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PETROGRAPHY AND MINERAL CHEMISTRY OF THE BASALTIC

ROCKS AND DYKES FROM THE BURUNKÖY (ÇORUM) REGION,


TURKEY

A THESIS SUBMITTED TO
THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES
OF
THE MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

BY

AYNUR (ATAK) KÜÇÜK

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE


MASTER OF SCIENCE
IN
THE DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGICAL ENGINEERING

NOVEMBER 2014
Approval of the thesis:

PETROGRAPHY AND MINERAL CHEMISTRY OF THE BASALTIC ROCKS


AND DYKES FROM THE BURUNKÖY (ÇORUM) REGION, TURKEY

submitted by AYNUR (ATAK) KÜÇÜK in partial fulfillment of the requirements


for the degree of Master of Science in Geological Engineering Department, Middle
East Technical University by,

Prof. Dr. Gülbin Dural Ünver


Dean, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences _____________________

Prof. Dr. Erdin Bozkurt


Head of Department, Geological Engineering _____________________

Assist. Prof. Dr. Fatma Toksoy Köksal


Supervisor, Geological Engineering Dept., METU _____________________

Examining Committee Members:

Prof. Dr. Cemal Göncüoğlu _____________________


Geological Engineering Dept., METU

Assist. Prof. Dr. Fatma Toksoy Köksal _____________________


Geological Engineering Dept., METU

Prof. Dr. Gültekin Topuz _____________________


Eurasia Institute of Earth Sciences, ITU, İstanbul

Doç. Dr. Kaan Sayıt _____________________


Geological Engineering Dept., METU

Assist. Prof. Dr. Ersin Koralay _____________________


Geological Engineering Dept., Dokuz Eylül University, İzmir

Date: _____________________
I hereby declare that all information in this document has been obtained and
presented in accordance with academic rules and ethical conduct. I also declare
that, as required by these rules and conduct, I have fully cited and referenced
all material and results that are not original to this work.

Name, Last name: Aynur (Atak) Küçük

Signature:
ABSTRACT

PETROGRAPHY AND MINERAL CHEMISTRY OF THE BASALTIC


ROCKS AND DYKES FROM THE BURUNKÖY (ÇORUM) REGION,
TURKEY

(ATAK) KÜÇÜK, Aynur


M.Sc., Department of Geological Engineering
Supervisor: Assist.Prof.Dr.Fatma Toksoy Köksal

November 2014, 165 pages

Petrography and mineral chemistry of the basaltic rocks and dykes, which are
outcropping in the Burunköy (Çorum) region, are discussed in the scope of this
thesis. The studied rocks belong to the ophiolitic melange of İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan
Suture Zone that were derived from the closure of northern branch of Neotethys. In
the study area, the metamorphic rocks of Sakarya Composite Terrane tectonically
overlies the ophiolitic melange units, and Upper Neocene sediments cover both units
unconformably.

The rocks in the study area are divided into three categories; intensely foliated-
sheared metabasalts, basalts and doleritic dykes. These rocks are mostly contain
pyroxene and feldspar minerals with varying crystal sizes. The augite phenocrysts
display reaction rims with reddish color, compositional zoning, corrosion and tailing
properties which also observed for feldspars indicating more mafic hot magma
impulse into magma chamber during crystallization.

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The Electron Probe Microanalyser data from constituent minerals of the rock groups
revealed that pyroxene and feldspar are augite and albite, respectively. Substitutional
mechanism plots generally display more than one group inferring new melt influx(es)
into magma that supports the petrographical observations. Mineral chemistry data
indicate the rocks have a transitional character from subalkaline to alkaline that
derived from a non-orogenic environment.

Whole rock geochemical data including isotopic once reveal that the rocks are
alkaline in character and generated in a transitional environment between E-MORB
and OIB. Furthermore, the data of studied rocks suggest that these rocks evolved
from a melt formed by mixture of DMM and EM-I.

Keywords: Çorum, petrography, mineral chemistry.

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ÖZ
TÜRKİYE BURUNKÖY (ÇORUM) BÖLGESİNDE YÜZEYLENEN
BAZALTİK KAYAÇLARIN VE DAYKLARIN PETROGRAFİSİ VE
MİNERAL KİMYASI

(ATAK) KÜÇÜK, Aynur


Yüksek Lisans, Jeoloji Mühendisliği Bölümü
Tez Yöneticisi: Yrd.Doç.Dr.Fatma Toksoy Köksal

Kasım 2014, 165 sayfa

Burunköy (Çorum) bölgesinde yüzeylenen bazaltik kayaçların ve daykların


petrografisi ve mineral kimyası bu çalışma kapsamında değerlendirilmiştir. Üzerinde
çalışılan kayaçlar Neotetis Okyanusu’nun kuzey kolunun kapanmasıyla türeyen
İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Kenet Zonu’nun ofiyolitik melanjına aittir. Çalışma alanında,
Sakarya Kompozit’ine ait metamorfik kayaçlar tektonik olarak İzmir-Ankara-
Erzincan Kenet Zonu’na ait ofiyolitik melanjın üzerinde yer almaktadır ve Üst
Neojen yaşlı sedimanlar iki zona ait kayaçları da uyumsuz olarak örtmektedir.

Çalışma alanındaki kayalar üç kategoriye ayrılmıştır; yüksek derecede yapraklanmış-


ezilmiş metabazaltlar, bazaltlar ve doleritik dayklar. Bu kayaçlar çeşitli kristal
boyutlarında piroksen ve feldispat minerallerinden oluşmaktadır. Ojit fenokristalleri
kristallenme sırasında magma odasına giren daha mafik sıcak magma impalsına
işaret eden kırmızı renkli reaksiyon kenarı, kompozisyonal zonlanma, korozyon ve
kuyruklanma özelliklerini göstermektedir. Benzer özellikler feldispat kristallerinde
de gözlemlenmektedir.

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Kayaç gruplarındaki ana minerallerin Elektron Prob Mikroanaliz verileri
piroksenlerin ojit ve feldispatların albit bileşiminde olduğunu ortaya çıkarmıştır. Yer
değişimli mekanizma çizimleri genellikle petrografik gözlemleri de destekleyen
magmaya yeni magma inflakslarına işaret eden birden fazla gruplaşma
sergilemektedir. Mineral kimyası verileri kayaçların sübalkalen ve alkalen arasında
geçiş niteliği gösteren orojenik olmayan bir ortamdan türediklerini önermektedir.

İzotop verilerini de içeren tüm kaya jeokimyası verileri; kayaçların alkalen


karakterde olup E-MORB ve OIB tipleri arasındaki bir geçiş ortamında oluştuğuna
işaret etmektedir. Ayrıca veriler, çalışılan kayaçların DMM ve EM-I karışımından
oluşan bir eriyikten türediklerini önermektedir.

Anahtar kelimeler: Çorum, petrografi, mineral kimyası.

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To my husband Cengiz Küçük & my family
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am greatly indebted to my supervisor Assist. Prof. Dr. Fatma Toksoy KÖKSAL for
her supervision and encouragement throughout the research, and for valuable
criticisms and warm guidance.

I am greatly thankful to my collegue Dr. Serhat KÖKSAL from Central Laboratory,


Middle East Technical University for his constructive suggestions, valuable
criticisms and warm guidance like a brother. I also would like to express my sincere
gratitude to him due to support in analysis made by TIMS (Thermal Ionisation Mass
Spectrometer).

The financial support for field and preliminary studies was provided by Middle East
Technical University, Research Fund Project (BAP) code: BAP-07.02.2012.101.

I would like to express my thanks to Management Board of Central Laboratory,


Middle East Technical University for giving an opportunity to complete my thesis
and to use facilities in the Laboratory.

Mr. Levent Yıldız from Central Laboratory, Middle East Technical University is
acknowledged for his support in preparation of crushed and powdered rock samples
for whole rock and isotope analyses.

I extend my gratitude to my mother and father for their patience and encouragement
throughout my life.

Finally, I would like to express my sincere thanks to my husband Cengiz KÜÇÜK


for his endless patience and encouragement throughout my study and during the
preparation of this thesis.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................... vii

ÖZ ............................................................................................................................... ix

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ........................................................................................ xiii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................... xv

LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................. xviii

LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................. xix

CHAPTERS

1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 1

1.1. Purpose and Scope ......................................................................................... 1

1.2. Geographic Setting ........................................................................................ 2

1.3. Methods of Study .......................................................................................... 2

1.3.1. Mineralogical Analyses .......................................................................... 3

1.3.2. Whole Rock Element and Isotope Geochemistry Analyses ................... 4

1.4. Review on Ophiolite Belts of Turkey............................................................ 7

1.4.1. Intra-Pontide Ophiolite Belt ................................................................... 7

1.4.2. North Anatolian Ophiolite Belt .............................................................. 7

1.4.3. Southeast Anatolian Ophiolite Belt ........................................................ 8

2. GEOLOGY ............................................................................................................ 11

2.1. Introduction ..................................................................................................... 11

2.2. Regional Geological Setting ............................................................................ 11

2.3. Geology of the Study Area .............................................................................. 17

2.3.1. Basalts ....................................................................................................... 18

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2.3.2. Metabasalts ............................................................................................... 20

2.3.3. Dykes ........................................................................................................ 21

3. PETROGRAPHY ................................................................................................... 29

3.1. Introduction ..................................................................................................... 29

3.2. Basalts .............................................................................................................. 29

3.3. Metabasalts ...................................................................................................... 38

3.4. Dykes ............................................................................................................... 46

4. MINERAL CHEMISTRY AND PETROGENETIC IMPLICATIONS ................ 55

4.1. Introduction ..................................................................................................... 55

4.2. Pyroxene .......................................................................................................... 55

4.2.1. Compositional Variations ......................................................................... 55

4.2.2. Nomenclature and Substitution Mechanisms............................................ 64

4.3.3. Implications for Petrology and Tectonic Setting ...................................... 67

4.3. Feldspar ........................................................................................................... 69

4.3.1. Compositional Variations ......................................................................... 71

4.3.2. Nomenclature and Substitution Mechanisms............................................ 73

5. WHOLE-ROCK CHEMISTRY ............................................................................. 77

5.1. Introduction ......................................................................................................... 77

5.2. Effect of Alteration on Whole-Rock Composition ...................................... 77

5.3. Compositional Variations ............................................................................ 81

5.4. Chemical Classification and Implications for Tectonic Setting .................. 84

5.5. Multi-Element and Rare Earth Element Diagrams ...................................... 87

5.6. Isotope Geochemistry .................................................................................. 88

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6. DISCUSSION ON THE GENESIS OF THE STUDIED ROCKS ........................ 91

6.1. General Features .............................................................................................. 91

6.2. Mineralogical Constraints ............................................................................... 91

6.3. Geochemical Constraints ................................................................................. 93

6.4. Isotopic Constraints ......................................................................................... 99

7. CONCLUSIONS .................................................................................................. 103

8. REFERENCES..................................................................................................... 105

9. APPENDICES ..................................................................................................... 115

A. MAJOR AND MINOR ELEMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR


PYROXENE FROM METABASALTS .................................................................. 115

B. MAJOR AND MINOR ELEMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR PYROXENE


FROM DYKES ........................................................................................................ 117

C. MAJOR AND MINOR ELEMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR PYROXENE


FROM BASALT PHENOCRYSTS ........................................................................ 124

D. MAJOR AND MINOR ELEMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR


PYROXENE FROM BASALT OVERGROWTHS ................................................ 147

E. MAJOR AND MINOR ELEMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR PYROXENE


FROM BASALT MATRIX ..................................................................................... 150

F. MAJOR AND MINOR ELEMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR FELDSPAR


FROM METABASALTS ........................................................................................ 155

G. MAJOR AND MINOR ELEMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR FELDSPAR


FROM DYKES ........................................................................................................ 156

H. MAJOR AND MINOR ELEMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR FELDSPAR


FROM BASALTS .................................................................................................... 161

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Minimum and maximum major oxide values of the pyroxenes for the
studied rocks. .............................................................................................................. 56
Table 2. EPMA analyses results for the pyroxenes in Figure 32. .............................. 61
Table 3. Minimum and maximum major oxide values of the feldspars from the rock
groups of studied rocks. ............................................................................................. 71
Table 4. Major oxide (wt%) compositions of the studied samples. ........................... 78
Table 5. Trace element (ppm) compositions of the studied samples. ........................ 79
Table 6. Sr-Nd isotope ratios for the studied samples................................................ 89
Table 7. Mg# ranges of the pyroxenes for the studied rocks. .................................... 91

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Location map of the study area. .................................................................... 5


Figure 2. Main ophiolite belts of Turkey (Modified from 1:2 000 000 scaled
geological map of Turkey, MTA). ............................................................................... 9
Figure 3. Simplified geological map of the study area (modified from 1:100000 scale
geology map of H33-Çorum) and (b) sample locations on the map. (c) Sketch of X-Y
cross-section taken from the study area from N to S (not to scale). .......................... 18
Figure 4. Photograph showing the position of the marbles from the study area. ....... 19
Figure 5. Photograph showing pillow basalts from the study area. ........................... 20
Figure 6. Photograph showing a pillow basalts and talc in the matrix from the study
area. ............................................................................................................................ 21
Figure 7. Metabasalts showing different degrees of schistosity and greenschist facies
metamorphism (dark green chlorite spots) (a) weak, (b) modarate to strong, (c)
strong. ......................................................................................................................... 22
Figure 8. Photograph showing contact relationship between metabasalts and pillow
basalts in the study area.............................................................................................. 24
Figure 9. Photographs showing parallel dyke system in the study area..................... 25
Figure 10. Photograph showing general (a) and close-up view (b) of dykes from the
study area. .................................................................................................................. 26
Figure 11. Photograph showing doleritic dyke close to contact with marble from the
study area. .................................................................................................................. 27
Figure 12. Microphotograph showing (a) euhedral pyroxene phenocrysts with simple
twinning in a basalt sample (b, c) corroded subhedral pyroxene crystals (pyx:
pyroxene, cc:calcite, comp.zon.: compositional zoning). .......................................... 31
Figure 13. Microphotograph of a basalt showing pyroxene aggregates
(glomeroporphyritic texture) ((a) analyser out, (b) analyser in, pyx: pyroxene). ...... 33

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Figure 14. Microphotograph of a basalt showing pyroxene phenocrysts in a glassy
groundmass with pyroxene microcrysts ((a) analyser out, (b) analyser in, pyx:
pyroxene). ................................................................................................................... 34
Figure 15. Microphotograph of a basalt showing pinkish to reddish pyroxene
phenocrysts with tailing property ((a) analyser in, (b) analyser out, pyx: pyroxene,
felds: feldspar). ........................................................................................................... 35
Figure 16. Microphotograph of a basalt showing pyroxene crystals with reaction rim,
compositional zoning and simple twinning((a) analyser out, (b) analyser in, pyx:
pyroxene, chl: chlorite, rxn rim: reaction rim). .......................................................... 36
Figure 17. Microphotograph of a basalt showing a corroded pyroxene crystal with
compositional zoning (1) and reaction rim (formation of a new pyroxene, 2),
corrosion (3) in (a) and ( b) ((a) analyser out, (b) analyser in, pyx: pyroxene). (c)
Back scattared image of a clinopyroxene crystal (1) showing overgrown by a new
crystal material (2). .................................................................................................... 37
Figure 18. (a) Microphotograph of a basalt showing long-prismatic pyroxene
microcrysts with tailing property in groundmass (analyser in, pyx: pyroxene, cc:
calcite). (b) Back scattared image of a clinopyroxene crystal with tailing. (c) Back
scattared image of a clinopyroxene crystal (1) showing overgrown by a new crystal
material (2) and tailing (3). ........................................................................................ 39
Figure 19. Microphotograph of a basalt showing finely spongy cellular texture in the
center and near the rim of feldspar crystals ((a) analyser out, (b) analyser in, pyx:
pyroxene, felds: feldspar). .......................................................................................... 41
Figure 20. Microphotograph of a metabasalt ((a) analyser out, (b) analyser in, ep:
epidote, chl: chlorite, cc: calcite) ............................................................................... 43
Figure 21. Microphotograph of a metabasalt showing a sheared vesicle resembling
augen structure ((a) analyser out, (b) analyser in, ep: epidote, pyx: pyroxene, chl:
chlorite, cc: calcite). ................................................................................................... 44

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Figure 22. Microphotograph of a metabasalt showing simple twinning (a) and sector
zoning (b & c) in clinopyroxe phenocrysts (pyx: pyroxene, comp.zon.: compositional
zoning)........................................................................................................................ 45
Figure 23. Microphotograph of a metabasalt showing a pyroxene crystal displaying
both simple twinning and compositional zoning. ((a) analyser out, (b) analyser in,
pyx: pyroxene, cc: calcite, comp.zon.: compositional zoning). ................................. 47
Figure 24. Microphotograph of a metabasalt showing a corroded pyroxene crystal.
((a) analyser out, (b) analyser in, pyx: pyroxene). ..................................................... 48
Figure 25. Microphotograph of a metabasalt showing growth of clinopyroxene
microcrysts around a larger feldspar crystal. ((a) analyser out, (b) analyser in, felds:
feldspar, pyx: pyroxene)............................................................................................. 49
Figure 26. Microphotograph of a dyke showing ophitic and intergranular textures
(felds: feldspar, pyx: pyroxene). ................................................................................ 50
Figure 27. Microphotograph of a dyke showing both compositional zoning and
twinning in a pyroxene crystal and a feldspar crystal (felds: feldspar, pyx: pyroxene).
.................................................................................................................................... 51
Figure 28. Microphotograph of a dyke showing a corroded pyroxene crystal with
compositional zoning, and surrounding feldspars with sericitization ((a) analyser out,
(b) analyser in, pyx: pyroxene, felds: feldspar).......................................................... 52
Figure 29. Microphotograph of a dyke showing twinned feldspars ((a) analyser out,
(b) analyser in, pyx: pyroxene, felds: feldspar, chl: chlorite, cc: calcite). ................. 53
Figure 30. Variation diagrams for major and minor element compositions for the
studied rocks. ............................................................................................................. 58
Figure 31. Sketch drawing showing three different crystallization stages for the
pyroxenes of the basalts and their compositional constituents (not to scale). ........... 59

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Figure 32. (a) Microphotograph from a basalt sample in analyser out condition, (b)
Back scattered image of the pyroxene crystal (1) (blue quadrangle) from (a) showing
overgrown by two different crystal material (2) and (3). (c) Back scattered image of a
pyroxene crystal (4) showing overgrowth of Fe-rich new crystal material (5). ......... 60
Figure 33. Covariation diagrams of Al(t) and Ti (pfu) against Fe(t) / (Mg + Fe(t)) (the
symbols are same as in Figure 30). ............................................................................ 63
Figure 34. The relation between Ca# and Mg# for the studied rocks (the symbols are
same as in Figure 30). ................................................................................................ 64
Figure 35. The place of pyroxene data on Q-J diagram adapted from Morimoto and
Kitamura (1983) (a) and the plots of pyroxene on the Ca-Mg-Fe clinopyroxene
classification diagram after Poldervaart & Hess (1951) (b) (the symbols are same as
in Figure 30). .............................................................................................................. 65
Figure 36. The substitution mechanisms and Ti-Al(t) ratio diagram (the symbols are
same as in Figure 30). ................................................................................................ 67
Figure 37. The place of the pyroxene data on the Ti-Na-Al[4] triangle diagram
proposed by Papike et al. (1974) (the symbols are as in Figure 30). ......................... 68
Figure 38. The place of the pyroxene data on the Ti+Cr-Ca diagram (Leterrier et al.,
1982) (the symbols are as in Figure 30). .................................................................... 69
Figure 39. The place of pyroxene data on the diagrams of ; (a) SiO2 – Al2O3 (wt%)
(Le Bas, 1962), (b) Ti – (Ca+Na) (pfu) (Leterrier et al., 1982) and (c) Ti-Al(t) (pfu)
(Liotard et al., 1988) (the symbols are same as in Figure 30). .................................. 70
Figure 40. Variation diagrams of elements against Si (pfu) (symbols are same as in
Figure 30). .................................................................................................................. 72
Figure 41. The plots for the feldspars from studied rocks on feldspar ternary diagram
(symbols are same as in Figure 30). ........................................................................... 74
Figure 42. Plot showing coupled substitution mechanism for feldspars from the study
area (symbols are same as in Figure 30). ................................................................... 75

xxii
Figure 43. Covariation diagrams of Ba, Sr, Rb, TiO2, P2O5 and K2O againts Zr to
show effect of alteration on the studied rocks. ........................................................... 80
Figure 44. Major and trace element systematic against MgO (wt%) for the studied
rocks. .......................................................................................................................... 82
Figure 45. (a) Total alkalies vs. silica diagram and (b) Zr/TiO2 vs. Nb/Y diagram for
the studied rocks (Irvine and Bragar, 1971; Winchester and Floyd, 1977). .............. 85
Figure 46. Tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams for the studied rocks: (a)
Pearce (1982); (b) Pearce and Cann (1973); (c) Mullen (1983); (d) Wood (1980). .. 86
Figure 47. N-MORB, E-MORB and OIB normalized multi element diagrams and
chondrite normalized rare earth element diagram and for studied rocks (Sun and
McDonough. 1989). ................................................................................................... 88
Figure 48. N-MORB normalized multi element variation diagram comparing Group I
rocks of the study belonging Çelik et al. (2013) with rocks from the study area (Sun
& McDonough, 1989). ............................................................................................... 94
Figure 49. Chondrite normalized multi element variation diagram comparing Group I
rocks of the study belonging Çelik et al. (2013) and average OIB and E-MORB
values from Sun & McDonough (1989) with rocks from the study area. .................. 95
Figure 50. Ti-V discrimination diagram showing tectonic setting relationship of the
studied rocks (Shervais, 1982). .................................................................................. 96
Figure 51. Variation of Y/Nb against Zr/Nb for the studied samples. (Data sources
for OIB, E-MORB, N-MORB and SSZ-type Tethyan basaltic rocks are belonging to
Mahoe et al. (2004), Saccani and Photiades (2005) and Aldanmaz et al.(2008),
Göncüoğlu et al. (2010)). ........................................................................................... 97
Figure 52. Variation of TiO2 (wt%) against Zr (ppm) for the studied samples. (Data
sources for OIB, E-MORB, N-MORB and SSZ-type Tethyan basaltic rocks are same
with Figure 51). .......................................................................................................... 98

xxiii
Figure 53. Nd-Sr diagram of initial isotopic ratios for the studied rocks (closed
diamonds). (DMM values are from Zindler and Hart (1986), MORB, HIMU and EM
values are from Hart et al. (1999) and Workman and Hart (2005), and colored fields
are data from Çelik et al. (2013)). The dashed DMMa, DMMb and MORB are values
corrected to 150 Ma (from Çelik et al., 2013). Isotopic data for this thesis were
corrected to 170 Ma.................................................................................................. 100

xxiv
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1.Purpose and Scope

Geology of Turkey stands for an important part in the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic


system. Turkey is represented by a very complex geology. Although there are
increasing amount of geological data, this complex geology results in different point
of views on the geological evolution of Turkey (Okay, 2008). Geology of Turkey is
closely related to the evolution of Neotethys. Subbranches of Neotethys Ocean once
were surrounding the main tectonic units of Turkey. These tectonic units are now
separated by sutures which were formed the closure of subbranches of Neotethys.
Developed series of oceanic seaways and microcontinents during the fragmentation
of the northern part of Gondwana were closed by convergence of Africa and
Euroasia during the Late Cretaceous (Robertson, 2002). The complete closure of this
ocean ended up with the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture. Study area of this thesis is
on the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan branch of the Alpine Neotethys.

Ophiolite occurences in Earth history largely coincide with orogenic events causing
the formation and break-up of supercontinents. Therefore, ophiolites and ophiolitic
melanges are useful databanks in order to observe and examine ancient pieces of
oceanic lithosphere and they keep significant evidence of some tectono-magmatic
events such as opening of a rift or subducting of a continent or intra-plate
magmatism (Göncüoğlu et al., 2010).

Today, it is possible to analyse rocks in terms of their mineral chemistry and


geochemistry including isotopic once by using analytical methods such as electron
microprobe and ion-probe techniques. Thus, this methods supply valuable
information about petrologic history of rocks.

1
This thesis aims to provide contribution to the formation of the mafic magmatic
rocks which are located around Çorum region by means of petrography, whole rock
element and isotope geochemistry, and mineral chemistry. Firstly, a field study was
conducted and rock samples were collected. After that, textural and mineralogical
features of the studied rocks were examined by a petrographical study. Followingly,
mineral chemistry study including nomenclature of minerals, substitutional
mechanisms and their implications on petrology and tectonic settings were discussed.
Additionally, geochemical interpretations were made based on major and trace
elements, and isotopic characteristics of the studied rocks. Finally, in the light of the
petrographical, mineralogical, whole rock geochemical characteristics, the
comparison of the pyroxene occurences in different rock samples and their
crystallization processes were examined.

1.2.Geographic Setting

The study area is located between the city center of the Çorum and Alaca town of
Çorum. It is located in H33 quadrangle of the 1:100 000 scaled topographic map of
Turkey within latitudes 70-75 N and longitudes 55-60 E in the east of Central
Anatolia (Figure 1).

1.3.Methods of Study

Geological features of volcanic rocks around Burunköy (Çorum) region are planned
to be investigated in this thesis. The first part of the study includes the sampling from
the field. Study area is located at southeast of Çorum, between city center of Çorum
and Alaca (Figure 1). Rock outcrops were sampled from 10 different selected
locations. Totally, 30 rock samples were collected for petrographical and
geochemical studies. The petrographical study was performed in order to detect the
main petrographical characteristics of the study area. 17 samples of total 30 samples
were chosen from the rock samples in order to make petrographic interpretations and

2
mineral chemistry analyses (EPMA). Moreover, 6 of 17 samples were chosen for
whole rock element analyses and isotope (TIMS) analysis.

1.3.1. Mineralogical Analyses

Major and minor element compositions of the minerals from the studied samples
were performed by using Electron Probe Microanalyser (EPMA) which is an ideal
method for non-destructive in-situ microanalysis. Coating and the analyses of the
well-polished 46 mm x 25 mm thin-sections were carried out at Central Laboratory,
Middle East Technical University. Non-conductive geological samples require a
conductive coating in order to prevent charging under electron bombardement.
Therefore, carbon coating is preferred using Electron Probe Microanalyser because it
has a minimal effect on the X-ray spectrum. A carbon coater belonging to Quorum
Technologies, Q150R ES, were used for this purpose. The optimum thickness of the
carbon should be around 20 nm. The thickness of the carbon was controlled by the
device by using a fixed current and evaporation time. The analyses on the minerals
were performed by a fully automated JEOL-JXA-8230 electron microprobe at
Central Laboratory, Middle East Technical University. The instrument has been
operating in two ways. These are energy-dispersive and wavelength-dispersive
modes. Energy-dispersive type spectrometer records X-rays of all energies and
produces an output in the form of a plot of intensity versus X-ray photon energy.
However, wavelenght-dispersive type spectrometer uses crystals working according
to Bragg reflection principle. Although spectral resolution is better in energy-
dispersive spectrometer; however, wavelenght-dispersive one is faster and more
convenient. Both spectrometers were used according to purpose of the study. Energy-
dispersive mode was generally used in order to determine what elements a mineral
has, and wavelenght-dispersive mode was used to measure major and minor oxides
in percent. 15 kV accelaration voltage and 15 nA beam current were used during
analyses. The applied beam size was 5 µm. A variety of natural and synthetic
standards were used for calibration. The following elements were analysed using the

3
standards: Albite for Na, wollastonite for Ca and Si, Al2O3 for Al, MgO for Mg,
hematite for Fe, rhodonite for Mn, Ni-metal for Ni, orthoclase for K, TiO2 for Ti,
Cr2O3 for Cr, SrTiO3 for Sr and baryte for Ba. Matrix corrections were performed by
the PRZ (XPP method metal/oxide) procedure in the JEOL software.

1.3.2. Whole Rock Element and Isotope Geochemistry Analyses

Whole rock samples for the chemical analyses were chosen after examining thin
sections of the studied samples in terms of mineralogical compositions and degree of
alteration. Six representative samples (2 basalt, 2 metabasalt, 2 dike) were selected
for analyses. The rock samples were crushed to small chips, less than 1 cm size, in a
jaw crusher. Then altered chips were eliminated by hand-picking. After that, the rest
of the samples were ground in order to obtain sample powder. All these processes
were carried at Central Laboratory, Middle East Technical University. For the whole
rock analyses, powdered samples were sent to the Acme Laboratories, Canada. For
major elements and the trace elements Ba, Nb, Ni, Sr, Sc, Y and Zr, an ICP emission
spectrograph of Jarrel Ash AtomComb 975 model were used. An ICP mass
spectrometer of Perkin-Elmer Elan 6000 model were used for the determination of
other trace elements including rare earth elements. Accuracy for major elements and
trace elements is better than 2% and 10%, respectively.

Isotope geochemistry experiments of Sr and Nd were performed at Middle East


Technical University, Central Laboratory, R&D (Research and Development)
Education and Measurement Center with methods of TLM-ARG-RIL-01
(Experiment instruction for isotope ratio analysis of Sr) and TLM-ARG-RIL-02
(Experiment instruction for isotope ratio analysis of Nd) which were adapted from
methods in Köksal and Göncüoğlu (2008).

4
N

Çayhatap

Hamdiköy
Sazdeğirmeni
STUDY AREA

BURUNKÖY

N
Büğdüz
ÇANKIRI BAYAT
AMASYA

ÇORUM Sapa

ORTAKÖY
5

ALACA Çorum-Yozgat Yolu


SUNGURLU Kırıkkale-Çorum Yolu

BOĞAZKALE 2 km

YOZGAT 25 km

Figure 1. Location map of the study area.


Half of the sample powders of total whole rock analysis were used for this purpose.
Weighing, chemical resolving and chromatography processes were performed at
Clean Laboratory with 100 sanitation standard. About 80 mg rock powder were
weighed from each specimen and they transferred into PFA (a kind of teflon) bottles.
Samples were resolved completely in 4 mL 52% HF which were on a hot plate with
the temperature of 160ºC for 4 days. After that, dried samples were resolved for 1
day in 4 mL 6 N HCl solution. Then, these samples were evaporitized and dried on
hot plate and they were placed in 1 mL 2.5 N HCl and prepared for chromatography.
Sr element was separated in teflon columns by using 2.5 N HCl acid and 2 mL
volume of Bio Rad AG 50 W-X8, 100-200 mesh resin. After collecting Sr, fraction
of rare earth elements were collected with 6 N HCl. Sr was loaded on single Re-
87
filament by using Ta-activator and measured on static mode. Data of Sr/86Sr were
86
normalized to Sr/88Sr=0.1194. During measurements, Sr standard NBS 987 was
measured as 0.710261±5 (n=2) and required bias corrections were done on
measurement results. Nd element was separated in teflon columns by using 0.22 N
HCl acid from other rare earth elements and run through 2 mL volume of Bio Rad
(biobeads) resin which was surrounded by HDEHP (bis-ethyexlyl phosphate).
Separated Nd was located on Re-filament with 0.005 N H3PO4 and measured on
143
static mode by using double filament technique. During analysis Nd/144Nd data
were normalized with 146Nd/144Nd=0.7219 and Nd LaJolla standard was measured as
0.511848±5 (n=2). There was any bias collection done on Nd isotope ratio on
measurement results. Measurements were performed as multi-collection by Triton
Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (Thermo-Fisher). Analytical uncertainty is
around 2 sigma. BCR-1 USGS rock standard which was measured by the same
87
processes with experiment samples gives Sr/86Sr=0.705028±9 and
143
Nd/144Nd=0.512626±4.

6
1.4. Review on Ophiolite Belts of Turkey

Ophiolitic remnants of the Paleotethys and Neotethys are observed as isolated


outcrops throughout Turkey. There are three main ophiolite belts in Turkey. These
are Intra-Pontide Ophiolite Belt, North Anatolian Ophiolite Belt and Southeast
Anatolian Ophiolite Belt (Figure 2).

1.4.1. Intra-Pontide Ophiolite Belt

The Intra-Pontide Ophiolite Belt is composed of sequence of dismembered


metaophiolites such as serpentinized peridotite, layered cumulate gabbros, isotropic
gabbros, diabase dikes, sheeted dikes and mafic lavas and overlying epi-ophiolitic
deep-sea cover sediments (Bozkurt and Mittwede, 2001). It is located between
Rhodope-Strandja and Istanbul-Zonguldak terranes in the north and Sakarya
Composite Terrane in the south (Göncüoğlu et al., 1997). Since North Anatolian
Transform Fault is still active, oblique and strike-slip movements within this fault
have been affecting the main components of the Intra-Pontide Ophiolite Belt.
Although the opening age of the Intra-Pontide oceanic branch has not been clearly
revealed, according to literature, time passing from middle of Middle Jurassic to
middle of Late Cretaceous is the ridge spreading age of the unit.

1.4.2. North Anatolian Ophiolite Belt

The North Anatolian Ophiolite Belt represents the northern Neotethyan ophiolite and
seen as allocthonous fragments. The North Anatolian Ophiolite Belt is composed of
huge bodies of ophiolitic sequences and tectonic melanges of the Izmir-Ankara
accretionary complex (Göncüoğlu et al., 1997; Okay and Tüysüz, 1999). The North
Anatolian Ophiolite Belt were positioned on the Tauride-Anatolide Platform in South
during Late Cretaceous. Moreover, the units of Sakarya Composite Terrane overlie
on the ophiolites in northwest Anatolia tectonically. However, the ophiolites are
thrust onto Tertiary basins along steep basements in Central and East Anatolia
(Göncüoğlu et al., 1997). The ophiolites display several characteristics geochemical

7
features of MORB, OIB and supra-subduction zone-type ophiolites and were
transported towards south onto the Tauride-Anatolide Platform (Göncüoğlu et al.,
2006 a,b; Yalınız et al., 2000). Since the geochemistry of the rocks within the
melange displays several characteristics, it indicates a complex oceanic lithosphere
formation. The earliest ages of MORB are Carnian indicating that the formation of
Izmir-Ankara oceanic crust corresponded to Middle Triassic and lasted until Late
Cretaceous (Göncüoğlu et al., 2000a; Tekin et al., 2002).

1.4.3. Southeast Anatolian Ophiolite Belt

The Southeast Anatolian Ophiolite Belt was located between Tauride platform in the
north and Arabian platform in the south representing the southern part of the
Neotethyan ophiolite and contains different imbricated structural units of oceanic and
island-arc clusters. The Southern Neotethyan ocean was active during the period
from Triassic to Eocene (Şengör and Yılmaz, 1981; Robertson et al., 2007; Parlak et
al., 2009). According to studied paleontological data from the ophiolitic unit, its age
is corresponding to Jurassic-Late Cretaceous (Göncüoğlu, 2010). The studied data
about ophiolitic sequences of the Souteast Anatolian Ophiolite Belt indicate that a
supra-subduction zone setting (Robertson, 2002; Parlak et al., 2002, 2004).
Moreover, Kızıldağ Ophiolite in Hatay forms an ophiolitic succession and can be
correlated with Zagros and Oman ophiolites and the Troodos Massif in Cyprus
(Göncüoğlu, 2010).

8
BLACK SEA N
Kastamonu

Marmara ad. Bolu

Çanakkale
Bursa
Bozcaada
ANKARA A•r•
Eski•ehir Yozgat
Erzincan

Kütahya

K•r•ehir
Bingöl
Selendi
U•ak Van

Nevsehir Bitlis
Malatya
Aksaray Pötürge

Denizli
Konya
9

Burdur
Kahraman Maras•

Osmaniye

Marmaris
Antalya Mersin

Hatay

MEDITERRANEAN SEA Intra-Pontide


ntra-Pontide Ophiolite Belt

North Anatolian Ophiolite Belt

Southeast Anatolian Ophiolite Belt


20 0 20 40 60 80 km

Figure 2. Main ophiolite belts of Turkey (Modified from 1:2 000 000 scaled geological map of Turkey, MTA).
CHAPTER 2

GEOLOGY

2.1. Introduction

Anatolia is grouped into 3 main continental zones (Okay, 2008). These continental
zones are the Pontides, the Anatolide-Tauride Block and the Arabian Platform from
north to south. These continental zones are separated from each other by suture
zones: The Intra-Pontide Ophiolite Belt, the North-Anatolian Ophiolite Belt and the
Southeast Anatolian Suture Belt from north to south, respectively. Among them, the
North Anatolian Ophiolite Belt is composed of huge bodies of ophiolitic sequences
and tectonic melanges of the Izmir-Ankara accretionary complex (Göncüoğlu et al.,
1997; Okay and Tüysüz, 1999). The well known ophiolitic melange which is known
as Ankara Melange of Bailey and Mc Callien (1953) is mainly composed of
dismembered blocks of red to green, intensely folded-fractured, thin bedded
radiolarites; fractured peridotites-serpentinites; fractured radiolaria bearing pelagic
limestones; folded and fractured Jurassic-Cretaceous carbonates; Cenomanian-
Turonian marl-argillaceous limestone sequences and rare fragments of low-grade
metamorphic blocks. All of the units of the ophiolitic melange are found in an
intensely tectonized, mylonitic-brecciated ophiolitic matrix. In the extent of this
thesis, the mafic rocks (basaltic rocks and doleritic dykes) belonging to ophiolitic
Ankara melange from the Burunköy area (Çorum) are studied.

2.2. Regional Geological Setting

Turkey is an important segment of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt which lies


between the cratons of Laurasia in the north and Gondwana in the south. Within this
suture zone, remnants of oceanic basins of Tethys ocean, of which the Eastern
Mediterranean sea is the last surviving remnant, can be found. Paleozoic ocean
Paleotethys was followed by smaller Mesozoic ocean basins (Neotethys) (Pickett et

11
al., 1996). The Mediterranean ophiolites belonging to Tethys ocean were divided into
two groups (Nicolas & Jackson, 1972; Rocci et al., 1975; Abbate et al., 1976): a) the
western and central Mediterranean ophiolites (Alps-Apennines-Carpathions-
Dinarides-Hellenides), b) the eastern Mediterranean ophiolites (Cyprus-Turkey-
Syria-Oman). Another study was suggested that Tethyan ophiolites were grouped
into as subduction related (eastern Tethyan region) and subduction unrelated
(western Tethyan region) (Toksoy-Köksal, 2003 and references therein).

Ophiolites in the Mediterranean region show differences from each other in terms of
age and tectonic setting. The Mid-Late Jurassic ophiolites in western region
composed of different tectonic settings such as subduction related Eastern Albanian
and Vourinas ophiolites in Greece, mid-ocean ridge (MORB) related Western
Albanian ophiolites, transitional character related (from MORB to supra-subduction
zone (SSZ)) South Albanian ophiolites, Pindos and Asproptamos ophiolites in
Greece and intracontinental back-arc basin related Guevgueli ophiolite in northeast
Greece (Robertson, 2002; Dilek and Thy, 2009; Topuz et al., 2013). However, the
Late Cretaceous ophiolites in Turkey, Troodos in Cyprus and Baer-Bassit in Syria
show supra-subduction zone (SSZ) character (Parlak et al., 2009 and references
therein). According to studies conducted on the Anatolian ophiolites, the common
lithological and isotopic features suggest that Anatolian ophiolites formed as a part
of a very large ophiolite body comparable with the size of the Semail Ophiolite in
Oman (Okay et al., 2001).

The Turkish branch of Neotethys is characterized by three major east-west trending


belts (Figure 2). Each of belt records closure of a separate branch of Neotethys:
a)Intra-Pontide Ophiolite Belt, b)İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Ophiolite Belt, c)Southeast
Anatolian Suture Belt. The İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone extends in an east-
west direction for more than 2000 km from the Aegean coast to the Sevan-Akera
suture in Armenia. Moreover, it continues across the Aegean Sea and links with the
Vardar Suture in the Balkan region (Figure 2).

12
The İzmir-Ankara Suture Zone which is in the northern Turkey represents the
remnants of the Neotethyan İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Ocean, which is one of the most
notable branches of the Neotethys in Turkey, dating back to Devonian that was
consumed by northward subduction under the Pontides from Late Paleozoic to Late
Mesozoic with continental collision during Paleocene to Early Eocene resulting in
southwergent obduction of ophiolite (Okay & Tüysüz, 1999; Yalınız et al., 2000;
Tekin et al., 2002; Toksoy-Köksal, 2003; Göncüoğlu et al., 2006; Topuz et al., 2013).
It has a key importance to study the formation of ophiolites and related oceanic
rocks. Ophiolite related rocks were integrated into the subduction accretion prisms
and melange complexes and come through subduction.

Generally suture zones are composed of allocthonous assemblages which comprise


of subduction-accretion units, ophiolites and metamorphic equivalents of the
continental margin sequences. The presence of ophiolite-bearing melange complexes
or accretionary prisms along IAESZ have been known since Bailey and McCallien
(1950). According to Şengör and Yılmaz (1981), the Sakarya Composite Terrane in
the north and the Kırşehir Massif and the Anatolide-Tauride block in the south were
separated by İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Ocean during the Jurassic time. Moreover, it is
indicated by an association of alkali ocean island basalts (OIB) type metabasites and
mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). The İzmir-Ankara Erzincan Suture Zone is formed
by several segments (Okay & Tüysüz, 1999). The segment between İzmir and
Balıkesir is around 180 km long. Along this segment, Sakarya Composite Terrane is
in contact with Bornova Flysch Zone of Anatolide-Tauride block. The Sakarya
Composite Terrane contains the Karakaya Complex, which is represented by the
Nilüfer Unit that is characterized by low-grade greenschist facies metamorphism in
this region, unconformably overlain by a Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous succession
(Okay & Tüysüz, 1999; Sayıt, 2005).

Another segment is between Balıkesir and Beypazarı is around 280 km long. Along
this segment, the Sakarya Composite Terrane is in contact with Tavşanlı Zone of

13
Anatolide-Tauride block. Tavşanlı Zone represents a regional blueschist belt.
Karakaya Complex units and the overlying Jurassic–Cretaceous succession of the
Sakarya Composite Terrane are found in the north of the suture and for the Central
Sakarya Basin in Mudurnu-Göynük area and Nallıhan area. In the south, there are
Cretaceous blueschists, accretionary complex, ophiolite and Eocene granodiorites of
the Tavşanlı Zone (Okay, 1984b, Okay & Tüysüz, 1999).

In the segment between Beypazarı and Ankara, the width of the Tavşanlı Zone
getting increased. To the southeast of Beypazarı, there is a major turbidite dominated
Late Cretaceous–Eocene basin called the Haymana Basin. The contact between the
Haymana Basin and Tavşanlı blueschists are tectonically covered by Neogene
sedimentary rocks. The basement of the Haymana Basin is formed by an accretionary
complex and Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous carbonates of the Sakarya Composite
Terrane (Görür et al., 1984; Koçyiğit, 1991).

The İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone has a contact of Sakarya Composite Terrane


and Kırşehir Massif between the Haymana Basin and Sivas. In this region, the rocks
of the Sakarya Composite Terrane was emplaced over the Tethyan subduction-
accretion complexes forming a 5-10 km wide tectonic belt resulting in a large loop of
the suture called Çankırı loop (Okay & Tüysüz, 1999). Sakarya Composite Terrane
comes in direct contact with the Anatolide-Tauride block in the region of south of the
Eastern Pontides and the length of this segment is 320 km. In the north of this
segment, there is a well-developed Upper Cretaceous magmatic island arc. In the
south, there is a Senonian fore-arc region represented by the Inner Eastern Pontides
(Okay & Tüysüz, 1999).

During the convergence of İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Ocean, Pontides stood for the


upper plate and the Anatolide-Taurides for the lower plate. Between Late Turonian
and Latest Campanian, the arc magmatism of the Pontides formed along which the
Black Sea coast. Moreover, ophiolite obduction over the passive margin of

14
Anatolide-Tauride block started in the Santonian and took place after the origination
of subduction in the Turonian (Okay et al., 2001).

Oceanic accretionary complexes cover wide areas below the İzmir-Ankara suture.
They dominantly consist of mafic lava, pyroclastics, radiolarian chert and pelagic
shale with small amounts of pelagic limestone, greywacke and serpentinite (Bozkurt
and Mittwede, 2010). However, some accretionary complexes also contain
continental margin sequences such as Lycian melange most probably because of the
incorporation with the continental crust during their emplacement.

Moreover, these accretionary complexes differ from their Pacific counterparts in


terms of insufficiency of the siliciclastic sediments. The accretionary prism units of
the İzmir-Ankara Ocean, that is Central Sakarya Ophiolite Complex according to
Göncüoğlu et al. (2000, 2006a) were thrust onto the Anatolide unit along steep
contacts. Basement rocks of the Sakarya Composite Terrane represented by the
oceanic remnants of the İzmir-Ankara Ocean and they are overthrusted onto the
upper tectonic unit.

The Sakarya Composite Terrane which is the active margin of the İzmir-Ankara
Ocean contains several tectonic units. The basement of the unit is composed of high-
grade metaclastic and metabasic rocks which are intruded by Variscan granitoids.
The first overstep sequence is formed by platform type deposits and belong to
Permian time. Extensional basin development was observed in the Early Triassic and
it is followed by the emplacement of Paleotethys. The second overstep sequence is
composed of Lower Jurassic to Mid-Cretaceous platform type deposits which were
overlie on the Karakaya complex unconformably. Moreover, this second overstep is
overlain by the oceanic assemblages of Intra-Pontide branch of Neotethys during its
Alpine closure (Göncüoğlu et al., 2010 and references therein).

The basement of Anatolide unit, which represents the metamorphic northern margin
of the Anatolide-Tauride Block, is composed of orthogneisses, quartzofeldspathic

15
schists and mica schists with garnet and greenschists (Bortolotti et al., 2013).
Lithologic counterpart of this unit occur around Afyon area of Central Turkey and
represents the Cadomian basement of the Anatolide-Taurides (Gürsu and Göncüoğlu,
2006). The overlying succession lies on disconformably and contains quartzites and
quartzite-recrystallized limestone bands and it is thought to belong to Middle
Permian. On top of them, the Mesozoic succession starts with red continental clastics
of Early Triassic and grades into a package of platformal limestone which is
belonging to Mid-Triassic to Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. Towards upward, the
succession grades into turbidites and olistrostromes with ophiolitic detritus. The
fossil called “Globotruncana sp” was found in pelagic cherty limestones of this
succession and it indicates that the emplacement of İzmir-Ankara Ocean took place
in Late Cretaceous (Göncüoğlu and Türeli, 1993; Göncüoğlu, 2000a; Bortolotti et al.,
2013).

The ages obtained from accretionary complex, which represent the cover sediments
of the subducted Tethyan oceanic crust, would be the best evidence for the age span
of İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Ocean (Okay & Tüysüz, 1999). According to Bragin and
Tekin (1996) radiolarian ages from various outcrops located at northwest of Ankara
have given age of Late Norian, Early Jurassic, Kimmeridgian-Tithonian, Early
Cretaceous and Albian-Turonian. Moreover, other studies of radiolarian ages from
different locations on west of İzmir-Ankara suture have yielded that Early
Cretaceous from Biga Peninsula (Beccaletto and Stampfli, 2000) and from north of
Eskişehir (Göncüoğlu et al., 2000). According to these data, it is concluded that
İzmir-Ankara Neotethyan ocean had an age span of at least Late Norian to Albian.

The ages of the ophiolites which overlie the accretionary complex can be known as
only the age of the preserved lower plutonic parts of the ophiolitic sequence (Okay &
Tüysüz, 1999). According to several studies conducted on metamorphic soles of
several ophiolite bodies such as Semail ophiolite (Oman) and Greek and Yugoslavian
ophiolites (Lanphere, 1981; Spray et al., 1984; Okay & Tüysüz, 1999) reveal that age

16
of the metamorphic sole is very close to the age of the overlying ophiolite. In the
light of this information, the isotopic ages of the metamorphic rocks of subophiolites
suggest an age span of Late Jurassic to Campanian for the ophiolite of İzmir-Ankara-
Erzincan Ocean (Özen & Hall, 1993; Harris et al., 1994; Okay & Tüysüz, 1999;
Göncüoğlu et al., 2006).

2.3. Geology of the Study Area

The rocks from the study area to the southeast of Çorum are considered as a part of
İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone. In the study area, the metamorphic rocks of the
Sakarya Composite Terrane are tectonically overlying the ophiolitic melange of
IAESZ (Bortolotti et al., 2013). Moreover, Upper Neogene rocks cover both units
unconformably (Figure 3).

In this section, only description of lithological features of the rocks and their contact
relations with cover units and underlying units are given. The geological map of the
Burunköy (Çorum) area is given in Figure 3. In the study area, the oldest unit
observed is the Silurian marbles belonging to Karakaya Complex that tectonically
overlies the basaltic rocks in concern (Figure 4).

In the study area, the blocks belonging to the IAESZ melange is mainly composed of
serpentinite, serpentinized peridotite, radiolarian chert, basalt, metabasalt and dyke.
Serpentinite is the essential matrix material. The most extensive rock types are
basalts and dykes. Basalts are metamorphosed up to greenschist facies place to place,
especially at contacts with marble. Therefore, basalts are explained under two
headings as basalts and metabasalts.

17
(a) (b)
Yenice
Çeşmeören
N N
Çayhatap Burunköy
1
Kuşçunun hill

Alakavak hill
Kırtepe hill 2
4
5
X 3
Sarışeyh Burunköy 6 7
Büğdüz
Alakavak hill
9 8
Ozan hill
10 Kılıçören
Kılıçören
Y
Çakır Sarıkaya hill
Çakır
0 1000 2000 m
0 400 800 m

Quaternary, alluvium Upper Miocene to Pliocene, Fault


sandstone-mudstone-limestone

Jurassic-Cretaceous, Foliation
IAE ophiolitic melange
Karakaya clastics
Dip-strike Thrust Fault
Silurian to Triassic marble blocks
Strike-slip fault Sample locations

(c)

N S

X Y
Figure 3. Simplified geological map of the study area (modified from 1:100000 scale
geology map of H33-Çorum) and (b) sample locations on the map. (c) Sketch of X-Y
cross-section taken from the study area from N to S (not to scale).

2.3.1. Basalts

The basalts away from the tectonic contact with Silurian marble are mostly free of
shearing, foliation and metamorphism. They are dark brown to dark gray in color.
They are pillow in shape. Pillow structures of the basalts are mostly preserved
(Figure 5) even though they are highly fractured at some locations. At outer parts of
the pillows, vesicles are widespread. The basalts are generally subjected to surface

18
alterations. The fractures and vesicles of the pillows are extensively filled by calcite
and also epidote. It is rare to observe chert in the study area. In a fault zone, basalt
pillows and chert fragments are observed as reworked in talc matrix due to
hydrothermal alteration (Figure 6).

Figure 4. Photograph showing the position of the marbles from the study area.

19
Figure 5. Photograph showing pillow basalts from the study area.

2.3.2. Metabasalts

In the study area, the basaltic rocks in tectonic contact with and close to marble are
highly dissected, sheared and foliated. Foliation varies with different degrees of
schistosity (Figure 7). As a result of low-grade metamorphism, metabasalts show
greenschist facies metamorphism including chlorite (Figure 7) that is characteristics
both in hand specimen and supported with petrographical observations (see Chapter
3). Chlorite minerals are generally observed as elongated, parallel to sub-parallel
spots. Boulders of metabasalts are in a olistostromal matrix in some places.
Metabasalts display manganese enrichment according to the field observations. They
are tectonically in contact with pillow basalts (Figure 8).

20
Figure 6. Photograph showing a pillow basalts and talc in the matrix from the study
area.

2.3.3. Dykes

In the study area, parallel to sub-parallel dykes extensively outcrop (Figure 9).
Intrusion direction of the dykes are roughly from north to south (Figure 9). They are
dark greenish grey in color (Figure 10). They are fine to medium grained. They are
doleritic in character. The dykes are fractured place to place, where they are filled by
calcite and epidote. Close to the contact with Silurian marble shearing and fracturing
in dykes increases (Figure 11).

21
Figure 7. Metabasalts showing different degrees of schistosity and greenschist facies
metamorphism (dark green chlorite spots) (a) weak, (b) modarate to strong, (c)
strong.

22
Figure 7. (continued).

23
Figure 8. Photograph showing contact relationship between metabasalts and pillow
basalts in the study area.

24
Figure 9. Photographs showing parallel dyke system in the study area.

25
Figure 10. Photograph showing general (a) and close-up view (b) of dykes from the
study area.

26
Figure 11. Photograph showing doleritic dyke close to contact with marble from the
study area.

27
CHAPTER 3

PETROGRAPHY

3.1. Introduction

Petrographical study of the rocks in concern was conducted on 23 thin sections. The
studied thin sections were categorized into three main groups as basalts, metabasalts,
and dykes based on field observations and petrographic studies. All the studied rocks
essentially consist of pyroxenes and feldspars as phenocrysts, and as microcrysts in
matrix. The studied rocks also consist of actinolite, chlorite and epidote, and calcite
and sericite due to low-grade metamorphism and alteration, respectively. Morever,
limited amounts of opaque minerals are found as accessory minerals.

3.2. Basalts

Basaltic rocks are dark in hand specimen. They are characterized by aphanitic and
porphyritic textures (Figure 12). Phenocrysts are rarely clustered into aggregates
resulting in glomeroporphyritic texture (Figure 13). Vesicles of pillows are generally
filled by calcite. In addition to phenocrysts of pyroxene and feldspar, groundmass of
basalts is made up of glass and microcrysts of pyroxene and feldspar (Figure
12&14).

Petrographic examination of the basalts reveals that pyroxene is the most common
phase with variable size from micro to 4-5 mm. More than 65% of the basalts are
made up of pyroxene with moderate relief. Pyroxene crystals are colorless to pinkish
reddish in color (Figure 15). The colored varieties show strong pleochroism.
Extinction angle of pyroxene crystals varies between 40-45º that infer augitic
composition. These pyroxenes have second order interference colors.

29
Not only the size of the pyroxene crystals but also the shape of them varies. It is
possible to observe both euhedral and subhedral crystals (Figure 12a). Subhedral
crystals are generally corroded, which are abundant (Figure 12b,c). Resorption
observed in pyroxene giving a spongy cellular texture is abundant feature in the
rocks (Figure 12a). Clinopyroxene crystals extensively display compositional zoning
and twinning (Figures 12a, 16 & 17). Compositional zoning is predominantly
observed at rims of pinkish to reddish Ti-rich clinopyroxene crystals. In addition to
zoning, growth of fine grained clinopyroxene crystals both forming rims at earlier
pyroxene and feldspar phenocrysts and in the groundmass is a common feature
(Figure 16). In a single crystal of clinopyroxene, it is possible to identify
compositional zoning, corrosion and also reaction rim (Figure 17). Moreover, tailing
is a common property both in phenocrysts and microcrysts of pyroxenes (Figures 15
& 18).

Feldspars in the basalt samples are mostly found as microcrysts that are scattered into
groundmass. Like pyroxenes, most of them generally display compositional zoning
and twinning. The phenocrysts of feldspars commonly exhibit spongy cellular texture
(Figure 19). Sericitization is a common property due to surface alteration.

The petrographical observations strongly infer open system magmatic behavior. All
the textural features observed in the studied sections infer that there are chemical dis-
equilibrium conditions during crystallization. Especially growth of pyroxene
microcrysts at rim of feldspar and earlier pyroxene crystals, resorpsion and corrosion
of pyroxene crystals strongly infer influx of higher temperature more mafic magma.
The rocks could be products of multistage mixing during ascent. For instance; the
properties observed in Figure 17 may infer at least three stages of growth of the
crystal such as first stage of crystal growth, second stage of crystal growth and third
stage of corrosion.

30
Figure 12. Microphotograph showing (a) euhedral pyroxene phenocrysts with simple
twinning in a basalt sample (b, c) corroded subhedral pyroxene crystals (pyx:
pyroxene, cc:calcite, comp.zon.: compositional zoning).

31
Figure 12 (continued).

32
Figure 13. Microphotograph of a basalt showing pyroxene aggregates
(glomeroporphyritic texture) ((a) analyser out, (b) analyser in, pyx: pyroxene).

33
Figure 14. Microphotograph of a basalt showing pyroxene phenocrysts in a glassy
groundmass with pyroxene microcrysts ((a) analyser out, (b) analyser in, pyx:
pyroxene).

34
Figure 15. Microphotograph of a basalt showing pinkish to reddish pyroxene
phenocrysts with tailing property ((a) analyser in, (b) analyser out, pyx: pyroxene,
felds: feldspar).

35
Figure 16. Microphotograph of a basalt showing pyroxene crystals with reaction rim,
compositional zoning and simple twinning((a) analyser out, (b) analyser in, pyx:
pyroxene, chl: chlorite, rxn rim: reaction rim).

36
Figure 17. Microphotograph of a basalt showing a corroded pyroxene crystal with
compositional zoning (1) and reaction rim (formation of a new pyroxene, 2),
corrosion (3) in (a) and ( b) ((a) analyser out, (b) analyser in, pyx: pyroxene). (c)
Back scattared image of a clinopyroxene crystal (1) showing overgrown by a new
crystal material (2).

37
Figure 17. (continued).

3.3. Metabasalts

The basaltic rocks in tectonic contact with and close to marble display different
degrees of foliation from weakly to strongly schistose. The metamorphosed basalts
with varying degrees of foliation are called as metabasalt in this part. At the tectonic
contact, especially strongly schistose ones are observed that are abundant in green
minerals such as chlorite, actinolite and epidote (Figure 20). As the distance from the
tectonic contact increases, schistosity and effect of metamorphism decreases. Due to
shearing effect, vesicles in metabasalts are elongated resulting in augen-like structure
(Figure 21).

38
Figure 18. (a) Microphotograph of a basalt showing long-prismatic pyroxene
microcrysts with tailing property in groundmass (analyser in, pyx: pyroxene, cc:
calcite). (b) Back scattared image of a clinopyroxene crystal with tailing. (c) Back
scattared image of a clinopyroxene crystal (1) showing overgrown by a new crystal
material (2) and tailing (3).

39
Figure 18. (continued).

Since the rocks undergone low-grade metamorphism, it is hard to observe well-


preserved igneous textures. Where the igneous texture is preserved, aphanitic texture
and porphyritic texture are identified with glassy groundmass and microcrysts of
feldpar and pyroxene, and phenocrysts of pyroxene and feldspar. The rocks are
dominated by phenocrysts of pyroxene (≥65%). Pyroxene is colorless to pinkish-
reddish in color with strong pleochroism that infer Ti-enrichment. Moreover, its
extinction angle varies between 42-47° indicating Ti-rich augitic composition.
Clinopyroxene phenocrysts commonly display oscillatory and sector zoning, and
twinning (Figures 22 & 23). Corrosion and resorpsion on clinopyroxene phenocrysts
(Figures 22, 23 & 24) are extensive in the metabasalts similar to those observed in
the basalts. In some of the sections similar to basalts, arrangement of clinopyroxene
microcrysts around larger feldspar crystals are identified (Figure 25).

40
Figure 19. Microphotograph of a basalt showing finely spongy cellular texture in the
center and near the rim of feldspar crystals ((a) analyser out, (b) analyser in, pyx:
pyroxene, felds: feldspar).

41
Feldspars of metabasalts generally found as microliths scattered into groundmass.
Phenocrysts of them are mostly subhedral. They display compositional zoning and
twinning. Moreover, albitization is a common property due to low grade
metamorphism.

Mineralogical and petrographical features of the metabasalts other than the


metamorphic features are quite similar to those observed in the basalts that suggest
derivation from the same magma. Moreover, petrographic features indicate open
magmatic system, chemical dis-equilibrium conditions like reaction rims,
overgrowth features on pyroxene, growth of pyroxene microcrysts around feldspars,
tailing, resorption, corrosion. All are briefly explained to indicate as melt influx with
higher temperature during magma ascent.

42
Figure 20. Microphotograph of a metabasalt ((a) analyser out, (b) analyser in, ep:
epidote, chl: chlorite, cc: calcite)

43
Figure 21. Microphotograph of a metabasalt showing a sheared vesicle resembling
augen structure ((a) analyser out, (b) analyser in, ep: epidote, pyx: pyroxene, chl:
chlorite, cc: calcite).

44
Figure 22. Microphotograph of a metabasalt showing simple twinning (a) and sector
zoning (b & c) in clinopyroxe phenocrysts (pyx: pyroxene, comp.zon.:
compositional zoning).

45
Figure 22. (continued).

3.4. Dykes

Dykes are dark-grey to black in color in hand specimen. The dykes are coarse-
grained holocrystalline. Moreover, they display ophitic and intergranular textures
(Figure 26). The rocks are dominated by 35-40% clinopyroxene and plagioclase (55-
60%) with minor opaques.

The most of the pyroxenes have pinkish-reddish color indicating Ti-enrichment. In


clinopyroxene crystals, compositional zoning and twinning properties (Figure 27) are
common. Resorption and corrosion are extensively observed in the clinopyroxene
crystals (Figures 26, 27 & 28).

Feldspars of the dykes found as coarse crystals in the dykes. They are generally
subhedral crystals and display compositional zoning and twinning (Figure 29).
Sericitization is common alteration type observed in feldspars.

46
Figure 23. Microphotograph of a metabasalt showing a pyroxene crystal displaying
both simple twinning and compositional zoning. ((a) analyser out, (b) analyser in,
pyx: pyroxene, cc: calcite, comp.zon.: compositional zoning).

47
Figure 24. Microphotograph of a metabasalt showing a corroded pyroxene crystal.
((a) analyser out, (b) analyser in, pyx: pyroxene).

48
Figure 25. Microphotograph of a metabasalt showing growth of clinopyroxene
microcrysts around a larger feldspar crystal. ((a) analyser out, (b) analyser in, felds:
feldspar, pyx: pyroxene).

49
Figure 26. Microphotograph of a dyke showing ophitic and intergranular textures
(felds: feldspar, pyx: pyroxene).

50
Figure 27. Microphotograph of a dyke showing both compositional zoning and
twinning in a pyroxene crystal and a feldspar crystal (felds: feldspar, pyx: pyroxene).

In summary, all the rock types in concern (basalts, metabasalts and dykes) are
mineralogically and petrographically similar to each other. Especially, all the rock
types are dominated by chemical dis-equilibrium textures infering open magma
system as explained in detail in Section 3.1.

51
Figure 28. Microphotograph of a dyke showing a corroded pyroxene crystal with
compositional zoning, and surrounding feldspars with sericitization ((a) analyser out,
(b) analyser in, pyx: pyroxene, felds: feldspar).

52
Figure 29. Microphotograph of a dyke showing twinned feldspars ((a) analyser out,
(b) analyser in, pyx: pyroxene, felds: feldspar, chl: chlorite, cc: calcite).

53
CHAPTER 4

MINERAL CHEMISTRY AND PETROGENETIC IMPLICATIONS

4.1. Introduction

Mineral chemistry studies of the rocks were performed by using electron probe
microanalyser (EPMA). The details about the analysis conditions are given in
Section 1.3.1. Since EPMA gives the results as oxide values, the results were
converted to cations per formula unit (pfu) for each mineral in terms of their crystal
chemistry. Recalculations for oxide values into pfu were carried out using the
formulations prepared by Assist. Prof. Dr. Fatma Toksoy Köksal under Microsoft
Excel program.

4.2. Pyroxene

Pyroxene is the first crystallizing phase according to petrographical observations in


the studied rocks. Major and minor element contents of pyroxene were obtained in
oxide form from EPMA (Appendices A,B,C,D and E) and then these values were
converted to cations pfu values discussed in Section 4.1. Pyroxene calculations were
based on 6 oxygen atoms and 4 cations. Cation totals were normalized to
stoichiometric values of Vieten and Hamm (1978). Moreover, Fe2+ and Fe3+ used in
stoichiometric calculations were derived by Droop Equation (1987) from FeO(t).

4.2.1. Compositional Variations

The compositional ranges for the rock groups of the studied samples show
similarities inferring that they are derived from the similar magma source (Table 1).
Pyroxenes in basalts of the studied samples display texturally different occurences.
Some of the pyroxenes are found in a glassy groundmass and they have phenocrysts
and new crystal overgrowths around these phenocrysts. The other group of basalts
have smaller pyroxene microcrysts in their groundmass. The final group of basalts

55
have small pyroxenes which grow around grain boundaries of pyroxene and feldspar
phenocrysts (Figure 5). Considering this petrographical groups, Mg# of the basalt
samples show wide ranges. Phenocrysts of all basalts have Mg# ranging between
0.42-0.91, while new crystal overgrowths have Mg# as 0.50-0.69. Pyroxenes of
basalts which are found in matrix as microcrysts display Mg# ranging between 0.70-
0.83. Pyroxenes of the metabasalts have high Mg# (0.82-0.88) while Mg# of
pyroxenes in dykes changes between 0.66-0.86. Major oxide ranges of the pyroxenes
from the rock groups are shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Minimum and maximum major oxide values of the pyroxenes for the
studied rocks.

metabasalt dyke basalt


phenocryst
phenocryst crystal
phenocryst overgrowth matrix
(wt%) min. max. min. max. min. max. min. max. min. max.
SiO2 48.74 51.99 48.93 52.97 45.72 53.16 50.82 54.20 47.48 48.69
TiO2 0.12 0.50 0.43 0.57 0.00 1.68 0.01 0.60 0.87 2.69
Al2O3 1.75 4.30 1.33 4.36 1.27 5.58 0.74 1.46 2.76 6.92
Fe2O3 4.83 8.00 4.69 6.88 3.63 19.98 12.05 18.10 5.67 7.28
MnO 0.09 0.22 0.07 0.12 0.01 0.32 0.22 1.09 0.08 0.13
MgO 19.14 23.05 12.69 19.10 7.16 19.36 10.53 13.81 12.60 13.77
CaO 15.71 20.18 19.64 21.53 12.09 21.75 11.57 14.28 20.15 21.57
Na2O 0.20 0.60 0.18 0.33 0.16 5.27 0.26 0.42 0.18 0.38
K2O 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.07 0.11 0.00 0.03
Cr2O3 0.19 0.61 0.00 0.96 0.00 1.37 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.22
NiO 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.09 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.06

In order to see compositional changes for pyroxene through different rock groups,
cation pfu vs. Mg# were plotted (Figure 30). Pyroxenes of metabasalts have high Mg
contents and low Ni, Fe(t), Mn, Ti and K contents (Appendix A, Figure 30e, c, d, f, h
and k).

56
Pyroxenes of dykes have high Ca and Cr contents but their Mn and K contents are
low (Appendix B, Figure 30g, i, f and k). Mineral chemistry values for the analyses
taken from different occurences in basalts display wide ranges. Si, Fe(t), Mn and K
contents of basalt overgrowths (Appendix D) are higher than those of basalt matrix
(Appendix E) and basalt phenocrysts (Appendix C, Figure 30a, d, f and k).
Moreover, pyroxene overgrowths have low Al(t), Ni, Ca, Ti and Cr contents (Figure
30b, c, g, h and i). Pyroxenes of basalt matrix have low Si, Fe(t) and Mn contents
while high Al(t), Ca and Ti contents (Figure 30a, d, f, b, g and h). Pyroxenes of basalt
phenocrysts generally display medium values from those of overgrowths and basalt
matrix. When Al(t), Ti, Ca and Na contents are taken into consideration, for
pyroxenes of all studied rocks each element shows a decreasing pattern for each rock
type (Figure 30b, h, g and j). This may be caused by albitic nature of plagioclase in
studied rocks where Al(t) slightly partitioned into pyroxene. Furthermore, when Cr
plot (Figure 30i) is examined in detail, there is a decrese in Cr with decreasing Mg#
due to compatibility of Cr with clinopyroxene. Ti contents (Figure 30h) of basalt
phenocrysts and basalt matrix display a fractionation pattern indicating Ti
enrichment which is supported by petrographical observations.

When all variation diagrams are considered, three different groups are clearly
observed. Especially these groups are more distinctive in the plots of Si, Al(t), Fe(t),
Mg, Mn, Ca, Ti and K. In petrographical observations, three different occurences are
realized for basalts (Figure 31). These occurences are simply pyroxene phenocrysts,
a new crystal material overgrowth around these phenocrysts and small pyroxenes in
matrix of the basalts. When petrographical observations and mineral chemistry
analyses are taken into account together, these three occurences correspond to three
groupings in the variation diagrams. That is, this may infer there are at least three
crystallization stages for the pyroxenes of basalts.

57
2,20 0,35 0,005
(a) (b) (c)
0,30
2,10 0,004
0,25

2,00 0,003
0,20

0,15 0,002
1,90

0,10
1,80 0,001
0,05

1,70 0,00 0,000


0,70 1,40 0,05
(d) (e) (f)
1,30
0,60
1,20 0,04

1,10
0,50
1,00 0,03

0,40 0,90

0,80 0,02
0,30
0,70

0,60 0,01
0,20
0,50
0,10 0,40 0,00
0,95 0,10 0,04
(g) (h) (i)

0,85 0,08
0,03

0,75 0,06

0,02

0,65 0,04

0,01
0,55 0,02

0,45 0,00
0,00
0,08 0,010
(k) 0,40 0,50 0,60 0,70 0,80 0,90 1,00
(j)
0,07 Mg/(Mg+Fe (t))
0,008
0,06

metabasalt
0,05
0,006
dyke
0,04
basalt
0,03
0,004 phenocryst
basalt
0,02
0,002
overgrowth
0,01 basalt
0,00
matrix
0,000
0,40 0,50 0,60 0,70 0,80 0,90 1,00 0,40 0,50 0,60 0,70 0,80 0,90 1,00

Mg/(Mg+Fe (t)) Mg/(Mg+Fe (t))

Figure 30. Variation diagrams for major and minor element compositions for the
studied rocks.

In the first stage coarse pyroxene phenocrysts, which were rich in Ca and Mg
contents but depleted in Ti and Fe(t) contents, were formed. Then there was an influx
of melt to the magma that was rich in Fe(t) and Mn contents but its Ti, Ca and Mg

58
contents are low inferring that this new influx made the system subalkaline (see
Section 4.3.3). Finally, there was a second influx which was rich in Al(t), Ti, Ca, Cr
and Mg contents, but depleted in Fe(t) and Mn contents which affected the system
and made it alkaline (see Section 4.3.3). Table 2 and Figure 32 clearly exemplify the
compositional differences phenocryst and overgrowth zones during the
crystallization stages of a pyroxene phenocrysts in basalt samples.

(2)
(3) (1)
phenocryst
(2) resorption and overgrowth
of a new crystal material
Ca, Mg Fe, Mn Ti, Ca, Mg
(3) corrosion of overgrowth
Ti, Fe, Mn
Al, Ti, Ca, Cr, Mg
Fe, Mn

Figure 31. Sketch drawing showing three different crystallization stages for the
pyroxenes of the basalts and their compositional constituents (not to scale).

59
Figure 32. (a) Microphotograph from a basalt sample in analyser out condition, (b)
Back scattered image of the pyroxene crystal (1) (blue quadrangle) from (a) showing
overgrown by two different crystal material (2) and (3). (c) Back scattered image of a
pyroxene crystal (4) showing overgrowth of Fe-rich new crystal material (5).

60
Figure 32. (continued).

Table 2. EPMA analyses results for the pyroxenes in Figure 32.

1 2 3 4 5
SiO2 53.10 54.58 55.22 52.76 53.93
TiO2 0.77 0.06 0.05 0.77 0.04
Al2O3 1.94 1.31 2.11 2.01 0.87
Fe2O3 6.15 16.16 12.05 5.99 18.50
MnO 0.15 0.78 0.22 0.14 1.13
MgO 15.98 12.09 15.02 15.92 10.53
CaO 21.58 12.16 12.83 21.62 12.04
Na2O 0.22 0.39 0.58 0.23 0.30
K2O 0.00 0.12 0.12 0.00 0.12
Cr2O3 0.14 0.02 0.03 0.12 0.02
NiO 0.00 0.04 0.05 0.00 0.09

Total 100.03 97.70 98.28 99.56 97.59

61
According to obtained chemical composition data of pyroxenes from different rock
groups, it seems that pyroxenes crystallize from a system having high Ca content.
After that, there is another crystallization stage which makes the system subalkaline
due to high Fe content (see Section 4.3.3). The final crystallization stage is rich in
Mg and Al which affects the system and make the system alkaline (see Section
4.3.3).

Except for basalt pyroxene overgrowths, the other rock groups give a positive
correlation of Al(t) and Ti with Fe(t) / (Fe(t) + Mg) which is known as fractionation
index according to Figure 33a,b (Toksoy-Köksal, 2003). Since basalt pyroxene
overgrowths are rich in Fe contents, they do not give a positive pattern. Index of
fractionation must give negative correlation with iron oxide minerals; therefore,
minor amounts of iron oxide minerals in the other rock groups may one of the
reasons for their positive correlation.

Pyroxenes in basalt phenocrysts have the highest Ca# and pyroxenes in basalt matrix
and dykes have moderate Ca# (Figure 34). Pyroxenes of the basalt overgrowths have
the lowest Ca# and Mg#. Pyroxenes of metabasalts show moderately low Ca# and
high Mg#. Furthermore, three different groups of pyroxenes for the studied rocks
also can be observed clearly from the relation between Ca# and Mg#.

62
(a)
0,30

0,20

0,10

0,00
0,10
(b)

0,08

0,06

0,04

0,02

0,00
0,00 0,10 0,20 0,30 0,40 0,50 0,60

Fe(t)/(Fe(t)+Mg)

Figure 33. Covariation diagrams of Al(t) and Ti (pfu) against Fe(t) / (Mg + Fe(t)) (the
symbols are same as in Figure 30).

63
0,60

0,50

0,40

0,30
0,40 0,50 0,60 0,70 0,80 0,90 1,00

Mg/(Mg+Fe (t))

Figure 34. The relation between Ca# and Mg# for the studied rocks (the symbols are
same as in Figure 30).

4.2.2. Nomenclature and Substitution Mechanisms

Formula calculation and nomenclature for pyroxene were made according to


Morimoto (1989). Morimoto (1989) was suggested that M2M1T2O6 as chemical
formula for pyroxene where both M1 and M2 stand for octahedral site cations (M1
for regular coordinations and M2 for distorted coordinations) and T for tetrahedral
site cations. According to the Morimoto (1989), Si, Al, then Fe3+ (their sum to 2); Al,
Fe3+ (excess after that used in T site) and then Ti, Cr, Mg, Fe2+ and Mn (their sum to
1); Mg, Fe2+, Mn (excess after that used in M1 site) and then Ca and Na (their sum to
1).

64
(a) Q = Ca+Mg+Fe2+
En,Fs,(Di,Hd),Wo
2.0
J
= 0.2
(Q+J)
Quad
1.5

Jo,Ka,Pe,Es
1.0
Ca - Na

J
= 0.8
(Q+J)
0.5
Others

Jd,Ae,Ko,Je
Na
Sp J = 2*Na
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

(b) Ca2 Si2 O6 (Wo)

50 Dio 50
Salite Fe-Salite Hd
45 45
Fe-
Endio Augite Fe-Augite Hd

20 SubCa Augite SubCa Fe-Augite 20

Pigeonite
5 5
Bronzite Hy Fe-Hy Eulite
Mg2 Si2 O 6 (En) Fe2 Si2 O6 (Fs)

Figure 35. The place of pyroxene data on Q-J diagram adapted from Morimoto and
Kitamura (1983) (a) and the plots of pyroxene on the Ca-Mg-Fe clinopyroxene
classification diagram after Poldervaart & Hess (1951) (b) (the symbols are same as
in Figure 30).

65
On the Q-J diagram adapted from Morimoto and Kitamura (1983) chemical
compositions of pyroxenes fall to Ca-Mg-Fe group (Wollastonite (Ca2Si2O6),
Enstatite (Mg2Si2O6) and Ferrosillite (Fe2Si2O6)) as shown in Figure 35a. Moreover,
most of the pyroxene phenocrysts and overgrowths of basalts and dykes are in augite
field in the ternary Wo-En-Fs system (Figure 35b). Pyroxenes in matrix of basalts lie
on both salite and augite field. Chemical composition for metabasalts is in endiopside
field. As a result, the studied pyroxenes are augitic in composition genarally. The
compositional ranges for pyroxenes are Wo30,72-46,71– En26,01-57,58 – Fs1,05-34,94 based
on calculations after Morimoto (1989).

Pyroxene shows the following substitution mechanisms:

(Fe (t)) [6] <=> Mg [6]

(Ca + Mg + Fe(t) + Mn) [6] + 2Si [4] <=> Al [6] + Al [4]

(Ca + Mg + Fe(t) + Mn) [6] + 2Si [4] <=> Ti [6] + Al [4]

and Ti/Al ratio mostly between 1:5 – 1:20 (Figure 36). These features indicate that
Al entered pyroxene structure as Ca-Ti- tschermak (Tal) and Ca-tschermak (Cal)
molecules (Figure 37). The substitution mechanism (Fe(t)) [6]
<=> Mg [6]
(Figure
36a) shows a scattered plot with three trends; however, coupled substitution
mechanisms show less scattered correlations with two trends (Figure 36c,d). This
indicates that coupled substitution mechanisms are the controlling factor for
pyroxenes of the studied rocks.

66
0,70 0,30
(a) (b)
0,60 1:2
1:5

0,50 0,20

0,40

0,30 1:20
0,10

0,20

0,10
0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 0,00
Mg (pfu) 0,00 0,10 0,20 0,30 0,40 0,50 0,60 0,70
Al(t) (pfu)
3,90 6,00
(c) (d)
5,90

3,80 5,80

5,70

3,70 5,60

5,50

3,60 5,40

5,30

3,50 5,20
0,00 0,10 0,20 0,30 0,00 0,10 0,20 0,30

[6] [4] [6] [4]


Al +Al (pfu) Ti +Al (pfu)

Figure 36. The substitution mechanisms and Ti-Al(t) ratio diagram (the symbols are
same as in Figure 30).

4.3.3. Implications for Petrology and Tectonic Setting

The chemical data of pyroxenes were plotted on SiO2 – Al2O3 (wt%) and Ti –
(Ca+Na) (pfu) covariation diagrams (Figure 39a, b). Pyroxenes from the studied
rocks display a transitional character between subalkaline and alkaline (Figure 39a).
Pyroxene phenocrysts with Mg and Al contents, and pyroxene microcrysts with high
Mg and Al that is abundant in groundmass from basalts strongly infer alkaline

67
chemistry (Figure 39). Moreover, in Ti – (Ca+Na) diagram, pyroxene data plot in
both fields inferring transitional character (Figure 39b). The rocks showing
subalkaline affinities (Figure 39a,b) display tholeiitic character in Ti-Al(t) diagram
(Figure 39c) due to Fe-enrichment at second stage of crystallization in the studied
rocks. According to the plots of Ti+Cr – Ca (pfu) (Figure 38), pyroxene data mostly
plot in non-orogenic basalt field.

Ti (pfu)

40 40

Nat Natal Tal

20 20
Cats
Ac-Jd-Ur

Na (pfu) 50 Al(iv) (pfu)

Figure 37. The place of the pyroxene data on the Ti-Na-Al[4] triangle diagram
proposed by Papike et al. (1974) (the symbols are as in Figure 30).

68
0,10

0,08

0,06

cpx from non


orogenic basalts
0,04

0,02

cpx from
orogenic basalts
0,00
0,50 0,60 0,70 0,80 0,90
Ca (pfu)

Figure 38. The place of the pyroxene data on the Ti+Cr-Ca diagram (Leterrier et al.,
1982) (the symbols are as in Figure 30).

4.3. Feldspar

Major and minor elements of feldspar were obtained in oxide form from EPMA
(Appendices F,G, and H) and then these values were converted to cations pfu values.
For the feldspar, the calculations were based on 8 oxygen atoms and 5 cations and
cation totals were normalized to stoichiometric values of Deer et al. (1980).

69
54,0 0,10
(a) (b)

52,0 0,08

50,0 0,06 alkaline


basalt field

48,0 0,04 tholeiitic and


calc-alkaline
basalt field

46,0 0,02

44,0 0,00
0,00 2,00 4,00 6,00 8,00 0,50 0,60 0,70 0,80 0,90 1,00 1,10
Al2O3 (wt%)
Ca+Na (pfu)
(c)
0,08

cpx from calc-alkali


basalts
0,06

sub-alkaline
0,04 group alkaline
group

0,02 cpx from


tholeiitic basalts

0,00
0,00 0,10 0,20 0,30
Al(t) (pfu)

Figure 39. The place of pyroxene data on the diagrams of ; (a) SiO2 – Al2O3 (wt%)
(Le Bas, 1962), (b) Ti – (Ca+Na) (pfu) (Leterrier et al., 1982) and (c) Ti-Al(t) (pfu)
(Liotard et al., 1988) (the symbols are same as in Figure 30).

70
4.3.1. Compositional Variations

Chemical compositions of the feldspars from the studied rocks were examined. The
feldspars from all studied rock types have similar compositional ranges which are
tabulated as Table 3. Chemical compositions for Fe and Ba are in negligible
amounts.

In order to determine elemental relations for feldspar, Al (pfu), Ca (pfu), Na (pfu)


and K (pfu) against Si (pfu) were plotted (Figure 40). Al and Ca contents show
reverse relationship with Si content. That is, while Si content is increasing, Al and Ca
contents are decreasing (Figure 40a, b). However, Na and K contents show weak
positive trend with increasing Si content (Figure 40c, d).

Table 3. Minimum and maximum major oxide values of the feldspars from the rock
groups of studied rocks.

metabasalt dyke basalt


min. max. min. max. min. max.
SiO2 66.10 67.98 66.10 69.90 67.49 70.35
Al2O3 18.49 18.88 18.75 19.84 17.50 19.84
CaO 0.01 0.20 0.00 1.35 0.01 1.16
FeO 0.15 0.61 0.05 0.41 0.01 1.33
BaO 0.00 0.18 0.00 0.24 0.00 0.12
Na2O 9.36 11.57 10.90 11.92 10.82 12.07
K2O 0.04 2.64 0.02 0.71 0.01 0.59

71
1,03 0,04
(a) (b)
1,02

1,01 0,03

1,00

0,99 0,02

0,98

0,97 0,01

0,96

0,95 0,00
1,02 0,04
(c) (d)
1,01

1,00
0,03
0,99

0,98

0,97 0,02

0,96

0,95
0,01
0,94

0,93

0,92 0,00
2,98 2,99 3,00 3,01 3,02 3,03 2,98 2,99 3,00 3,01 3,02 3,03

Si (pfu) Si (pfu)

Figure 40. Variation diagrams of elements against Si (pfu) (symbols are same as in
Figure 30).

72
4.3.2. Nomenclature and Substitution Mechanisms

Since feldspar structure is formed by a three-dimensional tetrahedra framework, the


formula for feldspars was calculated on the basis of five cations. Tetrahedral site is
filled by Si, Al (their sum to 4) and large cation site is filled by Na, Ca, K and Ba
(their sum to 1). By using the relations among the NaAlSi3O8 (albite), CaAl2Si2O8
(anorthite) and KAlSi3O8 (K-feldspar), which are three end-members, the albite-
anorthite and orthoclase contents for the studied feldspars were calculated from
100*Ca/(Ca+Na+K), 100*Na/(Ca+Na+K), 100*K/(Ca+Na+K), respectively. Then
the calculated values were plotted on ternary diagram of orthoclase-albite-anorthite
(Figure 41). According to Figure 41, feldspars of studied rocks are Na-rich and most
of them fall into the albite zone. The compositional ranges for feldspar type are K-
feldspar0,08-2,92–Albite84,21-97,05–Anorthite0,00-2,50.

Although the albitic composition of the feldspars from the study area seems to be
albitization alteration according to petrographical observations, the feldspars
preserve their twinnings. As a result, the main reason for the albitic composition of
the studied feldspars is that the final alkaline influx which is rich in Na and K to the
magma chamber.

73
Or

Orthoclase

Sanidine

Anorthoclase

Albite Oligoclase Andesine Labradorite Bytownite Anorthite

Ab An

Figure 41. The plots for the feldspars from studied rocks on feldspar ternary diagram
(symbols are same as in Figure 30).

According to Figure 42, while Al + Ca (pfu) is increasing, Si + Na (pfu) is


decreasing. There is a reverse relation. This is explained as besides substitution of Na
and Ca in the large sites, there exist substitution between Al and Si in the tetrahedral
site. Therefore, a coupled (charge-balanced) substitution Ca+Al <=> Na+Si is
effective in controlling the solid solution between albite and anorthite.

74
4,02

4,00

3,98

3,96

3,94

3,92
0,95 1,00 1,05
Al+Ca (pfu)

Figure 42. Plot showing coupled substitution mechanism for feldspars from the study
area (symbols are same as in Figure 30).

75
CHAPTER 5

WHOLE-ROCK CHEMISTRY

5.1. Introduction

After detailed examinations of petrographical and mineral chemical data, six samples
were selected for major oxide and trace element geochemical interpretations. These
samples are AA-11c and AA-12 from basalts, AA-6 and AA-7 from metabasalts,
AA-10a and AA-10d from doleritic dikes. Since petrographical and mineral
chemistry data strongly infer that these rock groups are originated from the same
magma, the same symbol is used for all rock groups to interpret geochemically in
this chapter. Concentrations of major oxides and trace elements of the studied rocks
are given in Table 4 and Table 5, respectively.

All analyses were performed by ACME Analytical Laboratories Ltd. (Vancouver,


CANADA). Major oxides including Ba, Ni and Sc were measured by inductively-
coupled plasma atomic emission spectrograph (ICP-AES) and rest of the elements
including rare earth elements were measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass
spectrometer (ICP-MS).

Data obtained from the measurements are used to identify the geochemical character
and original tectonic environment of the area.

5.2.Effect of Alteration on Whole-Rock Composition

Petrographical and mineralogical studies revealed that the studied samples appear to
have been influenced by low-grade hydrothermal alteration and surface alterations in
varying degrees.

77
Varying degrees of hydrothermal alteration on basalts and dykes in ophiolites in
intra-oceanic conditions is common feature. Therefore, relatively stable elements
should be used to determine geochemical compositions of them (Dilek and Furnes,
2011). In literature, studies show that alteration causes loss or gain of most of alkali
earth elements and large ion lithophile elements (LILE) such as Rb, Sr, Pb, Ba, Cs
and U. Moreover, some minor and trace elements tend to have been remobilized
under low-grade hydrothermal metamorphism (e.g. Pearce and Norry, 1979).

To identify degree of alteration for the studied samples, covariation diagrams of Ba,
Sr, Rb, TiO2, P2O5 and K2O againts Zr were plotted, since Zr is an immobile element
(Figure 43). The elements mostly show good correlation with Zr. It is resulted that
alteration is unlikely to affect on chemical composition of the studied rocks.

Table 4. Major oxide (wt%) compositions of the studied samples.

Sample AA-6 AA-7 AA-10a AA-10d AA-11c AA-12


Rock metabasalt metabasalt dike dike basalt basalt

SiO2 47.45 48.72 48.95 48.14 47.72 47.26


Al2O3 11.77 13.46 12.87 14.82 11.49 14.36
Fe2O3 10.85 11.49 10.19 10.36 9.07 14.08
MgO 11.16 6.30 9.04 6.70 4.36 5.55
CaO 8.54 8.52 9.31 9.44 14.31 7.88
Na2O 3.25 3.87 3.99 3.93 3.92 4.54
K2O 0.49 1.49 0.18 0.79 0.52 0.40
TiO2 1.98 2.49 2.12 2.36 1.37 2.43
P2O5 0.25 0.30 0.27 0.29 0.19 0.34
MnO 0.14 0.16 0.14 0.14 0.13 0.16
Cr2O3 0.11 0.03 0.13 0.03 0.02 n.d.*
LOI 3.70 2.90 2.50 2.60 6.70 2.70
Total 99.70 99.72 99.68 99.58 99.82 99.75
*: not detectable

78
Table 5. Trace element (ppm) compositions of the studied samples.

Sample AA-6 AA-7 AA-10a AA-10d AA-11c AA-12


Rock metabasalt metabasalt dike dike basalt basalt

Ni 373 94 189 95 97 30
Co 49.8 37.0 38.7 33.3 30.6 38.5
Sc 26 28 34 30 24 23
Ba 99 251 169 285 85 149
Pb 1.4 0.9 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.6
Hf 3.9 4.5 3.8 4.3 2.4 4.4
Nb 18.6 21.9 22.2 25.2 16.6 33.6
Rb 8.6 28.0 3.6 11.3 8.4 6.0
Sr 106.6 356.5 507.1 1392.2 151.9 224.9
Ta 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.7 1.1 2.1
Th 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.6 2.1 4.0
U 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.8
V 211 255 239 267 205 314
Zr 153.1 184.1 152.5 170.9 94.1 172.5
Y 19.9 24.0 21.8 22.8 18.1 30.6
La 18.0 20.0 20.8 23.5 17.2 31.0
Ce 37.4 46.3 44.3 49.5 31.8 60.0
Pr 4.83 5.73 5.25 5.79 3.77 6.89
Nd 21.1 26.2 22.5 24.9 15.5 26.5
Sm 4.88 6.11 5.05 5.62 3.28 5.92
Eu 1.70 2.00 1.76 1.93 1.15 1.94
Gd 5.06 6.02 5.24 5.88 3.86 6.42
Tb 0.77 0.88 0.80 0.87 0.61 1.01
Dy 4.22 4.93 4.17 4.70 3.50 5.96
Ho 0.77 0.93 0.83 0.92 0.67 1.14
Er 1.98 2.17 2.06 2.22 1.90 3.12
Tm 0.25 0.33 0.29 0.30 0.26 0.46
Yb 1.56 1.87 1.71 1.91 1.62 2.74
Lu 0.23 0.27 0.25 0.28 0.26 0.41

79
300 2000

(a) (b)

1500

200

1000

100

500

0 0
30 3
(c) (d)

20

10

0 1
0,4 2
(e) (f)

0,3

0,2

0,1 0
90 110 130 150 170 190 90 110 130 150 170 190
Zr Zr

Figure 43. Covariation diagrams of Ba, Sr, Rb, TiO2, P2O5 and K2O againts Zr to
show effect of alteration on the studied rocks.

80
5.3. Compositional Variations

Chemistry of the rocks are generally controlled by modal mineralogy; therefore,


studied samples show slight different ranges of compositions: 47.26-48.95 (wt%
SiO2), 11.49-14.82 (wt% Al2O3), 7.88-14.31 (wt% CaO), 1.37-2.49 (wt% TiO2),
9.07-14.08 (wt% Fe2O3), 4.36-11.16 (wt% MgO), 0.18-1.49 (wt% K2O), 3.25-4.54
(wt% Na2O), 0.13-0.16 (wt% MnO), 0.19-0.34 (wt% P2O5), <0.002-0.130 (Cr2O3).
Moreover, the whole-rock compositions indicate the relative proportions of the
minerals.

Al2O3 percentage is decreasing while CaO percentage is increasing firstly, then it is


decreasing again with increasing MgO percentage (Figure 44a,d). This may be
caused by the varying modal ratios of plagioclase/clinopyroxene (Toksoy-Köksal,
2003). Na2O/K2O ratio and Sr (ppm) are increasing with the increasing MgO
percentage as a common feature of alkaline rocks (Figure 44g, k). The decreasing
trend of TiO2 (wt%), Fe2O3 (wt%), Y (ppm), Nb (ppm) and V (ppm) are due to
having low distribution coefficients of these elements contained by minerals such as
pyroxenes (Figure 44c,e,i,k,l). The enrichment in SiO2 (wt%) and depletion in P2O5
(wt%) with respect to MgO (wt%) indicates fractionation of pyroxene. Moreover,
P2O5 (wt%) fractionation indicates apatite crystallization supporting alkaline affinity
of the rocks (Figure 44f). Decreasing patterns of the Zr (ppm) and, V (ppm) and Y
(ppm) against MgO (wt%) infers fractionation of zircon and opaque minerals (Figure
44l,j,k).

81
3 15
(a) (b)

14

2 13

12

1 11
15 15
(c) (d)

14

13

13

12 11

11

10

9 7
30 0,4
(e) (f)

20 0,3

10 0,2

0 0,1
4 6 8 10 12 4 6 8 10 12
MgO (wt%) MgO (wt%)

Figure 44. Major and trace element systematic against MgO (wt%) for the studied
rocks.

82
300 40
(g) (h)

200 30

100 20

0 10
2000 400
(i) (j)

1500 350

1000 300

500 250

0 200
40 190
(k) (l)

170

30
150

130
20

110

10 90
4 6 8 10 12 4 6 8 10 12
MgO (wt%) MgO (wt%)

Figure 44 (continued).

83
5.4. Chemical Classification and Implications for Tectonic Setting

The studied rocks are alkaline (Figure 45a) in character and placed in alkali basalt
field (Figure 45b). High Nb/Y values suggest that transtional character and within
plate tectonic setting for the studied rocks (Figure 46a). Pearce and Cann (1973) also
supports a within plate tectonic setting for the generation of the magma(s) of the
studied rocks (Figure 46b). In addition, according to Mullen (1983) and Wood
(1980) the studied rocks have transitional affinity between OIT-OIA (Figure 46c)
and E-MORB-OIB (Figure 46d), respectively.

The studied rocks show a large range of TiO2 contents changing between 1.37 and
2.49 wt% compared to TiO2 contents (0.36-1.55 wt%) of Göncüoğlu et al. (2010).
Moreover, low Y/Nb values (0.90-1.1) of the studied samples resembles to enriched
basaltic rocks such as E-MORB and OIB-type from other Tethyan ophiolites such as
(Y/Nb)OIB= 1.12, (Y/Nb)E-MORB= 4.49 and (Y/Nb)OIB= 0.47 from Saccani and
Photiades (2005), Aldanmaz et al. (2008) and Çelik et al. (2013). These may infer
that involvement of different mantle sources and/or a heterogeneous source and/or
different degrees of partial melting (Göncüoğlu et al., 2010). These can be indicators
for generation of the studied samples.

84
10
(a)
Alkaline

Subalkaline

0
40 50 60 70
SiO2(wt%)

1 (b) Alkali Rhyolite

Phonolite

Rhyolite/Dacite Trachyte

Tephri-phonolite
.1
Trachy-Andesite

Andesite/Basalt

Foidite
.01

Basalt Alkali Basalt

.01 .1 1 10
Nb/Y

Figure 45. (a) Total alkalies vs. silica diagram and (b) Zr/TiO2 vs. Nb/Y diagram for
the studied rocks (Irvine and Bragar, 1971; Winchester and Floyd, 1977).

85
5.1 Thol. basalts with CaO+MgO 12-20%

Ti/100

(a) (b)
Alk
Tran
Island-arc A B
1000 Thol

WPB
Ocean-floor B
VAB

Ti/Y Calc-alkali B C
D
A
MORB B Within-plate D

100
.1 1 10 Zr Y*3
Nb/Y

TiO2 Hf/3

(c) (d)

A = N-MORB
A
OIT B = E-MORB

MORB C = OIB (Rift)


B
D = Arc-basalts
D
IAT
OIA
C

CAB

MnO*10 P 2O5 *10 Th Nb/16

Figure 46. Tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams for the studied rocks: (a)
Pearce (1982); (b) Pearce and Cann (1973); (c) Mullen (1983); (d) Wood (1980).

86
5.5. Multi-Element and Rare Earth Element Diagrams

Multi-element and rare earth element patterns of the studied rocks are examined by
normalizing the data to E-MORB and OIB of Sun and McDonough (1989). There is
enrichment relative to N-MORB (Figure 47a) and similarities and sub-parallelism
relative to E-MORB (Figure 47b) and OIB-type (Figure 47c) basalts. In N-MORB
normalized diagram large ion lithophile elements (LILE) show relatively decreasing
pattern. These patterns are common in environments which are influenced by mantle
plumes with low degree of partial melting.

Moreover, in N-MORB normalized diagrams of subduction unrelated ophiolites, an


increase towards the most incompatible elements such as Ba, Rb, Cs and a flat
pattern between V and Zr are generally observed (Dilek and Furnes, 2011). The sub-
parallelism with E-MORB and OIB-type basalts multi-element diagrams with the
studied samples may infer that a transitional environment between E-MORB
environment and OIB environment.

The chondrite normalized rare earth diagram (Figure 47d) is shown by a steady
decrease from light rare earth elements to heavy rare earth elements. This is
explained by the alkaline affinity and within plate basalt characteristics of the studied
samples (Çelik et al., 2013).

87
Rock/NMORB Rock/EMORB
100 100

(a) (b)

10 10

1 1

Rb Th Nb La Pb Sr Nd Sm Ti Y Lu Rb Th Nb La Pb Sr Nd Sm Ti Y Lu
.1 Cs Ba U K Ce Pr P Zr Eu Dy Yb .1 Cs Ba U K Ce Pr P Zr Eu Dy Yb

Rock/OIB Rock/Chondrites
100

(c) (d)

10 100

10

.1

Rb Th Nb La Pb Sr Nd Sm Ti Y Lu 1 Ce Nd Sm Gd Dy Er Yb
.01 La Pr Pm Eu Tb Ho Tm Lu
Cs Ba U K Ce Pr P Zr Eu Dy Yb

Figure 47. N-MORB, E-MORB and OIB normalized multi element diagrams and
chondrite normalized rare earth element diagram and for studied rocks (Sun and
McDonough. 1989).

5.6. Isotope Geochemistry

In the scope of this thesis, Sr and Nd isotope analyses of six samples were
performed. The analyses results are tabulated briefly in Table 6. For the initial
isotope ratio determination, formation age was estimated as 170 Ma by using the data
from the literature (e.g. Bortolotti et al., 2013; Tekin et al., 2002, Topuz et al., 2013).

88
Table 6. Sr-Nd isotope ratios for the studied samples

Sample Rb Nd
87
Code Sr/86Sr(m) (ppm) Sr(ppm) 87
Sr/86Sr(T) 143
Nd/144Nd(m) (ppm) Sm(ppm) 143
Nd/144Nd(T) εNd(T)
AA-6 0.705425 8.6 106.6 0.704861 0.512593 21.1 4.88 0.512437 0.4
AA-7 0.705325 28 356.5 0.704775 0.512603 26.2 6.11 0.512446 0.5
AA-10a 0.70473 3.6 507.1 0.70468 0.512607 22.5 5.05 0.512456 0.7
AA-10d 0.704722 11.3 1392.2 0.704665 0.51261 24.9 5.62 0.512458 0.8
AA-11c 0.705591 8.4 151.9 0.705204 0.512588 15.5 3.28 0.512446 0.5
AA-12a 0.704866 6 224.9 0.704679 0.512588 26.5 5.92 0.512438 0.4
89
CHAPTER 6

DISCUSSION ON THE GENESIS OF THE STUDIED ROCKS

6.1. General Features

The rocks from the study area are found as allocthonous isolated bodies below the
units belonging to Sakarya Composite Terrane. The studied rocks are assumed to be
parts of İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone (IAESZ). Tectonism and metamorphism
are two effective mechanisms dominant in the study area. Although some pillow
basalts preserve their pillow structure, much of them are highly dissected and
undergone low-grade metamorphism. The rocks in concern from the study area
mainly contain pyroxene and feldspar as phenocrysts and as microcrysts in matrix in
varying modes and crystal sizes. Some of the basalts have glassy matrix indicating
rapid cooling. Some volcanic rocks are mainly composed of metamorphic phases
including chlorite, actinolite and epidote due to low-grade metamorphism.

6.2. Mineralogical Constraints

Pyroxene is the first crystallizing phase in the studied rocks. It is in augitic


composition with a wide range of Mg# (Table 7).

Table 7. Mg# ranges of the pyroxenes for the studied rocks.

basalt
metabasalt dyke
phenocryst overgrowth matrix
min. max. min. max. min. max. min. max. min. max.
Mg# 0.82 0.88 0.66 0.86 0.42 0.91 0.50 0.69 0.70 0.83

91
The petrographical examination reveals that pyroxenes of the studied rocks generally
have reddish colors indicating Ti-enrichment. Moreover, especially in the basalt
samples, compositional zoning, resorption and corrosion are common features. In
some thin sections, it is possible to distinguish compositional zoning, resorption,
overgrowth of new crystal material and corrosion within a single crystal of pyroxene.
The petrographical observations strongly indicate an open system magmatic behavior
inferring there are chemical dis-equilibrium conditions during crystallization of the
studied rocks. The rocks from the study area may be the products of multistage
mixing during magma ascent. The petrographic observations also revealed that there
is occurrence of secondary mineral phases which are the result of hydrothermal
alteration and low-grade metamorphism of the primordial rocks. Chloritization is
common in both the glassy part of the rocks and on the minerals. This is common in
greenschist facies metamorphism of oceanic basalts during hydrothermal circulation
(Humpris and Thompson, 1978).

Although pyroxene compositions show similarities among different rock types,


different pyroxene occurrences in the basalts show differences in elemental plots
compared to metabasalts and dykes. There are three different groups in elemental
plots of the pyroxenes (Figure 30) which correspond to three different occurrences.
These explain stages during growth of pyroxenes as phenocryst, overgrowth and
corrosion observed from petrographical observations. This may infer that there are at
least three stages during the growth of pyroxenes in the studied rocks. This
petrographical and mineral chemistry evidences are explained by multistage mixing
phenomenon. First of all, Ca-rich pyroxene phenocrysts are formed. After that, there
was an influx which was rich in Fe affecting the affinity of the system as subalkaline
and forming overgrowths around resorbed pyroxene phenocrysts. Finally, there was a
second influx, which was rich in Mg and Al, made the system alkaline forming small
pyroxene crystals arranged around coarse pyroxene and feldspar crystals in matrix.

92
Chemistry of the pyroxenes indicates a transitional character between subalkaline to
alkaline compositions according to Figure 35a and tholeiitic affinity for the
subalkaline rocks from the study area according to Figure 35b as discussed in Section
4.3.3. For the rocks which show tholeiitic affinity, the tetrahedral site of pyroxene is
almost filled by Si indicating an important feature of pyroxene crystallized from a
subalkaline magma (Conticelli, 1998).

Feldspar mainly characterized by high albite content display a wide range of


composition (albite%: 84.21-99.84) with negligible K-feldspar content for all rock
types. The feldspar crystals scattered to matrix in both metamorphosed and basalt
and found as sericitized large crystals in dykes.

6.3. Geochemical Constraints

The studied rocks are composed of large range of TiO2 contents (1.37-2.49 wt%)
indicating involvement of several mantle sources – a heterogeneous source and/or
different degrees of partial melting for their genesis. Besides high TiO2 contents,
high Nb (16.6-33.6 ppm) and Zr (94.1-184.1 ppm) concentrations of the studied
rocks pointing at a more enriched source or small degree of partial melting
(Göncüoğlu et al., 2010). Moreover, low Mg# between 0.34-0.57 indicates that
studied samples have undergone fractional crystallization, which is they do not
reflect their primary magma compositions.

All the rock samples from the study area show a relative enrichment in LREE
relative to N-MORB and display regularly decreasing N-MORB normalized patterns.
During hydrothermal alteration of basaltic pillow lavas, Ba shows variable alteration
trends and Pb shows a depleted pattern as easily seen from Figure 47.

In N-MORB normalized multi-element diagrams, the continental margin, mid-ocean


ridge and plume related ophiolites display flat patterns between V and Zr and there is
generally an increase towards the most incompatible elements such as Ba, Rb and Cs.

93
This immobility usually affects mafic and ultramafic rocks in the oceanic
environment (Dilek and Furnes, 2011). When N-MORB normalized rare earth
element diagram of the studied samples was compared with those of an another study
conducted by Çelik et al. (2011), both data sets mostly show consistency with each
other (Figure 48).

Rock/NMORB
1000

Group I rocks

100

10

Rb Th Nb La Pb Sr Nd Sm Ti Y Lu
.1
Cs Ba U K Ce Pr P Zr Eu Dy Yb

Figure 48. N-MORB normalized multi element variation diagram comparing Group I
rocks of the study belonging Çelik et al. (2013) with rocks from the study area (Sun
& McDonough, 1989).

According to Zr/TiO2 vs Nb/Y diagram (Figure 45) the studied rocks are completely
in alkali basalt field. Their chondrite normalized pattern is characterized by a steady
decrease from LREE to HREE. When chondrite normalized spectra is compared with
another set of samples belonging to central IAESZ, a study of Çelik et al. (2013),
there is a high consistency between both set of data (Figure 49). Moreover, chondrite

94
normalized data of the studied samples show parallelism with average OIB of Sun &
McDonough (1989). HFSE’s of average E-MORB of Sun & McDonough (1989)
display similarities with those of the studied samples. This may be caused by the
transitional character of the studied samples.

Rock/Chondrites
1000

Group I rocks
Average OIB
Average E-MORB
100

10

Ce Nd Sm Gd Dy Er Yb
1
La Pr Pm Eu Tb Ho Tm Lu

Figure 49. Chondrite normalized multi element variation diagram comparing Group I
rocks of the study belonging Çelik et al. (2013) and average OIB and E-MORB
values from Sun & McDonough (1989) with rocks from the study area.

In a Ti-V discrimination diagram, subduction unrelated ophiolites stand in the field


where Ti/V ratios between 20 and 50; however, subduction related ophiolites display
a wider Ti/V ratios which are smaller than 10 to higher than 50 (Shervais, 1982;
Dilek and Furnes, 2011). The Ti/V ratio of the studied rocks mostly lies on the 50
ratio line indicating a P-MORB affinity which is a transitional character between
MORB and OIB (Figure 50) (Bortolotti et al., 2013).

95
600 Ti/V=10 20

500
SSZ
MORB
50
Low-Ti IAT
400 BON IAT

OIB &
V (ppm) Alkali Basalt
300

200 100

100

0
5 10 15 20 25
Ti/1000 (ppm)

Figure 50. Ti-V discrimination diagram showing tectonic setting relationship of the
studied rocks (Shervais, 1982).

Although, there is a little influence by the fractional crystallization of clinopyroxene


and feldspar on highly incompatible element ratios such as Zr/Nb, Ce/Y, Zr/Y and
Nb/Y; these elemental ratios are believed to represent the elemental ratios of the
source because they are competent elements (Bortolotti et al., 2013 and references
therein).

According to Y/Nb vs Zr/Nb diagram, studied rocks fall into both OIB and E-MORB
type fields (Figure 51). Moreover, this overlap is also observed in TiO2 vs Zr
diagram (Figure 52). From these diagrams, transitional character of the studied rocks
can be concluded.

96
30

N-MORB & SSZ-type

20

Y/Nb

10
OIB-type
E-MORB-type

0 20 30 40 50
10
Zr/Nb

Figure 51. Variation of Y/Nb against Zr/Nb for the studied samples. (Data sources
for OIB, E-MORB, N-MORB and SSZ-type Tethyan basaltic rocks are belonging to
Mahoe et al. (2004), Saccani and Photiades (2005) and Aldanmaz et al.(2008),
Göncüoğlu et al. (2010)).

High TiO2/Yb ratios change between 0.84-1.33 may indicate negligible crustal
contamination according to Göncüoğlu et al. (2010). Besides TiO2/Yb ratio, La/Ta
and La/Nb ratios may be helpful in order to make more precise estimations. Basalts
with La/Ta ratios smaller than 22 and La/Nb ratios smaller than 1.5 are accepted as
affected by minimal crustal contamination (Hart et al., 1989). La/Ta and La/Nb ratios
of the studied rocks which are ranging between 13.8-16 and 0.91-1.03, respectively
indicates they have examined minimal or no crustal contamination.

97
OIB-type
3

E-MORB-type

TiO2 (wt%) 2

N-MORB & SSZ-type

0 100 200 300 400


Zr (ppm)

Figure 52. Variation of TiO2 (wt%) against Zr (ppm) for the studied samples. (Data
sources for OIB, E-MORB, N-MORB and SSZ-type Tethyan basaltic rocks are same
with Figure 51).

In summary, whole-rock data strongly infer alkaline character with a P-MORB


affinity that is transitional between MORB and OIB without crustal contamination.
On other hand, mineral chemistry of the rocks in corncern suggests that the rocks
originate in non-orogenic system with a transitional character between subalkaline
and alkaline affinities. Mineral chemistry data strongly supports the textural features
of the rocks that infer chemical dis-equilibrium conditions (open magmatic
conditions). Pyroxene phenocrysts are mostly sub-alkaline but show transition to
alkaline also. New growth pyroxene material infering new melt influx is essentially
rich in Fe, K contents increasing subalkalinity, followingly a new growth of
pyroxene material around phenocrysts that is alkaline in character with high Mg and
Al contents. Moreover, microcrysts of pyroxene with high Mg and Al contents
growing around phenocrysts of both pyroxene and feldspar are alkaline in character.

98
It can be concluded that although phenocrysts of the rocks indicate subalkaline
affinity, the last melt influx with high Mg and Al contents make the whole magma
composition alkaline.

The last influx with alkaline affinity is mainly observed as groundmass material in
the studied rocks. According to petrographical observations, glassy parts of the
groundmass are intensely chloritized. Mg-rich final influx is the reason for the
chloritization of volcanic glass of the studied rocks because Mg is generally taken to
use in chlorite formation during hydrothermal circulation (Humpris and Thompson,
1978).

6.4. Isotopic Constraints

Figure 53 shows 143Nd/144Nd(i) vs 87Sr/86Sr(i) values. DMMa and DMMb are standing
for two different end members of “Depleted MORB Mantle” from Zindler and Hart
(1986). DMM is defined by the most depleted MORB samples with the highest
143
Nd/144Nd and the lowest 87Sr/86Sr ratios. HIMU is standing for “High µ” where µ
238
represents U/204Pb ratio. HIMU has the lowest 87
Sr/86Sr of any OIB that is its Sr
isotopic ratio is almost as low as MORB. St Helena and Austral Islands are the
examples for HIMU basalts. EM-I is standing for “Enriched Mantle I” having low
143
Nd/144Nd and moderate 87
Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios than DMM and HIMU. The
Pitcairn and Tristan hotspots are the representatives of EM-I. EM-II (Enriched
87
Mantle II) has the highest Sr/86Sr ratios among the others. Societies and Samoa
hotspots are the examples for EM II (Hofmann, 1997). MORB, HIMU and EM
reservoirs in the figure are taken from Hart et al. (1999) and Workman and Hart
(2005).

The studied rocks have Sr and Nd isotopic compositions that are more evolved than
those of both DMM and MORB reservoirs. It is suggested that, all studied rocks have
an enriched component with respect to DMM source. Purple, light blue, light green
and pink areas are for the isotopic ratios of the studied rocks in the central IAESZ
belonging to Çelik et al. (2013). According to Nd isotope point of view, the studied

99
143
samples have lower values of Nd/144Nd than the data of Çelik et al. (2013).
According to Gökten and Floyd (2007), Nd-Sr isotope data of OIB in IAESZ shows a
mixture of EM I with a minor DMM component. According to Workman and Hart
(2005), OIBs are compatible with the partial melting of EM-type sources.

DMMb
0,5135
DMMa
MORB

0,5130
143
Nd/ 144 Nd(i) HIMU

0,5125
to EM II

EM I

0,5120
0,701 0,702 0,703 0,704 0,705 0,706 0,707 0,708
87
Sr/ 86Sr(i)

Figure 53. Nd-Sr diagram of initial isotopic ratios for the studied rocks (closed
diamonds). (DMM values are from Zindler and Hart (1986), MORB, HIMU and EM
values are from Hart et al. (1999) and Workman and Hart (2005), and colored fields
are data from Çelik et al. (2013)). The dashed DMMa, DMMb and MORB are values
corrected to 150 Ma (from Çelik et al., 2013). Isotopic data for this thesis were
corrected to 170 Ma.

Moreover, E-MORBs may be derived from a mantle source which is slightly


enriched when compared to DMM source. However, P-MORBs can be generated
from a mantle source which is significantly enriched with respect to DMM
(Workman and Hart, 2005). These two approaches prove that the studied rocks have
an enriched component with respect to DMM source indicating a P-MORB affinity.

100
Hellenic and Dinaric ophiolites in the Balkans are Jurassic-Early Cretaceous
(Robertson, 2002). According to the studies conducted on Vourinos ophiolite from
Greece, the crystallization age was found as 172.9 ± 3.1 Ma based on U/Pb
geochronology.

Moreover, the volcanic rocks from the Sevan ophiolite from Armenia and the Khoy
ophiolite from Iran were dated by using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and their ages were
reported as 165-170 Ma and 156-159 Ma, respectively (Çelik et al, 2013 and
references therein).

In this thesis, formation age was estimated as 170 Ma for the initial isotopic ratio
determination according to the information in literature (e.g. Topuz et al., 2013,
Bortolotti et al., 2013; Tekin et al., 2002,). As a result, it is suggested that the studied
rocks belonging to IAESZ represent a link between Neotethyan Jurassic ophiolite
which resting from Balkans through Turkey and Armenia to Iran.

101
CHAPTER 7

CONCLUSIONS

The volcanic rocks from the study area (Burunköy, Çorum) are found as isolated
units within İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone. In the study area, the metamorphic
rocks of Sakarya Composite Terrane are tectonically overlying on the ophiolitic
mélange of IAESZ. Upper Neocene rocks cover both units unconformably.

The rocks in the study area are divided into three main categories as basalts,
metabasalts and dykes. The basalts which are away from the tectonic contact with
Silurian marble preserve their pillow structure. However, metabasalts which are in
tectonic contact with the marble are highly dissected and undergone low-grade
metamorphism. The basalts and metabasalts are the same rocks other than low grade
metamorphism.

Petrographical study reveals that all rock types are mainly composed of augitic
pyroxene and plagioclase. As a result of surface alteration and low-grade
metamorphism, calcite, sericite, actinolite, chlorite, epidote and albite are also
observed. Moreover, petrographical observations on the rocks strongly infer
chemical dis-equilibrium textures like resorption, corrosion, reaction rims,
compositional zoning, and tailing properties that indicate influx(s) of more mafic
melt into magma during crystallization/ascent.

Electron probe microanalyser (EPMA) analyses were carried out for the constituents
of the studied rocks. It was observed that pyroxenes and feldspars are augite and
albite in composition, respectively. Minerals show similar compositions among the
rock types. However, micro probe analyses from different occurrences of the basalts
give slight chemical differences according to elemental plots. That is, phenocrysts of
the basalts are rich in Ca and Mg and depleted in Ti, Fe and Mn.

103
However, basalt overgrowths show Fe and Mn enrichment indicating subalkaline
affinitiy. The basalt microcrysts are rich in Al and Mg inferring alkalinity of magma.
Chemistry of pyroxene indicates a transitional character between subalkaline to
alkaline compositions with more than one influx during ascent of magma in non-
orogenic environment. It can be concluded that although phenocrysts of the rocks
indicate subalkaline affinity, the last melt influx with high Mg and Al contents make
the whole magma composition alkaline. Mineral chemistry data strongly supports the
textural features of the rocks that infer chemical dis-equilibrium conditions (open
magmatic conditions).

Whole-rock data strongly infer alkaline character with a P-MORB affinity that is
transitional between MORB and OIB without crustal contamination. Whole-rock
geochemical data showed that the rocks of concern are characterized by high TiO2,
Nd and Zr contents indicating partial melting of an enriched source for the formation
of the studied rocks. Moreover, isotopic values (143Nd/144Nd and 87
Sr/86Sr) of the
studied rocks gives that they are derived from a mantle source which is significantly
enriched with respect to MORB.

Evaluation of all the petrographical, mineral chemistry and whole rock geochemistry
evidences infer that all the studied rocks belonging to Ankara melange are derived
from similar enriched source. Moreover, the detailed mineral chemistry studies
strongly suggest that pyroxenes are crystallized by at least three melt influxes into
the magma chamber. It is chemically identified that the last melt influx is Mg-rich
with alkaline affinity. This last influx, mainly observed as groundmass of the studied
rock, is suggested to control the whole-rock chemistry.

104
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113
APPENDIX A

MAJOR AND MINOR ELEMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR


PYROXENE FROM METABASALTS

Sample No AA-7-1 AA-7-1 AA-7-1 AA-7-1 AA-7-1 AA-7-1 AA-7-1 AA-7-1


Photo Area A A A A A A C C
Analysis No 2 3 5 6 7 8 16 17
SiO2 50.0400 50.6500 51.0100 49.8100 50.9800 50.8600 49.9400 50.4500
TiO2 0.1409 0.2210 0.2171 0.2454 0.1701 0.1191 0.2318 0.2310
Al2O3 2.6700 2.0200 1.7548 2.9200 1.8168 2.1600 3.3300 2.8400
Fe2O3 4.8300 5.6100 6.6500 5.6100 6.2100 7.0700 6.7300 7.0300
MnO 0.0968 0.1235 0.1592 0.0964 0.1498 0.1569 0.1673 0.1812
MgO 20.6700 21.0600 22.7700 20.3500 22.3900 23.0500 20.6600 19.5100
CaO 18.8100 18.2300 16.4200 18.7100 17.3200 15.7100 18.8600 19.6300
Na2O 0.2706 0.2909 0.2025 0.3027 0.2763 0.2386 0.2572 0.5984
K2O 0.0015 0.0126 0.0000 0.0139 0.0116 0.0011 0.0094 0.0223
Cr2O3 0.5400 0.2587 0.3254 0.3280 0.1850 0.2964 0.3405 0.3770
NiO 0.0334 0.0099 0.0697 0.0183 0.0307 0.0000 0.0584 0.0000
TOTAL 98.1032 98.4866 99.5787 98.4047 99.5403 99.6621 100.5846 100.8699
Si 1.8302 1.8466 1.8352 1.8200 1.8334 1.8257 1.7893 1.8081
[4]
Al 0.1151 0.0868 0.0744 0.1257 0.0770 0.0914 0.1406 0.1200
[6]
Al 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Ti 0.0039 0.0061 0.0059 0.0067 0.0046 0.0032 0.0062 0.0062
3+
Fe 0.1477 0.1711 0.2001 0.1714 0.1868 0.2122 0.2017 0.2107
2+
Fe 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Mn 0.0030 0.0038 0.0049 0.0030 0.0046 0.0048 0.0051 0.0055
Mg 1.1270 1.1446 1.2212 1.1085 1.2004 1.2335 1.1035 1.0424
Cr 0.0156 0.0075 0.0093 0.0095 0.0053 0.0084 0.0096 0.0107
Ni 0.0010 0.0003 0.0020 0.0005 0.0009 0.0000 0.0017 0.0000
Ca 0.7371 0.7121 0.6330 0.7325 0.6674 0.6042 0.7240 0.7538
Na 0.0192 0.0206 0.0141 0.0214 0.0193 0.0166 0.0179 0.0416
K 0.0001 0.0006 0.0000 0.0006 0.0005 0.0001 0.0004 0.0010
TOTAL 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000
Mg/(Fe(t)+Mg) 0.8841 0.8700 0.8592 0.8661 0.8654 0.8532 0.8455 0.8318

115
Sample No AA-7-1 AA-7-1 AA-7-1 AA-7-1 AA-7-1 AA-7-1 AA-7-1 AA-7-1
Photo Area C C C C D D D D
Analysis No 18 19 21 22 23 24 25 26
SiO2 51.1700 51.6600 48.9600 51.0100 48.7400 49.0900 51.0200 51.9900
TiO2 0.2528 0.1449 0.2928 0.2766 0.4970 0.3845 0.2979 0.1824
Al2O3 2.4400 1.9400 3.9800 2.3400 4.0800 4.3000 2.6300 1.8842
Fe2O3 5.8200 7.3200 7.3500 7.7400 7.1100 7.5900 5.5800 8.0000
MnO 0.1449 0.1849 0.1398 0.1690 0.1286 0.1523 0.1271 0.2168
MgO 20.8900 22.6900 20.1200 22.2500 19.1400 19.6100 20.8200 20.5900
CaO 20.1800 17.2400 18.7200 17.1800 20.1000 18.8900 19.8100 17.4900
Na2O 0.2060 0.2235 0.2730 0.1981 0.2829 0.4029 0.2498 0.5278
K2O 0.0048 0.0077 0.0000 0.0044 0.0109 0.0000 0.0000 0.0010
Cr2O3 0.3234 0.2806 0.4823 0.2452 0.3938 0.6129 0.4551 0.2260
NiO 0.0000 0.0051 0.0045 0.0299 0.0259 0.0392 0.0042 0.0059
TOTAL 101.4319 101.6967 100.3224 101.4432 100.5091 101.0718 100.9941 101.1141
Si 1.8169 1.8238 1.7627 1.8092 1.7573 1.7580 1.8184 1.8590
[4]
Al 0.1021 0.0807 0.1689 0.0978 0.1734 0.1815 0.1105 0.0794
[6]
Al 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Ti 0.0068 0.0038 0.0079 0.0074 0.0135 0.0104 0.0080 0.0049
3+
Fe 0.1728 0.2161 0.2213 0.2296 0.2144 0.2273 0.1663 0.2230
2+
Fe 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0163
Mn 0.0044 0.0055 0.0043 0.0051 0.0039 0.0046 0.0038 0.0066
Mg 1.1058 1.1942 1.0799 1.1765 1.0288 1.0469 1.1062 1.0976
Cr 0.0091 0.0078 0.0137 0.0069 0.0112 0.0174 0.0128 0.0064
Ni 0.0000 0.0001 0.0001 0.0009 0.0008 0.0011 0.0001 0.0002
Ca 0.7677 0.6521 0.7221 0.6529 0.7765 0.7248 0.7565 0.6701
Na 0.0142 0.0153 0.0191 0.0136 0.0198 0.0280 0.0173 0.0366
K 0.0002 0.0003 0.0000 0.0002 0.0005 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000
Mg/(Fe(t)+Mg) 0.8648 0.8468 0.8299 0.8367 0.8275 0.8216 0.8693 0.8210

116
APPENDIX B

MAJOR AND MINOR ELEMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR


PYROXENE FROM DYKES

Sample No AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a
Photo Area General General A A A A A A A
Analysis No 32 39 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
SiO2 49.30 48.93 50.33 51.43 52.90 50.47 51.40 52.01 51.09
TiO2 0.45 0.43 1.35 0.94 0.77 1.39 1.15 0.94 0.91
Al2O3 4.36 4.82 3.98 3.47 2.44 4.32 3.82 3.18 4.99
Fe2O3 6.88 6.97 6.62 5.80 5.18 6.70 5.84 6.13 6.12
MnO 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.11 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.14
MgO 19.10 18.65 14.86 15.65 16.35 15.34 15.34 15.85 14.85
CaO 20.69 21.23 21.55 21.36 21.71 20.57 21.44 21.19 20.85
Na2O 0.30 0.28 0.27 0.23 0.18 0.30 0.29 0.24 0.54
K 2O 0.03 0.00 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00
Cr2O3 0.34 0.24 0.48 0.76 0.50 0.46 0.58 0.60 0.50
NiO 0.07 0.01 0.08 0.10 0.00 0.04 0.02 0.00 0.06
TOTAL 101.65 101.69 99.68 99.90 100.15 99.75 100.03 100.28 100.04
Si 1.7572 1.7450 1.8653 1.8949 1.9340 1.8651 1.8906 1.9077 1.8774
Al[4] 0.1832 0.2026 0.1347 0.1051 0.0619 0.1349 0.1079 0.0912 0.1226
Al[6] 0.0000 0.0000 0.0391 0.0456 0.0435 0.0533 0.0578 0.0464 0.0935
Ti 0.0121 0.0115 0.0377 0.0261 0.0212 0.0386 0.0318 0.0258 0.0251
3+
Fe 0.2051 0.2079 0.0270 0.0021 0.0000 0.0134 0.0000 0.0000 0.0025
2+
Fe 0.0000 0.0000 0.1782 0.1766 0.1587 0.1937 0.1798 0.1882 0.1856
Mn 0.0036 0.0039 0.0044 0.0045 0.0033 0.0046 0.0047 0.0046 0.0043
Mg 1.0149 0.9915 0.8210 0.8596 0.8930 0.8451 0.8418 0.8672 0.8135
Cr 0.0097 0.0066 0.0139 0.0222 0.0146 0.0135 0.0170 0.0173 0.0146
Ni 0.0021 0.0003 0.0023 0.0031 0.0000 0.0011 0.0005 0.0000 0.0018
Ca 0.7901 0.8112 0.8557 0.8432 0.8522 0.8145 0.8456 0.8333 0.8209
Na 0.0206 0.0194 0.0193 0.0165 0.0128 0.0217 0.0209 0.0172 0.0382
K 0.0015 0.0000 0.0014 0.0005 0.0006 0.0006 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 3.9959 4.0000 3.9985 3.9989 4.0000
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.8319 0.8267 0.8001 0.8279 0.8491 0.8032 0.8240 0.8217 0.8122

117
Sample No AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a
Photo Area A A A A A A A A A
Analysis No 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
SiO2 52.36 51.94 51.62 52.06 52.20 52.13 52.14 51.59 52.90
TiO2 0.76 0.77 0.81 0.79 0.82 0.81 0.92 1.13 0.55
Al2O3 2.71 2.68 2.99 2.89 2.99 2.85 2.79 3.15 2.29
Fe2O3 5.37 5.85 6.28 5.61 5.55 5.16 5.71 6.02 4.77
MnO 0.14 0.11 0.14 0.13 0.09 0.09 0.12 0.10 0.11
MgO 15.92 15.48 15.15 15.91 16.11 15.81 15.96 15.31 16.56
CaO 21.84 21.09 21.01 21.65 21.78 21.44 21.22 21.64 21.39
Na2O 0.22 0.37 0.49 0.25 0.30 0.27 0.28 0.30 0.28
K 2O 0.00 0.05 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01
Cr2O3 0.48 0.55 0.60 0.59 0.63 0.62 0.57 0.60 0.93
NiO 0.07 0.04 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.08 0.00 0.03 0.05
TOTAL 99.88 98.92 99.13 99.91 100.49 99.28 99.71 99.87 99.84
Si 1.9245 1.9297 1.9173 1.9149 1.9065 1.9246 1.9198 1.9036 1.9378
Al[4] 0.0738 0.0688 0.0827 0.0851 0.0935 0.0715 0.0784 0.0957 0.0595
Al[6] 0.0436 0.0486 0.0481 0.0402 0.0352 0.0528 0.0428 0.0413 0.0395
Ti 0.0211 0.0214 0.0227 0.0218 0.0226 0.0224 0.0254 0.0314 0.0152
3+
Fe 0.0000 0.0000 0.0082 0.0024 0.0168 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
2+
Fe 0.1652 0.1819 0.1869 0.1701 0.1527 0.1596 0.1760 0.1858 0.1463
Mn 0.0044 0.0033 0.0045 0.0041 0.0027 0.0027 0.0037 0.0031 0.0035
Mg 0.8731 0.8580 0.8389 0.8724 0.8771 0.8719 0.8769 0.8425 0.9056
Cr 0.0140 0.0160 0.0177 0.0170 0.0181 0.0182 0.0166 0.0174 0.0270
Ni 0.0021 0.0012 0.0001 0.0007 0.0007 0.0024 0.0000 0.0009 0.0016
Ca 0.8608 0.8402 0.8361 0.8532 0.8523 0.8498 0.8379 0.8558 0.8407
Na 0.0157 0.0270 0.0353 0.0180 0.0213 0.0195 0.0201 0.0218 0.0202
K 0.0000 0.0022 0.0014 0.0000 0.0004 0.0005 0.0006 0.0000 0.0004
TOTAL 3.9984 3.9985 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 3.9961 3.9982 3.9994 3.9973
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.8409 0.8251 0.8113 0.8349 0.8380 0.8452 0.8328 0.8193 0.8609

118
Sample No AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a
Photo Area A A A B B B B B B
Analysis No 17 19 20 37 38 39 40 41 42
SiO2 51.74 52.49 53.20 50.99 53.47 52.94 52.03 50.22 53.01
TiO2 0.85 0.73 0.79 1.41 0.69 0.73 0.73 1.41 0.91
Al2O3 2.87 2.57 2.04 3.32 2.03 2.19 1.33 4.54 2.48
Fe2O3 5.68 5.79 6.10 7.31 5.52 5.75 12.24 6.40 6.14
MnO 0.14 0.11 0.14 0.14 0.17 0.15 0.35 0.13 0.16
MgO 15.54 16.25 16.47 14.74 16.69 16.80 13.38 14.64 16.19
CaO 21.76 20.94 20.81 21.39 21.21 20.90 19.64 20.90 21.28
Na2O 0.32 0.30 0.19 0.27 0.20 0.18 0.25 0.44 0.30
K2O 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00
Cr2O3 0.75 0.61 0.13 0.08 0.58 0.76 0.00 0.82 0.42
NiO 0.04 0.06 0.03 0.03 0.06 0.00 0.08 0.06 0.04
TOTAL 99.69 99.88 99.91 99.68 100.63 100.42 100.05 99.58 100.92
Si 1.9101 1.9285 1.9506 1.8939 1.9459 1.9332 1.9590 1.8620 1.9300
Al[4] 0.0899 0.0707 0.0436 0.1061 0.0496 0.0646 0.0410 0.1380 0.0682
Al[6] 0.0350 0.0407 0.0448 0.0392 0.0377 0.0297 0.0182 0.0604 0.0383
Ti 0.0237 0.0203 0.0219 0.0393 0.0189 0.0200 0.0208 0.0394 0.0248
3+
Fe 0.0081 0.0000 0.0000 0.0055 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0067 0.0000
2+
Fe 0.1673 0.1780 0.1876 0.2216 0.1684 0.1758 0.3854 0.1918 0.1871
Mn 0.0043 0.0036 0.0044 0.0045 0.0052 0.0048 0.0112 0.0042 0.0051
Mg 0.8552 0.8904 0.9029 0.8162 0.9076 0.9156 0.7510 0.8092 0.8795
Cr 0.0220 0.0178 0.0038 0.0023 0.0167 0.0219 0.0000 0.0242 0.0121
Ni 0.0011 0.0017 0.0009 0.0008 0.0017 0.0000 0.0025 0.0018 0.0012
Ca 0.8607 0.8247 0.8199 0.8512 0.8289 0.8187 0.7923 0.8303 0.8309
Na 0.0226 0.0214 0.0136 0.0194 0.0143 0.0130 0.0182 0.0318 0.0209
K 0.0000 0.0016 0.0000 0.0000 0.0007 0.0005 0.0004 0.0002 0.0000
TOTAL 4.0000 3.9992 3.9943 4.0000 3.9955 3.9978 4.0000 4.0000 3.9982
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.8298 0.8334 0.8280 0.7823 0.8435 0.8389 0.6609 0.8031 0.8246

119
Sample No AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a
Photo Area B B B B D D D D D
Analysis No 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51
SiO2 52.12 51.62 52.83 52.23 52.03 51.98 53.33 52.28 50.83
TiO2 0.92 0.88 0.72 0.95 0.94 1.03 0.83 0.79 1.30
Al2O3 3.11 3.56 2.38 3.09 3.03 3.41 2.17 2.91 3.38
Fe2O3 5.38 5.50 4.69 5.40 5.24 5.61 6.65 5.66 7.17
MnO 0.10 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.08 0.13 0.14 0.10 0.12
MgO 15.75 15.42 16.26 15.65 15.57 15.44 16.92 16.00 14.77
CaO 21.82 21.67 21.36 21.83 21.85 22.02 19.84 21.48 21.65
Na2O 0.32 0.28 0.26 0.27 0.30 0.29 0.23 0.24 0.33
K 2O 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00
Cr2O3 0.82 0.79 0.92 0.83 0.87 0.60 0.18 0.62 0.01
NiO 0.00 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.09 0.05 0.01 0.04 0.04
TOTAL 100.35 99.88 99.55 100.41 100.01 100.56 100.31 100.12 99.61
Si 1.9086 1.9001 1.9393 1.9112 1.9116 1.9019 1.9469 1.9176 1.8862
Al[4] 0.0907 0.0984 0.0535 0.0857 0.0860 0.0970 0.0479 0.0812 0.1138
Al[6] 0.0435 0.0561 0.0499 0.0477 0.0454 0.0501 0.0457 0.0446 0.0340
Ti 0.0254 0.0245 0.0198 0.0263 0.0261 0.0283 0.0228 0.0217 0.0362
3+
Fe 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0307
2+
Fe 0.1648 0.1694 0.1445 0.1655 0.1612 0.1718 0.2036 0.1737 0.1918
Mn 0.0032 0.0037 0.0037 0.0037 0.0026 0.0041 0.0043 0.0030 0.0038
Mg 0.8601 0.8468 0.8931 0.8551 0.8539 0.8427 0.9233 0.8754 0.8171
Cr 0.0237 0.0231 0.0268 0.0239 0.0252 0.0173 0.0053 0.0181 0.0004
Ni 0.0000 0.0008 0.0005 0.0010 0.0028 0.0015 0.0004 0.0012 0.0013
Ca 0.8564 0.8553 0.8432 0.8573 0.8612 0.8637 0.7781 0.8447 0.8608
Na 0.0228 0.0203 0.0184 0.0195 0.0215 0.0204 0.0161 0.0173 0.0238
K 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0005 0.0002 0.0000
TOTAL 3.9993 3.9985 3.9928 3.9970 3.9975 3.9990 3.9948 3.9988 4.0000
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.8392 0.8333 0.8607 0.8378 0.8412 0.8307 0.8193 0.8344 0.7860

120
Sample No AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a
Photo Area D D D D D D D D D
Analysis No 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
SiO2 49.43 51.28 52.60 51.95 52.20 51.56 51.74 51.68 51.63
TiO2 1.83 1.20 0.79 1.02 0.88 1.23 1.09 1.10 1.18
Al2O3 3.86 4.00 2.77 3.19 2.75 3.49 3.49 3.30 3.43
Fe2O3 9.77 5.69 5.33 5.80 5.51 5.96 5.69 5.78 6.22
MnO 0.21 0.13 0.10 0.13 0.17 0.12 0.07 0.18 0.13
MgO 13.37 15.44 16.26 15.70 15.78 15.07 15.42 15.31 15.22
CaO 20.79 21.57 21.57 21.68 21.91 21.56 21.79 21.89 21.36
Na2O 0.42 0.30 0.26 0.27 0.26 0.31 0.24 0.29 0.35
K2O 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00
Cr2O3 0.01 0.78 0.80 0.73 0.65 0.56 0.83 0.69 0.64
NiO 0.01 0.02 0.08 0.02 0.00 0.05 0.06 0.04 0.02
TOTAL 99.70 100.42 100.57 100.49 100.10 99.91 100.44 100.28 100.18
Si 1.8523 1.8799 1.9192 1.9028 1.9173 1.9003 1.8962 1.8993 1.8993
Al[4] 0.1477 0.1200 0.0795 0.0970 0.0822 0.0961 0.1014 0.1004 0.0992
Al[6] 0.0227 0.0528 0.0397 0.0407 0.0369 0.0557 0.0495 0.0425 0.0496
Ti 0.0516 0.0332 0.0216 0.0280 0.0243 0.0341 0.0302 0.0305 0.0328
3+
Fe 0.0520 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
2+
Fe 0.2542 0.1745 0.1628 0.1777 0.1693 0.1840 0.1746 0.1777 0.1915
Mn 0.0068 0.0042 0.0032 0.0041 0.0053 0.0038 0.0022 0.0056 0.0042
Mg 0.7469 0.8438 0.8850 0.8574 0.8643 0.8296 0.8435 0.8389 0.8353
Cr 0.0004 0.0226 0.0230 0.0212 0.0187 0.0165 0.0241 0.0201 0.0185
Ni 0.0002 0.0006 0.0023 0.0005 0.0000 0.0015 0.0018 0.0012 0.0005
Ca 0.8347 0.8473 0.8438 0.8509 0.8625 0.8530 0.8567 0.8621 0.8426
Na 0.0303 0.0210 0.0186 0.0195 0.0188 0.0218 0.0173 0.0209 0.0251
K 0.0002 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0006 0.0000
TOTAL 4.0000 3.9999 3.9987 3.9998 3.9995 3.9965 3.9976 3.9997 3.9985
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.7092 0.8287 0.8447 0.8283 0.8362 0.8184 0.8285 0.8252 0.8135

121
Sample No AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a
Photo Area D D D D D E E E E
Analysis No 61 62 63 64 65 71 72 73 74
SiO2 50.81 52.87 51.23 52.44 49.19 52.15 51.85 52.10 51.53
TiO2 1.49 0.63 1.13 0.90 1.69 0.92 0.82 0.86 0.92
Al2O3 3.35 2.51 3.73 2.55 3.59 3.03 3.27 3.14 3.37
Fe2O3 7.86 5.14 5.73 5.91 11.08 6.01 5.95 5.56 5.75
MnO 0.15 0.13 0.10 0.16 0.23 0.10 0.14 0.16 0.13
MgO 14.53 16.62 15.23 15.65 12.69 15.88 15.49 15.73 15.72
CaO 21.40 21.75 21.83 21.31 20.30 21.10 21.49 21.77 21.58
Na2O 0.32 0.22 0.25 0.27 0.42 0.26 0.39 0.30 0.29
K2O 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Cr2O3 0.02 0.74 0.76 0.39 0.04 0.57 0.76 0.84 0.80
NiO 0.04 0.01 0.05 0.06 0.00 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.01
TOTAL 99.98 100.62 100.05 99.66 99.24 100.05 100.17 100.46 100.09
Si 1.8845 1.9260 1.8867 1.9331 1.8620 1.9151 1.9046 1.9073 1.8932
Al[4] 0.1155 0.0740 0.1128 0.0625 0.1380 0.0824 0.0954 0.0927 0.1068
Al[6] 0.0310 0.0338 0.0491 0.0486 0.0222 0.0489 0.0462 0.0428 0.0391
Ti 0.0417 0.0173 0.0313 0.0250 0.0481 0.0254 0.0226 0.0236 0.0254
3+
Fe 0.0239 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0490 0.0000 0.0096 0.0000 0.0140
2+
Fe 0.2199 0.1566 0.1765 0.1826 0.3018 0.1848 0.1732 0.1702 0.1627
Mn 0.0048 0.0040 0.0031 0.0050 0.0075 0.0031 0.0042 0.0050 0.0041
Mg 0.8034 0.9026 0.8364 0.8620 0.7161 0.8705 0.8483 0.8585 0.8610
Cr 0.0004 0.0213 0.0223 0.0115 0.0012 0.0166 0.0221 0.0244 0.0233
Ni 0.0013 0.0002 0.0014 0.0017 0.0000 0.0010 0.0003 0.0001 0.0004
Ca 0.8504 0.8490 0.8616 0.8436 0.8233 0.8313 0.8458 0.8539 0.8495
Na 0.0227 0.0152 0.0181 0.0195 0.0307 0.0185 0.0276 0.0213 0.0205
K 0.0004 0.0002 0.0001 0.0005 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL 4.0000 4.0000 3.9995 3.9956 4.0000 3.9976 4.0000 3.9999 4.0000
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.7672 0.8522 0.8257 0.8252 0.6712 0.8249 0.8227 0.8345 0.8297

122
Sample No AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a
Photo Area E E E
Analysis No 75 76 77
SiO2 51.57 51.88 52.97
TiO2 1.13 1.13 0.57
Al2O3 2.39 4.51 2.39
Fe2O3 7.91 6.24 4.99
MnO 0.19 0.14 0.09
MgO 15.27 15.18 16.47
CaO 21.29 19.67 21.53
Na2O 0.31 0.46 0.33
K2O 0.01 0.02 0.02
Cr2O3 0.03 0.65 0.97
NiO 0.07 0.03 0.10
TOTAL 100.17 99.90 100.44
Si 1.9050 1.9013 1.9325
Al[4] 0.0950 0.0881 0.0668
Al[6] 0.0091 0.1078 0.0360
Ti 0.0314 0.0313 0.0157
3+
Fe 0.0448 0.0000 0.0000
2+
Fe 0.1996 0.1923 0.1523
Mn 0.0060 0.0043 0.0029
Mg 0.8409 0.8340 0.8961
Cr 0.0010 0.0189 0.0279
Ni 0.0020 0.0007 0.0029
Ca 0.8427 0.7767 0.8419
Na 0.0220 0.0329 0.0234
K 0.0007 0.0010 0.0010
TOTAL 4.0000 3.9893 3.9994
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.7748 0.8126 0.8547

123
APPENDIX C

MAJOR AND MINOR ELEMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR


PYROXENE FROM BASALT PHENOCRYSTS

AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-


Sample No
11c 11c 11c 11c 11c 11c 11c 11c 11c
Photo Area B B B B B C C C C
Analysis No 17 18 19 20 21 23 24 25 28
SiO2 50.35 50.13 49.74 49.98 50.79 49.87 49.97 50.06 51.36
TiO2 0.25 0.37 0.49 0.27 0.30 0.27 0.15 0.08 0.11
Al2O3 2.87 2.23 2.97 2.85 2.33 3.53 3.38 3.38 2.44
Fe2O3 7.15 7.78 7.76 7.60 7.55 5.49 5.22 5.05 5.48
MnO 0.15 0.21 0.21 0.16 0.16 0.14 0.11 0.09 0.10
MgO 19.36 18.54 18.87 18.60 19.04 19.54 19.58 19.51 20.23
CaO 20.43 19.66 20.37 19.94 19.89 21.00 21.19 20.90 20.65
Na2O 0.30 0.64 0.32 0.28 0.54 0.31 0.26 0.23 0.21
K 2O 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.01
Cr2O3 0.48 0.17 0.03 0.19 0.31 0.49 0.41 0.63 0.19
NiO 0.00 0.05 0.03 0.00 0.04 0.09 0.07 0.05 0.00
TOTAL 101.34 99.80 100.79 99.89 100.97 100.72 100.34 100.00 100.79
Si 1.8025 1.8253 1.7941 1.8201 1.8261 1.7870 1.7958 1.8058 1.8367
Al[4] 0.1211 0.0957 0.1263 0.1223 0.0987 0.1491 0.1432 0.1437 0.1028
Al[6] 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Ti 0.0066 0.0102 0.0132 0.0075 0.0081 0.0071 0.0040 0.0021 0.0031
3+
Fe 0.2141 0.2369 0.2341 0.2315 0.2270 0.1645 0.1569 0.1523 0.1639
2+
Fe 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Mn 0.0046 0.0066 0.0064 0.0048 0.0048 0.0041 0.0035 0.0029 0.0032
Mg 1.0332 1.0064 1.0146 1.0098 1.0205 1.0438 1.0490 1.0492 1.0785
Cr 0.0136 0.0049 0.0009 0.0056 0.0089 0.0139 0.0116 0.0179 0.0054
Ni 0.0000 0.0015 0.0009 0.0000 0.0011 0.0025 0.0019 0.0015 0.0000
Ca 0.7836 0.7670 0.7872 0.7780 0.7662 0.8063 0.8160 0.8078 0.7912
Na 0.0207 0.0450 0.0224 0.0201 0.0375 0.0215 0.0182 0.0159 0.0148
K 0.0000 0.0004 0.0000 0.0003 0.0010 0.0003 0.0000 0.0009 0.0004
TOTAL 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.8284 0.8094 0.8125 0.8135 0.8180 0.8638 0.8699 0.8732 0.8681

124
AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-
Sample No
11c 11c 11c 11c 11c 11c 11c 11c 11c
Photo Area C C E E E E E E E
Analysis No 29 30 33 36 40 41 43 44 45
SiO2 50.39 48.78 50.90 50.02 50.99 50.74 50.46 50.31 50.43
TiO2 0.24 0.54 0.02 0.43 0.24 0.28 0.12 0.25 0.08
Al2O3 2.77 3.76 2.73 3.42 2.52 3.19 2.51 3.23 2.86
Fe2O3 5.32 7.96 5.43 5.49 5.30 5.40 5.48 5.49 5.73
MnO 0.10 0.16 0.10 0.14 0.14 0.13 0.13 0.10 0.19
MgO 19.73 17.91 19.98 20.00 19.89 19.74 19.98 19.85 19.37
CaO 20.98 20.45 21.29 20.92 20.78 21.13 21.14 21.18 20.65
Na2O 0.23 0.40 0.26 0.29 0.31 0.32 0.28 0.27 0.34
K2O 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00
Cr2O3 0.25 0.04 0.25 0.31 0.24 0.33 0.21 0.32 0.28
NiO 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.05 0.07 0.00 0.01 0.01
TOTAL 100.06 100.04 100.96 101.04 100.46 101.34 100.32 101.03 99.94
Si 1.8167 1.7758 1.8168 1.7842 1.8301 1.8064 1.8125 1.7956 1.8220
Al[4] 0.1177 0.1613 0.1148 0.1438 0.1066 0.1338 0.1063 0.1359 0.1218
Al[6] 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Ti 0.0066 0.0149 0.0006 0.0115 0.0066 0.0076 0.0033 0.0068 0.0021
3+
Fe 0.1604 0.2423 0.1621 0.1638 0.1591 0.1608 0.1646 0.1639 0.1731
2+
Fe 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Mn 0.0029 0.0051 0.0029 0.0043 0.0042 0.0040 0.0040 0.0030 0.0059
Mg 1.0604 0.9720 1.0632 1.0635 1.0642 1.0477 1.0699 1.0562 1.0433
Cr 0.0070 0.0011 0.0070 0.0089 0.0068 0.0093 0.0061 0.0090 0.0079
Ni 0.0015 0.0000 0.0000 0.0004 0.0013 0.0020 0.0000 0.0003 0.0003
Ca 0.8104 0.7977 0.8142 0.7995 0.7991 0.8060 0.8136 0.8099 0.7994
Na 0.0163 0.0282 0.0183 0.0201 0.0219 0.0222 0.0196 0.0189 0.0241
K 0.0000 0.0016 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0003 0.0003 0.0005 0.0001
TOTAL 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.8686 0.8004 0.8677 0.8666 0.8700 0.8670 0.8667 0.8657 0.8577

125
Sample No AA-11c AA-11c AA-11c AA-11c AA-11c AA-11c AA-11c AA-11c AA-11c
Photo Area General General General General General General General General General
Analysis No 81 82 83 85 89 91 93 96 97
SiO2 51.46 51.47 50.36 50.36 50.91 50.26 50.48 50.41 50.49
TiO2 0.13 0.00 0.10 0.31 0.27 0.28 0.14 0.32 0.33
Al2O3 2.13 1.94 3.28 2.95 2.32 3.47 2.96 3.18 3.12
Fe2O3 3.79 3.63 5.29 7.18 7.28 5.26 6.20 5.75 5.54
MnO 0.11 0.08 0.12 0.12 0.16 0.09 0.16 0.12 0.11
MgO 20.66 20.93 19.35 18.97 18.75 19.43 20.51 19.16 19.69
CaO 21.60 21.51 20.23 20.32 19.58 20.87 19.65 21.02 21.19
Na2O 0.24 0.28 0.32 0.34 0.56 0.30 0.28 0.36 0.23
K2O 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00
Cr2O3 0.97 0.94 0.55 0.26 0.85 0.45 0.38 0.33 0.33
NiO 0.01 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.02 0.01
TOTAL 101.12 100.82 99.62 100.86 100.72 100.46 100.85 100.67 101.04
Si 1.8293 1.8311 1.8243 1.8124 1.8380 1.8056 1.8035 1.8106 1.8045
Al[4] 0.0892 0.0813 0.1400 0.1251 0.0987 0.1469 0.1246 0.1346 0.1314
Al[6] 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Ti 0.0035 0.0000 0.0027 0.0085 0.0073 0.0075 0.0038 0.0088 0.0089
3+
Fe 0.1127 0.1080 0.1603 0.2161 0.2198 0.1580 0.1853 0.1727 0.1656
2+
Fe 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Mn 0.0034 0.0023 0.0036 0.0038 0.0050 0.0026 0.0050 0.0036 0.0034
Mg 1.0948 1.1100 1.0450 1.0177 1.0091 1.0406 1.0924 1.0259 1.0491
Cr 0.0274 0.0265 0.0157 0.0075 0.0241 0.0129 0.0108 0.0095 0.0092
Ni 0.0004 0.0011 0.0009 0.0008 0.0012 0.0013 0.0017 0.0005 0.0003
Ca 0.8227 0.8199 0.7852 0.7835 0.7574 0.8033 0.7522 0.8089 0.8114
Na 0.0163 0.0196 0.0224 0.0239 0.0389 0.0210 0.0197 0.0248 0.0162
K 0.0003 0.0000 0.0000 0.0008 0.0004 0.0002 0.0010 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.9067 0.9113 0.8670 0.8249 0.8211 0.8682 0.8550 0.8559 0.8637

126
AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-
Sample No
AA-11c AA-11c 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a
Photo Area General General A A A A A A A
Analysis No 98 99 2 3 4 5 7 8 9
SiO2 50.66 50.53 47.76 48.98 50.33 48.51 48.34 50.97 48.59
TiO2 0.12 0.19 2.42 1.79 1.37 1.76 2.11 1.25 1.94
Al2O3 3.21 3.13 4.63 4.59 3.56 4.50 4.93 2.96 4.41
Fe2O3 4.76 4.36 11.88 10.43 9.65 10.34 10.67 9.67 10.42
MnO 0.08 0.12 0.21 0.25 0.18 0.20 0.20 0.21 0.22
MgO 20.17 20.17 11.63 12.78 13.87 12.59 12.34 14.20 12.83
CaO 21.26 21.41 20.67 20.49 20.17 20.38 20.55 20.29 20.39
Na2O 0.29 0.23 0.45 0.33 0.36 0.42 0.39 0.30 0.39
K2O 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.00
Cr2O3 0.53 0.60 0.00 0.03 0.04 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00
NiO 0.00 0.05 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.05 0.04 0.06 0.04
TOTAL 101.07 100.79 99.68 99.67 99.55 98.77 99.61 99.94 99.22
Si 1.8029 1.8033 1.8103 1.8424 1.8849 1.8401 1.8231 1.9012 1.8353
Al[4] 0.1346 0.1317 0.1897 0.1576 0.1151 0.1599 0.1769 0.0988 0.1647
Al[6] 0.0000 0.0000 0.0171 0.0459 0.0420 0.0413 0.0422 0.0313 0.0317
Ti 0.0032 0.0051 0.0690 0.0507 0.0387 0.0502 0.0599 0.0349 0.0551
3+
Fe 0.1417 0.1301 0.0678 0.0335 0.0202 0.0499 0.0447 0.0204 0.0512
2+
Fe 0.0000 0.0000 0.3088 0.2946 0.2820 0.2781 0.2918 0.2812 0.2780
Mn 0.0023 0.0036 0.0068 0.0080 0.0057 0.0064 0.0064 0.0066 0.0069
Mg 1.0701 1.0731 0.6572 0.7166 0.7744 0.7119 0.6938 0.7896 0.7224
Cr 0.0149 0.0169 0.0001 0.0010 0.0012 0.0004 0.0000 0.0002 0.0000
Ni 0.0000 0.0014 0.0004 0.0000 0.0006 0.0014 0.0012 0.0018 0.0011
Ca 0.8107 0.8187 0.8395 0.8258 0.8094 0.8283 0.8304 0.8109 0.8252
Na 0.0197 0.0161 0.0332 0.0240 0.0258 0.0310 0.0287 0.0214 0.0284
K 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0010 0.0010 0.0016 0.0000
TOTAL 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.8831 0.8918 0.6357 0.6859 0.7193 0.6846 0.6734 0.7236 0.6870

127
AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-
Sample No
12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a
Photo Area A A A A A B B B B
Analysis No 11 12 13 14 15 21 22 26 27
SiO2 48.04 48.97 47.16 48.48 48.81 48.70 48.32 48.13 46.75
TiO2 2.09 2.10 2.37 2.17 2.04 1.59 1.99 1.93 2.52
Al2O3 4.68 3.69 5.89 5.02 3.58 4.70 4.78 5.07 5.58
Fe2O3 11.06 11.93 10.65 10.69 13.05 10.13 10.50 10.93 11.94
MnO 0.19 0.28 0.23 0.25 0.26 0.20 0.22 0.22 0.25
MgO 12.13 11.27 12.43 12.57 10.66 12.21 12.31 12.39 11.57
CaO 20.30 20.35 20.02 20.32 20.56 20.89 20.99 20.16 20.03
Na2O 0.41 0.40 0.36 0.49 0.42 0.40 0.35 0.41 0.44
K 2O 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00
Cr2O3 0.04 0.01 0.05 0.02 0.00 0.05 0.04 0.01 0.00
NiO 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.09 0.04 0.01 0.04 0.04 0.02
TOTAL 98.94 99.03 99.17 100.10 99.41 98.90 99.54 99.32 99.09
Si 1.8265 1.8730 1.7843 1.8168 1.8689 1.8465 1.8234 1.8191 1.7811
Al[4] 0.1735 0.1262 0.2157 0.1832 0.1311 0.1535 0.1766 0.1809 0.2189
Al[6] 0.0363 0.0402 0.0470 0.0385 0.0304 0.0565 0.0359 0.0450 0.0316
Ti 0.0598 0.0605 0.0675 0.0612 0.0588 0.0455 0.0565 0.0549 0.0722
3+
Fe 0.0472 0.0000 0.0593 0.0574 0.0147 0.0342 0.0523 0.0569 0.0751
2+
Fe 0.3045 0.3818 0.2777 0.2777 0.4031 0.2870 0.2790 0.2886 0.3053
Mn 0.0060 0.0091 0.0074 0.0078 0.0083 0.0063 0.0071 0.0072 0.0082
Mg 0.6875 0.6429 0.7011 0.7023 0.6085 0.6902 0.6925 0.6981 0.6571
Cr 0.0011 0.0004 0.0015 0.0007 0.0000 0.0015 0.0011 0.0004 0.0000
Ni 0.0000 0.0006 0.0000 0.0028 0.0012 0.0005 0.0012 0.0013 0.0005
Ca 0.8270 0.8343 0.8116 0.8159 0.8435 0.8487 0.8487 0.8164 0.8176
Na 0.0305 0.0295 0.0266 0.0358 0.0314 0.0296 0.0255 0.0302 0.0323
K 0.0002 0.0007 0.0004 0.0000 0.0002 0.0001 0.0001 0.0010 0.0000
TOTAL 4.0000 3.9992 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.6616 0.6274 0.6754 0.6770 0.5928 0.6824 0.6764 0.6689 0.6333

128
AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-
Sample No
12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a
Photo Area B B B B B C C C C
Analysis No 28 29 30 32 33 39 40 44 45
SiO2 48.07 48.51 47.15 48.13 48.67 49.69 49.91 48.39 51.43
TiO2 2.04 1.86 2.66 2.32 1.74 1.45 1.35 2.06 1.17
Al2O3 4.85 4.52 5.13 4.34 4.64 3.48 3.44 4.95 2.43
Fe2O3 10.86 11.47 11.89 11.88 10.62 10.83 11.05 10.23 10.04
MnO 0.21 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.24 0.27 0.25 0.24 0.23
MgO 12.26 11.73 11.07 11.32 12.23 11.87 12.25 12.33 14.61
CaO 20.75 20.76 20.52 20.69 20.43 21.11 20.94 21.00 19.79
Na2O 0.40 0.47 0.48 0.44 0.47 0.39 0.42 0.45 0.27
K2O 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00
Cr2O3 0.07 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.02 0.00 0.02
NiO 0.07 0.01 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.07 0.04
TOTAL 99.58 99.60 99.23 99.40 99.05 99.16 99.63 99.71 100.04
Si 1.8144 1.8356 1.7989 1.8324 1.8443 1.8876 1.8840 1.8203 1.9168
Al[4] 0.1856 0.1644 0.2011 0.1676 0.1557 0.1124 0.1160 0.1797 0.0832
Al[6] 0.0302 0.0371 0.0296 0.0272 0.0515 0.0434 0.0371 0.0398 0.0235
Ti 0.0579 0.0529 0.0764 0.0664 0.0496 0.0414 0.0384 0.0583 0.0327
3+
Fe 0.0669 0.0562 0.0524 0.0400 0.0394 0.0130 0.0326 0.0560 0.0136
2+
Fe 0.2759 0.3068 0.3270 0.3383 0.2972 0.3311 0.3162 0.2658 0.2994
Mn 0.0066 0.0085 0.0084 0.0083 0.0077 0.0085 0.0079 0.0076 0.0074
Mg 0.6899 0.6617 0.6296 0.6425 0.6909 0.6722 0.6894 0.6915 0.8117
Cr 0.0021 0.0000 0.0021 0.0000 0.0000 0.0017 0.0005 0.0000 0.0006
Ni 0.0020 0.0004 0.0000 0.0009 0.0000 0.0010 0.0000 0.0020 0.0010
Ca 0.8392 0.8417 0.8389 0.8440 0.8295 0.8592 0.8469 0.8464 0.7903
Na 0.0291 0.0345 0.0353 0.0325 0.0343 0.0284 0.0305 0.0327 0.0198
K 0.0003 0.0002 0.0004 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0005 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.6680 0.6458 0.6240 0.6294 0.6724 0.6614 0.6640 0.6824 0.7218

129
AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-
Sample No
12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a
Photo Area C C C C C D D D D
Analysis No 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54
SiO2 49.24 51.27 48.07 48.79 49.42 47.54 47.00 51.33 48.92
TiO2 1.72 1.06 2.26 1.76 1.68 2.29 2.38 1.11 1.81
Al2O3 4.65 2.65 5.25 5.12 3.74 4.87 5.90 2.57 4.60
Fe2O3 10.37 9.64 10.15 10.00 11.23 11.90 11.27 9.64 10.13
MnO 0.20 0.21 0.24 0.20 0.27 0.20 0.29 0.20 0.23
MgO 12.85 14.20 12.10 12.46 12.02 11.36 12.13 14.11 12.64
CaO 20.41 20.31 20.55 20.67 20.99 20.89 19.73 20.02 20.91
Na2O 0.41 0.28 0.51 0.38 0.41 0.59 0.52 0.27 0.52
K 2O 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01
Cr2O3 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.00
NiO 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.07 0.00 0.03 0.02 0.06 0.03
TOTAL 99.88 99.62 99.19 99.46 99.78 99.71 99.24 99.31 99.81
Si 1.8460 1.9183 1.8183 1.8377 1.8661 1.7999 1.7794 1.9261 1.8345
Al[4] 0.1540 0.0817 0.1817 0.1623 0.1339 0.2001 0.2206 0.0718 0.1655
Al[6] 0.0515 0.0352 0.0524 0.0650 0.0325 0.0172 0.0426 0.0419 0.0379
Ti 0.0485 0.0297 0.0643 0.0499 0.0477 0.0652 0.0678 0.0313 0.0511
3+
Fe 0.0346 0.0067 0.0375 0.0249 0.0353 0.0958 0.0804 0.0000 0.0636
2+
Fe 0.2906 0.2950 0.2836 0.2901 0.3193 0.2810 0.2764 0.3028 0.2541
Mn 0.0065 0.0068 0.0076 0.0065 0.0086 0.0064 0.0092 0.0063 0.0074
Mg 0.7182 0.7921 0.6823 0.6996 0.6766 0.6412 0.6846 0.7902 0.7066
Cr 0.0005 0.0003 0.0009 0.0002 0.0006 0.0007 0.0000 0.0002 0.0001
Ni 0.0002 0.0000 0.0007 0.0021 0.0000 0.0009 0.0006 0.0018 0.0010
Ca 0.8199 0.8142 0.8329 0.8342 0.8492 0.8474 0.8003 0.8058 0.8402
Na 0.0296 0.0200 0.0374 0.0275 0.0299 0.0436 0.0380 0.0197 0.0378
K 0.0000 0.0000 0.0004 0.0000 0.0002 0.0005 0.0000 0.0000 0.0004
TOTAL 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 3.9979 4.0000
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.6884 0.7242 0.6800 0.6895 0.6561 0.6299 0.6574 0.7229 0.6898

130
AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-
Sample No
12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a
Photo Area D D D D D E E E E
Analysis No 55 56 57 58 59 66 67 68 69
SiO2 47.95 47.92 48.63 51.58 47.23 48.40 48.26 48.26 48.10
TiO2 2.29 2.12 2.08 1.27 2.49 2.37 2.15 2.14 2.32
Al2O3 5.43 5.34 4.73 2.58 5.25 4.27 4.35 5.23 5.31
Fe2O3 10.35 11.40 11.07 10.53 11.55 12.14 11.17 10.78 10.12
MnO 0.22 0.28 0.20 0.26 0.19 0.26 0.24 0.17 0.22
MgO 12.15 12.44 11.87 14.13 11.37 11.33 11.78 12.16 12.64
CaO 20.95 19.55 20.58 19.89 21.00 20.42 20.86 20.69 20.75
Na2O 0.48 0.45 0.56 0.31 0.44 0.43 0.38 0.42 0.40
K2O 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03
Cr2O3 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.06
NiO 0.05 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.05 0.02 0.00
TOTAL 99.90 99.54 99.76 100.58 99.58 99.68 99.24 99.86 99.95
Si 1.8015 1.8086 1.8337 1.9174 1.7913 1.8397 1.8343 1.8157 1.8033
Al[4] 0.1985 0.1914 0.1663 0.0826 0.2087 0.1603 0.1657 0.1843 0.1967
Al[6] 0.0420 0.0462 0.0439 0.0304 0.0260 0.0309 0.0292 0.0476 0.0380
Ti 0.0647 0.0602 0.0590 0.0355 0.0710 0.0678 0.0615 0.0606 0.0654
3+
Fe 0.0613 0.0577 0.0456 0.0035 0.0728 0.0236 0.0414 0.0462 0.0569
2+
Fe 0.2639 0.3022 0.3035 0.3239 0.2936 0.3623 0.3136 0.2930 0.2604
Mn 0.0071 0.0088 0.0063 0.0082 0.0061 0.0085 0.0077 0.0053 0.0069
Mg 0.6805 0.6999 0.6673 0.7830 0.6429 0.6420 0.6675 0.6820 0.7065
Cr 0.0007 0.0003 0.0009 0.0003 0.0005 0.0018 0.0000 0.0000 0.0016
Ni 0.0015 0.0010 0.0000 0.0003 0.0010 0.0000 0.0015 0.0005 0.0000
Ca 0.8433 0.7906 0.8315 0.7922 0.8534 0.8316 0.8495 0.8341 0.8335
Na 0.0347 0.0331 0.0413 0.0223 0.0327 0.0315 0.0280 0.0307 0.0292
K 0.0002 0.0000 0.0009 0.0003 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0015
TOTAL 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.6766 0.6605 0.6565 0.7052 0.6370 0.6246 0.6528 0.6679 0.6901

131
AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-
Sample No
12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a
Photo Area E E E E E E E F F
Analysis No 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 85 86
SiO2 48.53 47.38 48.65 49.04 51.61 48.18 47.79 48.61 48.10
TiO2 2.06 2.54 2.11 1.69 0.91 2.20 2.09 2.11 2.25
Al2O3 5.35 5.56 4.70 4.43 2.05 5.29 5.30 4.18 4.50
Fe2O3 9.83 10.88 10.81 10.80 11.76 10.91 11.30 11.52 11.96
MnO 0.20 0.21 0.19 0.18 0.31 0.21 0.27 0.24 0.24
MgO 12.70 12.21 11.86 12.31 13.91 12.05 11.79 11.38 11.39
CaO 20.86 20.27 20.81 20.98 18.69 20.84 20.24 21.03 20.21
Na2O 0.38 0.41 0.53 0.43 0.59 0.40 0.50 0.41 0.53
K 2O 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00
Cr2O3 0.08 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00
NiO 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.00
TOTAL 100.00 99.47 99.74 99.90 99.92 100.13 99.30 99.53 99.19
Si 1.8165 1.7905 1.8350 1.8435 1.9333 1.8099 1.8114 1.8467 1.8329
Al[4] 0.1835 0.2095 0.1650 0.1565 0.0667 0.1901 0.1886 0.1533 0.1671
Al[6] 0.0525 0.0381 0.0440 0.0398 0.0238 0.0441 0.0481 0.0338 0.0350
Ti 0.0580 0.0722 0.0599 0.0478 0.0257 0.0622 0.0596 0.0603 0.0645
3+
Fe 0.0403 0.0568 0.0384 0.0529 0.0322 0.0517 0.0583 0.0285 0.0424
2+
Fe 0.2674 0.2871 0.3026 0.2866 0.3362 0.2911 0.2999 0.3375 0.3387
Mn 0.0063 0.0069 0.0062 0.0057 0.0099 0.0068 0.0087 0.0079 0.0079
Mg 0.7087 0.6879 0.6669 0.6899 0.7768 0.6748 0.6662 0.6445 0.6470
Cr 0.0024 0.0000 0.0014 0.0000 0.0019 0.0000 0.0000 0.0010 0.0000
Ni 0.0000 0.0005 0.0011 0.0005 0.0009 0.0007 0.0003 0.0000 0.0000
Ca 0.8366 0.8207 0.8410 0.8450 0.7501 0.8388 0.8220 0.8560 0.8251
Na 0.0278 0.0297 0.0386 0.0312 0.0425 0.0294 0.0368 0.0305 0.0393
K 0.0000 0.0001 0.0000 0.0006 0.0000 0.0005 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.6972 0.6667 0.6617 0.6702 0.6783 0.6632 0.6503 0.6378 0.6293

132
AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-
Sample No
12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a
Photo Area F F F F F F F F G
Analysis No 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 102
SiO2 48.01 48.39 48.04 48.67 48.85 48.58 48.01 47.99 45.72
TiO2 2.36 2.00 2.35 2.25 1.84 1.98 2.10 2.20 2.41
Al2O3 4.14 4.39 4.48 4.10 4.57 4.68 4.75 4.75 6.09
Fe2O3 12.59 11.94 11.92 12.65 10.47 11.02 10.46 11.02 12.24
MnO 0.30 0.28 0.24 0.31 0.19 0.26 0.22 0.19 0.22
MgO 11.02 11.23 11.35 10.59 12.22 12.27 12.37 11.56 11.19
CaO 20.51 20.31 20.75 20.14 20.98 20.47 20.90 20.90 18.44
Na2O 0.46 0.47 0.46 0.74 0.37 0.50 0.39 0.52 0.45
K2O 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03
Cr2O3 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.02 0.00 0.04 0.02 0.04
NiO 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.00 0.02
TOTAL 99.40 99.05 99.64 99.52 99.51 99.78 99.30 99.16 96.85
Si 1.8333 1.8481 1.8241 1.8560 1.8439 1.8292 1.8152 1.8231 1.7838
Al[4] 0.1667 0.1519 0.1759 0.1440 0.1561 0.1708 0.1848 0.1769 0.2162
Al[6] 0.0196 0.0457 0.0246 0.0403 0.0472 0.0369 0.0269 0.0358 0.0638
Ti 0.0678 0.0575 0.0671 0.0645 0.0523 0.0561 0.0597 0.0629 0.0707
3+
Fe 0.0459 0.0254 0.0501 0.0270 0.0311 0.0584 0.0665 0.0542 0.0447
2+
Fe 0.3562 0.3559 0.3284 0.3765 0.2994 0.2886 0.2642 0.2960 0.3547
Mn 0.0097 0.0092 0.0077 0.0101 0.0061 0.0081 0.0069 0.0062 0.0072
Mg 0.6273 0.6394 0.6425 0.6020 0.6876 0.6887 0.6972 0.6547 0.6509
Cr 0.0000 0.0007 0.0011 0.0021 0.0006 0.0000 0.0013 0.0005 0.0014
Ni 0.0000 0.0003 0.0000 0.0002 0.0000 0.0006 0.0011 0.0000 0.0007
Ca 0.8391 0.8311 0.8442 0.8229 0.8485 0.8258 0.8467 0.8507 0.7709
Na 0.0342 0.0348 0.0338 0.0544 0.0272 0.0367 0.0289 0.0385 0.0338
K 0.0001 0.0001 0.0004 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0005 0.0008 0.0013
TOTAL 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.6094 0.6264 0.6293 0.5988 0.6754 0.6650 0.6783 0.6516 0.6197

133
AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-
Sample No
12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a
Photo Area G G G G G G G G G
Analysis No 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111
SiO2 48.09 49.20 49.28 49.82 48.94 49.01 47.91 48.63 47.18
TiO2 2.27 1.92 1.92 1.70 1.99 1.80 2.17 2.01 2.63
Al2O3 4.42 3.89 3.66 3.25 4.02 4.19 5.39 4.76 5.47
Fe2O3 11.76 11.66 12.46 11.96 11.68 10.74 10.27 11.12 10.76
MnO 0.24 0.36 0.29 0.26 0.29 0.21 0.20 0.20 0.27
MgO 11.50 11.35 10.80 11.20 11.44 11.96 11.95 12.25 12.09
CaO 20.84 20.25 21.14 21.17 21.32 21.24 20.64 20.58 20.29
Na2O 0.44 1.06 0.45 0.60 0.46 0.39 0.46 0.51 0.48
K 2O 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.02
Cr2O3 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.04 0.05 0.04
NiO 0.06 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
TOTAL 99.63 99.68 100.06 99.96 100.20 99.55 99.06 100.11 99.22
Si 1.8246 1.8574 1.8703 1.8855 1.8464 1.8527 1.8160 1.8255 1.7876
Al[4] 0.1754 0.1426 0.1297 0.1145 0.1536 0.1473 0.1840 0.1745 0.2124
Al[6] 0.0222 0.0305 0.0340 0.0305 0.0252 0.0394 0.0567 0.0361 0.0319
Ti 0.0648 0.0545 0.0548 0.0484 0.0565 0.0512 0.0619 0.0568 0.0750
3+
Fe 0.0556 0.0805 0.0201 0.0309 0.0472 0.0344 0.0373 0.0602 0.0654
2+
Fe 0.3175 0.2877 0.3754 0.3476 0.3213 0.3052 0.2882 0.2889 0.2755
Mn 0.0077 0.0114 0.0094 0.0084 0.0094 0.0068 0.0063 0.0063 0.0085
Mg 0.6505 0.6388 0.6110 0.6319 0.6434 0.6740 0.6752 0.6855 0.6829
Cr 0.0004 0.0000 0.0003 0.0000 0.0017 0.0000 0.0011 0.0015 0.0012
Ni 0.0018 0.0000 0.0010 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Ca 0.8472 0.8191 0.8596 0.8585 0.8618 0.8603 0.8382 0.8278 0.8237
Na 0.0324 0.0775 0.0329 0.0438 0.0335 0.0287 0.0340 0.0369 0.0349
K 0.0000 0.0000 0.0014 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0009 0.0000 0.0011
TOTAL 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.6355 0.6344 0.6071 0.6254 0.6358 0.6650 0.6747 0.6626 0.6670

134
AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-
Sample No
12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a
Photo Area G G G G G G G G G
Analysis No 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120
SiO2 49.03 48.97 51.50 50.87 48.98 46.35 49.54 51.91 49.24
TiO2 1.99 1.91 1.19 1.15 1.72 9.32 1.65 1.02 1.59
Al2O3 3.68 3.74 2.16 2.85 4.93 2.38 4.00 2.18 4.47
Fe2O3 12.55 12.17 11.53 10.82 10.00 8.85 11.27 10.20 10.23
MnO 0.27 0.29 0.32 0.25 0.19 0.25 0.28 0.26 0.21
MgO 11.09 10.91 13.21 13.06 12.65 10.06 11.94 13.76 12.68
CaO 20.71 20.72 20.42 20.36 20.69 21.75 20.33 19.74 20.50
Na2O 0.40 0.43 0.34 0.49 0.40 0.33 0.84 0.62 0.45
K2O 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01
Cr2O3 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00
NiO 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.00
TOTAL 99.73 99.14 100.73 99.86 99.61 99.29 99.92 99.71 99.38
Si 1.8659 1.8737 1.9228 1.9088 1.8405 1.7695 1.8619 1.9428 1.8550
Al[4] 0.1341 0.1263 0.0772 0.0912 0.1595 0.1092 0.1381 0.0572 0.1450
Al[6] 0.0310 0.0424 0.0179 0.0348 0.0588 0.0000 0.0391 0.0389 0.0534
Ti 0.0570 0.0550 0.0334 0.0323 0.0486 0.2730 0.0466 0.0287 0.0451
3+
Fe 0.0195 0.0060 0.0156 0.0279 0.0334 0.0000 0.0659 0.0060 0.0344
2+
Fe 0.3799 0.3835 0.3444 0.3117 0.2808 0.2882 0.2884 0.3132 0.2879
Mn 0.0086 0.0095 0.0100 0.0079 0.0060 0.0081 0.0090 0.0082 0.0066
Mg 0.6292 0.6223 0.7353 0.7306 0.7086 0.5840 0.6690 0.7677 0.7121
Cr 0.0000 0.0000 0.0014 0.0000 0.0001 0.0000 0.0013 0.0000 0.0000
Ni 0.0000 0.0000 0.0007 0.0000 0.0005 0.0000 0.0007 0.0005 0.0000
Ca 0.8445 0.8494 0.8169 0.8186 0.8330 0.9075 0.8187 0.7916 0.8275
Na 0.0298 0.0320 0.0245 0.0355 0.0290 0.0248 0.0614 0.0451 0.0327
K 0.0005 0.0000 0.0000 0.0007 0.0011 0.0002 0.0000 0.0000 0.0003
TOTAL 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 3.9646 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.6117 0.6151 0.6713 0.6827 0.6928 0.6696 0.6538 0.7063 0.6884

135
AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-
Sample No
12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a
Photo Area H H H H H H H H H
Analysis No 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134
SiO2 47.31 48.90 49.25 48.09 49.45 48.72 48.48 49.38 49.04
TiO2 2.37 1.76 1.64 2.16 1.54 2.03 2.00 1.78 1.71
Al2O3 5.62 4.65 4.50 5.00 4.38 5.09 5.05 4.09 4.29
Fe2O3 11.74 10.35 10.02 10.57 10.41 10.20 10.11 11.54 11.77
MnO 0.26 0.22 0.21 0.18 0.27 0.25 0.19 0.33 0.26
MgO 11.41 12.84 12.99 12.31 13.39 12.89 12.46 11.73 11.72
CaO 19.81 20.72 20.68 20.84 19.79 20.61 20.97 20.42 20.07
Na2O 0.71 0.42 0.39 0.45 0.42 0.37 0.45 0.87 0.84
K 2O 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00
Cr2O3 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.02 0.02
NiO 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.09 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.00
TOTAL 99.24 99.88 99.74 99.69 99.74 100.16 99.74 100.18 99.73
Si 1.7959 1.8330 1.8466 1.8107 1.8529 1.8210 1.8209 1.8535 1.8493
Al[4] 0.2041 0.1670 0.1534 0.1893 0.1471 0.1790 0.1791 0.1465 0.1507
Al[6] 0.0473 0.0384 0.0455 0.0326 0.0463 0.0452 0.0445 0.0345 0.0400
Ti 0.0677 0.0496 0.0463 0.0612 0.0435 0.0571 0.0565 0.0503 0.0485
3+
Fe 0.0738 0.0588 0.0431 0.0674 0.0441 0.0460 0.0546 0.0748 0.0745
2+
Fe 0.2989 0.2656 0.2711 0.2655 0.2821 0.2728 0.2629 0.2875 0.2967
Mn 0.0082 0.0069 0.0068 0.0056 0.0085 0.0078 0.0061 0.0104 0.0083
Mg 0.6457 0.7175 0.7261 0.6910 0.7480 0.7182 0.6977 0.6564 0.6589
Cr 0.0000 0.0007 0.0012 0.0006 0.0000 0.0005 0.0000 0.0005 0.0007
Ni 0.0003 0.0000 0.0000 0.0017 0.0028 0.0000 0.0007 0.0006 0.0000
Ca 0.8057 0.8322 0.8308 0.8408 0.7945 0.8254 0.8439 0.8213 0.8109
Na 0.0522 0.0302 0.0287 0.0326 0.0302 0.0269 0.0325 0.0632 0.0615
K 0.0002 0.0000 0.0004 0.0012 0.0000 0.0000 0.0006 0.0006 0.0000
TOTAL 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.6340 0.6886 0.6980 0.6749 0.6963 0.6926 0.6872 0.6444 0.6396

136
AA- AA- AA-
Sample No
12a 12a 12a AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14
Photo Area H H I A A A A A A
Analysis No 135 136 143 1 2 3 4 6 7
SiO2 49.09 48.54 53.16 51.16 50.46 51.12 48.94 52.40 50.49
TiO2 1.84 2.10 0.01 1.38 1.41 1.16 1.78 0.70 0.79
Al2O3 4.41 4.68 1.27 3.54 4.73 3.75 2.49 2.86 2.82
Fe2O3 10.64 10.77 16.98 8.80 6.87 6.74 14.48 5.53 8.65
MnO 0.26 0.20 0.32 0.19 0.10 0.12 0.34 0.09 0.20
MgO 12.39 12.04 7.16 15.44 15.40 15.30 11.51 15.62 13.28
CaO 20.93 20.37 14.96 18.89 20.26 20.67 18.67 21.95 18.09
Na2O 0.41 0.37 5.27 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.34 0.31 0.35
K2O 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.06
Cr2O3 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.04 0.74 0.29 0.00 0.81 0.60
NiO 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.10 0.07 0.05 0.02
TOTAL 100.01 99.12 99.15 99.72 100.3 99.54 98.62 100.32 95.36
Si 1.8433 1.8430 2.0000 1.8975 1.8559 1.8931 1.8914 1.9203 1.9565
Al[4] 0.1567 0.1570 0.0000 0.1005 0.1441 0.1065 0.1086 0.0787 0.0245
Al[6] 0.0385 0.0524 0.0565 0.0544 0.0609 0.0572 0.0048 0.0449 0.1055
Ti 0.0520 0.0600 0.0002 0.0386 0.0391 0.0322 0.0518 0.0194 0.0232
3+
Fe 0.0443 0.0112 0.3191 0.0000 0.0037 0.0000 0.0263 0.0000 0.0000
2+
Fe 0.2898 0.3307 0.2165 0.2733 0.2076 0.2088 0.4417 0.1696 0.2830
Mn 0.0083 0.0065 0.0103 0.0060 0.0033 0.0039 0.0113 0.0027 0.0067
Mg 0.6936 0.6815 0.4025 0.8546 0.8444 0.8448 0.6631 0.8538 0.7746
Cr 0.0004 0.0006 0.0000 0.0013 0.0214 0.0085 0.0000 0.0236 0.0185
Ni 0.0006 0.0013 0.0005 0.0005 0.0010 0.0030 0.0021 0.0014 0.0008
Ca 0.8421 0.8287 0.6045 0.7515 0.7984 0.8203 0.7731 0.8623 0.7584
Na 0.0301 0.0272 0.3853 0.0196 0.0200 0.0206 0.0255 0.0223 0.0263
K 0.0004 0.0000 0.0000 0.0002 0.0001 0.0006 0.0004 0.0000 0.0030
TOTAL 4.0000 4.0000 3.9953 3.9980 4.0000 3.9996 4.0000 3.9990 3.9810
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.6749 0.6659 0.4291 0.7577 0.7998 0.8018 0.5863 0.8343 0.7324

137
Sample No AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14
Photo Area A A A A A B B B B
Analysis No 8 9 11 12 13 14 16 18 19
SiO2 52.03 52.08 51.90 51.64 51.80 52.15 52.50 52.04 49.36
TiO2 0.72 0.71 0.68 1.09 0.65 0.78 0.91 0.91 1.78
Al2O3 3.15 3.21 3.08 3.14 3.23 2.71 2.38 3.29 5.79
Fe2O3 5.84 4.67 4.48 7.32 4.87 5.13 6.05 5.55 6.02
MnO 0.10 0.14 0.08 0.16 0.10 0.12 0.16 0.15 0.18
MgO 15.50 15.42 15.66 15.56 15.32 15.51 16.10 15.28 14.16
CaO 21.49 21.88 21.89 20.33 22.03 22.19 21.09 21.87 21.81
Na2O 0.22 0.33 0.31 0.27 0.26 0.26 0.22 0.27 0.30
K2O 0.02 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.00
Cr2O3 0.71 0.94 1.00 0.19 0.89 0.43 0.10 0.34 0.61
NiO 0.03 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.11 0.05 0.07
TOTAL 99.79 99.47 99.09 99.72 99.18 99.29 99.63 99.77 100.08
Si 1.9165 1.9185 1.9179 1.9102 1.9160 1.9277 1.9349 1.9159 1.8229
Al[4] 0.0802 0.0768 0.0789 0.0890 0.0804 0.0698 0.0628 0.0804 0.1771
Al[6] 0.0568 0.0629 0.0555 0.0480 0.0607 0.0484 0.0407 0.0626 0.0749
Ti 0.0199 0.0199 0.0188 0.0304 0.0181 0.0218 0.0252 0.0254 0.0495
3+
Fe 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0071
2+
Fe 0.1802 0.1442 0.1387 0.2265 0.1509 0.1588 0.1867 0.1712 0.1788
Mn 0.0031 0.0042 0.0024 0.0049 0.0030 0.0036 0.0049 0.0046 0.0057
Mg 0.8526 0.8489 0.8641 0.8584 0.8464 0.8558 0.8856 0.8402 0.7796
Cr 0.0206 0.0276 0.0292 0.0055 0.0261 0.0125 0.0030 0.0101 0.0178
Ni 0.0008 0.0026 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0002 0.0031 0.0016 0.0022
Ca 0.8496 0.8657 0.8682 0.8061 0.8747 0.8800 0.8338 0.8644 0.8630
Na 0.0156 0.0239 0.0224 0.0196 0.0187 0.0185 0.0160 0.0191 0.0215
K 0.0008 0.0000 0.0008 0.0006 0.0013 0.0003 0.0010 0.0007 0.0000
TOTAL 3.9967 3.9953 3.9968 3.9992 3.9964 3.9974 3.9977 3.9963 4.0000
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.8255 0.8548 0.8617 0.7912 0.8487 0.8435 0.8259 0.8307 0.8074

138
Sample No AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14
Photo Area B B C C C C C C C
Analysis No 20 21 24 25 26 27 29 32 34
SiO2 52.13 52.51 51.60 51.78 51.83 53.17 53.10 53.59 50.95
TiO2 0.80 0.66 1.12 1.17 0.98 0.75 0.77 0.71 1.13
Al2O3 3.21 2.36 3.49 3.47 3.31 2.32 1.94 1.94 3.46
Fe2O3 4.81 6.91 6.22 6.03 5.90 5.82 6.15 6.37 6.28
MnO 0.13 0.21 0.13 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.15 0.15 0.11
MgO 15.42 15.38 15.27 15.24 15.06 15.52 15.98 15.87 15.10
CaO 22.38 20.89 21.59 21.92 21.89 22.22 21.58 21.58 22.20
Na2O 0.28 0.30 0.30 0.24 0.25 0.32 0.22 0.30 0.25
K2O 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02
Cr2O3 1.05 0.57 0.09 0.13 0.14 0.08 0.14 0.10 0.16
NiO 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.06 0.00 0.08 0.04
TOTAL 100.26 99.83 99.83 100.11 99.51 100.42 100.03 100.7 99.71
Si 1.9096 1.9395 1.9031 1.9036 1.9154 1.9455 1.9501 1.9559 1.8836
Al[4] 0.0873 0.0573 0.0965 0.0943 0.0810 0.0516 0.0463 0.0403 0.1164
Al[6] 0.0515 0.0456 0.0552 0.0562 0.0634 0.0486 0.0379 0.0434 0.0344
Ti 0.0222 0.0183 0.0312 0.0324 0.0273 0.0208 0.0212 0.0196 0.0314
3+
Fe 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0337
2+
Fe 0.1476 0.2138 0.1919 0.1856 0.1827 0.1784 0.1892 0.1948 0.1605
Mn 0.0041 0.0064 0.0041 0.0038 0.0043 0.0051 0.0047 0.0047 0.0036
Mg 0.8434 0.8482 0.8397 0.8362 0.8312 0.8478 0.8765 0.8652 0.8322
Cr 0.0303 0.0166 0.0026 0.0038 0.0040 0.0022 0.0041 0.0029 0.0047
Ni 0.0012 0.0009 0.0006 0.0006 0.0004 0.0017 0.0000 0.0025 0.0011
Ca 0.8798 0.8281 0.8533 0.8644 0.8684 0.8724 0.8507 0.8456 0.8794
Na 0.0196 0.0213 0.0214 0.0170 0.0182 0.0230 0.0156 0.0213 0.0182
K 0.0002 0.0007 0.0000 0.0000 0.0002 0.0000 0.0000 0.0001 0.0009
TOTAL 3.9970 3.9968 3.9997 3.9979 3.9964 3.9971 3.9963 3.9961 4.0000
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.8511 0.7987 0.8140 0.8184 0.8198 0.8262 0.8224 0.8162 0.8108

139
Sample No AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14
Photo Area C C D D D D D E E
Analysis No 37 38 40 41 42 43 46 52 53
SiO2 53.47 52.68 51.83 52.01 52.76 53.21 51.68 53.03 53.02
TiO2 0.52 0.56 0.91 1.01 0.77 0.75 1.04 0.78 0.87
Al2O3 1.94 2.91 3.02 2.95 2.01 1.92 3.48 2.00 1.98
Fe2O3 4.36 4.25 6.17 6.07 5.99 5.69 6.66 6.76 6.36
MnO 0.12 0.13 0.13 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.15 0.11 0.16
MgO 16.60 16.17 15.05 15.24 15.92 15.98 15.08 15.93 15.71
CaO 22.41 22.22 22.18 22.02 21.62 21.66 21.89 21.44 21.15
Na2O 0.18 0.23 0.31 0.31 0.23 0.22 0.28 0.25 0.25
K2O 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00
Cr2O3 0.35 0.63 0.06 0.13 0.12 0.07 0.05 0.08 0.00
NiO 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.01 0.00 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.06
TOTAL 100.01 99.83 99.73 99.9 99.56 99.66 100.32 100.4 99.56
Si 1.9527 1.9281 1.9154 1.9177 1.9465 1.9565 1.9002 1.9451 1.9555
Al[4] 0.0438 0.0686 0.0846 0.0821 0.0510 0.0374 0.0998 0.0540 0.0376
Al[6] 0.0398 0.0572 0.0470 0.0461 0.0365 0.0460 0.0510 0.0325 0.0487
Ti 0.0144 0.0154 0.0253 0.0279 0.0215 0.0209 0.0288 0.0215 0.0243
3+
Fe 0.0000 0.0000 0.0071 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0100 0.0000 0.0000
2+
Fe 0.1334 0.1303 0.1836 0.1872 0.1851 0.1755 0.1948 0.2075 0.1969
Mn 0.0036 0.0039 0.0041 0.0043 0.0043 0.0046 0.0047 0.0035 0.0051
Mg 0.9054 0.8838 0.8291 0.8378 0.8767 0.8787 0.8266 0.8715 0.8668
Cr 0.0101 0.0181 0.0018 0.0039 0.0035 0.0019 0.0014 0.0022 0.0000
Ni 0.0012 0.0019 0.0018 0.0004 0.0000 0.0009 0.0002 0.0007 0.0016
Ca 0.8784 0.8729 0.8783 0.8700 0.8557 0.8560 0.8624 0.8430 0.8387
Na 0.0127 0.0164 0.0219 0.0223 0.0167 0.0155 0.0198 0.0177 0.0178
K 0.0009 0.0002 0.0000 0.0002 0.0000 0.0000 0.0004 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL 3.9965 3.9966 4.0000 3.9998 3.9975 3.9940 4.0000 3.9990 3.9932
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.8716 0.8715 0.8130 0.8174 0.8257 0.8335 0.8014 0.8077 0.8149

140
Sample No AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14
Photo Area E E E E F F F F G
Analysis No 54 62 63 64 68 69 70 73 75
SiO2 53.04 52.44 50.63 52.53 51.91 51.41 53.17 48.88 52.37
TiO2 0.73 1.07 1.50 0.95 1.12 1.16 0.76 2.21 0.77
Al2O3 1.97 3.42 4.63 3.16 3.49 3.57 1.96 5.98 3.12
Fe2O3 6.50 6.13 6.73 6.14 6.32 6.15 5.88 6.46 5.06
MnO 0.12 0.09 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.11 0.11 0.08 0.15
MgO 15.70 15.20 14.88 15.44 15.19 15.11 16.09 13.67 15.50
CaO 21.44 22.01 21.14 21.98 21.66 21.89 21.86 21.45 22.13
Na2O 0.28 0.28 0.31 0.30 0.27 0.31 0.22 0.45 0.31
K2O 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00
Cr2O3 0.05 0.15 0.19 0.14 0.18 0.20 0.08 0.50 0.73
NiO 0.06 0.07 0.02 0.05 0.11 0.02 0.03 0.06 0.03
TOTAL 99.89 100.87 100.17 100.81 100.42 99.93 100.17 99.75 100.16
Si 1.9530 1.9129 1.8656 1.9173 1.9047 1.8956 1.9487 1.8145 1.9185
Al[4] 0.0438 0.0833 0.1344 0.0814 0.0935 0.1044 0.0486 0.1855 0.0783
Al[6] 0.0419 0.0640 0.0667 0.0547 0.0576 0.0507 0.0361 0.0761 0.0567
Ti 0.0203 0.0293 0.0417 0.0261 0.0311 0.0322 0.0211 0.0617 0.0212
3+
Fe 0.0000 0.0000 0.0006 0.0000 0.0000 0.0057 0.0000 0.0042 0.0000
2+
Fe 0.2005 0.1874 0.2068 0.1876 0.1941 0.1839 0.1805 0.1963 0.1553
Mn 0.0038 0.0029 0.0043 0.0044 0.0043 0.0036 0.0036 0.0026 0.0046
Mg 0.8632 0.8282 0.8174 0.8407 0.8317 0.8306 0.8803 0.7565 0.8479
Cr 0.0013 0.0045 0.0056 0.0040 0.0053 0.0058 0.0023 0.0147 0.0213
Ni 0.0018 0.0020 0.0005 0.0016 0.0033 0.0005 0.0010 0.0018 0.0010
Ca 0.8473 0.8620 0.8346 0.8602 0.8523 0.8648 0.8596 0.8531 0.8701
Na 0.0200 0.0198 0.0218 0.0209 0.0195 0.0222 0.0155 0.0326 0.0219
K 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0008 0.0000 0.0000 0.0003 0.0000
TOTAL 3.9967 3.9962 4.0000 3.9986 3.9982 4.0000 3.9973 4.0000 3.9968
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.8115 0.8155 0.7976 0.8176 0.8108 0.8141 0.8299 0.7904 0.8452

141
Sample No AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14
Photo Area G G G G G G G H H
Analysis No 76 77 78 80 81 82 83 84 85
SiO2 53.66 53.35 53.36 54.32 52.11 53.35 52.97 50.88 53.00
TiO2 0.68 0.66 0.73 1.10 0.83 0.59 0.74 1.64 0.91
Al2O3 2.16 2.74 2.72 1.37 3.32 2.18 2.77 3.00 2.06
Fe2O3 5.41 4.92 5.05 12.66 5.17 5.01 5.05 9.00 6.89
MnO 0.09 0.15 0.12 0.23 0.15 0.14 0.11 0.19 0.16
MgO 16.09 16.09 15.98 14.84 15.56 16.27 16.13 13.54 15.71
CaO 21.96 22.20 22.19 12.09 22.07 22.17 22.45 21.54 21.50
Na2O 0.27 0.22 0.24 0.58 0.26 0.25 0.22 0.40 0.30
K2O 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.22 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.01
Cr2O3 0.19 0.44 0.39 0.04 0.72 0.53 0.34 0.00 0.00
NiO 0.08 0.06 0.00 0.03 0.06 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.02
TOTAL 100.63 100.82 100.79 97.49 100.26 100.51 100.8 100.24 100.56
Si 1.9530 1.9360 1.9374 2.0000 1.9090 1.9441 1.9262 1.8944 1.9428
Al[4] 0.0417 0.0586 0.0564 0.0000 0.0888 0.0529 0.0725 0.1056 0.0564
Al[6] 0.0512 0.0589 0.0604 0.0619 0.0547 0.0409 0.0463 0.0260 0.0326
Ti 0.0187 0.0182 0.0200 0.0319 0.0230 0.0163 0.0202 0.0458 0.0250
3+
Fe 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0179 0.0000
2+
Fe 0.1651 0.1497 0.1538 0.4069 0.1586 0.1529 0.1537 0.2624 0.2113
Mn 0.0029 0.0046 0.0037 0.0076 0.0047 0.0043 0.0033 0.0061 0.0050
Mg 0.8754 0.8729 0.8677 0.8501 0.8508 0.8852 0.8750 0.7515 0.8588
Cr 0.0055 0.0126 0.0113 0.0013 0.0208 0.0154 0.0098 0.0000 0.0001
Ni 0.0023 0.0017 0.0000 0.0009 0.0016 0.0003 0.0005 0.0012 0.0007
Ca 0.8587 0.8656 0.8660 0.4978 0.8673 0.8669 0.8753 0.8593 0.8448
Na 0.0190 0.0158 0.0168 0.0436 0.0185 0.0175 0.0158 0.0291 0.0212
K 0.0011 0.0000 0.0003 0.0106 0.0000 0.0002 0.0001 0.0008 0.0005
TOTAL 3.9947 3.9946 3.9938 3.9126 3.9978 3.9970 3.9987 4.0000 3.9993
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.8413 0.8536 0.8494 0.6763 0.8429 0.8527 0.8506 0.7284 0.8025

142
Sample No AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14
Photo Area H H H H H I I I J
Analysis No 86 87 88 90 91 100 101 102 105
SiO2 51.27 52.10 53.07 51.92 52.42 52.16 51.99 51.50 53.47
TiO2 1.46 1.12 0.96 1.37 1.05 0.81 0.87 1.47 0.74
Al2O3 3.80 1.97 2.10 2.38 2.14 3.27 3.30 3.62 1.95
Fe2O3 6.99 9.69 6.96 8.67 7.82 4.73 4.89 5.16 6.40
MnO 0.20 0.28 0.18 0.22 0.25 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.15
MgO 14.66 13.63 15.57 14.19 15.05 15.55 15.45 14.78 15.97
CaO 22.00 21.61 21.71 21.28 21.36 22.59 22.58 22.19 21.62
Na2O 0.29 0.46 0.29 0.35 0.30 0.33 0.33 0.43 0.25
K2O 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.00
Cr2O3 0.08 0.00 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.78 0.89 0.87 0.04
NiO 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.07 0.03
TOTAL 100.81 100.9 100.87 100.43 100.42 100.33 100.42 100.23 100.62
Si 1.8820 1.9296 1.9408 1.9242 1.9341 1.9084 1.9027 1.8916 1.9532
Al[4] 0.1180 0.0704 0.0579 0.0747 0.0659 0.0914 0.0973 0.1050 0.0435
Al[6] 0.0464 0.0156 0.0327 0.0293 0.0271 0.0496 0.0450 0.0520 0.0406
Ti 0.0402 0.0312 0.0265 0.0383 0.0291 0.0222 0.0240 0.0407 0.0202
3+
Fe 0.0102 0.0261 0.0000 0.0000 0.0014 0.0000 0.0022 0.0000 0.0000
2+
Fe 0.2043 0.2740 0.2130 0.2689 0.2399 0.1447 0.1475 0.1588 0.1958
Mn 0.0061 0.0089 0.0055 0.0071 0.0079 0.0032 0.0034 0.0037 0.0046
Mg 0.8022 0.7526 0.8494 0.7844 0.8278 0.8482 0.8429 0.8108 0.8711
Cr 0.0022 0.0000 0.0008 0.0010 0.0007 0.0225 0.0258 0.0254 0.0010
Ni 0.0016 0.0003 0.0004 0.0000 0.0001 0.0000 0.0002 0.0020 0.0008
Ca 0.8653 0.8576 0.8513 0.8455 0.8444 0.8857 0.8854 0.8749 0.8476
Na 0.0205 0.0330 0.0204 0.0254 0.0215 0.0235 0.0236 0.0308 0.0181
K 0.0008 0.0007 0.0000 0.0002 0.0000 0.0004 0.0000 0.0009 0.0000
TOTAL 4.0000 4.0000 3.9987 3.9990 4.0000 3.9998 4.0000 3.9965 3.9967
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.7890 0.7149 0.7995 0.7447 0.7743 0.8542 0.8492 0.8362 0.8164

143
AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-
Sample No
AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a
Photo Area J J J J A A A A B
Analysis No 106 107 108 109 2 3 4 12 17
SiO2 53.47 53.20 52.12 53.18 48.46 49.24 48.04 50.72 52.03
TiO2 0.85 0.78 1.09 0.76 2.08 1.80 2.30 1.28 1.22
Al2O3 1.94 2.08 3.15 1.85 6.40 5.82 6.46 4.38 3.29
Fe2O3 6.33 5.93 6.45 6.69 6.33 5.97 6.21 5.66 6.33
MnO 0.12 0.11 0.10 0.18 0.11 0.18 0.11 0.13 0.15
MgO 15.95 15.79 15.05 15.94 13.65 13.88 13.57 15.01 15.85
CaO 21.72 21.69 21.94 21.26 21.71 21.51 21.74 21.79 20.58
Na2O 0.22 0.24 0.27 0.26 0.35 0.31 0.31 0.32 0.17
K2O 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00
Cr2O3 0.01 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.43 1.16 0.73 0.43 0.29
NiO 0.08 0.05 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.07 0.03 0.01 0.03
TOTAL 100.7 99.91 100.27 100.23 99.56 99.94 99.51 99.75 99.94
Si 1.9515 1.9534 1.9159 1.9524 1.8012 1.8227 1.7890 1.8716 1.9112
Al[4] 0.0441 0.0407 0.0818 0.0450 0.1988 0.1748 0.2110 0.1284 0.0819
Al[6] 0.0395 0.0496 0.0549 0.0352 0.0815 0.0794 0.0725 0.0620 0.0610
Ti 0.0235 0.0216 0.0300 0.0209 0.0582 0.0502 0.0644 0.0355 0.0338
3+
Fe 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0144 0.0000 0.0113 0.0062 0.0000
2+
Fe 0.1936 0.1826 0.1985 0.2057 0.1823 0.1851 0.1821 0.1685 0.1952
Mn 0.0036 0.0033 0.0031 0.0057 0.0034 0.0056 0.0036 0.0042 0.0048
Mg 0.8698 0.8669 0.8257 0.8736 0.7563 0.7670 0.7533 0.8257 0.8711
Cr 0.0002 0.0014 0.0018 0.0024 0.0128 0.0339 0.0214 0.0127 0.0086
Ni 0.0025 0.0015 0.0006 0.0008 0.0003 0.0020 0.0008 0.0002 0.0008
Ca 0.8513 0.8559 0.8652 0.8374 0.8646 0.8543 0.8674 0.8615 0.8129
Na 0.0159 0.0172 0.0192 0.0183 0.0251 0.0226 0.0225 0.0229 0.0118
K 0.0000 0.0000 0.0009 0.0000 0.0011 0.0000 0.0006 0.0006 0.0000
TOTAL 3.9956 3.9941 3.9976 3.9974 4.0000 3.9975 4.0000 4.0000 3.9931
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.8179 0.8260 0.8062 0.8094 0.7936 0.8056 0.7957 0.8254 0.8170

144
AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-
Sample No
15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a
Photo Area D D D D D D D D F
Analysis No 48 49 53 54 55 56 57 58 64
SiO2 52.17 49.99 48.23 48.84 49.27 50.67 49.73 51.89 52.57
TiO2 1.05 1.33 2.27 2.01 1.70 1.17 1.80 1.18 0.88
Al2O3 2.84 4.72 6.38 5.97 5.53 4.52 5.52 3.27 2.55
Fe2O3 6.17 5.93 6.70 5.85 5.72 5.70 5.96 6.37 5.54
MnO 0.14 0.10 0.11 0.10 0.11 0.14 0.08 0.12 0.10
MgO 15.96 14.25 13.26 13.84 13.94 14.65 14.11 16.04 16.13
CaO 20.85 22.06 21.08 21.93 22.01 22.03 21.47 20.68 21.60
Na2O 0.21 0.45 0.43 0.33 0.38 0.25 0.33 0.18 0.19
K2O 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00
Cr2O3 0.45 1.15 0.62 0.82 0.93 0.77 1.15 0.31 0.48
NiO 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.06
TOTAL 99.87 99.99 99.09 99.72 99.6 99.93 100.17 100.1 100.1
Si 1.9191 1.8469 1.8045 1.8121 1.8281 1.8696 1.8337 1.9052 1.9271
Al[4] 0.0769 0.1531 0.1944 0.1879 0.1719 0.1290 0.1623 0.0919 0.0698
Al[6] 0.0465 0.0524 0.0871 0.0731 0.0699 0.0677 0.0781 0.0498 0.0406
Ti 0.0290 0.0368 0.0639 0.0561 0.0475 0.0326 0.0500 0.0326 0.0243
3+
Fe 0.0000 0.0253 0.0000 0.0028 0.0076 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
2+
Fe 0.1902 0.1579 0.2098 0.1788 0.1699 0.1760 0.1842 0.1959 0.1701
Mn 0.0043 0.0033 0.0035 0.0032 0.0035 0.0044 0.0026 0.0038 0.0030
Mg 0.8771 0.7848 0.7400 0.7655 0.7711 0.8064 0.7773 0.8793 0.8829
Cr 0.0131 0.0337 0.0185 0.0239 0.0274 0.0226 0.0336 0.0090 0.0138
Ni 0.0007 0.0007 0.0000 0.0008 0.0001 0.0009 0.0006 0.0005 0.0018
Ca 0.8235 0.8732 0.8456 0.8718 0.8750 0.8716 0.8501 0.8148 0.8498
Na 0.0151 0.0319 0.0311 0.0236 0.0271 0.0177 0.0234 0.0129 0.0137
K 0.0004 0.0000 0.0005 0.0004 0.0008 0.0000 0.0001 0.0015 0.0000
TOTAL 3.9960 4.0000 3.9989 4.0000 4.0000 3.9986 3.9960 3.9972 3.9969
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.8218 0.8107 0.7791 0.8083 0.8129 0.8208 0.8084 0.8178 0.8384

145
AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-
Sample No
15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a
Photo Area F F H H H H
Analysis No 65 78 82 83 84 86
SiO2 51.76 52.49 49.80 49.64 50.66 49.16
TiO2 1.09 1.02 1.39 1.76 1.06 1.68
Al2O3 3.05 2.89 5.05 5.36 4.24 5.58
Fe2O3 6.68 6.16 5.43 5.58 5.15 5.65
MnO 0.12 0.14 0.13 0.15 0.06 0.11
MgO 15.76 16.03 14.57 14.11 15.00 14.17
CaO 20.41 20.80 22.18 21.95 22.16 21.75
Na2O 0.24 0.22 0.27 0.28 0.26 0.27
K 2O 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01
Cr2O3 0.29 0.46 1.38 0.81 1.29 1.37
NiO 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.07 0.07
TOTAL 99.42 100.2 100.21 99.63 99.96 99.82
Si 1.9148 1.9224 1.8351 1.8388 1.8676 1.8218
Al[4] 0.0817 0.0720 0.1649 0.1582 0.1324 0.1779
Al[6] 0.0515 0.0531 0.0544 0.0762 0.0518 0.0658
Ti 0.0305 0.0281 0.0386 0.0491 0.0295 0.0468
3+
Fe 0.0000 0.0000 0.0125 0.0000 0.0025 0.0000
2+
Fe 0.2070 0.1892 0.1548 0.1731 0.1563 0.1751
Mn 0.0038 0.0044 0.0041 0.0046 0.0018 0.0035
Mg 0.8707 0.8778 0.8004 0.7805 0.8244 0.7829
Cr 0.0085 0.0133 0.0402 0.0238 0.0377 0.0401
Ni 0.0004 0.0000 0.0002 0.0000 0.0020 0.0020
Ca 0.8105 0.8186 0.8757 0.8726 0.8753 0.8637
Na 0.0172 0.0155 0.0192 0.0201 0.0186 0.0195
K 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0004
TOTAL 3.9965 3.9944 4.0000 3.9970 4.0000 3.9997
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.8079 0.8227 0.8271 0.8184 0.8385 0.8172

146
APPENDIX D

MAJOR AND MINOR ELEMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR


PYROXENE FROM BASALT OVERGROWTHS

Sample No AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14
Photo Area A A B B C C C C C
Analysis No 5 10 15 17 28 30 31 33 35
SiO2 54.08 53.09 54.33 54.05 53.89 55.22 54.58 54.63 54.02
TiO2 0.60 0.01 0.69 0.02 1.89 0.05 0.06 0.01 0.06
Al2O3 1.46 1.18 0.74 1.61 0.81 2.11 1.31 1.51 0.79
Fe2O3 12.92 18.42 13.77 17.11 12.41 12.05 16.16 16.17 16.90
MnO 0.42 0.73 0.52 0.58 0.25 0.22 0.78 0.64 1.01
MgO 13.81 10.61 13.44 11.37 13.81 15.02 12.09 12.11 11.93
CaO 14.28 11.85 13.15 11.57 13.13 12.83 12.16 11.90 12.13
Na2O 0.42 0.37 0.34 0.56 0.42 0.58 0.39 0.55 0.27
K2O 0.11 0.10 0.12 0.16 0.16 0.12 0.12 0.15 0.10
Cr2O3 0.08 0.06 0.09 0.00 0.06 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.04
NiO 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.00 0.00
TOTAL 98.26 96.40 97.20 97.03 96.86 98.28 97.70 97.68 97.25
Si 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000
Al[4] 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Al[6] 0.0660 0.0557 0.0342 0.0746 0.0371 0.0943 0.0605 0.0693 0.0366
Ti 0.0174 0.0002 0.0202 0.0007 0.0554 0.0015 0.0017 0.0004 0.0019
3+
Fe 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
2+
Fe 0.4141 0.6168 0.4486 0.5644 0.4046 0.3821 0.5282 0.5275 0.5573
Mn 0.0138 0.0246 0.0172 0.0193 0.0084 0.0069 0.0259 0.0212 0.0337
Mg 0.7889 0.6333 0.7805 0.6686 0.8026 0.8490 0.7044 0.7041 0.7012
Cr 0.0024 0.0018 0.0028 0.0000 0.0018 0.0010 0.0005 0.0003 0.0012
Ni 0.0021 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0010 0.0014 0.0012 0.0000 0.0001
Ca 0.5863 0.5083 0.5488 0.4890 0.5484 0.5212 0.5092 0.4973 0.5124
Na 0.0312 0.0285 0.0255 0.0432 0.0319 0.0426 0.0293 0.0416 0.0208
K 0.0055 0.0053 0.0058 0.0081 0.0078 0.0060 0.0061 0.0076 0.0049
TOTAL 3.9276 3.8745 3.8837 3.8679 3.8991 3.9062 3.8670 3.8692 3.8701
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.6558 0.5066 0.6350 0.5422 0.6648 0.6896 0.5715 0.5717 0.5572

147
Sample No AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14
Photo Area C D D D E E E E F
Analysis No 36 39 44 45 51 55 61 65 66
SiO2 54.23 53.93 53.53 50.82 53.90 54.61 54.24 51.87 55.63
TiO2 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.07 0.07 3.50 0.30
Al2O3 1.18 0.87 1.34 1.16 1.22 1.01 1.36 1.50 0.98
Fe2O3 16.59 18.50 17.74 15.91 17.49 16.65 17.09 15.27 13.66
MnO 0.85 1.13 0.68 0.62 0.70 0.88 0.66 0.55 0.26
MgO 11.99 10.53 11.08 11.09 11.41 12.40 11.86 10.81 14.63
CaO 12.25 12.04 11.92 14.37 12.16 12.02 11.97 13.29 12.13
Na2O 0.36 0.30 0.40 0.40 0.45 0.43 0.38 0.40 0.48
K 2O 0.13 0.12 0.08 0.11 0.14 0.10 0.11 0.07 0.14
Cr2O3 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.01
NiO 0.00 0.09 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00
TOTAL 97.61 97.59 96.81 94.53 97.51 98.17 97.77 97.28 98.22
Si 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000
Al[4] 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Al[6] 0.0543 0.0406 0.0628 0.0555 0.0565 0.0465 0.0629 0.0704 0.0443
Ti 0.0009 0.0013 0.0005 0.0005 0.0009 0.0020 0.0022 0.1045 0.0085
3+
Fe 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
2+
Fe 0.5436 0.6137 0.5892 0.5381 0.5754 0.5416 0.5597 0.5070 0.4369
Mn 0.0282 0.0381 0.0228 0.0213 0.0233 0.0288 0.0220 0.0184 0.0085
Mg 0.7003 0.6226 0.6560 0.6686 0.6692 0.7189 0.6924 0.6398 0.8342
Cr 0.0002 0.0007 0.0006 0.0003 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0008 0.0003
Ni 0.0000 0.0030 0.0000 0.0008 0.0001 0.0003 0.0003 0.0000 0.0000
Ca 0.5142 0.5117 0.5073 0.6227 0.5126 0.5009 0.5023 0.5654 0.4971
Na 0.0274 0.0233 0.0309 0.0312 0.0346 0.0321 0.0286 0.0305 0.0355
K 0.0064 0.0062 0.0038 0.0055 0.0068 0.0050 0.0054 0.0037 0.0070
TOTAL 3.8754 3.8610 3.8740 3.9447 3.8795 3.8761 3.8758 3.9406 3.8723
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.5630 0.5036 0.5268 0.5541 0.5377 0.5704 0.5530 0.5579 0.6563

148
Sample No AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14
Photo Area F G G H I J
Analysis No 67 74 79 89 103 104
SiO2 55.07 54.22 56.19 55.20 53.98 54.20
TiO2 0.08 0.24 0.26 0.16 0.22 0.04
Al2O3 0.94 1.28 0.97 1.29 1.02 0.90
Fe2O3 17.13 17.08 12.65 13.37 12.62 18.10
MnO 0.59 0.66 0.32 0.33 0.35 1.10
MgO 12.06 11.85 15.66 14.58 14.55 10.86
CaO 11.74 12.02 12.17 12.20 13.24 12.10
Na2O 0.49 0.45 0.38 0.52 0.41 0.26
K2O 0.11 0.09 0.12 0.17 0.13 0.09
Cr2O3 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.05 0.01
NiO 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.05 0.00
TOTAL 98.22 97.92 98.74 97.87 96.62 97.66
Si 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000 2.0000
Al[4] 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Al[6] 0.0433 0.0588 0.0434 0.0584 0.0465 0.0418
Ti 0.0024 0.0071 0.0074 0.0046 0.0064 0.0011
3+
Fe 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
2+
Fe 0.5578 0.5585 0.4005 0.4285 0.4094 0.5987
Mn 0.0195 0.0220 0.0102 0.0106 0.0115 0.0367
Mg 0.7001 0.6907 0.8837 0.8330 0.8414 0.6403
Cr 0.0002 0.0008 0.0004 0.0000 0.0015 0.0002
Ni 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0013 0.0017 0.0000
Ca 0.4898 0.5036 0.4936 0.5010 0.5503 0.5127
Na 0.0368 0.0338 0.0278 0.0389 0.0308 0.0202
K 0.0057 0.0047 0.0060 0.0081 0.0066 0.0047
TOTAL 3.8556 3.8800 3.8730 3.8845 3.9060 3.8564
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.5565 0.5529 0.6882 0.6603 0.6727 0.5168

149
APPENDIX E

MAJOR AND MINOR ELEMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR


PYROXENE FROM BASALT MATRIX

AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-


Sample No
15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a
Photo Area A A A A A A A B B
Analysis No 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 18 19
SiO2 48.53 50.80 50.73 48.20 51.55 48.50 51.72 52.02 48.72
TiO2 2.69 1.40 1.47 2.51 1.20 2.16 0.96 1.11 2.03
Al2O3 6.92 4.38 4.44 6.54 3.58 5.99 3.07 2.96 6.08
Fe2O3 7.28 6.59 6.59 6.52 6.54 6.26 5.73 7.10 7.11
MnO 0.10 0.13 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.09 0.19 0.22 0.17
MgO 13.26 15.03 14.98 13.54 15.87 13.55 15.89 15.53 13.33
CaO 21.57 21.27 21.12 21.83 20.67 22.16 20.64 20.65 21.69
Na2O 0.37 0.25 0.34 0.32 0.18 0.34 0.23 0.25 0.33
K 2O 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.05 0.00 0.00
Cr2O3 0.02 0.34 0.57 0.36 0.34 0.59 0.67 0.09 0.02
NiO 0.06 0.01 0.03 0.06 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.05
TOTAL 100.81 100.21 100.40 100.01 100.11 99.67 99.15 99.91 99.52
Si 1.7882 1.8707 1.8654 1.7871 1.8948 1.8031 1.9141 1.9186 1.8163
Al[4] 0.2118 0.1293 0.1346 0.2129 0.1034 0.1969 0.0819 0.0785 0.1837
Al[6] 0.0887 0.0608 0.0578 0.0728 0.0518 0.0656 0.0523 0.0504 0.0834
Ti 0.0746 0.0387 0.0405 0.0700 0.0331 0.0604 0.0269 0.0308 0.0569
3+
Fe 0.0004 0.0000 0.0037 0.0124 0.0000 0.0180 0.0000 0.0000 0.0093
2+
Fe 0.2239 0.2030 0.1990 0.1898 0.2012 0.1766 0.1777 0.2193 0.2124
Mn 0.0032 0.0040 0.0036 0.0043 0.0050 0.0028 0.0058 0.0068 0.0053
Mg 0.7284 0.8251 0.8212 0.7484 0.8704 0.7510 0.8785 0.8552 0.7408
Cr 0.0005 0.0100 0.0167 0.0104 0.0100 0.0172 0.0197 0.0026 0.0006
Ni 0.0018 0.0004 0.0008 0.0019 0.0000 0.0009 0.0001 0.0000 0.0014
Ca 0.8516 0.8392 0.8321 0.8672 0.8148 0.8827 0.8202 0.8173 0.8664
Na 0.0263 0.0179 0.0243 0.0227 0.0128 0.0242 0.0164 0.0176 0.0235
K 0.0007 0.0009 0.0003 0.0001 0.0008 0.0006 0.0024 0.0000 0.0000
TOTAL 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 3.9983 4.0000 3.9960 3.9970 4.0000
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.7645 0.8026 0.8021 0.7873 0.8122 0.7942 0.8317 0.7959 0.7697

150
AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-
Sample No
15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a
Photo Area B B B B B B B B B
Analysis No 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
SiO2 52.32 49.57 50.05 47.48 47.67 48.91 48.32 49.60 50.11
TiO2 1.13 1.74 1.75 3.07 2.70 1.98 2.42 1.68 1.50
Al2O3 3.10 5.22 5.16 6.59 5.72 5.49 6.46 5.43 5.51
Fe2O3 5.93 6.45 6.36 8.16 9.62 6.77 6.62 5.67 6.33
MnO 0.14 0.08 0.12 0.18 0.19 0.10 0.14 0.09 0.09
MgO 16.29 14.04 14.51 12.79 12.60 13.48 13.58 14.18 14.53
CaO 20.51 21.51 21.21 21.13 20.15 21.71 21.32 22.08 21.44
Na2O 0.23 0.33 0.28 0.36 0.42 0.49 0.42 0.34 0.34
K2O 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00
Cr2O3 0.53 0.53 0.61 0.05 0.00 0.17 0.33 1.15 0.29
NiO 0.07 0.05 0.02 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.01
TOTAL 100.26 99.52 100.09 99.86 99.09 99.14 99.64 100.29 100.16
Si 1.9134 1.8427 1.8463 1.7748 1.8014 1.8270 1.7966 1.8285 1.8451
Al[4] 0.0815 0.1565 0.1510 0.2252 0.1986 0.1730 0.2034 0.1715 0.1549
Al[6] 0.0525 0.0722 0.0736 0.0651 0.0561 0.0687 0.0796 0.0644 0.0842
Ti 0.0311 0.0487 0.0486 0.0863 0.0768 0.0556 0.0677 0.0466 0.0417
3+
Fe 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0123 0.0201 0.0236 0.0088 0.0055 0.0030
2+
Fe 0.1819 0.2006 0.1965 0.2428 0.2839 0.1879 0.1971 0.1693 0.1919
Mn 0.0044 0.0026 0.0037 0.0057 0.0060 0.0033 0.0045 0.0027 0.0030
Mg 0.8905 0.7784 0.7991 0.7127 0.7098 0.7507 0.7527 0.7793 0.7976
Cr 0.0152 0.0155 0.0177 0.0014 0.0000 0.0051 0.0096 0.0336 0.0085
Ni 0.0020 0.0014 0.0006 0.0012 0.0004 0.0004 0.0007 0.0012 0.0002
Ca 0.8058 0.8571 0.8395 0.8463 0.8158 0.8689 0.8493 0.8721 0.8458
Na 0.0165 0.0235 0.0199 0.0258 0.0311 0.0357 0.0300 0.0245 0.0241
K 0.0001 0.0000 0.0006 0.0004 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0007 0.0000
TOTAL 3.9949 3.9992 3.9974 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.8304 0.7951 0.8026 0.7364 0.7001 0.7802 0.7853 0.8168 0.8036

151
AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-
Sample No
15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a
Photo Area B B B C C C C C C
Analysis No 29 30 31 36 37 38 39 40 41
SiO2 49.15 48.93 48.89 48.73 50.63 48.89 48.38 49.22 47.48
TiO2 1.62 2.23 2.23 2.15 1.58 2.15 2.10 1.66 2.54
Al2O3 5.54 6.21 6.06 6.21 4.28 6.15 5.98 5.08 6.87
Fe2O3 5.70 6.38 6.47 6.29 6.51 6.95 5.97 6.10 6.71
MnO 0.13 0.17 0.12 0.13 0.17 0.13 0.09 0.10 0.11
MgO 14.10 13.74 13.62 13.72 15.34 13.50 13.62 14.26 12.98
CaO 22.08 21.56 21.79 21.54 20.82 21.71 21.39 21.15 21.44
Na2O 0.34 0.31 0.37 0.33 0.24 0.39 0.36 0.31 0.36
K 2O 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.02
Cr2O3 1.18 0.47 0.68 0.55 0.48 0.12 0.77 0.60 0.20
NiO 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.04 0.04 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.02
TOTAL 99.84 100.04 100.24 99.70 100.11 100.00 98.68 98.51 98.72
Si 1.8195 1.8106 1.8084 1.8095 1.8658 1.8119 1.8136 1.8449 1.7849
Al[4] 0.1805 0.1879 0.1916 0.1898 0.1340 0.1881 0.1850 0.1544 0.2151
Al[6] 0.0612 0.0832 0.0726 0.0821 0.0519 0.0805 0.0795 0.0701 0.0893
Ti 0.0451 0.0621 0.0621 0.0601 0.0439 0.0599 0.0593 0.0469 0.0718
3+
Fe 0.0192 0.0000 0.0018 0.0000 0.0000 0.0124 0.0000 0.0000 0.0031
2+
Fe 0.1573 0.1976 0.1983 0.1954 0.2007 0.2030 0.1873 0.1913 0.2079
Mn 0.0042 0.0053 0.0039 0.0040 0.0053 0.0041 0.0029 0.0033 0.0036
Mg 0.7781 0.7586 0.7510 0.7598 0.8428 0.7459 0.7617 0.7971 0.7274
Cr 0.0345 0.0136 0.0199 0.0163 0.0139 0.0036 0.0229 0.0179 0.0059
Ni 0.0000 0.0007 0.0000 0.0011 0.0012 0.0002 0.0000 0.0004 0.0006
Ca 0.8758 0.8555 0.8636 0.8573 0.8222 0.8621 0.8598 0.8497 0.8636
Na 0.0243 0.0226 0.0268 0.0236 0.0175 0.0283 0.0265 0.0227 0.0261
K 0.0002 0.0008 0.0001 0.0003 0.0006 0.0000 0.0000 0.0006 0.0008
TOTAL 4.0000 3.9985 4.0000 3.9993 3.9998 4.0000 3.9986 3.9994 4.0000
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.8151 0.7933 0.7896 0.7954 0.8077 0.7759 0.8026 0.8065 0.7752

152
AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-
Sample No
15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a
Photo Area C C C C C D D D F
Analysis No 42 43 44 45 46 50 51 52 66
SiO2 47.48 49.07 48.34 52.34 51.61 48.48 51.70 48.57 52.52
TiO2 2.51 1.88 2.10 0.87 1.10 2.40 1.34 2.50 1.03
Al2O3 6.67 5.41 6.36 2.76 3.20 6.63 3.67 6.10 2.88
Fe2O3 6.40 5.87 6.01 5.81 5.91 6.29 6.35 7.43 5.71
MnO 0.18 0.09 0.13 0.13 0.17 0.11 0.20 0.18 0.17
MgO 13.05 14.14 13.58 16.18 16.03 13.41 15.64 13.09 15.90
CaO 21.67 20.99 21.70 21.13 20.38 21.47 20.30 20.91 21.34
Na2O 0.35 0.29 0.26 0.24 0.25 0.38 0.22 0.46 0.25
K2O 0.00 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.00
Cr2O3 0.26 1.13 0.39 0.58 0.80 0.45 0.38 0.14 0.51
NiO 0.00 0.03 0.05 0.04 0.07 0.05 0.07 0.02 0.01
TOTAL 98.57 98.95 98.95 100.11 99.53 99.70 99.88 99.46 100.31
Si 1.7869 1.8314 1.8072 1.9199 1.9044 1.8000 1.9010 1.8143 1.9212
Al[4] 0.2131 0.1649 0.1919 0.0788 0.0923 0.1977 0.0917 0.1843 0.0739
Al[6] 0.0828 0.0735 0.0884 0.0406 0.0471 0.0928 0.0679 0.0844 0.0506
Ti 0.0711 0.0529 0.0591 0.0240 0.0305 0.0671 0.0373 0.0703 0.0285
3+
Fe 0.0059 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
2+
Fe 0.1955 0.1836 0.1880 0.1784 0.1827 0.1956 0.1960 0.2323 0.1751
Mn 0.0056 0.0027 0.0040 0.0041 0.0052 0.0036 0.0063 0.0058 0.0052
Mg 0.7322 0.7883 0.7572 0.8854 0.8833 0.7432 0.8606 0.7295 0.8693
Cr 0.0077 0.0334 0.0115 0.0169 0.0235 0.0134 0.0110 0.0041 0.0148
Ni 0.0000 0.0010 0.0016 0.0012 0.0022 0.0016 0.0022 0.0006 0.0002
Ca 0.8738 0.8410 0.8697 0.8310 0.8072 0.8552 0.8028 0.8375 0.8386
Na 0.0253 0.0212 0.0190 0.0174 0.0182 0.0271 0.0155 0.0332 0.0177
K 0.0002 0.0024 0.0014 0.0009 0.0000 0.0004 0.0004 0.0022 0.0000
TOTAL 4.0000 3.9963 3.9991 3.9986 3.9966 3.9977 3.9927 3.9986 3.9951
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.7842 0.8111 0.8011 0.8323 0.8286 0.7917 0.8145 0.7585 0.8323

153
AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-
Sample No
15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a
Photo Area F F F F F F H H H
Analysis No 67 68 69 70 76 77 85 87 88
SiO2 49.73 48.92 47.62 49.35 50.40 52.74 50.57 49.96 48.69
TiO2 1.66 2.56 2.80 2.01 1.44 0.90 1.22 1.74 2.31
Al2O3 5.30 6.92 6.85 5.55 4.70 2.90 4.56 5.90 6.65
Fe2O3 5.89 6.67 7.46 6.89 7.08 6.11 5.93 6.33 6.47
MnO 0.13 0.08 0.17 0.16 0.16 0.13 0.15 0.13 0.13
MgO 13.98 13.78 12.82 14.04 14.07 16.24 14.90 14.35 13.77
CaO 22.14 21.44 21.44 21.16 21.00 20.21 21.23 21.72 21.22
Na2O 0.36 0.39 0.38 0.38 0.55 0.30 0.39 0.29 0.38
K 2O 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03
Cr2O3 0.99 0.23 0.00 0.43 0.61 0.71 0.83 0.29 0.22
NiO 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.09 0.04 0.02 0.05 0.03
TOTAL 100.24 101.03 99.56 99.97 100.10 100.29 99.83 100.77 99.91
Si 1.8356 1.7923 1.7799 1.8281 1.8635 1.9270 1.8667 1.8311 1.8025
Al[4] 0.1644 0.2069 0.2201 0.1719 0.1365 0.0665 0.1333 0.1689 0.1972
Al[6] 0.0662 0.0920 0.0817 0.0704 0.0684 0.0588 0.0651 0.0860 0.0930
Ti 0.0461 0.0706 0.0787 0.0560 0.0401 0.0248 0.0339 0.0480 0.0643
3+
Fe 0.0034 0.0000 0.0081 0.0042 0.0097 0.0000 0.0046 0.0000 0.0000
2+
Fe 0.1785 0.2045 0.2251 0.2092 0.2093 0.1873 0.1785 0.1940 0.2003
Mn 0.0042 0.0025 0.0054 0.0050 0.0051 0.0040 0.0047 0.0041 0.0042
Mg 0.7693 0.7530 0.7143 0.7753 0.7756 0.8876 0.8199 0.7841 0.7601
Cr 0.0289 0.0068 0.0001 0.0126 0.0178 0.0205 0.0244 0.0083 0.0064
Ni 0.0016 0.0006 0.0006 0.0000 0.0025 0.0013 0.0007 0.0015 0.0010
Ca 0.8756 0.8420 0.8586 0.8398 0.8320 0.7938 0.8397 0.8530 0.8418
Na 0.0258 0.0281 0.0273 0.0273 0.0396 0.0211 0.0280 0.0206 0.0275
K 0.0005 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0007 0.0006 0.0005 0.0013
TOTAL 4.0000 3.9992 4.0000 4.0000 4.0000 3.9935 4.0000 4.0000 3.9997
(t)
Mg/(Fe +Mg) 0.8088 0.7864 0.7539 0.7841 0.7799 0.8257 0.8175 0.8016 0.7914

154
APPENDIX F

MAJOR AND MINOR ELEMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR


FELDSPAR FROM METABASALTS

AA-7- AA-7- AA-7- AA-7- AA-7- AA-7- AA-7- AA-7-


Sample No
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Photo Area A C C C C D D D
Analysis No 11 12 13 14 15 28 29 30
SiO2 66.21 67.61 66.85 66.10 67.71 67.98 66.56 67.33
Al2O3 18.49 18.88 18.63 18.87 18.69 18.82 18.78 18.68
CaO 0.05 0.03 0.12 0.20 0.05 0.01 0.03 0.13
FeO 0.26 0.24 0.22 0.45 0.18 0.15 0.61 0.31
BaO 0.13 0.03 0.00 0.18 0.02 0.00 0.05 0.00
Na2O 10.86 11.57 11.30 9.48 11.22 11.21 9.36 11.39
K2O 0.50 0.09 0.07 1.98 0.05 0.12 2.64 0.04
TOTAL 96.50 98.44 97.19 97.27 97.92 98.29 98.03 97.88

Si 3.0050 3.0030 3.0054 2.9931 3.0164 3.0162 2.9976 3.0067


Al 0.9890 0.9883 0.9871 1.0070 0.9812 0.9841 0.9968 0.9831
Ca 0.0024 0.0017 0.0060 0.0097 0.0023 0.0004 0.0016 0.0060
Fe 0.0097 0.0088 0.0082 0.0171 0.0068 0.0056 0.0228 0.0116
Ba 0.0024 0.0005 0.0000 0.0033 0.0003 0.0000 0.0009 0.0000
Na 0.9555 0.9963 0.9849 0.8322 0.9690 0.9642 0.8172 0.9861
K 0.0289 0.0048 0.0042 0.1144 0.0028 0.0069 0.1517 0.0023
TOTAL 4.9928 5.0034 4.9956 4.9767 4.9789 4.9774 4.9885 4.9959

155
APPENDIX G

MAJOR AND MINOR ELEMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR


FELDSPAR FROM DYKES

Sample No AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a


Photo Area General General General General General
Analysis No 64 65 66 67 68
SiO2 67.79 68.07 67.84 67.98 68.77
Al2O3 19.65 19.29 19.54 19.38 19.00
CaO 0.45 0.35 0.31 0.30 0.05
FeO 0.10 0.13 0.11 0.15 0.09
BaO 0.00 0.08 0.04 0.00 0.01
Na2O 11.27 11.24 11.22 11.33 11.54
K2O 0.17 0.02 0.07 0.03 0.04
TOTAL 99.43 99.19 99.12 99.17 99.50

Si 2.9811 2.9976 2.9890 2.9936 3.0150


Al 1.0184 1.0011 1.0146 1.0058 0.9817
Ca 0.0212 0.0165 0.0144 0.0142 0.0024
Fe 0.0036 0.0049 0.0039 0.0055 0.0032
Ba 0.0000 0.0014 0.0006 0.0000 0.0003
Na 0.9608 0.9596 0.9584 0.9673 0.9809
K 0.0098 0.0012 0.0038 0.0018 0.0023
TOTAL 4.9950 4.9823 4.9848 4.9881 4.9857

156
Sample No AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a
Photo Area General General General General General General
Analysis No 69 70 71 72 73 74
SiO2 66.63 68.33 67.61 67.54 68.12 67.21
Al2O3 19.57 19.28 19.57 19.39 19.43 19.51
CaO 1.35 0.13 0.45 0.22 0.37 0.55
FeO 0.40 0.15 0.06 0.06 0.15 0.10
BaO 0.04 0.02 0.07 0.05 0.08 0.08
Na2O 10.90 11.49 11.21 11.03 11.20 10.97
K2O 0.06 0.03 0.02 0.36 0.05 0.04
TOTAL 98.95 99.43 98.98 98.65 99.39 98.46

Si 2.9571 3.0006 2.9842 2.9920 2.9939 2.9826


Al 1.0236 0.9978 1.0180 1.0123 1.0064 1.0203
Ca 0.0641 0.0063 0.0211 0.0106 0.0172 0.0263
Fe 0.0150 0.0055 0.0022 0.0023 0.0053 0.0037
Ba 0.0007 0.0004 0.0011 0.0008 0.0014 0.0013
Na 0.9378 0.9782 0.9592 0.9473 0.9543 0.9438
K 0.0034 0.0015 0.0013 0.0203 0.0029 0.0022
TOTAL 5.0017 4.9904 4.9871 4.9857 4.9815 4.9803

157
Sample No AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a AA-10a
Photo Area General General General General General General
Analysis No 75 76 77 78 79 80
SiO2 68.50 68.75 68.12 68.29 67.58 66.10
Al2O3 19.08 19.06 19.11 19.36 19.53 19.06
CaO 0.03 0.00 0.04 0.23 0.32 0.34
FeO 0.22 0.21 0.36 0.19 0.13 0.09
BaO 0.00 0.00 0.13 0.01 0.16 0.05
Na2O 11.26 11.63 11.48 11.25 11.06 11.05
K2O 0.09 0.03 0.06 0.05 0.09 0.04
TOTAL 99.18 99.68 99.31 99.37 98.87 96.73

Si 3.0124 3.0110 3.0011 2.9994 2.9873 2.9861


Al 0.9888 0.9838 0.9922 1.0021 1.0174 1.0147
Ca 0.0013 0.0000 0.0018 0.0106 0.0153 0.0162
Fe 0.0082 0.0077 0.0133 0.0069 0.0047 0.0034
Ba 0.0000 0.0000 0.0023 0.0001 0.0028 0.0009
Na 0.9600 0.9875 0.9805 0.9580 0.9478 0.9678
K 0.0049 0.0016 0.0034 0.0027 0.0050 0.0026
TOTAL 4.9756 4.9916 4.9947 4.9798 4.9804 4.9917

158
AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-
Sample No
10a 10a 10a 10a 10a 10a 10a 10a 10a
Photo Area A A A A A A A B B
Analysis No 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
SiO2 68.72 69.42 69.47 69.16 69.27 69.68 69.13 68.24 69.33
Al2O3 19.53 19.32 19.35 19.37 19.53 19.16 19.53 19.52 18.75
CaO 0.33 0.30 0.15 0.21 0.34 0.04 0.29 1.11 0.92
FeO 0.13 0.05 0.08 0.07 0.11 0.13 0.11 0.37 0.12
BaO 0.13 0.04 0.00 0.01 0.07 0.02 0.18 0.14 0.00
Na2O 11.65 11.53 11.70 11.77 11.62 11.92 11.13 10.90 11.52
K2O 0.13 0.11 0.06 0.16 0.08 0.11 0.60 0.16 0.09
TOTAL 100.74 100.90 100.88 100.86 101.16 101.05 101.07 100.52 100.75

Si 2.9902 3.0081 3.0082 3.0012 2.9976 3.0129 2.9986 2.9797 3.0123


Al 1.0015 0.9866 0.9875 0.9906 0.9960 0.9764 0.9983 1.0045 0.9601
Ca 0.0153 0.0139 0.0069 0.0097 0.0160 0.0020 0.0135 0.0521 0.0430
Fe 0.0049 0.0020 0.0028 0.0024 0.0041 0.0047 0.0042 0.0134 0.0045
Ba 0.0021 0.0006 0.0000 0.0001 0.0012 0.0003 0.0031 0.0024 0.0000
Na 0.9828 0.9686 0.9822 0.9902 0.9748 0.9992 0.9360 0.9227 0.9704
K 0.0074 0.0062 0.0033 0.0088 0.0045 0.0060 0.0333 0.0092 0.0052
TOTAL 5.0041 4.9860 4.9908 5.0030 4.9941 5.0015 4.9868 4.9840 4.9954

159
AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-
Sample No
10a 10a 10a 10a 10a 10a 10a 10a
Photo Area B B B B B D D D
Analysis No 30 31 32 33 34 67 69 70
SiO2 69.10 69.41 69.90 69.52 69.40 69.40 69.00 69.39
Al2O3 19.71 19.47 19.15 19.75 19.60 19.60 19.84 19.57
CaO 0.28 0.39 0.10 0.25 0.37 0.32 0.37 0.35
FeO 0.08 0.13 0.15 0.04 0.09 0.15 0.16 0.07
BaO 0.00 0.13 0.00 0.21 0.24 0.12 0.09 0.12
Na2O 11.35 11.67 11.54 11.37 11.45 11.65 11.47 11.43
K2O 0.71 0.08 0.04 0.27 0.15 0.06 0.41 0.15
TOTAL 101.31 101.36 100.91 101.50 101.49 101.41 101.51 101.31

Si 2.9903 2.9986 3.0210 2.9976 2.9978 2.9964 2.9835 3.0001


Al 1.0052 0.9913 0.9754 1.0036 0.9978 0.9973 1.0110 0.9971
Ca 0.0128 0.0180 0.0048 0.0117 0.0171 0.0149 0.0172 0.0163
Fe 0.0030 0.0049 0.0054 0.0016 0.0031 0.0053 0.0058 0.0025
Ba 0.0000 0.0022 0.0000 0.0035 0.0040 0.0021 0.0016 0.0021
Na 0.9522 0.9774 0.9669 0.9505 0.9589 0.9751 0.9615 0.9581
K 0.0392 0.0042 0.0023 0.0148 0.0084 0.0031 0.0226 0.0084
TOTAL 5.0028 4.9966 4.9759 4.9832 4.9870 4.9941 5.0031 4.9846

160
APPENDIX H

MAJOR AND MINOR ELEMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSES FOR


FELDSPAR FROM BASALTS

AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-


Sample No
11c 11c 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a
Photo Area A A A A A A B B B
Analysis No 12 13 10 17 18 20 23 24 34
SiO2 67.49 67.76 69.21 68.96 69.63 69.12 69.29 69.05 70.12
Al2O3 19.15 18.89 19.39 19.56 19.40 19.65 19.38 19.33 19.17
CaO 0.36 0.07 0.42 0.48 0.30 0.23 0.40 0.30 0.01
FeO 0.20 0.16 0.13 0.11 0.11 0.28 0.19 0.08 0.03
BaO 0.07 0.03 0.10 0.06 0.00 0.11 0.04 0.00 0.00
Na2O 11.21 11.39 11.99 11.85 11.83 11.03 11.75 11.69 11.65
K2O 0.10 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.10 0.56 0.05 0.06 0.05
TOTAL 98.58 98.34 101.29 101.12 101.40 101.01 101.19 100.52 101.03

Si 2.9938 3.0082 2.9938 2.9877 3.0029 2.9962 2.9986 3.0017 3.0242


Al 1.0011 0.9883 0.9885 0.9987 0.9860 1.0038 0.9884 0.9903 0.9744
Ca 0.0173 0.0034 0.0193 0.0221 0.0139 0.0106 0.0183 0.0140 0.0006
Fe 0.0074 0.0061 0.0047 0.0041 0.0041 0.0102 0.0069 0.0030 0.0009
Ba 0.0012 0.0005 0.0016 0.0010 0.0000 0.0019 0.0007 0.0000 0.0000
Na 0.9641 0.9803 1.0055 0.9953 0.9891 0.9269 0.9858 0.9852 0.9741
K 0.0055 0.0019 0.0027 0.0031 0.0053 0.0312 0.0027 0.0031 0.0028
TOTAL 4.9904 4.9887 5.0161 5.0121 5.0013 4.9809 5.0015 4.9973 4.9771

161
AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-
Sample No
12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a
Photo Area B C C C E E E E F
Analysis No 35 41 42 43 77 79 81 82 97
SiO2 69.03 68.63 69.20 69.44 69.46 69.91 69.47 69.77 69.31
Al2O3 18.91 19.39 19.62 19.52 19.60 19.31 19.52 19.23 19.84
CaO 0.09 0.41 0.36 0.45 0.39 0.04 0.29 0.03 0.55
FeO 0.64 0.17 0.04 0.08 0.14 0.16 0.11 0.07 0.03
BaO 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.07
Na2O 11.10 11.26 11.66 11.42 11.88 12.07 11.88 12.07 11.45
K2O 0.59 0.34 0.10 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.07 0.03 0.13
TOTAL 100.38 100.20 101.05 101.10 101.58 101.55 101.39 101.20 101.47

Si 3.0136 2.9961 2.9944 3.0017 2.9929 3.0091 2.9975 3.0114 2.9889


Al 0.9729 0.9976 1.0005 0.9944 0.9953 0.9795 0.9926 0.9782 1.0083
Ca 0.0043 0.0191 0.0166 0.0210 0.0181 0.0017 0.0134 0.0013 0.0255
Fe 0.0232 0.0063 0.0014 0.0030 0.0051 0.0059 0.0040 0.0027 0.0011
Ba 0.0000 0.0000 0.0003 0.0007 0.0003 0.0003 0.0000 0.0001 0.0011
Na 0.9395 0.9530 0.9782 0.9571 0.9924 1.0072 0.9938 1.0100 0.9573
K 0.0326 0.0189 0.0057 0.0032 0.0031 0.0023 0.0038 0.0016 0.0070
TOTAL 4.9860 4.9910 4.9972 4.9812 5.0071 5.0059 5.0050 5.0053 4.9891

162
Sample AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-
No 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 12a 15a 15a AA-15a
Photo
Area F F G G H I I A B B
Analysis
No 98 99 122 123 137 146 147 1 14 15
SiO2 69.75 69.56 69.62 69.29 69.92 69.59 69.46 69.88 69.67 69.19
Al2O3 19.59 19.39 19.44 19.03 19.39 19.43 19.24 19.30 19.30 18.97
CaO 0.32 0.34 0.21 0.80 0.14 0.41 0.22 0.07 0.15 0.29
FeO 0.04 0.01 0.10 0.67 0.12 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.13 0.27
BaO 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.01 0.08 0.04 0.00 0.04 0.04 0.12
Na2O 11.74 11.63 11.68 11.38 11.72 11.80 11.54 12.01 11.90 11.87
K2O 0.03 0.07 0.30 0.07 0.10 0.07 0.10 0.09 0.15 0.27
TOTAL 101.49 101.03 101.41 101.30 101.48 101.45 100.65 101.53 101.46 101.02

Si 3.0016 3.0065 3.0033 3.0010 3.0101 3.0014 3.0125 3.0100 3.0066 3.0053
Al 0.9935 0.9877 0.9883 0.9713 0.9837 0.9876 0.9834 0.9797 0.9816 0.9711
Ca 0.0147 0.0158 0.0098 0.0371 0.0067 0.0188 0.0102 0.0032 0.0071 0.0135
Fe 0.0013 0.0003 0.0035 0.0241 0.0043 0.0012 0.0017 0.0026 0.0046 0.0100
Ba 0.0000 0.0001 0.0008 0.0001 0.0014 0.0007 0.0000 0.0007 0.0007 0.0020
Na 0.9795 0.9745 0.9768 0.9555 0.9782 0.9867 0.9703 1.0029 0.9956 0.9996
K 0.0016 0.0040 0.0165 0.0039 0.0057 0.0037 0.0055 0.0050 0.0084 0.0150
TOTAL 4.9922 4.9889 4.9992 4.9931 4.9900 5.0000 4.9837 5.0041 5.0046 5.0164

163
AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA- AA-
Sample No
15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a 15a
Photo Area B C C C D F F F F
Analysis No 16 34 35 47 61 63 71 74 75
SiO2 69.16 69.75 70.35 69.63 70.07 69.56 70.00 69.98 70.06
Al2O3 19.00 19.33 19.17 18.70 19.41 19.09 19.11 19.24 19.38
CaO 0.77 0.10 0.09 0.50 0.15 0.47 0.05 0.30 0.14
FeO 0.47 0.13 0.12 0.11 0.12 0.36 0.21 0.17 0.17
BaO 0.10 0.01 0.03 0.08 0.05 0.06 0.01 0.03 0.02
Na2O 11.72 11.64 11.73 11.64 11.68 11.89 11.80 11.68 11.63
K2O 0.04 0.09 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.03 0.06 0.13
TOTAL 101.26 101.07 101.59 100.70 101.56 101.49 101.23 101.46 101.54

Si 2.9981 3.0124 3.0224 3.0227 3.0121 3.0039 3.0194 3.0130 3.0127


Al 0.9707 0.9838 0.9706 0.9567 0.9833 0.9715 0.9714 0.9763 0.9821
Ca 0.0357 0.0048 0.0041 0.0233 0.0070 0.0215 0.0021 0.0137 0.0064
Fe 0.0169 0.0048 0.0044 0.0039 0.0044 0.0129 0.0074 0.0063 0.0062
Ba 0.0017 0.0001 0.0005 0.0013 0.0009 0.0010 0.0001 0.0005 0.0004
Na 0.9850 0.9746 0.9770 0.9796 0.9734 0.9954 0.9868 0.9749 0.9696
K 0.0020 0.0049 0.0036 0.0026 0.0035 0.0038 0.0018 0.0033 0.0072
TOTAL 5.0100 4.9854 4.9826 4.9901 4.9846 5.0100 4.9891 4.9880 4.9846

164
AA-
Sample No
15a AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14 AA-14
Photo Area H B B D E E H
Analysis No 80 22 23 48 57 59 92
SiO2 69.89 69.52 69.14 69.97 69.79 68.60 69.50
Al2O3 19.27 19.30 18.51 19.34 19.15 17.50 18.67
CaO 0.05 0.08 0.43 0.13 0.17 1.16 0.53
FeO 0.28 0.08 0.49 0.17 0.23 1.33 0.59
BaO 0.06 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.06
Na2O 11.92 11.75 11.41 11.75 11.93 10.82 11.40
K2O 0.05 0.01 0.06 0.04 0.08 0.03 0.06
TOTAL 101.57 100.74 100.13 101.43 101.37 99.47 100.82

Si 3.0102 3.0109 3.0227 3.0123 3.0109 3.0320 3.0188


Al 0.9781 0.9851 0.9537 0.9812 0.9736 0.9115 0.9557
Ca 0.0023 0.0039 0.0201 0.0060 0.0081 0.0550 0.0248
Fe 0.0100 0.0029 0.0178 0.0062 0.0081 0.0492 0.0214
Ba 0.0010 0.0000 0.0010 0.0000 0.0005 0.0000 0.0009
Na 0.9953 0.9866 0.9671 0.9807 0.9978 0.9271 0.9600
K 0.0027 0.0008 0.0035 0.0021 0.0043 0.0017 0.0035
TOTAL 4.9998 4.9902 4.9858 4.9885 5.0034 4.9766 4.9851

165