditions, and they all had equal weights per unit area [35]. It was found that the twill wool fabric had the greatest spherical elongation and the plain blend fabric had the smallest spherical elongation; the diﬀerences in elongations were the same, regardless of the duration of testing; the ﬁrst loading cycle was the one that aﬀected the length of elongation. Elongation decreased during the three hours of relaxation, but it never recovered fully. In analysing the spherical loading until breakage, theoretical calculations referring to a thread going through the sphere centre were made. It was found that the plain blend fabrics were the ﬁrmest and the wool twill fabrics were elongating the most. It was concluded that the deformation in the 100% wool fabric was greater than the wool/polyester blend. The explanation of this point was because of the structural changes in individual ﬁbres. The deformations in the twill fabrics were more than the deformations of the plain fabrics; this shows the eﬀect of the weave. Twill weave has less yarn interlacings per unit area than plain weave which means there is less reactive force to the deformation process. As the researcher states, 100% wool fabrics have more relaxation than blends and this is because of their structure [35]. Abghari et al. [1] developed a new test method to investigate woven fabric bagging deformation and they used a real time data acquisition and strain gauge technique. While the fabric was deformed by bagging, they also measured the tensile deformations in the warp and weft directions. They used bagging resistance, bagging fatigue, residual bagging height and residual bagging hysteresis to characterize the fabric bagging behaviour and also simulated it with Finite Element Analysis. As a result of their experiments, they found that the bagging load, work, hysteresis, residual hysteresis and fatigue are highly linearly correlated with corresponding parameters in the warp and the weft directions. They obtained an empirical relationship between residual bagging height and bagging fatigue and resistance, which proved that the new test method was able to evaluate the bagging behaviour of woven fabrics. By using Finite Element Analysis, they were able to show that the theoretical model predicts and simulates the bagging behaviour of woven fabrics. In the theoretical analysis, the residual bagging height, bagging load and tensile forces in the warp and the weft directions are linearly correlated with the corresponding parameters in this new test method. They state that all the methods in the literature measure the fabric bagging load while a constant tension is applied to the fabric sample. It was stated that biaxial tension and shearing played an important role in fabric bagging, and the stress distribution in isotropic and anisotropic fabrics is related to the bagging force’s internal stresses in the fabric section. This was theoretically investigated and it was found that the internal stresses distributed non-uniformly between the warp and the weft yarns for an anisotropic fabric. In their work, they were measuring the bagging force distribution between the warp and the weft yarns experimentally [1]. In the apparatus developed in the above research, a fabric sample is placed in a rectangular clamp with inner dimensions of 24 and 17 cm. There are four jaws that precisely pretension the clamped fabric sample. The exact magnitude of the fabric pretension is controlled and determined with two load cells which are connected to the two horizontal jaws. There are two other jaws which can be moved in the plane of the fabric, under a screw control system. There is a third load cell attached to the upper jaw of the bagging tester and the speed and the direction of this jaw can be controlled for cyclic loading. A steel sphere with various diameters is ﬁxed to this load cell. When the sphere contacts the fabric sample

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and exerts a pressure on the clamped fabric, the vertical load cell measures the compression force, i.e. the bagging force, and the other two load cells measure the tensile forces along the warp and the weft directions. In the experiment, 5 cyclic loadings were done and diagrams and hysteresis curves drawn for the warp and weft tensile forces and the bagging force. They used woven twill worsted and plain cotton/polyester shirt fabrics in their research. The sphere pressing rate was 4 mm/min, bagging height was set to 30 mm, the sphere contacted the fabric at the maximum pressure at each cycle for 5 min, then recovered for 2 min. The cyclic loading was done 5 times and the whole cycle was repeated 5 times, resulting in 25 bagging deformations. Ten fabric samples of each kind were used. They measured the maximum load and corresponding work of loads and percentage hysteresis at the ﬁrst and the last cycles for weft, warp and bagging directions, and then bagging resistance, bagging fatigue and residual bagging height were calculated according to Zhang’s test method. They introduced a new parameter named the ‘residual hysteresis’ for warp, weft and bagging directions. They calculated this parameter by ﬁnding the diﬀerence between the % hysteresis in the ﬁrst cycle and the % hysteresis in the last cycle, dividing it by the % hysteresis in the ﬁrst cycle, and multiplying by 100. They suggest that this parameter indicates the percentage of residual internal energy of the fabric during bagging deformation. For theoretical simulation, they used non-linear visco-elastic and numerical calculation in ﬁnite element analysis. They calculated the compressional bagging force, tensile forces along the warp and the weft directions for diﬀerent bagging cycles, and residual bagging height, and then compared them with the experimental results. The maximum bagging force in the ﬁrst and the last cycle correlated linearly with the maximum force in the warp and the weft directions for all fabrics, and these had correlation coeﬃcients of r2 ¼ 0.97 and 0.83, respectively. This shows that the maximum bagging force distributes between the warp and the weft yarns, but is non-uniformly distributed, and anisotropic fabric properties are involved during bagging deformation. The work of the bagging load in the ﬁrst and the last cycle correlates linearly with the work of loads in the warp and the weft directions for all fabrics and these have correlation coeﬃcients of r2 ¼ 0.9 and 0.83, respectively. This shows that fabric deformation is diﬀerent in bagging, warp and weft directions, non-linearly. The bagging hysteresis in the ﬁrst and the last cycles correlates linearly with corresponding parameters in the warp and the weft directions for all fabrics, and the correlation coeﬃcients are r2 ¼ 0.78 and 0.93, respectively. This shows that all the fabrics are well deformed and the residual energy of bagging deformation is well distributed along the warp and weft directions. It also shows that shear deformation has occurred, particularly in the last cycle, and stress relaxation was created in the warp and weft yarns. The residual bagging hysteresis is linearly correlated with corresponding parameters in the warp and the weft directions and the correlation coeﬃcient is r2 ¼ 0.9. This shows that this new parameter of bagging deformation, which demonstrates the non-recovered stored fabric energy, is highly correlated with corresponding parameters along the warp and the weft yarn directions. It can be noted that the non-recovered work of loads or the frictional and viscoelastic components of the fabric during bagging deformation had decayed in the last cycle. The relationships between fabric bagging fatigue and tensile fatigue in the warp and the weft directions are linearly correlated with each other (r2 ¼ 0.83) and it can be concluded that the residual elastic stored energy in the fabric due to the fatigue process of fabric bagging is distributed in two principal warp and weft directions. The residual bagging height correlates linearly with bagging fatigue for all the fabrics with correlation coeﬃcient of r2 ¼ 0.98, 0.99 and 0.99 respectively. This shows that the residual bagging deformation in the twill structure

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Textile Progress

is more sensitive to fatigue performance than the plain structure. The viscoelastic behaviour and the frictional eﬀect of worsted fabrics may have inﬂuence on fatigue performance of those fabrics. The relationships between the residual bagging height and bagging resistance are non-linearly correlated with each other for all the fabrics, and the correlation coeﬃcients are r2 ¼ 0.99, 0.99 and 0.97, respectively. It can be explained as the bagging resistance is mainly related to work of load at the ﬁrst cycle and it represents the ability of fabric to resist bagging deformation at the initial stage, so the residual bagging height and bagging resistance are non-linearly correlated with each other. The bagging fatigue and bagging resistance are non-linearly positively correlated with each other for all the fabrics, with correlation coeﬃcients of r2 ¼ 0.99, 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. This shows that as the initial energy of the fabric, which reﬂects both elastic and the initial viscoelastic, frictional energy increases, the fabric bagging fatigue increases. It may be said that correlation coeﬃcient of bagging fatigue and resistance for shirt fabrics are much higher than those for worsted fabrics. This shows that the viscoelastic–frictional component of the wool component and twill structure of worsted fabrics may have inﬂuence on the experimental results [1]. Multiple regression analysis for residual bagging height was done with bagging fatigue and bagging resistance. An equation was obtained and the correlation is seen to be highly signiﬁcant, with r2 ¼ 0.83 (p < 0.001). It can be concluded that the residual bagging height is aﬀected by the combined inﬂuence of bagging fatigue and resistance. The residual bagging height obtained by the new fabric bagging tester is linearly correlated with simulation results (r2 ¼ 0.8) and also with the ﬁnite element analysis results of tensile forces in the warp and the weft directions. The bagging forces during fabric bagging simulation are linearly correlated with experimental values (r2 ¼ 0.68, 0.76 and 0.74, respectively). These results also indicate that the FEM simulation of woven fabric as a non-distructive method is reliable and permissible. From the experimental results, diﬀerent parameters including, load, work, hysteresis at the ﬁrst and the last cycles for three diﬀerent bagging, warp and weft directions were calculated and also the bagging behaviour of the woven fabrics’ four physical criteria (bagging fatigue, bagging resistance, residual bagging height and residual bagging hysteresis) were characterized and measured. The experimental results show that the bagging load values are in the range of 50–100 N. It was also found that the bagging load, work, hysteresis, residual hysteresis and fatigue are highly linearly correlated with corresponding parameters in the warp and the weft directions. The experimental and FEM simulation results of their research show that the bagging behaviour of woven fabrics can be predicted in terms of bi-axial tensile properties under low-stress fabric mechanical conditions [1].

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5.2 Researches with Knitted Fabrics Thomas [64] developed an apparatus to perform the so called Celanese bagging test for knitted fabrics. He used an Instron tensile tester, and tensile stretch and recovery principles are the fundamentals used in this test. A circular fabric sample of 10 inch diameter was clamped between the two plates of an extensometer, and an 8 inch diameter testing area was left. Repeated loads were then applied to the circular fabric sample, loads changing from 0.5 to 15 lb for two minutes, but keeping a 15 lb force for one minute. At the end of this time, the load was reduced to 0.5 lb and the ‘growth’ occuring immediately in the sample fabric was recorded. The load was lifted for one minute. After this time, again 0.5 lb force was applied to the circular fabric sample between the clamps. The ‘distortion’ occurring immediately in the fabric was recorded. The ‘recovery’ occurring immediately was obtained

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from the immediate growth and the immediate distortion values. Knitted fabrics were used in the tests. Thomas had the fabrics made into garments. Two or three garments made from diﬀerent fabrics were worn at least once a week. After wearing for 28 and 32 hours, the garments were given back and they were subjectively evaluated according to the standard AATCC ranking board. Ranking (1) was severe which was considered to be failing; Ranking (2) was moderate; and Ranking (3) was slight. He correlated the results from the wear trials and the results he obtained from the Instron loading tests, which were immediate recovery data. If the immediate recovery values were greater than 59%, this was regarded as satisfactory; if they were between 53–59%, this was regarded as borderline, which means the fabrics may or may not bag during wear, depending on the wearer and the nature of the construction of the fabric; if they were less than 53%, this was regarded as unsatisfactory. Fabric construction and the wearer’s ﬁt and size also aﬀected the bagging severity, but their eﬀect on garment performance was not so clear. Yaida [74] has worked with immediate recovery values in percent to evaluate the bagging in knitted fabrics. He made a similar apparatus to the Celanese bagging tester and worked with four sample of each knitted fabric. They were of 8 inch diameter. First, 0.5 lb force was applied on the fabric as a pretension. The Instron then cycled between 0.5 lb and 15 lb for two minutes at 200 mm/min. Then the half-sphere was held on the fabric at 15 lb for one minute, then went back to the 0.5 lb gauge length. Then it was totally lifted and held for one minute; afterwards the half-sphere came back to the 0.5 lb gauge length. It was attempted to ﬁnd the relation between the immediate recovery value in percent and the density, compressive modulus and thickness of the fabrics. There was no relation between the immediate recovery value in percent, and the density and compressive modulus. But there was correlation between the immediate recovery value in percent and thickness. Ucar et al. [68] studied the bagging of a set of knitted fabrics in their work. The fabrics ¸ they used varied in design, tightness factor, and blend ratio. They determined the residual bagging height from the tests they did, and they mechanically characterized the fabrics using the KES-FB system. They worked out the relations in between and concluded that, by using the standard KES-FB test, the bagging height could be predicted for knitted fabrics without doing any additional bagging tests for them. They also did some subjective analysis. They explained that bagging occurs in apparel fabrics during sitting or squatting for a long time, or from repeated movement. Bagging is the result of dimensional stability missing or lack of recovery when repeated and long lasting force is applied on the fabric. Fabric mechanical properties, such as ease of recovery and loss of energy with use, are very important in fabric bagging. These mechanical properties also reﬂect the resistance to deformation. Mechanical properties of fabrics depend on their fabric parameters, yarn parameters, and relaxation state. During bagging, the sample fabric was subjected to a complex pattern of loading. They measured the tensile, shear, and bending properties of their sample fabrics. The fabrics’ diameter was 135 mm, the inner diameter of the clamp being 56 mm. The pressing sphere was steel and had a diameter of 48 mm. The displacement measurement was 21 mm, the rate of pressing was 20 mm/min and then the pressing sphere returned to its original position. The sample fabric waited for two minutes under zero load to recover, then the non-recovered bagging height was measured. They chose most of their testing parameters similar to Zhang’s [77, 80]. Their bagging heights were diﬀerent because they worked with knitted fabric and Zhang worked with woven fabric. They expressed the residual bagging height as a percentage by dividing the non-recovered bagging height by the predetermined bagging height.

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Textile Progress

The researchers used a bivariate correlation analysis to ﬁnd the relation between the residual bagging height they obtained from their experiments and the fabric mechanical properties they obtained from the KES-FB tests. For plain knitted fabrics, they found a negative correlation, which means that as the elastic restraint and frictional resistance (fabric rigidity) against deformation increases, the residual bagging height decreases. When the tightness factor of a plain knit increases, fabric rigidity also increases because of increased inner pressure, resulting in an increase in the loop curvature, causing the fabric to behave more like a spring. This kind of a fabric ﬁnds it easier to recover than a slack one. For double knitted fabrics, they found a positive correlation, which means that as the elastic restraint and frictional resistance (fabric rigidity) against deformation increases, the residual bagging height increases. The double fabrics have more crosslinkages and this structure makes them rigid to deformation. Also, more intricate and longer linkages makes the knitted fabrics less recoverable because there is more inner friction in the fabric, so the residual bagging height increases [68]. A regression equation was obtained where residual bagging height is determined in terms of shear rigidity, hysteresis of shear force at 5 degrees, bending rigidity and hysteresis of bending moment. For the subjective assessments, it was stated that it is important to know where the fabric will be used so that the tests will be done according to those conditions. For example, compression wear in medical textiles was evaulated with the residual bagging height. The researchers took photographs of the fabric they were testing when the fabric was still on the bagging apparatus, after two minutes of recovery time. Afterwards, people were asked to rank and rate these photgraphs. The researchers included bending and shear parameters in the model they developed to predict the rating values. One reason for doing that was to take in the inﬂuence of gravity upon the knitted fabric. Another reason was the diﬀerent relation between the fabric tightness and the residual bagging height seen in the plain knitted and the double knitted fabrics. Bending and shear properties are very important factors to the drape of weft knitted fabrics. It is well known that when the rigidity decreases, the drape of the fabric increases. It was concluded that the KES-FB system gives data that can be used to predict the bagging behaviour measures needed for fabrics that are diﬀerent in ﬁbre type, fabric structure, and yarn size. Fabric properties such as handle and sewability can be derived from the KES-FB system. The work shows that by measuring shear and bending properties of a fabric, bagging properties can be evaluated and a formula, explained above, can be derived. Using the KES-FB system needs less eﬀort in determining the bagging behaviour because no apparatus need be set up for the experiment. Subjective analysis showed that when fabric rigidity increases, the impact of bagging on appearance is more severe [68].

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5.3 Researches with both Woven and Knitted Fabrics Wegener and Scoulidis [71] symbolized some conditions met in daily life in an apparatus they developed to determine the curvature elasticity. They measured the force to make curvature in a deformed fabric and the distance withdrawn vertically from the plane of the fabric. They did not use these values for evaluation; instead they calculated relative values of the shape the fabric formed in the jaw (as did Sommer [59] in some bursting strength tests). Linear curvature strength and curvature elongation were the relative values used. Woven and knitted and rubber construction fabrics were utilised in their work. They named their apparatus ‘curvature tester’. They derived some regression equations and discussed the eﬀects of testing parameters on curvature magnitudes.

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Grunewald and Zoll [27] developed an apparatus similar to the moving human arm. It was ¨ ¨ an artiﬁcial arm with an elbow joint. They sewed a fabric in a tubular form, drew the tube-like fabric onto this arm, where the tubular fabric represented the sleeve or the trouser leg, bent the arm in a suitable way, keeping the fabric in this bent form for ﬁve hours, which means static strain on the fabric, then the arm was straightened and the fabric recovered for 10 minutes this way. The fabric was taken out and the bagging height at the elbow region measured on a diﬀerent, straight horizontal tube. Garments sewn from the same fabric were given to people to be worn for ﬁfty days, but every ﬁve wear days the garments were assessed. The degree of bagging was measured in the laboratory and, if it was below 5 mm, the garments were worn more by the people after being cleaned and pressed. At the assessment, three independent persons examined the garments and said if they could still be worn and were acceptable (not bagged at all or just a little which means the fabric remained dimensionally stable) or unacceptable. The results achieved by the tests in the laboratory and the results achieved by the wear trials correlated highly, even though the test method did not include any cycles and the wearer trials included repeated motion. Also, the limits of the wearable and unwearable regions could be derived. They worked on both woven and knitted fabrics. The Zweigle type bagging tester is designed on the Grunewald and Zoll principle. ¨ ´ Strazdiene and Gutauskas [60] studied biaxial punch deformation in anisotropic textile materials. To evaluate the textile punch deformation, the authors tried to ﬁnd a new criterion. Their other aim was to ﬁnd the eﬀects of the anisotropy of the material on the forming shell, and they also attempted to ﬁnd the strain distribution in the forming shell. They used X-ray diﬀraction analysis, and were able to study the friction at the sample and punch contact. They state that this friction has much eﬀect on the punching process parameters. They found out that the anisotropic shell forming in the punching process had a complicated geometry. They suggest that this does not conﬁrm the earlier presumption about rotating surfaces. The friction in the contact zone is what makes the geometry complicated. They applied the punch both dry and lubricated. After the X-ray diﬀraction analysis, they found that with the dry punch, which has a high friction coeﬃcient, the structural changes at the top of the shell can be neglected. When this is compared with the lubricated punch, which has a low friction factor, this one has much more structural change. They relate this behaviour to the crystallinity at the top of the shell [60]. ´ Strazdiene and Gutauskas’s later work [61] is involved with spatial loading of highly stretchable textiles and the textile materials are orthotropic. Biaxial deformation can either be membrane or punch. The researchers state that textiles can be aﬀected by forces perpendicular to their planes during production or usage, and shells occur on their surfaces. There are three reasons why biaxial deformation is gaining importance recently: (i) The behaviour of the textile material under usage circumstances is reliably simulated (ii) Test methods are realized with very simple experiments and the results are reliable when the tearing location and character in the sample is studied; (iii) The testing methods are universal: that is, by doing a single test many properties of the textile material are obtained such as strength, properties creep or relaxation parameters, etc. The researchers state that in most of the earlier investigations concerning biaxial deformation, the test material was assumed to be isotropic and the surface of the shell which was formed in the deformation was axisymmetric. When it is a membrane deformation, the shell forming has a kind of a segment of a sphere; but when it is a punch deformation, the shell forming has a kind of a segment of a sphere and a cut of a cone added together. In their research, they studied shell formation phenomena in textiles when there is very high

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Textile Progress

orthotropy in them. In their work, they compared the punch and the membrane biaxial deformation types of textile materials, which are both spatial. Punch tests were done with disc-shaped samples having a radius of 28.2 mm, cut from knitted and woven fabrics, with diﬀerent orthtropy levels. For the punch size, a radius of 9.5 mm was used. They did the membrane tests with an HDR-type hydrorelaxometer which they designed and manufactured themselves [61]. In membrane deformation, load is transmitted to the textile material by compressed air or liquid through a rubber membrane so possesses a hydrolic character. In punch deformation, the textile sample is loaded with a rigid sphere. The shape of the shell-forming will be related to the size of the punch (radius of the punching sphere divided by the radius of the textile material) and to the textile material’s orthotropy level. Since most textile materials behave more or less orthotropically, the uniformly distributed pressure in the membrane deformation will not form a kind of a segment of a sphere, it will form a non-axisymmetric surface. It will look like an ellipse because the stresses in the meridian direction and in the circumferential direction will be diﬀerent and will depend on the geometry of the shell formed and on the the internal pressures in the textile material. When two perpendicular lines are taken in the directions of the main axes, they will be diﬀerent by the radii of their curvatures, the maximum diﬀerence being at the top of the shell. Zurek and Bendkowska [85] had done a similar study and conﬁrmed that the distorted sample was not like a part of a sphere. In the case of a punch deformation, the part of the sample fabric covering the punching sphere will be taking its shape, but starting where the sample fabric is not touching the sphere any more, the shape will be like a concave curve until the clamps. The eﬀect of friction can be seen when the contact region of the punching sphere and the sample fabric is analyzed from the point of view of local displacements in the fabric. There are small deformations at the contacting region but the sample fabric is deformed in two directions because it is under biaxial tension. Starting from the line where the fabric leaves the punching sphere, the sample fabric is under uniaxial tension and that depends on the orthotropy level of the fabric. In order to describe the shape of the shell formed there, if two lines are generated, they will be concave at diﬀerent levels. They conclude that besides the information of the aﬀecting force and the deformed height, additional information about the parameters of thin-shell geometry are also needed, which are mainly anisotropy details, stress distributions, and time dependent changes. They also conclude that the warp direction in woven fabrics and the wale direction in the knitted fabrics are deformed less [61].

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5.4 Researches with Nonwovens and Technical Textiles Villard and Giraud [70] studied the behaviour of reinforcements made from geotextile sheets under pressure. They state that there is an increase in geotextiles used under roads and rails that are built on weak or collapse-risking ground. Since the possibility of damage or breakdown increases at those places, geotextiles serve to decrease this possibility, but the threedimensional behaviour of such membrane geotextiles under pressure needs to be examined. They model this behaviour with anisotropic and non-elastic behaviour and this does not depend on the kind of loading. They introduce an original ﬁnite element calculation and compare it with analytical solutions of some other cases. For more complex cases of reinforcement, they suggest a horizontal sizing nomograph and some practical solutions. They conclude that promoting the sheet reinforcement along a single direction such as the production direction is to be preferred. It is emphasized that behaviour under pressure is very important for the end-use mechanical performance of the industial fabrics.

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Anand et al. [4] have studied needlepunched geotextiles. Performance characteristics such as puncture resistance and tensile properties are important in these. Since they are used as separators, ﬁlters, reinforcements and drainage materials, they have to have a required strength, dimensional stability, and abrasion and puncture resistance to be able to withstand the forces acting upon them in the long term. They tried to develop mathematical models to predict the dimensional and functional properties of the needlepunched geotextiles from the known set of machine parameters. They were able to predict the puncture resistance from fabric area density and fabric thickness with a correlation coeﬃcient of R ¼ 0.99 (r2 ¼ 0.98). And also, they were able to predict the puncture resistance from web area density, needle penetration and punch density with a correlation coeﬃcient of R ¼ 0.984 (r2 ¼ 0.9683). Bilis¸ ik [14] has investigated the structural properties of textile preforms and composites. He found that the matrix contribution to tensile strength of composites was reduced before plastic deformation. He also found that tensile behaviour in the structure completely depended on individual ﬁbre strength and ﬁbre architecture. Tensile failure causes ﬁbre breakage. In-plane shear strength was eﬀected adversely by the Z-ﬁbre fraction, but this supports the interlaminar shear strength of the woven structure. The type of ﬁbre architecture aﬀected entirely the fracture toughness and crack initiation with crack propagation in the woven composite. The woven composite shears when the matrix reaches the ultimate strength limits, then plastic deformation is seen in the structure. Z-ﬁbre fraction carries the impact energy and distributes in neighbouring regions to prevent the damage threshold being reached and reduce the damaged area. Hearle [28] worked on industrial yarns. Nylon is the premium ﬁbre in production of strong industrial yarns for ropes. It has a low modulus which means it has less resistance to extension but it has a good recovery from high stresses. Polyester ﬁbres are also used in high-performance ropes. Linear-polymer ﬁbres can bend without breaking to a great extent. Deformation analysis was done on ropes with diﬀerential geometry. It was assumed that the planes perpendicular to the axis of the helical structure within each component yarn remained planar and perpendicular to that axis. Viscoelastic ﬁbre properties were also important in these analyses.

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**6. FACTORS EFFECTING FABRIC BAGGING
**

Zhang et al. [79] studied the inﬂuence of ﬁbre–yarn–fabric properties on wool fabric bagging. Fibres are linked to each other at diﬀerent compactness, diﬀerent degrees and kinds of order, and diﬀerent degrees of extension, curl and twist in a ﬁnished fabric. Bagging is a large, three-dimension deformation, and the viscoelastic properties of the ﬁbres and the friction in the textile structure are very important. So, during bagging, the mechanical behaviour of the fabric is a complex function of fabric parameters. By applying regression analysis, the relation between the fatigue behaviour of the fabric and the ﬁbre–yarn–fabric properties can be examined. In contact between the body and the fabric, bending and compression arises. In this deformation, some structural changes occur in the fabric which can be listed as: (i) During shearing, yarn rotation and slippage occur at the interlacings; (ii) During tensile deformation and shearing, yarn bending and compression occur at the interlacings; (iii) Yarn extension occurs between the interlacings; (iv) Fibre slippage and extension occur at the yarns in the interlacing points and between the interlacings.

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As the bagging deformation develops in a fabric, the above processes interact with each other and meet the requirements of the diﬀerent stages of bagging deformation. There are many sophisticated structural changes in fabric bagging, but there are three main categories: elastic, viscoelastic, and plastic. The ﬁbre’s viscoelastic deformation plays the largest part in the total deformation. Frictional deformation is the slippage between the ﬁbres and between the yarns, and the rotation of the yarns at the interlacings. Olofsson [48] says that at large deformations, ﬁbres themselves can be deformed in the plastoviscous range. The viscoelastic and the plastic energies cannot be distinguished in practice, so in their studies, they included the recoverable elastic energy and the decaying viscoelastic-plastic energy as two essential components of the energy involved during bagging. In the experiments, they took the yarn out of the fabric and measured its tensile property in the same way as in fabric bagging. The mechanical property of yarns was called the speciﬁc work of deformation, Ywork. The anisotropic feature of the fabric was called the unbalanced speciﬁc work of the yarn (also unbalanced work of the yarn). The ability of the fabric to resist bagging deformation was called the criterion of bagging resistance W0, the initial energy of the fabric, W0 is a function of interlacings per unit area of the fabric, fabric thickness, yarn work, and fabric cover factor. W0 is also a function of the ﬁbre’s initial modulus, which means that when the fabric’s structural properties are the same, the ﬁbre’s mechanical properties are the determiners. The decay rate of loss energy is a function of yarn unbalanced work, and shows the eﬀect of the anisotropy of the fabric. The initial viscoelastic-plastic energy, Q, is a function of yarn and fabric cover factor, and shows that the loss energy is determined by the mechanical properties of the yarns and fabric tightness. Q is also a function of ﬁbre modulus and fabric thickness, which means that these two factors determine the fabric viscoelastic–plastic energy. The elastic energy, U, is a function of fabric interlacing, fabric cover factor and yarn work, and shows that the fabric’s elastic behaviour is determined by the yarn’s mechanical properties and the fabric’s structural features. U is also a function of ﬁbre initial modulus [79]. They found that the twill wool fabrics have lower speciﬁc loading work than the plain wool fabrics because the twill weave has less interlacings per unit area of the fabric. Among the twill wool fabrics, there was the gabardine with more than 608 twill angle and the serge with 458 twill angle. The gabardine had more loading work than the serge. This showed the eﬀect of the unbalanced weave structure on loading work. In plain wool fabrics, the fabric with less interlacings had lower speciﬁc loading work. The initial energy W0 of the fabric increases with the blend ratio of polyester, but the decay rate of the speciﬁc loading work with the bagging cycles is not inﬂuenced by the blend ratio. The decay rate of the viscoelastic-plastic energy, d, is constant as the blend ratio changes. This can be explained by the close recovery properties of wool and polyester. All the values of W0, Q, and U increase with the increasing blend ratio of polyester. This may be because polyester has higher initial modulus and higher constant of friction coeﬃcient than wool ﬁbres [79]. When they compared the results, they concluded that when the ﬁbre’s mechanical properties are ﬁxed, fabric structural properties are the key factors; when the fabric structural properties are ﬁxed, the ﬁbre mechanical properties are the key factors in determining the fabric bagging behaviour. The two main cause of fabric bagging behaviour are the stress relaxation of the ﬁbres, owing to the ﬁbre’s viscoelastic behaviour, and the friction between ﬁbres and yarns, owing to the frictional restraints in the fabric structure. Fibre–yarn mechanical properties and fabric structural properties, such as fabric thickness, weight, cover factor and interlacing points, are the important factors inﬂuencing the bagging behaviour of a fabric [79].

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6.1 Fibre and Yarn Properties and Parameters Zhang et al. [82] aimed to study the viscoelastic behaviour of ﬁbres during the bagging of woven fabrics and to create a mathematical model to simulate bagging while it is tested. With computational experiments, they determined the elastic modulus E1, viscoelastic modulus E2, ﬁbre relaxation time t, three weighing coeﬃcients (k3, k4, k5) for diﬀerent fabrics with K3, the elastic weighting coeﬃcient; K4, the viscoelastic coeﬃcient; K5, the frictional coeﬃcient of diﬀerent ﬁbres. They compared the experimental measurements with the predicted bagging behaviour of the fabrics and found that the mathematical model they developed predicted the bagging behaviour with reasonable accuracy. Their results show that the viscoelastic behaviour of the ﬁbre is very diﬀerent during bagging in the diﬀerent types of fabrics they used. They state that elasticity ratio (E1) is high, viscoelasticity ratio is low (E2) and relaxation time t is large in nylon and polyester ﬁbres. Also, they state that elasticity ratio (E1) is low, viscoelasticity ratio is high (E2) and relaxation time t is small in silk, viscose and cotton ﬁbres. When cotton and wool have the same viscoelasticity level (E2), then relaxation time t is the determiner in the stress relaxation process. They point out that ﬁbre viscoelastic behaviour is playing a key role in determining fabric rheological behaviour in bagging. Multidimensional deformations occur in a bagging process, and it involves complex mechanisms of ﬁbre mechanical behaviour and yarn–fabric structural changes. Traditionally, fabric bagging is deﬁned by residual bagging height or bagging volume. In various kinds of deformation, fabric mechanical behaviour is correlated with some previous approaches and one is able to identify possible relationships. In these approaches, the role of ﬁbre mechanical behaviour and yarn–fabric structural characteristics is not involved. From their earlier work, they found that fabric bagging is the result of two basic causes: one is stress relaxation due to ﬁbre viscoelastic behaviour, and the other is interﬁbre and interyarn frictions. Fibre mechanical behaviour gains importance in determining fabric bagging behaviour when fabrics have the same construction [82]. In their work which will be explained later [81], they developed a mathematical model on the basis of rheological mechanisms and intended to simulate fabric bagging from fundamental ﬁbre mechanical properties and yarn–fabric structural features. Their model successfully simulated the woven wool fabric’s bagging behaviour and could reﬂect the relative contributions of the ﬁbre’s elastic and viscoelastic behaviour and interﬁbre frictions which are aﬀected by yarn–fabric structural properties. They did not involve diﬀerent ﬁbres in that work [81], but in this work [82], they introduced diﬀerent ﬁbres in the form of diﬀerent fabrics. Relative residual bagging height was obtained. Bagging fatigue, which is the percentage of loss of energy after repeated bagging deformation in a fabric, is obtained. Bagging resistance which is the ability of the fabric to resist bagging deformation is in this order, from the highest: silk fabric, cotton, viscose, polyester, wool, nylon. Residual bagging height is in this order, from the highest: viscose fabric, silk, polyester, cotton, wool, nylon. Viscose fabric has the highest residual bagging height and nylon the lowest. Cotton goes up to 7.5 mm and this result is similar to that of Sengoz [62]. ¸ ¨ The loading curve in the ﬁrst cycle was predicted and it showed good agreement with the experimental results with the wool, silk, and nylon fabrics. For polyester, viscose, and cotton fabrics, the predicted and the experimental curves showed some deviations. Residual bagging height over ﬁve cycles was also predicted and the predicted and the experimental curves ﬁtted reasonably well, besides showed the trends in the alterations of residual height with increasing cycles. So, the model can successfully be used to determine the viscoelastic

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behaviour of ﬁbres in fabric bagging. Viscoelastic modulus came out in this order, from the highest: silk, viscose, wool, cotton, polyester, nylon. Elastic modulus came out in this order, from the highest: polyester, cotton, viscose, nylon, silk, wool. These results show that in fabric bagging, the contributions of elasticity and viscoelasticity are diﬀerent from ﬁbre to ﬁbre. In synthetic ﬁbres such as polyester and nylon, their elastic modulus is much higher than their viscoelastic modulus. In natural ﬁbres such as wool, silk, and viscose (man-made), their elastic modulus is lower than their viscoelastic modulus [82]. The relaxation time t is the highest in nylon ﬁbre (990 seconds), then comes wool (100 seconds) and polyester (90 seconds), the rest having the lowest time ( 30 seconds). The relaxation time t found in the experiments is in agreement with the corresponding fabric bagging fatigue. It can be stated that when the value of the relaxation time t is small, which means the stress relaxation of the ﬁbre is fast, then the bagging fatigue and the residual bagging height is larger. The relative contributions of elasticity, viscoelasticity and interﬁbre friction are diﬀerent from fabric to fabric. In the wool and nylon fabrics, elastic components contribute more to the fabric’s bagging behaviour than the viscoelastic and the frictional components. In the polyester, silk, viscose, and cotton fabrics, the elastic components contribute less than the viscoelastic components. Since the relaxation time t is the highest in nylon ﬁbre (990 seconds), this means that its stress relaxation is very slow and viscoelastic stress decays very slowly when compared with the other ﬁbres. On the other hand, it means excellent elastic recovery for that ﬁbre. For the wool and the polyester fabrics, the bagging behaviour depends on the viscoelastic modulus and the relaxation time of the ﬁbre, and also on the time of fabric deformation. Cotton, viscose, and silk fabrics have the lowest relaxation time; this means they have fast stress relaxation. Cotton and wool fabrics have the same viscoelastic modulus but their relaxation times are diﬀerent, wool being 100 seconds and cotton being 30 seconds. This means their stress relaxation rates are diﬀerent, wool being slow and cotton being fast. Nylon and polyester ﬁbres have high elasticity ratios and low viscoelasticity ratios and long relaxation times. Silk, viscose, and cotton ﬁbres have low elasticity ratios, high viscoelasticity ratios and short relaxation times. Cotton and wool have the same viscoelasticity, but their relaxation times are diﬀerent. These results show that ﬁbre viscoelastic behaviour is very important in deﬁning the fabric rheological behaviour during bagging [82]. Fibre viscoelasticity, and inter-ﬁbre and inter-yarn frictional forces determine the fabric bagging deformation. If the ﬁbres were perfectly elastic, residual extension of the yarn would be caused only by the frictional forces between the ﬁbres and the yarns. But, ﬁbres are viscoelastic in general, which means that their deformation and recovery behaviour is time dependent. When a force is applied, extension occurs; this is dependent on the period of application and on the earlier mechanical history of the ﬁbre. There is not a uniform stress distribution among the ﬁbres in a yarn. Some may be stretched up to their yield region, others may not be stretched at all. The viscoelastic behaviour observed can be described by some other rheological models. Permanent fabric deformation is aﬀected mostly by inter-ﬁbre friction and creep. Also, a ﬁbre’s viscoelastic property is aﬀected by ageing. A ﬁbre’s geometrical parameters such as diameter, shape of its cross-section, and crimp are aﬀected much less [78]. The frictional energy is the result of the relative movement of the yarns or the ﬁbres, the frictional force between them, and the coeﬃcient of friction at these points. The force at those points comes from either the forces that occurred in the yarn or fabric production stages or internal forces arising from fabric deformation itself. During cyclic deformation of a fabric, hysteresis occurs. The plasticity and the creep eﬀects in the

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ﬁbre play an important role as well as the frictional forces arising between ﬁbres and yarns during deformation. In fabric mechanics, woven fabric bagging has to be studied in terms of its mechanical properties [78].

6.2 Fabric Properties and Parameters Zhang et al. [84] did some experiments to investigate the relationship of elasticity and viscoelasticity of ﬁbres and inter-ﬁbre friction to bagging behaviour. They used wool fabrics in their tests. They also applied mathematical models to simulate the behaviour of the fabric under bagging test conditions. With computation experiments, they found the relaxation time of the ﬁbres t and three weighting coeﬃcients (k3, k4, k5). They worked these in diﬀerent wool fabrics woven with diﬀerent wool ﬁbres and found that the frictional weighting coeﬃcient k5 ¼ 0.1 and the relaxation time t ¼ 100 seconds were constant for all the wool fabrics tested. The relative contribution of elasticity, k3 ¼ 0.6 on average, and the relative contribution of viscoelasticity, k4 ¼ 0.3 on average, have narrow distributions. They state that the results show the stability of the three weighting coeﬃcients and the ﬁbre relaxation time, and also that they are not sensitive to structural changes in the fabric. They maintain the idea that they have achieved a consistent agreement between the experimental results and the mathematical simulation, and that their model is quite successful in simulating fabric bagging behaviour with reasonable accuracy. Wool fabrics have many variations in their structural parameters aﬀected by fabric weave, yarn count, thickness, weight, and cover factor. Their model gave some deviations in the residual bagging height between the simulation and the experiment in the ﬁrst cycle. This may be due to an assumption they made in determining the ﬁtness of the simulation. The method gives good overall ﬁtness, when some speciﬁc points are not taken into consideration. Bagging is a result of complex deformations such as tension, shearing, bending, and compression occuring in diﬀerent directions. Fabric deformation is not elastic in general; it is mostly viscoelastic and includes hysteresis. These complexities were determined recently and as a consequence a mathematical model using the fabric’s mechanical properties to predict fabric bagging was developed. A textile fabric is generally considered as a continuum sheet when observed macroscopically, but at the microscopic scale, it is not homogeneous. The hysteresis behaviour of the fabric is dealt with in their work. The hysteresis behaviour is not included in any of the elastic mechanic models. So, the mechanics of garment bagging are studied from both the micro-mechanical and the macro-mechanical point of views. Micro-mechanics studies how the textile material behaves when it interacts with the material making it up at the microscopic level. Macro-mechanics studies how the fabric reveals the eﬀects of the material making it up as its average apparent properties where it is considered homogeneous [78]. The macro-mechanical problems of apparel fabrics are also divided into two classes: (i) Free form problems; in this case, fabric stresses are supported by fabric curvature, as in fabric drape, buckling, and wrinkling: (ii) Form ﬁtting problems; in this case, larger stresses and prescribed curvatures are involved as in garment bagging. Multi-directional tensile deformation and shearing deformation are the main causes of fabric bagging. The eﬀects of fabric bending are insigniﬁcant because the thickness of the fabric is much less than the radius of the knee curvature and the fabric’s other dimensions. This leads us to the assumption that the fabric is a membrane and a perfectly ﬂexible sheet and supports only planar stresses. So, in a bagging test, the tensile and shear characteristics of the textile material have to be evaluated. In laboratory tests for bagging, either the

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extension limits are constant or the loading limits are constant. The researchers found that the biaxial and uniaxial tensile testing load–extension curves were not linear. This was due to the weave structure and the non-linear tensile behaviour of the textile material itself. In this curve, the regions where there was resistance to bagging and the ability to recover from bagging had to be deﬁned. The resistance to bagging is the deformation when a force is applied to the fabric. The ability to recover from bagging is the elastic recovery when the force is lifted. So, both the initial tensile modulus of the fabric and the deformation behaviour near the yield point of the load–extension curve are important. The shear behaviour of the fabric is related to its extensibility in the bias direction because of its interlaced construction. When a woven fabric is confronted by a spherical surface, the warp and the weft yarns shear to take the shape of that surface. So, the tensile deformation of woven fabrics is a complex situation since the fabric is anisotropic and its modulus changes with strain. When stress is applied to anisotropic textile materials, both the Poisson eﬀects and shear deformation occur. The opposite is also true, that shearing stresses causes both Poisson eﬀects and relative rotation between the warp and the weft yarns. When the mechanism of garment bagging is studied, the factors that aﬀect elastic recovery from stretch are very important. In the simulation of bagging, stretch and recovery procedures were developed. But in this case, there was just the uniaxial stretch [78]. Zhang et al. [83] studied the internal stress distribution of bagged fabrics. They did theoretical and experimental studies to ﬁnd the inﬂuence of the stress distribution on the residual bagging deformation of the fabric. They developed a model using the membrane theory and analysed the stress distributions at diﬀerent boundary conditions for isotropic fabrics. They considered diﬀerent bagging heights and the friction between the fabric sample and the pressing steel ball. They concluded that there was a non-uniform stress distribution along the meridian direction, and a non-continuous stress distribution along the hoop direction. These stresses and the bagging height are important factors aﬀecting the residual bagging deformation of fabric and cause localised damage. They aimed to study how the bagging behaviour of the fabric is aﬀected by fabric anisotropy. In their study, they chose seven directions by using fabric strips and measured the tensile moduli in each of them; from the relation between the geometrical deformation and the bagging height, they calculated the strain of the fabric. With the tensile moduli and the fabric strain, they investigated the stress distribution of an anisotropic fabric. They detected diﬀerent yarn stresses between the warp and the weft directions that resulted in diﬀerent bagging shapes. The reason for this is the non-uniform stress distribution along the meridian direction and the variations in the tensile angle y. They also predicted the bagging forces and compared them with the measured forces; and concluded that the method approximately predicts the trend of the bagging force. They found that the fabric’s mechanical behaviour essentially inﬂuenced the fabric’s residual bagging deformation. A fabric can be stretched in several directions at the same time. If one direction has more extensibility than the others, that direction will feel less load. The direction which has low extensibility will suﬀer more load. In order to reach the same stretch ratio at the bias direction and the warp direction, approximately one tenth or one hundredth of the force required for the warp is required for the bias. This means that some of the threads are stretching in the yield region, but others have rigid movements such as decrimping or shearing rotation. This will result in an unbalanced stress or strain distribution in the fabric, and the recovery will also be non-uniform, so the bagging shapes will be diﬀerent. The mechanisms involved in forming non-uniform shapes is not known.

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They investigated the stress distributions of woven fabric during bagging by considering diﬀerent boundary conditions, diﬀerent bagging heights, the friction between the fabric and the pressing ball, variations in the tensile modulus of the fabric with strain, and fabric isotropy and anisotropy. With this investigation, the inﬂuence of the internal stresses of the fabric on its residual bagging deformation were also able to be analysed. They worked only with a fabric radius of 76 mm and a sphere radius of 48 mm. They subjected the fabric sample to an axial-symmetric deformation by a steel ball. The part of the fabric which is in touch with the pressing ball forms a spherical corona, and the rest of the pressed fabric forms a conical section. While the fabric is deformed, it receives the bagging force and transmits it to the ring clamps. The bagging force induces many internal forces, such as tension, shearing, and bending, to the fabric in many directions. The bending force is ignored because the thickness of the fabric is much less that the radius of the pressing ball. There is a localised bending moment region in the ring clamps [83]. Since the fabric is anisotropic, the internal stresses that occur in the fabric are not axially symmetric even if the fabric is subjected to axial-symmetrical deformation. The tensile and the shear internal stresses are balanced by the boundary forces at the ring clamps. No buckling or torsion behaviour was seen in the bagging tests. The orthotropic plain fabric used in the tests had symmetrical mechanical properties in the warp and the weft directions. So it can be concluded that the internal shear stresses should be balanced in the symmetrical range. So it is just the pressing force that bags the fabric. The assumptions they made are: (i) They considered the fabric to be an elastic membrane which had no bending rigidity, and the unit thickness of the fabric was uniform; (ii) The region between the spherical corona and the conical section was a continuous and smooth surface, so the bagging angle was just a function of the bagging height; (iii) In the small strain region of the fabric, Hooke’s law could be applied for the stress–strain relations; (iv) Along the bagging height at any circumference, the stress distribution in the warp and the weft directions was symmetrical; (v) The pressing force was p, the pressure at the corona was q, the pressure had an axialsymmetrical distribution, and it was in the vertical direction. With these assumptions, the problem becomes similar to the mechanical behaviour of a two-dimensional elastic membrane in three-dimensional deformation, and this can be analysed by the membraneshell theory. The advantage here is the elimination of the bending moment. They describe fabric bagging as a shell of an elastic membrane. They derived equations to calculate the stress distribution in the spherical corona and in the conical section with the membrane theory and the assumptions they had made. Then they applied these equations to calculate the stress distribution in a wool plain-weave fabric. They applied diﬀerent boundary conditions for diﬀerent applications [83]. In the spherical-corona section, the meridian and the hoop stresses were seen in the fabric. In the conical section, only the meridian stresses were seen. They say that at the change of the section, the meridian stress was at a maximum and it decreased at the ring clamp. At the top of the fabric, the hoop stress was at the maximum and it decreased at the intersection region. In the meridian direction, both the meridian and the hoop stresses distributed non-uniformly, but the hoop stress was non-continuous in the meridian direction. At the intersection region where it was the turning point of the fabric, stress concentration was seen at the maximum. In an isotropic fabric at equilibrium, bagging force, the most important component of the internal stresses, is the meridian stress. In all the areas of the deformed fabric, the meridian stress was always larger than the hoop stress [83].

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Textile Progress

In an anisotropic fabric, they assumed that the tensile strength of the fabric in the meridian direction was balanced with the external bagging force. With the fabric strain e and fabric tensile modulus in diﬀerent directions, they could calculate the distribution of the meridian stress and the bagging force. Also, in the hoop direction, a non-uniform distribution of the stress concentration was seen. So, when the bagging force was lifted, this non-uniform distribution caused a non-uniform recovery. If the bagging force was to be increased, there would be localised structural damage in the fabric at the bursting stage, and that localisation would be near to the intersection region. If the tensile stresses are in an oﬀ-axial direction, then the stresses in the warp and the weft directions would be diﬀerent and would cause shear stress. Non-uniform stress causes diﬀerent yarn stresses in diﬀerent directions, so the yarn elastic recovery was inﬂuenced, and it resulted in diﬀerent bagging shapes. Eﬀective tensile modulus means the combined eﬀects of the tensile and shearing deformations in diﬀerent directions. They also derived equations to calculate the stress distribution at the spherical corona, at the conical section, and at diﬀerent conditions. Their experimental results were higher than the predicted results. If they calculated the bagging force for the constant tensile modulus under maximum strain, it came out closer to to the experimental results. At the initial stage, the experimental and the predicted results were away from each other; they explain this as caused by the change in the fabric tensile modulus with the fabric strain during the loading process. They also got high experimental results for polyester-ﬁbre fabric. They explain this as due to the polyester having less crimps and less friction between the yarns. Another explanation they made was that, in the bagging test, the fabric was subject to biaxial extension at the spherical corona region. No Poisson eﬀect occurs there but there are the two tensile stresses. Another explanation is that the length of the fabric strip in the tensile test is longer than the eﬀective radius of the fabric clamped at the ring for the bagging test, and this increases the weak-link eﬀect. Another explanation is that they assumed there was no slippage at the spherical corona region between the fabric and the pressing ball, but there may be. They suggest that because the higher stress causes poorer recovery of the fabric, in high-quality outerwear a smoother lining should be used at the knees or elbows of the garment. This will reduce the friction between the garment and the skin, and will result in less bagging deformation [83].

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6.3 Production Parameters By production parameters, we mean the general factors we deal with in production. One production parameter would be machine adjustments, such as the machine production rate (which is the speed of the machine), the pressures between adjacent parts of the machine (which directly aﬀect the produced textile material) and so on. Another production parameter would be the environmental factors (such as the climatic conditions). Others would be the technology of the machine in which the studied textile material is produced, the production direction of the textile material, the ﬁnishing parameters, etc. But, in literature, no research regarding these factors has been found. It is believed by the author that these points are of equal value to be looked for. 7. MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF BAGGING

Zhang et al. [81] studied physical mechanisms during woven fabric bagging by developing a test method, and also developed some theoretical models in order to analyze the stress–strain

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relations in fabrics at diﬀerent deformation stages. They assumed that the stress–strain relationships in fabrics comprised three components, and put them in their model. The ﬁrst two were elastic and viscoelastic deformation of ﬁbres, and the third was the friction between ﬁbres and yarns in the fabric. The loading and unloading process in each cycle, change of bagging force with cycles, relative contributions of the three components in each cycle, and residual bagging height in each cycle were all predicted by the model when the fundamental parameters of ﬁbre mechanical properties and yarn–fabric structural features are speciﬁed to the model. They compared the theoretical predictions and the experimental results and obtained good agreement between them. The fabrics they used were wool with various structures. The model could suﬃciently simulate fabric bagging rheological behaviour and predict fabric bagging performance. Fibre mechanical behaviour increases in importance in determining fabric bagging behaviour when fabrics have the same construction. They developed a mathematical model on the basis of rheological mechanisms and intended to simulate fabric bagging from fundamental ﬁbre mechanical properties and yarn–fabric structural features. Their model successfully simulated the woven wool fabric’s bagging behaviour and could reﬂect the relative contributions of the ﬁbre’s elastic and viscoelastic behaviour and interﬁbre friction, which are aﬀected by yarn–fabric structural properties [81]. In their rheological model, they described the physical mechanisms of fabric bagging. The model had three components parallel to each other. There, ﬁbre elasticity is represented by a spring, ﬁbre viscoelasticity is represented by Maxwell’s unit of a spring and Newton’s viscous dashpot put in series, and interﬁbre friction is represented by a frictional element. These three components have relative contributions which are represented by three diﬀerent weighting coeﬃcients. They assumed a linear relationship between stress and strain during small deformation intervals. Fibre stress was represented by applying Boltzmann’s superposition principle and there the representation is as a function of the strain history of the ﬁbres. They specify the fundamental ﬁbre properties, the measured yarn and fabric parameters and the three weighting coeﬃcients for the model, then the model is able to simulate fabric bagging behaviour. The model describes fabric bagging behaviour by the residual bagging height and the peak load in each cycle, the loading process in the ﬁrst cycle and the alterations in the three components during repeated bagging [81]. The relaxation time t of the ﬁbre indicates the rate of ﬁbre stress relaxation. The relaxation time, the elastic modulus and the viscoelastic modulus should be determined from experimentally measured values of the related ﬁbre, because, in the literature there is little information about most textile ﬁbres’ viscoelastic behaviour. Also, there may be a lot of diﬀerence in the viscoelastic behaviour of the same kind of ﬁbre, where dyeing and ﬁnishing has aﬀected the viscoelastic behaviour; also there can be diﬀerences from ﬁbre to ﬁbre in diﬀerent areas of the same fabric. They state that the researches found in literature deal mainly with simple fabric deformation such as tension, bending, and shearing. There is very little work done on bagging. Bagging involves three-dimensions, ﬁbre viscoelasticity, interﬁbre friction, is subject to repeats, is a rheological process with nonlinear strain, and is a complex deformation. They indicate that when repeated deformation occurs in a fabric, the recovery ability of the fabric decreases because the stress relaxation of the ﬁbre and the frictional restrictions in the fabric construction cause residual bagging deformation [81]. They point out that many of the ﬁbres have natural crimp before they are spun when looked at from the microscopic point of view. In the yarn, every ﬁbre follows a migrating

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helix. When the yarns are woven into a fabric, they are crimped into a complicated conﬁguration. So, when the fabrics bag, ﬁbres may be behaving diﬀerently, some stretching to their yielding points, some decrimping during yarn extension between interlacing points, and some shearing and bending at the interlacing points. At that time, ﬁbres are experiencing a combination of tension, shearing, bending, and compression forces. So, there are very complex interactions between elastic and viscoelastic behaviour of ﬁbres and yarn– fabric constructions. In a spun yarn, the friction between ﬁbres is very important for holding the ﬁbres together in the yarn. In the woven fabric, the friction between the interlacing yarns is very important. They assume a linear relation between stress and strain and a following of Hooke’s law in the small strain region. The average elastic modulus of ﬁbres is related to the amorphous morphological components of the ﬁbres. Bagging height is a nonlinear function. The more the cycles, the less the bagging load; the more the cycles, the higher the residual bagging height. Less bagging load shows the loss of internal energy in the fabric. The mathematical model is based on ﬁbre elastic and viscoelastic behaviour and interﬁbre friction which is time dependent, and is able to simulate fabric bagging fatigue behaviour. These items are given to the model: (i) The fundamental properties of the ﬁbres; (ii) The measurable parameters of yarn and fabric structural features; (iii) The geometric relation between fabric deformation and bagging height. The model predicts fabric bagging performance during the bagging test and this consists of: (i) Bagging force changes during the loading and unloading process in each cycle; (ii) Changes in bagging force with cycles; (iii) Relative contributions of the elastic, viscoelastic and frictional force components in each cycle; (iv) Residual bagging height in each cycle [81]. They developed a mathematical model from their rheological model to obtain a quantitative description of the physical mechanism. There are ﬁve aspects of the bagging force being a non-linear function of the parameters: (i) Fibre parameters are the ﬁbre’s average elastic modulus E1, average viscoelastic modulus E2, relaxation time t, and inter-ﬁbre frictional coeﬃcient m; (ii) Yarn and fabric structural parameters are the ratio of yarn curvilinear length to its projected length C1, yarn count C2, fabric density C3, and the fabric’s interlacing density per unit area Z; (iii) Fabric strain efab geometric parameters of the test which are the radius of the pressing steel ball r0, the radius of the fabric sample R0, and the bagging angle a0; (iv) Empirical coeﬃcients Y1 and Y2, where Y1 is the ﬁbre-strain coeﬃcient which estimates the inﬂuence of the yarn structure on the ﬁbre strain, and Y2 is the fabric tensile force coeﬃcient which estimates the eﬀect of fabric anisotropy on the bagging force. These coeﬃcients represent the factors that inﬂuence the bagging force and can be analysed quantitatively; (v) Weighting coeﬃcients (k3, k4, k5) which are the relative contributions of elasticity and viscoelasticity of the ﬁbres, and inter-ﬁbre friction to the bagging force, consecutively [81].

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**8. COMPUTER SIMULATION MODELS OF BAGGING
**

Bas¸ er [13] developed approximate solution computer programs with several mathematical models to predict the spatial deformation occurring in fabrics, which are mainly perpendicular to the fabric plane. In one of these models, it was assumed that the deformation occurs because of the elongation of the yarns, and in another an approximate solution was obtained on a model depending on the fabric geometry assuming large deformations [12]. These mathematical models were worked into diﬀerent computer programs with diﬀerent assumptions [13]. In these programs, the kind of deformation occuring with the eﬀect of a

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spatial force acting upon a fabric placed on a square frame was studied. The main assumptions here were the yarn elongation, the intersection angles between the yarns staying at 908, and during the deformation period, as a consequence of yarn elongation, a shape like a pyramid having occurred. So the force needed for deformation was calculated with the computer program named ‘gnyn01.bas’ and presented in Appendix 1. The conditions that these computer programs symbolize in general are represented in Fig. 19. L0 : The N : The M : The N/2 : The j : The i : The side length of the square frame in which the fabric is placed number of the warp yarns in the frame number of the weft yarns in the frame number of the warp yarns to the middle point of the the frame warp indices weft indices

Fig. 19

Top view of the fabric laid on the frame to be deformed. Bas¸ er [13]

The fundamentals of the geometric assumptions of the computer program are shown in Fig. 20(a), (b) and (c). qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ As will be seen in Fig. 20(b), Ln=2 ¼ ðL0 =2Þ2 þ D2 and sina ¼ D can be determined. So, Ln=2 j l0j ¼ ð34Þ N=2 L0 =2 l0j ¼ lj ¼ j Â L0 N ð35Þ ð36Þ

2j Â Ln=2 N

j : The sequence of any warp yarn l0j : The initial length of any one of the warp yarns lj : The length of any one of the warp yarns after deformation

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Fig. 20

Geometric assumptions forming the fundamentals of the computer programs (a) Distribution of the pressing force (b) Position at the perpendicular cross-section after deformation L0 =2: The length until the middle point of the frame side Ln=2 : The length of the yarn until the middle point of the frame side after deformation (c) Comparison between before and after deformation (Top view)

So, Equations (34)–(36) can be written, and all the warp yarns starting from the edge of the frame until the middle point can be determined. For the weft yarns, with the help of the i indices, similar formulas can be obtained. If, P : Total pressing force Pj : The force occuring in the warp yarns Pi : The force occuring in the weft yarns Tj : The strain occuring in the warp yarns Ti: The strain occuring in the weft yarns then from Fig. 20(a), Equations (37)–(40) can be written: Tj ¼ lðlj À l0j Þ=l0j ¼ lðlj =l0j À 1Þ Pj ¼

N=2 X j¼1

ð37Þ ð38Þ

Tj sin a ¼

N=2 X j¼1

! lj ðlj =l0j À 1Þ sin a

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Fig. 21

**Fabric geometry of Peirce [49] c : Elongation proportion of the fabric l : Final length l0 : Initial length c ¼ ðl À l0 Þ=l0 ¼ ðl=l0 Þ À 1
**

M=2 X i¼1

Pi ¼

M=2 X i¼1

! li ðli =l0i À 1Þ sin a ð39Þ ð40Þ

Ti sin a ¼

P ¼ 4ðPj þ Pi Þ

The application of this yarn elongation assumption was done in the computer program ‘gnyn01.bas’ in Appendix 1 and the calculated P force was written by the program. Then, Coulomb friction was applied as the friction coeﬃcient m ¼ 0.3, and the force was recalculated and rewritten with the friction force included [13]. In the computer program ‘gnyn10.bas’, given in Appendix 2, the crimp in the yarns is taken into consideration and the fabric geometry of Peirce [49] is applied with a bending assumption. This assumption is explained in Fig. 21. Here, since,

l0j : Warp length lj : Deformed warp length then l0j/(M/2): Unit warp length (as seen in Peirce geometry) lj/(M/2): Unit of the deformed warp length In Fig. 22, the geometric assumption made is drawn out.

Fig. 22

The geometric assumption

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Fig. 23

The geometric assumption according to Bas¸ er’s [12] approximate theory

Here, we can write, ð41Þ s0j ¼ l0j = cos yj qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð42Þ h0j ¼ s0j 2 À l0j 2 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ According to Peirce’s theory, yj ¼ 2cj is approximately true in the case of deformation, so we can obtain the situation in Fig. 23. In this way, such a phenomenon is turned into a bending problem with the application of Bas¸ er’s [12] approximate theory, and assuming that no yarn elongation takes place, on this basis the computer program was worked out. Here, since there is no yarn elongation, s0j ¼ constant, and Equations (43) and (44) can be written: qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ hj ¼ s0j 2 À lj 2 ð43Þ h0j À hj ¼ The amount of bending ð44Þ

The force at bending, the pressure at the unit yarn length, is obtained from the diﬀerences in the heights can be written as follows: P0 ¼ P01 À P02 ¼ 12ðEIÞj ðh0j À hj Þ=l0j 3 ð45Þ

The strain force occurring in the deformed fabric plane with the application of this force will be as: Tj ¼ Poj =2 Â sin yj cos yj ð46Þ

Along both of the warp and the weft yarn groups, the same process is carried out and the total force is calculated; then the eﬀect of friction is included and the total force is again calculated. The pressing force formed by the unit yarn lengths, as described above, are added with the method of numeric integration, Fj ¼ Fi ¼ From here, the total pressure is calculated: P ¼ 4 sin aðFj þ Fi Þ ð49Þ

N=2 X j¼1 M=2 X i¼1

Tj

ð47Þ ð48Þ

Ti

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Table 3 ¨ Comparison of the Computer Results with the Work of Sengoz ¸ Frame mm Lo ¼ 4 2.3 3.6 4.9 6.2 7.5 2.3 3.6 4.9 6.2 7.5 2.3 3.6 4.9 6.2 7.5 2.3 3.6 4.9 6.2 7.5 2.3 3.6 4.9 6.2 7.5 Experimental Results (N) Sphere2 – 24.8 63.44 63.36 61.36 – 11.83 36.71 61.00 67.09 – 6.60 22.71 37.91 58.87 – 3.32 10.67 16.97 26.15 – – – – – Sphere4 – 38.42 93.27 98.24 98.62 – 15.83 48.46 83.27 91.44 – 7.28 25.82 42.71 68.66 – 3.54 12.11 19.88 30.70 – – – – – Sphere8 – – – – – – – – – – – 9.84 30.38 52.13 85.26 – 5.00 16.38 27.55 43.05 – 2.59 9.83 14.98 22.68 Computational Results (N) gnyn01.bas 23.64 89.39 220.97 436.47 749.67 10.64 40.52 101.26 202.75 353.84 6.07 23.20 58.20 117.11 205.62 2.70 10.34 26.02 52.56 92.70 1.53 5.85 14.74 29.81 52.66 gnyn10.bas 0.93 2.04 5.22 8.72 12.88 0.64 2.27 4.73 7.82 11.85 0.49 1.80 4.27 7.64 11.30 0.32 1.21 2.99 5.86 9.89 0.24 0.92 2.28 4.55 7.88 gnyn20.bas 3.90 21.12 69.83 152.62 275.34 2.48 10.02 28.93 68.42 128.67 1.87 7.36 19.38 42.95 80.10 1.23 4.76 12.17 25.21 46.17 0.92 3.56 9.05 18.53 33.29

Lo ¼ 6

Lo ¼ 8

Lo ¼ 12

Lo ¼ 16

In the computer program ‘gnyn20.bas’ given in Appendix 3, the phenomenon is considered as a problem of elongation þ bending. The maximum yarn shape retention is assumed to be 50%, and from that point on, it is assumed that elongation will take place, and when hj < 0.5 h0j, then hj ¼ 0.5 h0j was used. The indices are not shown separately for the warp and the weft every time, but in each case, both are applied [13]. These computer programs were applied to the experimental results of Sengoz’s work and ¸ ¨ the calculations obtained are given in Table 3. The program ‘gnyn01.bas’ was done with the assumption of elongation; the program ‘gnyn10.bas’ was done with the assumption of bending; and the program ‘gnyn20.bas’ was done with the assumption of elongation þ bending, the limit being 50% yarn shape retention. In Table 3, the load results for diﬀerent sphere diameters, diﬀerent displacement values and diﬀerent frame dimensions are given, and they are all in Newtons. Both the experimental results and the computer calculations are in this table. It is seen in the table that as the displacement value increases with every frame dimension increase, the load value also increases. The same trend is also seen in the computer calculations. The program ‘gnyn01.bas’, which assumes elongation, gives very high results. The program ‘gnyn10.bas’ gives lower results because the phenomenon is described by bending. The program ‘gnyn20.bas’ gave similar results with the experimental results for middle-dimension frames. In the column for ‘gnyn10.bas’, the amount of force performed by bending can be seen. It can be concluded from these results that the programs are logically correct but require more work to be done upon them.

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Yeung et al. [75] aimed to develop a new method to evaluate garment bagging and they used image processing with diﬀerent modeling techniques. Garment bagging can be characterized by bagging height, volume, and anisotropy parameters. It is stated that in the traditional methods, bagging is evaluated by the height and that this parameter cannot represent the information given by appearance. In the new method they developed, they capture images from bagged fabrics by image processing and they abstract criteria to recognize the bagging height. According to the intensity of the images, they work with eight criteria and characterize the image features of bagging such as the height, volume, shape, and fabric surface pattern. Fabric surface pattern is an important parameter because the human eye can detect whether a garment is more or less severely bagged according to the pattern on it, so the method they developed also includes this feature. They indicate that the earlier work done on fabric bagging was on measuring residual bagging height, and relate this to fabric mechanical properties. They proved that using the photograph is highly correlated with the real bagged fabric samples in their earlier researches, so they used the image information in their later research. Image analysis is applied in many areas in textile engineering – in ﬁbre analysis (crimp, neps, trash), in wrinkling analysis, in weave pattern identiﬁcation and fault detection in woven fabrics. In their work, the reseachers captured digitized images of bagged fabric samples, the captured images were image processed, the criteria to describe the bagging appearance was selected, and ﬁnally the bagging magnitude from the selected criteria was recognized [75]. In the photographs, deformation is in two-dimensions, but the uneven illuminations on the shadings in the photographs makes it perceived in three-dimensions by the human eye. Also, fabric surface pattern has a reﬂectance inﬂuence in the sample and causes local variations in intensity images. These intensity variations in the images are diﬀerent from fabric to fabric and from warp to weft because of anisotropy. So, when the intensity changes are measured, then it is possible to evaluate fabric bagging according to bagging height, bagging shape, bagging volume, bagging anisotropy, and fabric surface patterns. They used three approaches to model fabric bagging when evaluating the subjective perception data of the bagging appearance. These were multiple regression, linear modelling, and neural networks. The regression model achieves a good ﬁt with a correlation coeﬃcient of r2 ¼ 0.92, the linear model achieves a good ﬁt with a correlation coeﬃcient of r2 ¼ 0.93, and the neural network achieves a good ﬁt with a correlation coeﬃcient of r2 ¼ 0.94. So it is concluded that bagging appearance can be predicted from the criteria they abstracted from the images of the bagged fabrics [75].

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9. CONCLUSION

The bagging behaviour in all kinds of fabrics has gained importance throughout recent years both because it is regarded as a quality factor and because of improving computer technology. Being a quality factor, fabric bagging is an unwanted fault in the appearance of the garment in daily use, and still does not have numerical standards to be evaluated. As the computer technology improves continuously, fabric bagging has been mathematically modelled and simulated on the computer screen, this will be very helpful in the developments in standards. In this issue of Textile Progress, a review of fabric bagging has been given by elucidating the importance, the deﬁnition, the test methods, the research work done, the factors aﬀecting, the mathematical models, and the computer simulations of fabric bagging. It is hoped by the author that the information gathered here will lead to new developments in the future.

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**10. FUTURE PROSPECTS
**

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In the research work explained here, it will be noticed that the measurement, characterization, aﬀecting factors, modelling and simulating work on bagging has been given importance, but work to prevent bagging in fabrics is missing. How to prevent bagging in fabrics, so to reach higher quality in the garments has to be searched for. By taking all the ﬁbre, yarn, fabric, and production parameters, and the usage of the fabric into consideration, the preventing factors of bagging have to be elucidated. When it becomes evident what kind of factor aﬀects bagging and how, then computer simulations will also develop, and moving screen images will also be obtained. Then it will be easier to see on the screen what we have in hand as our starting ﬁbre, and how we will ﬁnish up at the end fabric, by feeding the throughout information for the yarn, fabric, production, and usage. Also, moving backwards should also be possible; the required fabric would be designed in the computer and all the factors to achieve that fabric could be chosen by going back to the yarn parameters, then the ﬁbre parameters, and then the production parameters, and deciding them one by one. Afterwards, the creation of the ideal fabric for that usage without bagging would be realized. With all the information in the research work explained here, it is believed that a full understanding of fabric bagging has been accomplished and that this will lead to much newer methods being developed with novel techniques.

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APPENDIX 1

Bas¸ er’s Computer Program According to the Assumption of Elongation 10 REM ad:gonul00.bas gnyn01.bas guzama2.bas 20 REM bu program kare cerceveye gerilmis kumas¸ ta belirli bir cokmeye ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¨ 30 REM yol acan kuvveti uzama+surtunme varsaym yaparak hesaplar ¸ ¨ ¨ 40 PRINT 50 LO ¼ 4:D ¼ .1:M ¼ 105:N ¼ 105:LAMJ ¼ 6038:LAMI ¼ 6038:SURT ¼ .3 60 D ¼ D+.13 70 LII ¼ 0:LJJ ¼ 0 80 LN2 ¼ SQR((LO/2)^2+D^2) 90 SINA ¼ D/LN2 100 FOR J ¼ 1 TO N/2-1 110 LJO ¼ 2*J/N*LO/2 120 LJ ¼ 2*J*LN2/N 130 LJJ ¼ LJJ+(LJ/LJO-1) 140 NEXT J 150 FJ ¼ 2*LAMJ*LJJ*(1+SURT) 160 FOR I ¼ 1 TO M/2-1 170 LIO ¼ 2*I/M*LO/2 180 LI ¼ 2*I/M*LN2 190 LII ¼ LII+(LI/LIO-1) 200 NEXT I 210 FI ¼ 2*LAMI*LII*(1+SURT) 220 P ¼ 2*SINA*(FJ+FI)

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230 240 250 260

PRINT P/102 PRINT IF D<.74 GOTO 60 END

APPENDIX 2

Bas¸ er’s Computer Program According to the Assumption of Bending 10 REM ad:gnyn10.bas gonul666.bas gegilme.bas 20 REM bu program kare cerceveye gerilmis¸ kumas¸ ta belirli bir cokmeye ¸ ¸ ¸ ¨ 30 REM yol acan kuvveti egilme+surtunme varsaym yaparak hesaplar ¸ g ¨ ¨ 40 PRINT 50 LO ¼ 4:D ¼ .1:M ¼ 105:N ¼ 105:CJ ¼ .016:CI ¼ .15 60 D ¼ D+.13 70 TETC ¼ SQR(2*CJ):TETA ¼ SQR(2*CI) 80 SURT ¼ .3:EIJ ¼ 5.02/1000:EII ¼ 5.02/1000 90 TOJ ¼ 0:TOI ¼ 0 100 LN2 ¼ SQR((LO/2)^2+D^2) 110 SINA ¼ D/LN2 120 LJO ¼ LO/M 130 FOR J ¼ 1 TO N/2-1 140 LJ ¼ 2*LN2/M 150 HOJ ¼ LJO*SIN(TETC)/COS(TETC) 160 SOJ ¼ SQR(LJO^2+HOJ^2) 170 IF LJ<SOJ THEN HJ ¼ SQR(SOJ^2-LJ^2):GOTO 190 180 IF LJ>SOJ THEN HJ ¼ HOJ/2 190 S1J ¼ SQR(HJ^2+LJ^2) 200 TJ2 ¼ 12*EIJ*(HOJ-HJ)/LJ^3*HJ/S1J 210 TOJ ¼ TOJ+TJ2/(LJ/S1J)+J*SURT*TJ2 220 NEXT J 230 LIO ¼ LO/N 240 FOR I ¼ 1 TO M/2-1 250 LI ¼ 2*LN2/N 260 HOI ¼ LIO*SIN(TETA)/COS(TETA) 270 SOI ¼ SQR(LIO^2+HOI^2) 280 IF LI<SOI THEN HI ¼ SQR(SOI^2-LI^2):GOTO 300 290 IF LI>SOI THEN HI ¼ HOI/2 300 S1I ¼ SQR(HI^2+LI^2) 310 TI2 ¼ 12*EII*(HOI-HI)/LI^3*HI/S1I 320 TOI ¼ TOI+TI2/(LI/S1I)+I*SURT*TI2 330 NEXT I 340 P ¼ 4*SINA*(TOJ+TOI) 350 PRINT P/102 360 PRINT 370 IF D<.74 GOTO 60 380 END

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APPENDIX 3

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Bas¸ er’s Computer Program According to the Assumption of Elongation+Bending (Limit: 50% Yarn Compression) 10 REM ad1:gnyn20.bas gonul666.bas gegsuuz2.bas 20 REM bu program kare cerceveye gerilmis kumas¸ ta belirli bir cokmeye ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¨ 30 REM yol acan kuvveti uzama+egilme+surtunme varsaymna gore hesaplar ¸ ˘ ¨ ¨ ¨ 50 PRINT 60 LO ¼ 4:D ¼ .1:M ¼ 105:N ¼ 105:LAMJ ¼ 6038:LAMI ¼ 6038 70 D ¼ D+.13 80 CJ ¼ .016:CI ¼ .15 90 TETC ¼ SQR(2*CJ):TETA ¼ SQR(2*CI) 100 SURT ¼ .3:EIJ ¼ 5.02/1000:EII ¼ 5.02/1000 120 TOJ ¼ 0:TOI ¼ 0 130 LN2 ¼ SQR((LO/2)^2+D^2) 140 SINA ¼ D/LN2 150 LJO ¼ LO/M 160 FOR J ¼ 1 TO N/2-1 170 LJ ¼ 2*LN2/M 180 HOJ ¼ LJO*SIN(TETC)/COS(TETC) 190 SOJ ¼ SQR(LJO^2+HOJ^2) 200 IF LJ<SOJ THEN HJ ¼ SQR(SOJ^2-LJ^2):GOTO 220 210 IF LJ>SOJ THEN HJ ¼ HOJ/2 220 S1J ¼ SQR(HJ^2+LJ^2) 230 TJ ¼ LAMJ*(S1J/SOJ-1) 240 TJ2 ¼ 12*EIJ*(HOJ-HJ)/LJ^3*HJ/S1J 250 TOJ ¼ TOJ+(TJ2+TJ)/(LJ/S1J)+J*SURT*12*EIJ*(HOJ-HJ)/LJ^3 260 NEXT J 270 LIO ¼ LO/N 280 FOR I ¼ 1 TO M/2-1 290 LI ¼ 2*LN2/N 300 HOI ¼ LIO*SIN(TETA)/COS(TETA) 310 SOI ¼ SQR(LIO^2+HOI^2) 320 IF LI<SOI THEN HI ¼ SQR(SOI^2-LI^2):GOTO 340 330 IF LI>SOI THEN HI ¼ HOI/2 340 S1I ¼ SQR(HI^2+LI^2) 350 TI ¼ LAMI*(S1I/SOI-1) 360 TI2 ¼ 12*EII*(HOI-HI)/LI^3*HI/S1I 370 TOI ¼ TOI+(TI2+TI)/(LI/S1I)+I*SURT*12*EII*(HOI-HI)/LI^3 380 NEXT I 390 P ¼ 4*SINA*(TOJ+TOI) 400 PRINT P/102 410 PRINT 420 IF D<.74 GOTO 70 430 END

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