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of the needle which points to the south as having a charge of negative magnetism .... It must be distinctly understood that this method of regarding the magnets and the magnetic field is only introduced as affording a convenient method of describing briefly the phenomena in that field and not as having any significance with respect to the constitution of magnets or the mechanism by which the forces are produced." ~J. J. Thomson, Elements of the Mathematical Theory of Electricity and Magnetism, fifth edition, Cambridge University Press(1921)

Chapter 9

**The Magnetism of Magnets
**

Chapter Overview

Section 9.1 provides a brief introduction to the magnetism of magnets. Section 9.2 summarizes the analogy between magnetic poles and electric charge, and considers the interaction of two identical magnets and the magnetic properties of magnetic dipoles. Section 9.3 studies the relationship between magnetic dipole moment ~ and magnetization M, and considers the practical problems of finding the force required to pull a magnet off a refrigerator door and the disturbance of a compass reading due to a distant magnet. Section 9.4 discusses the two types of magnetic sources and shows how to obtain the magnetic field within a magnet. Section 9.5 distinguishes the types of magnetic materials, according to their differing responses in an external field. Section 9.6 discusses ferromagnets, in particular, and the magnetization process, as described by hysteresis loops. Section 9.7 considers the demagnetization field, which is of practical importance for ferromagnets. Section 9.8 applies the results for the demagnetization field to analyze particle-deflection experiments. These show that magnets behave as if they contained microscopic current sources~as if the electrons themselves contain tiny electric currents~rather than magnetic poles. Section 9.9 discusses magnetic oscillations, both for large magnets (e.g., compass needles) and small magnets (e.g., nuclei); the latter applies to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the basis of the powerful diagnostic called magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Section 9.10 considers why only some materials are magnets, why some magnets are "hard" and some are "soft," and how the world's best hard magnets are designed, i

9.1

Introduction

Consider a magnet that attaches a note to a refrigerator door. The magnet, because it retains its magnetic properties both in isolation and in the presence of other magnets, is known as permanent, or hard. The refrigerator door, because it responds strongly to the magnetism of the bar magnet, but does not retain its magnetic properties in isolation, is known as a soft magnet. Ordinary iron nails and paper clips are other examples of soft magnets.

384

9.1 Introduction

385

In general, orientation in a plane is only one of the three attributes of a magnetic field (which is a vector): in addition, a magnetic field also has an orientation relative to the vertical, and a magnitude. For the earth's magnetic field, all three vary over the earth, and tables of these, as a function of position, specified by latitude (we'll use the symbol 8*) and longitude (~), have been used in navigation. See Figure 9. l(a). True north is defined to be along the earth's rotation axis, which passes through the pole, or North, star. In practice, the easterly deviation from true north, called the declination angle (see Figure 9. l b), the dip, or inclination angle (positive dip is downward relative to the local horizontal plane; see Figure 9.1 c), and the magnitude of the field in the local horizontal plane are most conveniently measured. Magnetic north presently is about 1300 miles south (about 11 ~ of true north. Magnetic north changes slowly with time, reversing, on average, every 300,000 years or so. Navigation has also been done by observing the stars and knowing the time of day. It is now done by signals emitted by earth-orbiting manmade satellites. Both because the rotation axis of the earth changes with time and because the earth moves relative to the stars, even the pole star changes (slowly) with time.

Greenwich Polaraxis meridian Longitude itude

Declinationangle ComWPaSS N ~~ S (b)

Vertical ~

.

Dipangle

I

**Horiz tal Equator (a)
**

ass

(c)

Figure 9.1 The earth's magnetic field. (a) Angles defining longitude and latitude. (b) Declination angle in local plane of the earth. (c) Dip angle relative to the local vertical.

Lodestone (the mineral magnetite, Fe3 04) was the first material found to display what we would call magnetic properties. Taking advantage of its permanent magnetism, it was used in China over 2000 years ago as a navigational aid. It has been used for over 1000 years in the form of compass needles that orient along the earth's magnetic field. A characteristic value for the magnitude of the earth's magnetic field (which includes both the horizontal and vertical components) is 0.5 x 10 -4 tesla (T). The SI unit for the magnetic field, the tesla = T = N/A-m, is named after Nikola Tesla, who during the 1880s developed the first ac (alternating current) motor. In cgs-emu units, the unit of magnetic field is the gauss (G), where 1 G - 10 -4 T.

9~1ol

[ej ~l l~(In~l |

Some History

The earliest known work on magnetism in the western literature is by Pierre de Maricourt, also known as Peter Peregrinus, in 1269. He describes how to locate a good natural magnet, or lodestone, how to shape it into a sphere, how to locate its poles, and how to locate its north by placing it on a small wooden vessel floating

386

Chapter 9 9 The Magnetism of Magnets

within a large vat of water. He also gave a rule for the interaction of the poles of two different magnets: opposite poles attract. Surprising to moderns, there was no corresponding statement that like poles repel: rather, according to Peregrinus they only seem to repel: ... the Northern part in a stone attracts the Southern part in another stone, and the Southern the Northern. But if you do the opposite, namely, bring the Northern part toward the Northern, the stone which you are carrying in your hand will seem to repel the floating stone, and if you apply the Southern part to the Southern, the same will happen. The reason is that the Northern part feels the Southern, which makes it seem to repel the Northern; of this there is a token in the fact that the Northern part will in the end join itself to the Southern. Peregrinus's hypothesis certainly satisfies the spirit of Occam's razor~ simplicity~but it does not satisfy the fact that like poles really do repel, as can be seen more clearly with long bar magnets than with spherical magnets. In 1600, Gilbert published his opus De Magnete, which discussed many properties of permanent magnets, noting that they have no net pole strength, and including the statement that "opposite poles attract and like poles repel." Thus, by 1600, it was known that the force between two poles acted along their lines of centers, and could be either attractive or repulsive. The inverse square law between poles of two long bar magnets was established first by the Englishman John Michell around 1750, and independently by Coulomb, around 1785, both of them using torsion balances. At this point, it became possible to give a quantitative description of magnetism in terms of the interactions of magnetic poles. On the other hand, in 1820, Oersted discovered that electric currents can deflect a compass needle. Almost immediately, Ampere realized how permanent magnetism could be described in terms of electric currents. There is a fundamental distinction between these two descriptions of magnetic sources.

9.1.2

**Two Ways to Treat Magnets
**

A magnetic pole produces magnetic flux but no magnetic circulation, and thus may be called a flux source. Its field line drawing rules are like those for electric fields due to electric charges at rest: field lines originate (terminate) on positive (negative) poles, and field lines do not close on themselves. Magnets behave as if they contain magnetic poles that sum to zero, so that zero net magnetic flux leaves any magnet. Figure 4.2(a) illustrates an electric field and a volume from which a net electric flux emerges. Chapter 11 shows that the magnetic field due to an electric current produces magnetic circulation but no magnetic flux, and thus may be called a circulation source. Its field-line drawing rules are that there are no poles, and that field lines

9. To be more precise. Therefore it is legitimate to treat the exterior of the magnet using the formalism of magnetic poles. the experiments favor the electric current viewpoint. narrow bar magnets. which is analogous to the electric force constant k. and magnetic field. they are presented for two reasons.2 Magnetic Charge (Poles) 387 Although true magnetic poles have not been observed in any laboratory. the interaction between two poles varies as the inverse square of their separation. consider conservation of magnetic charge and provide examples where magnetic charge is transferred between two objects but overall is conserved. Chapters 10 and 11 discuss the magnetism of magnets as if it is due to electric currents. there can be no such transfer of magnetic charge between magnets. can close on themselves. or charges. the next two chapters. A literal analogy between electricity and magnetism would. magnetic force. Table 9. by analogy to Chapter 1.1 summarizes the basic correspondences between electric and magnetic poles. and a magnetic force constant kin. However. such that ~0 _ 1. The present chapter considers the magnetism of magnets as if it is due to magnetic poles. we must specify a unit of magnetic charge qm. with an inverse square law like that of electricity. . which obtain all the laws of the magnetism of electric currents. Figure 5. Only by performing experiments that actually probe the interior of a magnet can we distinguish between the two types of source. (For that reason. which has a similar structure to the already studied formalism of electric charges. or pole strength. and the microscopic magnetic particles used in magnetic recording tape and in computer hard drives. which requires a more complex formalism. because each magnet has zero net magnetic charge. We will choose units of magnetic charge. which is a reprise of the electricity of electric charge. in practice the magnetic pole formalism is employed to design both large magnets used in magnetic resonance imaging and in particle accelerators. is much simpler than the formalism of the magnetism of electric currents.0 x 10 -7 N/A 2 exactly. From Michell's and Coulomb's work on long. as long as we are outside a magnet. Outside a Magnet We Can Use Magnetic Charge (Poles) It is an experimental fact that outside a magnet its magnetic properties can be obtained by treating it as if it contained a distribution of magnetic poles. First. The remainder of this section and the next section applies the analogy between electricity and magnetism to magnetic charge.18 illustrates an electric field and a circuit for which there is a net electric circulation. Nevertheless. the formalism of the magnetism of magnetic poles. which is analogous to electric charge q. we cannot tell whether it is a flux source with zero net magnetic charge or a current source.) Second. begin with the magnetic pole formalism and the equivalence between a magnet and a current loop (when both are viewed from a distance). With this set of units. Here #0 is called the permeability of free m ~ 4Jr m space. whose numerical value summed over the magnet is zero.

0 • 10 9 N-m2/C 2 E .kq 7z '~ a (C/m 2) I/~l .2 Two idealized magnets and their nearest poles. as in Figure 9. That is.1.1 shows that the unit of magnetic pole strength is A-m. we will make this idealization. By Table 9. t o w a r d R l . and with the same pole strength qm (determined by their ability to pick up the same number of nails.4~ __ 1.ii (force on pole qm. Nevertheless. O"m 9~2. due to another pole qml at ~l.ql polarization P . i :ii!i84184184184 i!!!iiiii!i!iii!i!i!iiiili!ili~!ii~ i )!!!Siiii!)i)i i! ii!. L e t / > > ~ so the magnets are very long. Note: For a magnet. we can verify this by sprinkling iron filings onto a piece of paper that covers the magnet.kmqmTz (A/m) II]l = 22r kmlain I # = qml magnetization M = # / V fi x /3 -ft. for electric charges. (a) Give R 1 = r-r 1 0 ~~ Origin Figure 9.0 • 10 -7 N/A 2 B -./~ Magne~ qm (A-m) B (T-.2.4). ~ Interactionof two identical longbar magnets: estimating qm Consider two bar magnets with length l and cross-sectional area A. the magnetic poles typically are not concentrated only at the ends. etc.). F satisfies a rule analogous to Coulomb's law. Rl = ~ ~ ~91i ) R1 Example 9.+t Force between Magnetic Poles Consider the force F on a pole of pole strength qm at position F. for simplicity. . 1 Electric charge and magnetic pole equivalences Ouanti~ Charge Field Force Coupling constant Point source Charge/area Sheet source Dipole moment Dipole moment/volume Torque on dipole in field Energy of dipole in field Electricity q (C) /~ (N/C .V/m) q/~ (N) k -~ ~ 1 ~ 9. (2.22r klal p .N/A-m) q m B (N) /z0 k m .388 Chapter 9 ~ The Magnetism of Magnets Table 9 .p~ V ~ x/~ -~.

34 x 10 -] N/(23. with a k n o w n pole strength qm. H e n c e the unit of magnetic charge has units of A .0.3 A-m.1. with qml = qm.3).m .r(I/~l/km) ]/2 . treated as points. an equation for estimating the force between collinear.3 Two collinear bar magnets.46 x 10 -3 T. (b) a square cross-section of side a . and a repulsive interaction at separation r + 2I ~ 2l) would give a more accurate estimate for qm. Including the forces between the other poles (two attractive interactions at separation r + l ~ l. (equal strength poles interacting) (9. 9o2~3 Field of a Monopole C o m p a r i n g (9. Estimate qm.2 shows t h a t T . then it is a good approximation to consider only the interaction between these poles.2 Magnetic Charge (Poles) 389 S= -qm l =N qm N• qm l =S --qm Figure 9. let IFI . with two like poles so close that they but farther away than d .~ 7 ~ _ 0. at a separation where their interaction is dominated by the nearest poles. For l .N/A-re. and .5 cm 10 -1 N when r = 0.0. so for m a g n e t i s m the force on a magnetic pole qm in a magnetic B field is Using this equation.23.005 m. IFI ~ km(qm) 2 r-------T---.20 cm .~ See Figure 9. the magnets when they are provide the dominant force.34 x Solution: (a) If the separation r between the two nearest poles greatly exceeds the width of the poles. Measuring the Magnetic Field Just as for electricity the force on a charge q in an electric field E is F . to M e a s u therfieldidue n a magnetic pole g Find the field due to one pole at the other in Example 9. IBI = ]F/qm] = 0. E x a m p l e 9.2) (b) Solution of (9.3 A-m) = 1.0.3.1).2 m.N/T.9.1) and (9. the field set up at ~ by qml at ~1 is given by ii iiili!!ii iiiiiiiiiiiiiliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii:!ii!iiiiiiiiii~iiiliilliiiii!!i iiliiiiiiii!iiii !!iiiil iiiii!iiii!il!iiilii!iiliiiiiiiliiiii iiiiiiiiiiiii iii!iii iiiiiiiiiii! i!i!i!ii ii! iii:2i !i! !i!iiiiiiiii ii ili i! iii i i! iiiiiiiiil ii iiiiiiii iilii! i ii iil i!ili iiii ii!i ii!iii iliiiii!!!ii!iiiiii iiii:iiiiiiiiiii iii . from (9. Solution: By (9. and those poles can be treated approximately as points. with units of tesla (T).2) yields q~ .3). a m e a s u r e m e n t of F gives B. Hence.q E.04 m.

Without the bar magnet. Solution: Consider each pole separately.4). a distance r from its center.390 Chapter 9 ~ The Magnetism of Magnets Figure 9. the compass needle. Effect of a bar magnet on the local magnetic field.q m .4 Magnetic Dipoles Consider a magnet of length I and pole strengths +qm. 9~2. given by kmqm km(-qm) (r + I / 2 ) 2 . (b) Negative poles make inward magnetic field. but let its length be only l = 1 cm. North pole (a) South pole (b) See Figure 9.~ Bmag Co) Figure 9.(r + l / 2 ) 2 = kmqm (r 2 _ 12/4)2 = (r 2 _ 12/4)2.I / 2 ) 2 q. the magnetic field B points away from positive (north) poles.5(a). Determine by how much the magnet disturbs the orientation of a compass needle.(r . Let the in-plane (horizontal) component of the earth's magnetic field be Beh. . See Figure 9. let the the magnet be 20 cm west of.5(a). Let the earth's field point along true north and. and toward negative (south) poles.5 (a) Compass needle along axis of bar magnet. and let it point along BEh 2qm 1 ~ qm d I (a) ~ ~. with magnitude due to both qm and .4. As for the electric field/~.l / 2 ) 2 2kmqmrl Bmag = (r .2. Let us find the field on its axis. (9.4 Magnetic field direction and sign of poles: (a) Positive poles make outward magnetic field. as in Figure 9. By (9. as shown in Figure 9. so that (9. and point toward. at the center of the compass needle the magnetic field due to the magnet points along its axis )~. the needle would point toward the top of the page. (b) Decomposition of total magnetic field acting on the compass needle into its components due to the earth and due to the bar magnet. so qm = 23.3 A-m.5) applies.s) ~ A magnet can disturb a compass reading Consider a magnet with the same pole strength as in the previous example.

With r .3. It has units of A-m 2. so r/(r 2 .2 Magnetic Charge (Poles) 391 3~. Applied to Example 9. See Figure 9. (9. just as for an electric dipole [compare (3. using (9. and the vector ~ points from the negative to the positive charge.233 A-m 2. Figure 9.7 ~ In centuries past.3.12)].7).20. corresponding to an angular deflection of 6.8) The field of a magnetic dipole falls off with distance as r -3.20. this gives tan~) -0. .3 A-m and l = 1 cm.0.7) yields ~ t . An electric dipole with charges +q separated by l has an electric dipole moment p . however.0.0 • 10-5 T.6(b). Today. (9. Equation (9.9.5 cm. Similarly. global navigation systems employing satellites have made the navigator's compass obsolete.23.6 Bar magnet: (a) relationship between poles and direction of magnetic moment.6) Taking BEh = 5.5 cm.12/4)2~ r / r 4 = 1/r 3. has a magnetic dipole moment iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!iiiiiiiiiii!iii!!ii ii!iiiii!ii!!ii iiiiii!!ii iiiiii!iiiiiiiiiiiiiii i! iiii!!!! i!ii iii ! !iiiii ii ! The vector # points from the negative to the positive pole. Then.541 x 10 -5 T. a magnetic dipole with poles -+-qm(in units of A-m) separated by l. Consider (9. magnets don't stop responding if the satellites stop functioning.ql.116.41 • 10 -6 T. (9. Since r . Some field lines for it are drawn in Figure 9. r3 9 (on axis) (9. in three-decimal place agreement with the exact calculation of Example 9. BEh (9.5b). where q m . no wonder sailors were warned to keep magnets and iron from the vicinity of the navigator's compass.5) becomes Bmag ~ 2km.5) when r >> l.6(a). The needle aligns along the direction of the net magnetic field (see Figure 9.5) gives Bmag . Hence this field will cause the needle to rotate from 3~toward ~ by an angle ~) satisfying tan~) = Bmag. (b) field-line pattern.8) then yields 5.

where B = ]B]. which we n o w define and relate to a n u m b e r of i m p o r t a n t properties of magnets. and of magnitude rag(I~2)sin 0. Since the angle between/~ and B is rr/2 . When the magnet is in equilibrium. length l. or (from Table 9. where /~ . the torque from/~ x B is counterclockwise. ~ Suspendedmagnet in a horizontal B field Consider a magnet of mass m. (a) Find the condition that determines the equilibrium angle. By taking the torque with respect to the point of contact with the string.( . Solution: (a) The field acts to make fi point rightward. See Figure 9. the magnetic .0 ~ (aligned with the field) to the equilibrium 0.1) .I/~l. !mgl(1 -cos0) .sine).# B cos(0))] = .# B ( 1 . due to gravity.7. or # B cos 0 = mg(l/2) sin 0. its N pole toward ground. On the other hand. It is suspended from the ceiling by astring. Magnetization and Magnetic Dipole Moment A m a g n e t is characterized by its magnetization 2(/I. For the magnet to go spontaneously from 0 ~ to 0 2 the overall change in energy must be negative. and magnetic m o m e n t / ~ . Magnetization IV! Is Magnetic Dipole Moment per Unit Volume A l t h o u g h we did not use this terminology earlier. the torque from gravity is clockwise. This is negative.0) = #B cos0. is positive. the electric dipole m o m e n t per unit volume is called the polarization f'.0 . A horizontal magnetic field B is now applied. at angle 0 with respect to the vertical. w h e r e / 3 _ ~ / V .[ . these two torques are equal. the torque from the string tension T can be neglected.392 Chapter 9 ~ The Magnetism of Magnets Figure 9. leading to the condition that tan0 = (21~B)/(mgl).7 A bar magnet suspended by a string in the earth's gravity and a uniform horizontal magnetic field. and of magnitude #B sin(rr/2 . the change in gravitational energy. (b) Find the change in magnetic energy on going from 0 . However./ ~ B cos(rr/2 .0) . along B. Similarly. (b) The change in magnetic energy on going from 0 = 0 ~ to this 0 is given by the final energy minus the initial energy.

....7) and (9..... (9.................... as in Figure 9......9.... for many purposes it is a more fundamental quantity than ~.3 Magnetization and Magnetic Dipole Moment 393 dipole moment per unit volume is called the magnetization 2(/1... By (9....MAI...............25 x 10 -s A / m 2." or pole strength.......iili...........~..........!iiii!ii...9)......7).!~iii~i!i~ii~iiii......A/m.... # qm-TMV = MA.... = Solution: By (9... 9~3~2 "Magnetic Charge" per Unit Area ~ Equals Magnetization M Consider a bar magnet of uniform magnetization M . (9....... ft..11) +qm/A~ Use of (9.66 A-m 2.......ii!2iJiiJ...........i..... it has # .......32 x 10 s A/m.... This is slightly less than for the alloy alnico V (sometimes used for loudspeakers).................... 2V/usually is along its axis..12') For a bar magnet........... and crosssectional area A (so its volume V ....9..6(a).....3 A-m.....iJiiJjiY..............iii!ii!ii!~i.......... the magnetic surface charge density Crmis related to the magnetization 2~/at that surface by om -- M ......... where ...... Find their magnetic moment and magnetization.....AI)...................... ~ t .. Since the normal t~ to a side of a magnet is perpendicular to the axis...q m l - (23............1 (qm = 23............. ~ .. l are (9...... there usually is no magnetic charge along the sides of a bar magnet..... ~ From m a g n e t imoment to magnetization c Consider the bar magnets of Example 9.......I2V/I......... ii i iii!iii i!i!iiiili i!i iii i i iiili!!iiiiiiiiiiiiii!!iiiiiii!iiiiiiiiiiiiii!ili iiiiiiiiiiiii!i!iiiiii !! 2V/has units of magnetic pole strength per unit area...i -]-(7 m - iiii!ii!!iiii':iiiiiiiiiiiiiiliii!iiiiiii!iiiiiiiii!iiiiiiiiiiiii!iiiiiii@i!iiiiiiiiiiii!iiiiii!i!iiiiiiii!iiiiiiiii!iiiiii!ii!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiii! iiii!iiiii!iii !l!~!~i~iiiiiii~i!~i~iil iiiiiii!i!ii !iiii ~i ~lli ill This result can be stated more generally: at a surface with outward normal fi. A 0.....M V .........10) Comparison of (9..2 m).. or N/(T-m 2) ........................... ....i@i~ i!ii!........ By (9...11).. M = q m / A ...11) then Hence the charge densities on the surfaces yields iS..........................1 O) yields the length-independent "magnetic charge....3 A-m)(0...........2 m) = 4...... l = 0... Because M is independent of the volume of the system. length l..... ...................

k m ~ m A / l 2 = 2. B . the refrigerator responds as if it had an image magnet of the opposite polarity within.6(a). At room temperature in zero applied field. See Figure 9. which is nearly 20 cm from the south pole. W h e n a permanent magnet is brought up to a refrigerator door. This is related to the geometry of a magnet on a refrigerator. IEI . we replace k by kin. placed very near the face of a large soft iron magnet. since the pole faces each have width a .000 times the earth's magnetic field. Hence there is Figure 9. alnico V has M = 9.12).2~rkmM. See Figure 9. Moreover. (9.49 • 10 -4 T.2Jrkmffm -. From (9. the permanent magnet is attracted by a force we will call its lifting strength. Only if we pull harder than the lifting strength will the magnet come off. Solution: At 1 mm outside the north pole. The soft iron responds as if there were an image bar magnet of opposite polarity and (nearly) equal strength. of length l = 20 cm and square cross-section of area A = 1 cm 2. the north pole appears to be a sheet of magnetic charge density Mr = 9.394 Chapter 9 e The Magnetism of Magnets 9~3~3 Magnetic Field Due to a Sheet of "Magnetic Charge" qm In the analogy between electricity charges and magnetic poles.8. has as its magnetic analog. (field due to sheet o f " m a ~ e t i c ch~gei'): (9113) By (9. It can be estimated as follows. which is more than 10. O" m -- 9~3~:4 Lifting Strength of a Magnet: Parallel-Plate Capacitor Analogy When a permanent magnet of magnetization M along its axis is placed against the surface of a refrigerator (a soft magnet).rk~.95 • 10 s A/m. the magnetic field of the distant pole of this bar magnet is kmqm/r 2 . 1 mm outside the north pole. by (9. Estimate the field on the axis of the magnet.625 T. the total magnetic field is dominated by the contribution from the north pole.8 Permanent magnet in shape of a bar.v ~ = 1 cm. but about five times that of the earth. IBI = 2 n / ~ a ~ . Hence the electric field due to a sheet of uniform charge per unit area ~. which adds a contribution much smaller than that due to the near pole. Note that. and q by qm.2. ./~ by B. this may be rewritten as I B I . Let its M be along its axis.95 x l0 s A/m.0.4).13). and find the magnetic field of the distant pole.14) ~ B just outside the end of a long magnet of alnico V Consider a long bar magnet made of the alloy alnico V. which is much larger than 1 mm.

The near pole and its image may be treated as sheets. discussed in Section 1. the near pole dominates. (The dominant effect arises from the near end of the magnet and its image. consider that the gap between the actual N pole and the image S pole is very small. 0 4 cm 2 and IFI = 0.5 A .2 N. due to the actual magnet. a more precise analogy is to a small electric charge that is brought up to a large sheet of electrical conductor. Estimate its magnetization (magnetic moment per unit volume).15) applies. or poles.0 .14) yields 1/~].46 x 104 A/m. for Figure 9. or about six times atmospheric pressure.018 N is required to pull the magnet off the door. Break a magnet into two or more pieces.62. This attraction is similar to what happens with the amber effect.) However.2 N / 1 0 -4 m 2 = 6. Since the door and the magnet are much closer (0.9.~FI/2JrkmA. 9~ Inside a M a g n e t There Really Are No Poles Although. and (9. Solving for M yields M . Place the pieces near one another. so (9.625 T) . if you look inside the refrigerator there will be. since the near pole is much closer to the refrigerator (0.99. and they will spontaneously attract. (9. no one has yet observed any isolated magnetic pole: the sum of the pole strengths distributed on any magnet sums to zero. (lifting strength) (9.62. so contact can't cause discharge.15) For the alnico V magnet ofthe previous example.(2rrkm)M2A. With A .1 mm) than the magnet width (0. outside a magnet.c r m A .12).14). Its north pole is held 0. qm .2-cm cross-section. Let the magnet have its N pole.2 cm).4 Inside a Magnet There Really Are No Poles 395 an attraction between the permanent magnet and the refrigerator. poles seeming to appear at the point of the break. a tuna sandwich. See Figure 9.018 N. is given by (9.m)(0. .1 mm from a refrigerator door (made of soft iron). but certainly no image magnet. this amounts to F / A . against the refrigerator.(99. A force of 0. (Magnetic poles can't move.9. perhaps. This geometry is just like that for two nearby capacitor plates. ~ Estimatingthe magnetization from the lifting strength A 28 cm long permanent magnet has a 0. Briefly explain your reasoning. the near pole of the magnet produces a nearly uniform field within the image magnet region of the door.22 x 10 s N / m e. tending to resume the original shape. Then there is an image magnet (S pole) just against the magnet.2. with the poles at the break canceling one another. giving a force I / ~ l .95 x l0 s A/m) (10 -4 m e) .(r~mA)(2rrkmM) .(9.5 A-m. In terms of the force per unit area.]--qm] 1/~].) Neglecting edge effects. and each piece will have zero net pole strength.8. the magnetic field acting on the image pole.3). Solution: Since the refrigerator door is made of soft iron. Use of (9. a flat surface of area A. it responds as if it had an image magnet inside it.2-cm-by-0.1 mm) than the distant pole (28 cm). this yields M = 8. its properties can be described in terms of the magnetism of magnetic charges. Moreover.

and magnetic/7/field or simply H field. we have Heart h ~ 39. ~dA-Qm. there appear to be two smaller magnets. current-carrying coils wound with many turns of wire also can produce a magnetic H field (and a magnetic/~ field). physicists called a symbol H the magnetic field.4~I The Name of the Field If Magnets Really Contained Magnetic Poles: ~i The only way to tell ifthere are poles inside a real magnet is to do an experiment~ such as discussed in Section 9 . ~ d A .enc.f E.4rrkmQm. _. However. these rules hold for #0H both inside and outside a magnet. which technically is called the magnetic induction. it appears to have two poles. as shown in Chapter 11. which helps distinguish between them: in free space. When physicists say "magnetic field. Although we have been calling the symbol B the magnetic field.42rkQ~. B and/7/.16). 9. By analogy to Gauss's law relating the flux of/~ through a closed surface to the electric charge enclosed by that surface. on replacing B by/~0H.4 Z r x 10 .9 Effect of breaking a bar magnet: Before After (a) Before breaking it.1 hold only outside a magnet.16). the rulesgiven in Table 9.5 x 10-4 T. w e have (9.18) With Bearth . by (9.16) For B.~ 0. In the SI system. with our choice of H due to magnetic charge Qm. within a magnet. For comparison with such experiments. N (free space) (9." they usually mean B.17) f #oH.s . or 9 ~ . (b) After breaking it. B and H have different units.8 A/m. it is convenient to have a name for the quantity computed as if magnetic poles really did exist.enc. The dimensionless unit "turns" is appended to distinguish the SI unit for the magnetic H field from that of the SI unit for the magnetization. As we will see shortly. To avoid this possible ambiguity. (9. in the early 19th century.4 z r k m . or ~n -. .7 A2. "Turns" arises because. we sometimes employ the usage magnetic B field or simply B field. ~ d A . 8 ~ t h a t actually probes the interior of the magnet. ~ t 0 . Sometimes the unit for H is given as A-turns/m. each with the same pole strength as the original magnet. have a more complex relationship than (9.f f-t.396 Chapter 9 ~ The Magnetism of Magnets Figure 9. which is A/m. .

and with 2(4 known. we set -+ . / . (general definition of/3) (9.11 (a).4~rk~M .~ds = 0 . (9. Thus. o H .13) and (9.10.4 Inside a Magnet There Really Are No Poles 397 For electrostatics and for permanent magnets.-+ _+ -~ . on integrating around a closed path with path element dg = ~ds. Consider a bar magnet so long that near one end we can obtain the field/7/ by considering only the magnetic charge at that end.16). ~ d s . o r Bn B. We now use this continuity of Bu to determine B within the magnet.O . as in Figure 9. Thus.2 Since B Has Zero Flux.20) reduces to (9. Since we want B i n .f I~. CH-. must be continuous across the face.16). With H obtained. Its Normal Component Is Continuous Since there are no isolated magnetic poles. -. Consider a pancakeshaped Gaussian surface (a "pillbox") enclosing a magnet face. fi. Fe = J E . at its poles there is a discontinuity in #0/q. both inside and outside the magnet.19) Thus E due to static charges. From (9. Hence #o(Hout . See Figure 9.20) also Figure 9. Chapter 11 shows that electric currents serve as circulation sources for B and/7/. In general.10 The normal component of the magnetic field B is continuous on going from within a magnet to outside a magnet.2srk~crm just outside this "sheet" of magnetic charge. and/7/for permanent magnets.-+ .#0M. there is zero circulation in the sense that. so ~B . where 2(4-6.20) In free space.1 in Section 9. with outward normal ft. whatever flux enters one part of a closed surface. this suggests the following definition for B./3 cannot have flux as its source. Chapter 12 shows that time-varying B-fields serve as circulation sources for E. By this argument.4. An allowed/~ and a disallowed B are depicted. with the direction of/7/changing as we go from inside to outside the magnet.Bout at the interfaces.0 for all closed surfaces. fi (from 2rckmamto -2Jrkmcrm).+ 9. by the rules of Table 9.3 (with/3 -+ #0f/).9.Hin) has magnitude 4zrkm~m . the normal component of B. -+ . (9.#0(/q + 2~. have flux sources but no circulation sources. the same amount must leave another part of it. (zero circulation) (9.

but there are no electrical analogs of diamagnets. (Gauss's law for magnetism) (9. whose normal component is not continuous. we can compute/_7/for a given set of qm'S. [The attraction is a consequence of the amber effect. B does not have magnetic charge as a flux source. when put in a (large) nonuniform magnetic field. most materials have no obvious magnetic properties. However. (9. (b) Diamagnetism (material repelled effect. unlike the hard and soft magnets we have discussed so far. See Figure 9.398 Chapter 9 ~ The Magnetism of Magnets Figure 9.11 (b). for a surface with positive magnetic poles. Free magnetic charge would be a flux source for both B and H. See Figure 9.12 Two weak types of magnetism. are attracted (paraelectrics).] from strong field regions. most materials are either attracted (paramagnets) or repelled (diamagnets).12. (b) B. makes the normal component of B continuous at all interfaces because it adds the missing # 0 ~ within the magnet. no electrical analog). (a) analog. and then we can compute B. for which there is a magnetic Figure 9. or "free. .21) If true. magnetic analog of the amber log of an (imaginary) antiamber effect).11 Comparison of the behavior of B and/7/ on crossing from within a magnet to outside the magnet. Dielectrics. Hence J B 9f z d A .21) can be modified to incorporate them.O. Following the analogy toelectricity. (a) H. One may think of diaParamagnetism (material attracted to strong magnetism as the magnetic anafield regions. when placed in a nonuniform electric field." magnetic charges are discovered. Because the normal component of B is continuous. whose normal component is continuous. Types of Magnetic Materials It is well known that.

the noble gases.22). Equation (9. so beware of the possibilities of notational confusion. the properties of paramagnets are due to the permanent magnetism of the tiny electronic magnetic moments of electrons. with x ~ 10 -s. It is material dependent and temperature dependent.23) Here we introduce the notation /J.x H. =_/. are not described by (9. diamagnets. Some materials. Moreove~ because they have x > 0.12(b). as discussed in Section 9. water. U.22) holds. unless a magnetic field is applied. and ionic crystals. and for diamagnets x < 0. their magnetization 2~/points opposite to the applied field/7/.7. 9~5ol Paramagnets Are Attracted by Magnetic Fields As indicated.-+ --~ -+ B . (9. (9.= (] + X) (9. In small fields. x is a dimensionless quantity.#o(1 + x)H- #o#rH. Ba.20) can be rewritten as -+ . 9~176 Diamagnets Are Repelled by Magnetic Fields As indicated. However. their magnetization M points along the applied field H.22) also holds for soft ferromagnets (such as used in transformers). CuO. Examples ofparamagnetic materials are A1. when placed in a nonuniform external magnetic field. For low to moderate fields.12(a).tH. hard ferromagnets. such as CuSO4 and the rare earth atoms (and their compounds). (9. Cu20. However. these electronic magnetic moments typically point randomly relative to one another. and their local environment within the material.. Diamagnets have a weak tendency to "expel" the applied magnetic field. thus explaining why x in paramagnets is usually small but positive. When (9.tr.to/.5 Types of Magnetic Materials 399 Paramagnets and diamagnets develop small magnetizations that are proportional to the applied field f/.#o(M + H) . are attracted to the large field region. Paramagnets have a weak tendency to concentrate the magnetic field. Moreover.9. paramagnets. For paramagnets X > 0. Since 2(4 and/7/have the same units. Diamagnetic materials include Cu. Permeability has the same symbol as the magnetic moment.24) for the permeability l* and the relative permeability #r. because they have x < 0. when placed in a nonuniform external magnetic field.t. provided that account is taken of the demagnetization field produced by the material itself.+ -+ . and therefore yield no net magnetic moment. are repelled from the large field region. At . are "strongly" paramagnetic. with x as large as 10 -3.22) also holds for soft ferromagnets (x > 0) and for perfect diamagnets (x = -1).22) Here X ("chi") is called the magnetic susceptibility. so that -+ -+ M . See Figure 9. Applying a small magnetic field tends to make them have a small component of their magnetic moment along the field. and soft ferromagnets in large fields. (9. See Figure 9. ~. At the microscopic level.

13(a). We will discuss the magnetism of electric currents in Chapters 10 and 11. At the very low temperatures where helium can be liquified (4 K). most materials are diamagnetic. 2. which become strongly magnetized and concentrate an applied magnetic field. a perfect diamagnet produces a magnetic field that cancels the applied magnetic field. for neodymium). See Figure 9. and sometimes as large as 10~). refrigerator doors are made of a soft magnetic material. which retain most of their magnetization when the external magnetic field is removed. ordinary iron nails. At the microscopic level. to prevent the permanent magnets from demagnetizing. Here the magnetic field is B. Graphite has a x that is 20 times this large. They are invariably superconducting.23). For example. (By "completely expel. within its interior.1 .14. Soft magnets are like paramagnets that have a huge x (often exceeding 1000.1 0 -5. in magnetic recording heads. The magnetically soft materials." we mean that. Ferromagnetic Materials As already indicated. in transformers. they lose most of their magnetization when the external magnetic field is removed. room temperature. (b) A soft ferromagnet attracts a magnetic field. They are useful in electromagnets. or magnetically hard materials. Real ferromagnetic materials have properties associated with both of these extreme categories. the elements Pb and Hg are superconductors~and perfect diamagnets. whose normal component is continuous at surfaces. (a) A perfect diamagnet repels magnetic field. there are two classes of ferromagnetic materials. See Figure 9. perfect diamagnets must have x ~ . However. This is similar to how conductors "screen" electric fields from their interior.) To yield B ~ 0 in (9." and as "keeper" magnets that circulate the magnetic field from one pole to the other on a permanent magnet. As already noted. Permanent. as magnetic "screens. like iron. which are often magnetized by wrapping wire around them and passing an electric current through the wire (thus producing an electromagnet).13 Effect on the magnetic field of two strong types of magnetism. See Figure 9. diamagnetism is due to the magnetic field of the electric currents from electron orbitals. Perfect diamagnetism is an extreme form o f diamagnetism.13(b). A perfect diamagnet can nearly completely expel an applied B field. Examples are the alnico alloys and the recently developed rare earth magnets~such as Nd2FelaB (NEO. retain a small amount of their magnetism .400 Chapter 9 ~ The Magnetism of Magnets Figure 9. 1. with x ~ .

However. and the magnetization follows along path 2 until H reaches a large M tl 'iMs r M t M $ t Mri H--~ Hc (a) Hard magnet (b) [c) Softmagnet Figure 9. corresponding to an unmagnetized material in zero applied field. it is essential to know the hysteresis loops. there is no hysteresis on the scale of this figure. (Despite their name. and vice versa.20).15. Such hysteresis loops are relatively uninteresting. (b) A hard magnet. and diamagnets have a very small negative slope.) . thereby helping preserve the magnetism of the permanent magnet. iron alloys. or soft) than the less malleable. wherein the magnetization is not a single-valued function of the applied field. which magnetizes and demagnetizes easily. but they are not very good permanent magnets.6 FerromagneticMaterials 401 Figure 9. By (9. or hard. Now H is increased to a large value. H is decreased. This can give either B versus H or M versus H. we can determine M versus H.15(a). but not perfectly. It starts with path 1. (a) A magnet that can be easily magnetized and tends to retain its magnetism. Consider the hysteresis loop in Figure 9.) For materials with a significant magnetization (including soft and hard magnets). from B versus H.15 Hysteresis loops for various types of magnetic materials. Examples of M versus H for various types of magnetic material are given in Figure 9. which have complex behavior not described by (9. the hysteresis loops are simply straight lines through the origin. Hysteresis Loops Characterize Magnetic Materials in Detail A complete characterization of a magnetic material is given in terms of what is called a hysteresis loop. M increasing until it attains the saturation magnetization Ms. (c) A soft magnet. (Even the last kind of magnet can show a certain amount of hysteresis.22). which retains its magnetism until the demagnetization field is reached. paramagnets have a very small positive slope.14 A "keeper" magnet is made of soft magnetic material and is used to retain the magnetic field of a permanent magnet. which begins at M = 0 and H = 0. where H is the field within the material. (For ordinary paramagnets or diamagnets.) B circulatesthrough"keeper" after the electric current is turned off. known as the initial curve.9. The names soft and hard arose because it is easier to magnetize iron (which is relatively malleable. For path 2. permanent magnets can eventually demagnetize.

15(b). The grains are not so soft that they can be readily demagnetized unintentionally. considered that the fundamental unit of magnetism is something like an indivisible atomic magnet. One /~B per cube 2 x 10 -1~ m on a side gives a magnetization M = 9..5 #m.1 x 105 80 4 0.16 5000 105 8 x 105 . or B = 0. The magnetic poles on a magnet can appear to redistribute when subjected to external magnetic fields (or when heated nonuniformly). to change the stored information). and m e . three aspects of the loop are of special interest (see Figure 9.1. Table 9. The properties of some common soft and permanent magnetic materials are given in Tables 9. See Figure 9. and small values for Mr and Hc. the magnetization in a large applied field. It is called the remanent coercive force and lies along a backwards extension of the initial curve.5 x 105 5.30 m 3 . We interpret this in terms of a rearrangement of the atomic magnets rather than a motion of true magnetic poles within the magnet. Paths 2 and 3 are known as major loops. the remanent magnetization Mr is significant. A significant advantage of this picture is that it explains why the magnetization of magnets saturates. of about 0. and not so hard that they cannot be remagnetized intentionally (i.15a): (1) the saturation magnetization Ms. in the mid-19th century. Magnets of intermediate magnetic hardness are used in computer hard drives ("hard" in "hard drive" refers to the physical rigidity of the magnetic disk within the hard drive).. the positive pole of one atomic magnet cancels the negative pole of an adjacent magnet. Good permanent magnets have large values for Mr and Hc. The characteristic magnetic moment of an atomic magnet is the Bohr rnagneton #B = eh/4rrrne = 9. needed to cause 2(4. normally. 1.2 Properties of soft magnets (room temperature) (azm) 84184 i84 : Iron Mu metal Supermalloy 17.24 A . leaving only poles at the ends of the magnet. y-Fe203. or remanence. Ideal soft magnets have Mr = 0 and linear M versus H with slope x until M ~ Ms.11 x 1 0 -31 kg is the electron mass. applied opposite to the magnetization.3. reversed value. These grains magnetize along their long dimension.0. for audio. See Figure 9.16 x 1 0 6 A/m.402 Chapter 9 [] The Magnetism of Magnets Wilhelm Weber. (3) the coercive f~ce Hc.and videocassettes.63 x 1 0 -34 J-s is Planck's constant.e. of intermediate magnetic hardness.15(c). is coated with elongated grains of the brown oxide of iron (maghemite). where the slope approaches zero.27 x 1 0 -24 A-m2/8 x 1 0 ..m 2.27 x 1 0 . (2) the remanent magnetization Mr. A slightly larger reversed field (not indicated on path 3) gives a magnetization that returns to the origin when the field is removed. Although only the complete hysteresis loop can fully characterize a magnet.H .9. Ideal permanent magnets have square hysteresis loops characterized by Mr = Ms and H~. which is very close to the saturation magnetization of common magnets. H is increased from a large reversed field to a large positive value.0 x 105 8. (Notice that when H . Magnetic tape.) For path 3. Here h = 6.2 and 9. the magnetization after a large magnetic field has been removed. Good soft magnets have large values for Ms and x.

14.e. /2/dem~gis nonuniform. H . (9. keeper magnets are employed.9. which include spheres. M t Figure 9. For uniformly magnetized. Tc = 1043 K. pancakelike objects. must include both the external field Next (due to other magnets and to the magnetic field produced by electric currents) and the demagnetization field Fldem~g(caused by the magnet being studied). as in Figure 9.0 16.7 x 105 20.16 Magnetization versus temperature for a typical magnet. The transition temperature T~ is known as the Curie temperature. magnets tend to lose their magnetism. At high temperatures.4 x 105 x 105 x 10 4 x 103 x 104 All magnetic materials lose their magnetization on being heated above the material-dependent Curie temperature Tc (after Pierre Curie). but many compounds are ferromagnetic only at much lower temperatures. To avoid such demagnetization fields. because it is proportional to the magnetization. One reason magnets tend to lose their magnetization with time is this demagnetization field. F-td~mag acts even without an externally applied magnetic field.3 x 105 9.4 4. "keep") the magnetization. which is well above room temperature.. plotted along the abscissa of Figure 9.0 2.95 x 10s 8. and cigar-shaped objects. Hdemagis uniform within the magnet.25) The demagnetization field is important only for materials exhibiting strong magnetic properties.0 x 10s 3. For other shapes. For iron.7 Demagnetization Field ~-ldemag 403 Table 9. and thus to retain (i.0 x 105 10.3 Properties of permanent (hard) magnets (room temperature) i i i ~i ~ ~~ i~i!~il!~~?~ i i~ ii i ii i Anisotropic barium ferrite NEO (Nd2Fe14B) Alnico V Carbon steel y-Fe203 i!i!ii i ii iil ii~~! ii~~ !~?iiiii~~~! !!i i~~ ii~iii~i ii ~l i i~~~i ii! i i ii i~ i i i~!!~ iii~ ! ! ~ ~ ! ~ 37. Demagnetization Field Hdemag The field within the material. See Figure 9. It is negligible for paramagnets and diamagnets.0 4.15. ellipsoidally shaped magnets. For a magnet with remanence. Thus H- Hext nu Hdemag.16. T--~ .

O.. However.26) in this case.404 Chapter 9 s The Magnetism of Magnets M \ o*=M Hd~= Xr~= 0 0 m M (a) Co) Figure 9. with small demagnetization field. From the hysteresis loop for a toroidal magnet.13outside.. thus making the combination behave like a toroidal magnet.. We now c o n s i d e r f]demagfor the shape that gives the largest demagnetization field. Clearly. Now recall that.17(b). where the magnetization is along the direction of the needle. (a) The needle geometry. both inside and outside. as in Figure 9.17 (a). Here there are essentially no magnetic poles. on crossing from the interior (where B = # 0 ~ to the exterior (where/~ = ()). so (7 m ..IMI./x0H within a magnetic slab has magnitude 4Jrkmcr m . See Figure 9.12')./~ .0 for Needle or Toroid M a g n e t i z e d Parallel to Surface For a needle-shaped magnet magnetized along its axis. f]demag. Here the magnetic poles occupy only the ends of the magnet. See Figure 9.. Keeper magnets of soft iron. See Figure 9.18. (7 m .7. the demagnetization field is nonzero.#0H outside the magnet.H . for a slab magnetized uniformly along its normal. opposite to M--here we h a v e / 2 / _ -2(//. where Hd~ag = 0. and the corresponding demagnetization field is negligible.4zrkmM-/x0M._ so H .~ 0 exactly.2~// 9 / ~ . are often placed across the poles of horseshoe magnets to direct the magnetic flux of one pole directly to the other. 9~7o2 Hdemag . when edge effects are neglected. Although the normal component of B is continuous (= 0). (b) The toroidal geometry. Since H points from the positive to the negative side--that is.1 Hdemag -.there is no flux source for/2/.@ w i t h i n a Thin Slab M a g n e t i z e d along Its N o r m a l By (9.O. / ~ ~-~ O. inside the magnet B -/~02~ # 6. the electric field E within a capacitor of charge density -t-~ on its plates has magnitude 47rk~. Likewise.~ along needle and toroid) (9. . Since B . its tangential component is not continuous. the surface charge densities are Crm .. we can deduce the hysteresis loop for magnets of other shapes by including the appropriate demagnetization field. where the magnetization is along the tangent to the toroid. For a toroidal magnet magnetized tangentially. the magnetization at the surface is nearly perpendicular to the surface normal (except perhaps in the tiny region at the end of the needle).17 Zero demagnetization field for needle or toroid magnetized normal to its surface.14. Since ~m -. 9. For shapes other than those discussed. This gives I/:/I .+M.6 (.M . and the corresponding demagnetization field is very small.

9.H c . Determine the effect of the demagnetization field on the magnetization of a mu metal in the earth's magnetic field Bearth ~ 0. Thus the sample will not "take" a magnetization normal to the slab. This is very large. the magnetization .27) From (9. SO for a slab FId~mag= -2(d.18 A thin magnetic slab magnetized ous across an interface. (2(4 normal to slab) (9.3 x 105 A/m. 0 x 105 A/m. it follows t h a t / 3 . the magnetization will rotate into the plane of the slab. Demagnetization fields. or B = 0. and no geometry will produce more demagnetization than a slab.8 A/m.22) holds. Again by (9.) The slab and the needle are the two extreme geometries: no geometry will produce less demagnetization than a needle.8 . 0 . this in Chapter 11 . and permanent magnets Consider the hard magnetic materials materials NEO (Nd2Fel4B) and carbon steel. Hdemag ~ ~ 1~ ~ M.7 Demagnetization Field Ftdem~g 405 This field is precisely fldemag. it is difficult to accidentally demagnetize a thin slab of NEO with magnetization along its normal. for which there is a negligible demagnetization field. for carbon steel If Idemagl-. when edge effects are 2~ neglected).5 • 10 -4 T. to reverse) the magnetization.3) x 105 = 5. which exceeds Hc for carbon steel.#0 (/2/+ o*= M. if (9. which is used for magnetic shielding. so an additional N e x t .27). since /7/_ (~ outside the slab (just as E = 0 outside a capacitor. Furthermore.H d e m a g = ( 1 6 . we have H = Next . For a sphere.7 x 105 A/m. for NEO If ldemagl = Mr = 10. we have/3 .2. although it is not obvious.10.0 outside the slab.18.n = _M Hdemag= -M M) . (Edge efalong its normal has a large demagnetization field because it has the maximum pole fects cause the field outside a slab strength on its slab faces. Again. and since 2(4.0 outside the slab. must be applied opposite to the magnetization to demagnetize (in this case. the normal component of B is continuFigure 9. Solution: We use material constants from Table 9.Mr . D e m a g ande t i z a tappliedfor soft magnets--needles n slabs--in an fieldsnfield io Consider the soft magnetic material known as mu metal.27). The magnetic field magnetized along its normal to be B is nearly zero both within and outside the small but nonzero. coercive forces. We will discuss magnet.. for which Hdemag ~ O.72 T. With the field and magnetization along the axis of a needle-shaped sample.He~th = 39.#O(ff-]demag nts ~ _ = 0 inside the slab.#0(/2/+ 2(~ . Determine the demagnetization field of these good permanent magnets in the thin slab geometry of Figure 9. just as it on top and bottom was zero inside. Consider both the thin needle and the thin slab geometries.3. Hence.27). By (9. Solution: We use material constants from Table 9.

so that use of (9. this gives M ~ Next ~-~39.22) is valid.406 Chapter 9 u The Magnetism of Magnets is M = X H e x t . we will learn that the force/~ on a panicle of charge q as it moves with velocity ~ through a region of magnetic field B is F .1)]Hext.22). Hence the magnet is in the large field regime of the hysteresis loop.19(a). by (9. whereas if/7/is the fundamental field.28).M). See Figure 9.5 x 10 s A/m. Ifld~ag I -. rather than #0/~. (b) thin magnetic slab. which can enter matter without interacting strongly: (a) toroidlike geometry. where B # 0 but H = 0 inside. with a large field. which is not consistent with (9. with a small field. so (9.22) gives M = X(Hext .27). Since X is so large. This value is much smaller than Ms. This exceeds Ms = 8. they will be undeflected. Clearly. they will be deflected. Solving for M in terms of/-~t yields M = [X/(X 4.28) It is not clear t h a t / ~ . . If B is the fundamental field.M. they are deflected in an amount quantitatively described by (9.8 A/m. should be used in this equation~ The toroid and slab geometries suggest two ways to distinguish between how B and H cause the deflection of charged particles" 1. where M = Ms.98 x 106 A/m. With the field and magnetization along the axis of a thin slab. This supports the fundamental nature of B. where Figure 9. Observe that this M is smaller by about a factor of x ~ 10 s than for the needle geometry. Experimentally. How We K n o w B Is Truly F u n d a m e n t a l In the next chapter.qfi x B. Let high-energy charged_particles pass through a tangentially magnetized toroidal magnet.3.19 Two geometries for studying the field within a magnet using muons. (9. Such experiments are used as a tool in particle physics. demagnetization effects can be very large for soft ferromagnets.

the momentum transfer is small since they are mass-mismatched with both the much lighter electrons and the much heavier nuclei.} x bT. and because when they do interact. The magnetic induction/~ is the quantity of true fundamental significance.9 Magnetic Oscillations 407 deflection by the B field of the magnet helps determine the momentum of charged particles. and to have oscillations about that equilibrium. To have clean particle tracks in the deflection experiments described earlier. Magnetic Oscillations Just as the torque on an electric dipole moment } in an electric field E is given by ~ .19(b). See Figure 9. (9. From classical mechanics.30) where 0 is the angle between/i and/3.31) can be used to explain the operation of acompass needle. Let high-energy charged particles pass through a slab magnetized along its normal. It is not clear that any such experiments have been performed. leading to a torque that drives the magnet to orient/~ along B. so the torque on a magnetic dipole moment fi in a magnetic field B is given by i i~iii i i~~:~iiiiiii2iii:~i~iiii:iii:ii::i:i~ii:ii:iii~i:i:~i~ii:i~i:i~ii:i:ii:ii:ii~:ai:i~:i:i:i:i:ii:ii:i:i:i~{ii:i:i:ii:ii!:i:li:i:i:i!i:!iiii{:~i:i{~~:i:i ii:::~:i~!:i:ii!:i:i{:~: i:!~i:~ :{~ii~@:i{i:i:ii~ !{ :!{:!~:!i:~!~i:i{i iii i::!iii:!ii ~{~~~S:~iii:~ :i:i:iiil: i i:i i i: : i ~ :!i:i : ~i{i i:i::i~!~:.9. such a geometry is not expected to assist in the analysis of particle motion. but about 200 times more massive) are used. This is because their strongest interactions with other particles occur via electromagnetism.31) Equations (9. they will be undeflected.29) and (9. If/~ is the fundamental field. not/2/) also determines the electromotive force associated with Faraday's law. these can be observed using the techniques of electron spin resonance (ESR) and nuclear . (9. we know that the torque drives the angular momentum L" -0 dL dt = g. where/~ = 0 b u t / 2 / = -2V/g= () (and large) inside. They also can be used to explain the oscillations around equilibrium of tiny electronic and nuclear magnets.]fi]]/~]] sin 0]. they will be deflected. the electrically charged muons (particles similar to electrons. Therefore. Chapter 12 will show that/3 (and hence. whereas if/2/is the fundamental field.:::::ii:!ii : i i{i~:{i!~: :i@ i i~ii:~~~i:~!:{ii!i!i::iii i::ii~:~iii{: iii:!!:iiiii~ ~~~~ii~{i:~ : i: :I ! : iiii i J! ii iii i:ii{i :i~:: ~ ~:ii { ii~ : ! ! i : : Thus ]~] . :~.

the minus sign indicates that the torque tends to restore equilibrium. of magnetic moment fi and moment of inertia I (not to be confused with electric current). the angular momentum component L~ is given by Lz- d~ Ioo~. The word spin refers to angular momentum that appears to be intrinsic to the object. By (9.32) For a macroscopic object of moment of inertia I about its z-axis. Associated with spin (a vector) is a magnetic moment (also a vector). and let ~) be the angle of the magnet with respect to the external field.34) Figure 9.20 Magnetic oscillations: (a) a macroscopic magnet.~. The macroscopic magnet has a relatively small amount of angular momentum along its axis. (b) a microscopic magnet.31) becomes dLz d28 dt = I ~ . causing its rotational dynamics to be dominated by the angular momentum along its axis. and B = IBt.20(a). and both can have angular momentum.-#B6~.# B sin ~). For simplicity. 9~9~! Oscillation of a Macroscopic Magnet: Compass Needle A compass needle. For small angles ~). Let fi and B lie in the xy-plane.I dt" (macroscopic object) (9. The microscopic magnet has a relatively large amount of angular momentum along its axis. oscillates about its equilibrium position in a magnetic field B. causing its rotational dynamics to be dominated by its moment of inertia. It is to be distinguished from any orbital angular motion that arises because the object is in an orbital (either an electron about the atom or a nucleon about the nucleus). we will use L for all these types of angular momentum. the z-component of the torque on the magnet is given by r = .30).I f i l . I. the torque becomes r -. We wish to find the dependence of the oscillation frequency o2 on # . where sin ~) ~ ~).408 Chapter 9 ~ The Magnetism of Magnets magnetic resonance (NMR). Both satisfy the same rule for magnetic torque. (9. (9.33) Then (9. See Figure 9. .

N ~ : : . then measurement of the torque (at a known angle) and the resonance frequency. use of (9. and the study of the local environments of..... rather netic resonance (NMR)........ and then to deduce the position in the body where the energy was absorbed. .. these methods may be used as diagnostics for the presence of. ~ ~ . would enable us to determine both # and B~h. and nuclei.. .. The intensity of absorption in a known magnetic field gradient provides a local measure of the density of different types of nuclei. This forms the basis of elecEquation (9.... .. which holds in physics was awarded to Felix Bloch and for the angular momentum of rotating Edward Purcell... ~ d20 (macroscopic magnet) (9. ~ .. various atoms.-i . In this section... .. . ' . (9. the intensity of the absorption of electromagnetic energy at the resonance frequency is proportional to the number of absorbing nuclei.y L.. with (x.... whose value serves as a fingerprint. ions.'.... atomic clusters have a total angular moFor a nuclear or atomic magnet.....N ~ ~ "'~ 4 (9.. . I).34) yields I dt-. K. Modern computers (and... ~ { ~ N ~ ~ With both NMR and ESR.. ~B. the frequency at which an atom or nucleus resonates is proportional to the magnetic moment.... .. for a given magnetic field.9 Magnetic Oscillations 409 For small 0.. ' " . Thus. here we have ~ n c o . ~ tron spin resonance (ESR) and of nuclear magfor nuclear and atomic magnets.!~~~ ~ . Instead of the harmonic oscillator frequency ~0 = ~/K/m.32) in (9..9.~ ..37) ~ " '"~..~/#-Y.. . Hence the angle 0 oscillates. 9~o9~:2 Oscillation of a Microscopic Magnet: Magnetic Resonance Most atoms and their nuclei have a magnetic moment....~ . a measurement of co from the oscillation of a compass can yield the magnetic field in the plane of oscillation of the compass..= -#BO.. in particular. .36)./ ( ~ of (9..~ .36) If # and I are known. & ~ " ~~i ': . we show that... The 1952 Nobel Prize than E .~...37) implies that L =/~/~.35) This is just like the harmonic oscillator equation. Moreover.....33)... ~ % ~ : ~ ... Molecules and of NMR.. by (9.30) and (9. . If neither # nor B~h is known. ~ (microscopic magnet) .. . .... ~Ni=~=~ .. powerful desktop workstations and personal computers) make it possible to analyze a wealth of data taken in many orientations. ~.. . . the magnetic mentum that is a combination of both moment/~ is related to the angular momentum /~/y and / (~.. . Thus an ordinary compass resting on a table can be used to obtain the horizontal component of the earth's magnetic field B~h... L by /~ . NMR is the basis for the powerful medical diagnostic technique of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)... the frequency of absorption can depend on magnetic fields produced by the local environment. m) ~ (0. for their independent discovery macroscopic magnets.. ~ "'~.

so is v/Lx + Hence the vector v/L x + 2. ~ Since B points along ~. the righthand side of (9.675 x 108 s-iT -1.35).2. To be specific.-d-/. Unlike the case for the compass needle. Since the vector cross-product is perpendicular to both vectors.v/Lx + L 2. using (9. and (9. Also. (9.Lz (9.3 7) gives d~ d t = y L x B.• .39) L .29) and (9.. With B z (9. Combining (9.LxYc + Lyi9 (9.39) yields dill 2 dt = d(L.31). Thus. As a consequence of their lower ly t.38) yields dLx dt = y(LyBz- B and B y . and it has a very different solution.0.42) has fixed magnitude If.38) implies that d L z / d t 0. Then.Lz .410 Chapter 9 m The Magnetism of Magnets where F.38) is perpendicular to both B and L.40) so that ILl is fixed. as stated previously. B " -d.L• cos ~b.20(b). we may write 2 Lx .O.v/iLl2 .44) .41) L• . Ly . With both Lz and ILl fixed.L• sin ~b. depends upon the atom or nucleus.29).= 0 (9. has a fixed magnitude. (microscopic magnet) (9.43) where ~b can depend on time.38) and (9. + Lz .31) to obtain the resonance frequency of a given magnetic moment. the gyromagnetic ratio. L) dt ds = 2L. the x-component of LzBy) = y L y B . so - dL - dL (9. let B point along ~.759 • 1011 s-iT -1 and ~proton. Specifically. We will solve (9. so Lz does not change. Yelectron--1. dt = O. L x B is normal to ~. (9. See Figure 9. Hence (9. protons oscillate (resonate) at much lower frequencies than do electrons. there is a precession (in which Lx and Ly participate equally). rather than an oscillation (in which only Lx might participate). for an atom or nucleus the angular momentum f.38) This is very different from (9. (9.

48) (9. Here are some technical aspects of NMR and ESR. a measurement of co will yield y. A magnetic moment will absorb energy when driven at its magnetic resonance frequency. in the torque law of (9.38). ~ NMRforMRI Consider hydrogen in water. the protons absorb energy at the frequency f = y B/27c = (2. rather than the/. it is B . and (3) different ESR resonances are not as sharply defined in frequency. The solution of (9. for ESR: (1) the resonant frequencies can be inconveniently high for measurement devices.o/2/due to magnetic poles.675 • 108)(1)/2zr = 42. Equation (9. where o) = y B (9.29).47) is the magnetic resonance frequency in radians/s. On the other hand.9.45) dt= -yB.49) Such rotation of/~ about B is called precession.46) is 4~ = -~ot + constant. Solution: By (9. if y is known.48). that applies. Find the NMR resonance frequency for B = 1 T. For a known magnetic field. For NMR: (1) it is easy to build tunable measuring devices in this frequency range. (2) there are many types of nuclei with distinct magnetic moments. which begins around 88 MHz. (2) there is only one type of electron and not many radically different environments for it.43) and placing it in (9. .46) which can also be obtained from the y-component of (9.48) is the basis of MRI. a measurement of co will determine B. and (3) the resonances are very sharply defined in frequency. All these factors lead to the choice of NMR over ESR for use in MRI.9 Magnetic Oscillations 411 Differentiating the first part of (9.#o(/7/+ 2~. In terms of cycles/sec. we use f- o) yB 2zr = 2Jr" (9. Magnetic resonance experiments on electron and nuclear spins within materials provide evidence that. or Hz.6 MHz. (9. This is somewhat below the FM band.44) yields ---L• Thus dO d4) dt sin 0 = (Y B)L• sin O- (9. Correspondingly.

Typically. Many complex types of magnetic order exist. unless they have opposite intrinsic~or spin--angular momentum. The magnetic moment gets larger in an applied field either because the domain walls move (mostly at low fields) or because the magnetization within the domains rotates (mostly at higher fields). with local magnetic order that is random to the eye. The tendency of many materials to develop magnetic order is so weak that it is easily overwhelmed by thermal agitation of the atomic magnets. . magnetic order occurs only at low temperatures.Ms. We now address a number of important issues. they are very nonuniform unless they are in such a large magnetic field that they have become saturated.21 (b). For smaller fields. M .21 Magnetic domains: (a) zero external field.10 How Permanent Magnets Get Their Permanent Real magnets are not as simple as we have described them. but the magnetization in different parts of the magnet does not point in the same direction. ~ domain i / ~ ~ ~ wall TII TIIIll B ext = 111111lit 84 lit B ext 0 (a) along (b) Figure 9. no two electrons can occupy the same orbital. Domains are separated by thin regions called domain walls. they take on the saturation magnetization appropriate to their temperature. and the magnetization is not truly uniform. the domain pattern develops. there is a preference for the electron magnetic moments to counteralign. by what is called the Pauli principle. By causing the domain walls to move. in which case the magnetization is truly uniform. with their own magnetic resonances. Locally.21 (a). Only at very large fields do all the domains become oriented in the same direction. one of which is glasslike: so-called spin-glasses. the field causes domains aligned with (against) the field to grow (shrink). See Figure 9. See Figure 9. (b) moderate external field. This is associated with the fact that. Why Do Some Materials Have a M a g n e t i z a t i o n Whereas Others Do Not? The answer is that the electrostatic energy of electron orbitals can sometimes be lowered if the electron magnetic moments develop a preferential ordering relative to one another. 9. Regions of a given direction of magnetization are called magnetic domains. In some cases. across which the local magnetization rotates from one domain orientation to the other. but they are interesting just the same. Antiferromagnets are poor magnets.412 Chapter 9 a The Magnetism of Magnets NT/'r NT/4"W/I Magnetic~ . leading to what are called antiferromagnets.

at low temperatures the energy of ordering completely wins. and all the spins locally point in the same direction (although there can be a domain structure over a larger spatial scale). For high anisotropy.3 Why Does the Magnetization Depend on Temperature ? The answer to this question requires comparing the energy of ordering of the magnetic state. the orientation of the orbitals relative to the crystal is attributed to the crystal field energy. and therefore it is not very good as a permanent magnet. although it is a very good soft magnet.. The net effect is that the magnetic electrons preferentially orient their magnetic moments with respect to the crystal. NEO (Nd2Fe14B) is a man-made material that has been designed to take advantage of the magnetic anisotropy of the Nd (neodymium).g.2 What Determines the Direction of the Magnetization ? The answer involves two steps. to produce a large permanent magnetic moment. where there is a strong preference for certain orientations. to minimize their magnetic energy. as in Figure 9.10o4 Designing a Strong Permanent Magnet: NEO Iron has a rather low magnetic anisotropy. as the temperature increases. The B (boron) is needed mainly to form the crystal. to minimize their electrical energy the orbitals of the magnetic electrons orient with respect to the crystal (e. The magnetization Ms(T) decreases smoothly to zero at T~. the domain wall thickness is very small in order for the magnetization to avoid these unfavorable orientations. and eventually.10 Permanent Magnets 413 In technical terms. the magnetic moments of the magnetic electrons orient with respect to the electron orbital. sintered). It is easily demagnetized. The Fe and the Nd order magnetically. 9. the plane of the orbital may orient along or perpendicular to one of the crystal axes). but a rather large magnetic moment. First. Second. at the Curie temperature T~. which partially melts together the magnetized crystallites. For a sample . 9~t0. they align with opposing magnetic moments. the spins start to point in a less ordered fashion. However. the orientation of the magnetic moments relative to the orbitals is attributed to the spin-orbit energy. For iron.~I0. and the magnetic moment of the Fe (iron). The Fe dominates the magnetic moment of this system because there are seven Fe for each Nd. a well-magnetized sample of NEO begins as a powder of many small crystallites. and the overall orientation of the magnetization relative to the crystal is attributed to the magnetic anisotropy energy. In a strong magnetic field. they become disordered. 9.16. In practice. and the energy of thermal fluctuations (which have a disordering influence that is proportional to the temperature).9.. Because of a strong antiferromagnetic interaction between the Fe and the Nd. it is then heated (technically. The axis of alignment is not random: because of the strong magnetic anisotropy acting on the Nd. there is a preferred axis for the Nd and Fe.

The upper needle (in the z = a plane) has its magnetic moment along 5. 9 . 7 From some unspecified "rude observations. Note: As shown in Example 9. 4 Find the field strength 50 cm along the axis of a small bar magnet of moment 6 A-m.2 . T h u s t h e use o f crystallites h e l p s l i m i t t h e a m o u n t o f d e m a g n e t i z a t i o n t h a t can b e s e e d e d b y a given crystalline d e f e c t . if t h e r e is a d e f e c t site at w h i c h t h e local m a g n e t i c m o m e n t reorients. their force of attraction is 0. 1 Two 5 cm long. This torque is due to magnet 2 pointing along ~.3. At 20 cm. is subject to a torque 0. the inverse cube of the distance.04 N. (a) Will there be a net torque in a uniform field (such as that of the earth)? (b) Let a nonuniform field B be applied along the y-direction. collinear with the orientation of a compass needle. this r e o r i e n t a t i o n o n l y p r o p a g a t e s to t h e b o u n d a r y o f t h e crystallite b e c a u s e t h e c o u p l i n g b e t w e e n crystallites is r e l a t i v e l y w e a k . Show how such an inverse cube law might be obtained by measuring the force on the pole of one long magnet due to another short magnet. two thin magnetic needles of equal moment are mounted on a fiber with their moments normal to the fiber axis. its north.e. 5 The torque is 0. 9 . Figure 9. How will the astatic balance twist? /Rotation axis ~2 9-2. at the origin and pointing along 5. Find /~2.8. (a) Find qm. 9 . When placed on the same axis at 3 cm nearest distance. See Figure 9. with the applied field larger for the needle in the z . find the moment of the magnet. Estimate their pole strengths.4 cm along a line making a 30 ~ counterclockwise angle to the x-axis.22 Problem 9-2. Problems 9 . 8 In the astatic balance. 9 .2 .96 A-m. 2-mm-by-2-mm magnets are uniformly magnetized.145 G. the amount of iron a magnet can lift is proportional to the square of its pole strength.2 . and the lower needle (in the z = 0 plane) has its magnetic moment along -)~. with declination (relative to north) 11. is moved toward the compass needle. 9-2. 3oo Figure 9.a plane. Repeat for 50 cm along the perpendicular bisector.23 Problem 9-2.6. .41 G.04 N-m on a magnet with # = 2. 9 .2 ." Newton indicated that the magnetic force varied as 9-2. and its south poles. One will lift twice as much iron as the other. (b) Describe the response of an unmagnetized rod of soft iron when the north pole of a permanent magnet is brought up to the center and the ends of the soft iron rod.23. Find IBI.2 . See Figure 9. 9 (a) Describe the response of a permanent magnet when an unmagnetized rod of soft iron is brought up to its center. the compass needle switches direction.10 The earth's field at a measuring site is specified as follows: horizontal field 0.6.4 ~ west. and inclination (relative to the vertical out of the surface of the earth) 67 ~. (b) Find the field due to the magnet 5 cm along its perpendicular bisector. as in Figure 9.75 N on a single pole qm of a long magnet (l = 10 cm).414 Chapter 9 s The Magnetism of Magnets p r e p a r e d in this way. 9 .4 A-m at a 40 ~ angle to/3. 2 For 1/31 = 0.6 A dipole of moment/~1 = 0.0075 N-m along ~. and located in the xy-plane a distance 2. Find the field strength and its component in the meridional plane (i. one that passes through the polar axis and the observation point).2 . If the horizontal component of the earth's field is 0.5 T in a region of space.3 A small magnet.2 .22. the force is 0..

one above the other.0. ~m. (See Figures 9. 2 Two identical magnets of length l. field concentration and magnetic attraction.1 How would you use a soft magnet to focus the magnetic field of a permanent magnet? 9 ..005 T.1 For arbitrary ~.. so that the bulk magnetic charge can be thought of as a line charge. a diamagnet. 9-5. (c) Show that Xemu. Hint: See Problem 9-5. To ob.2 .Problems 415 9-2.. (a) If the magnets are very strong. magnetized along its axis. show that IB = 2km[-~ + 2(~. find its magnitude. there must be some bulk magnetic charge.. and M = M2 < M1 at its south pole.(d#/dA)~dx. (b) Find the field along the axis at a distance 4l from its north pole. 9 ..~ ' m are parallel to z. l = 5 cm. The cgs-emu units are gauss (G) for B. 3 The lifting strength of a long magnet with 3 cm 2 cross-section is 30 N.. The SI units are tesla (T) for B. show that 1 A-turn/m = 4z~ x 10 .. and "magnetic moment unit"/cm 3. (a) Find qm. 9-4. 9 . magnetization M. 1 2 Consider a dipole sheet. where r 0 = (%2 + y2) and t~0 = ~sin~)0 + )~cos~)0 points fro the edge of the dipole sheet to the observer... B.3 . and square cross-section (with side a (< t).5 . sketch M versus H for a paramagnet. which would make the best hard magnet? (b) Which would make the best material for magnetic focusing? . respectively.3 . or mmu/cm 3 for M.1 A magnet has Ms = 0.5 . (c) Compare that field with the field at the same position if the magnet had a uniform magnetization M~. (a) Find the SI values for H and x. It is magnetized along its axis.. 1). in the previous problem let -+ d ~ . a refrigerator). It is oriented normal to a large sheet of soft magnetic material (e.. a soft ferromagnet. show that B = -[2k~Mlo/ro](~ x t~0). with like poles near each other.. 5 A soft magnetic material has M = 2500 A/m in a field B . (b) If the magnets are weak.2 (a) O f the materials listed in Tables 9.5 . 9 . 1 Consider a uniformly magnetized magnet with M = 3.. tain such a sheet. (b) a << r << l. ampere-turn/meter (A-turn/m) for H.. 9 . 2 How would you use a soft magnet to create a region of weakened magnetic field? 9 . and integrate on x from .11 The magnetic line poles )~ and . with dipole %.3 . and mass m are placed in a tube. 9 . yo). 4 The magnetization of a long magnet with 8... and a perfect diamagnet. and 10 cm from the north pole... 4 In scalar form. Find the leading dependence on r of the force of attraction for (a) r (( a. (b) Estimate the field on the axis at 0. length l. (a) Assuming that the magnetic charge density is uniform.3. oersted (Oe) for H. and X. (c) l (< r..5 . 9 . with its near pole a distance r from the sheet.) 9 . ..1 cm. 5 Consider a long bar magnet of magnetization M. . intersecting the z = 0 plane at ()co.4 cm 2 cross-section is M = 2.. For an observer at ()co.~ to 0.5 . 9 . H. where 1 T = 1 0 4 G .53 x 103 A/m. Would this make a good permanent magnet? Discuss.. Treat H as being due to magnetic poles. estimate the minimum magnetization needed to suspend the upper one against gravity. with M = M1 at its north pole. 0) and ()co.3 0 e ....M / H gives values 1/4Jr as large as in SI units. for SI units we have B = # 0 ( H + M). ~.g. (a) By taking M = 0.... Find its lifting strength. whereas for cgs-emu units we have B = H + 4 z ~ M .2 x 10 s A/re. Thus the magnetic dipole moment is parallel to the y-axis. and ampere/m (A/m) for M.2 and 9.12 and 9.. where r is the nearest distance to the dipole lines.2 Consider a nonuniformly heated bar magnet of length l and cross-sectional area A. Find its magnetization.2 x 105 A/m.13. 9-6. 9 . 9-6. . but l -+ 0. mJ 9-4.84 x 106 A/m and Mr . find the value of the separation s to suspend the upper one against gravity. and A = 16 mm 2. iii!ii!ii!i~: . ~)t~]/r 2. 6 For a small applied magnetic field..0.3 .4. determine the discontinuity of the normal component of the artificially defined quantity C = #0(H + aM) on crossing the pole of a very long bar magnet... under the assumption that the magnet is very narrow. and #.3 . 3 Relate field expulsion and magnetic repulsion. With finite dipole moment per unit length ~ (where I~1 = Xml). (b) By taking H = 0.moment per unit area d # / d A = M/0. (b) Find the cgs-emu values for M. 2 cm. Since the magnetic charges on the ends do not sum to zero. show that 1 A/m = 10 -3 mmu/cm 3. crosssection A (where ~ ( ( l ) .

When mounted as a dipping needle (so it can measure the declination from the vertical of the magnetic field).48). instead of dLx/dt.19(a) and /3 ~ (3 in Figure 9.19(b).1 Devise an experiment to establish that the interaction between two magnets is not due to electrostatic forces.3 In Example 9.. Find the dip angle of the field. explain why the magnetization in NEO is oriented relative to the crystal axes. makes five oscillations per minute. 9 .1 The period of oscillation of a magnet of moment of inertia 4.8 x 10 s A/m. How can we explain the limit to magnetization using the fluid theory? Using the atomic magnet theory? Is there a limit to the polarization of a conductor? (Consider the depletion layer discussed at the end of Chapter 5.9 .) ~ 9-10.16 cm.1 0 . but it attracts soft iron. study of dLy/dt.6 Here is how to measure x for para.5 s. 9 . Hint: Is it due to susceptibility or to saturation? 9 . Discuss the plausibility of this model. It has a magnetic moment of 0. For the field component Bh in the plane of the surface of the earth. 9-9. (b) for magnets. 2 A compass needle oscillates 8 times per minute outdoors. 4 Determine the magnetization for an iron needle that is oriented (a) along the earth's magnetic field. how might a "keeper" magnet (of what shape?) maintain the magnetization of a thin slab of carbon steel along the normal? 9 .magnets and diamagnets. 9-7.9 . However. estimate H and/3 at the midpoint. (Similar considerations hold for the electrical analog.7 .G . 2 Magnetic attraction and the amber effect appear to differ.. and attracts small objects. In the amber effect. Find the magnetic field it is in. and magnetization M = 7. Find its magnetization. Show how the effects are similar (a) for the amber effect.1 Explain w h y / 7 / ~ (3 in Figure 9. Without iron filings. 5 Show that. 4 For a molecule. but only 7. all magnets have a limit to their magnetization.1 Discuss the effect on the magnetization of NEO if the interaction between Fe and Nd were ferromagnetic rather than antiferromagnetic.G .4 In the early 19th century. 9-G. by analogy to electricity.5 x 10 . 9 .4 A-m z. 9-8. 9 .out outdoors to Bh. find the ratio of Bh. (b) normal to the earth's magnetic field. 9-G. such a theory needed the additional and arbitrary hypothesis that neither type of fluid can leave the magnet (except in equal quantities). /~ = IF but the value of o. the comb has a net charge. also leads to (9. to determine a small electric permeability--as for gases. A measurement of magnetization and field then yields x.: such a small magnetic susceptibility x that their demagnetization field is negligible relative to the external field. crosssection 0. 9 .. like nails.1 (a) For a magnet of length l .2 g-cm 2 is 2. A magnet has no net pole strength.. that two types of fluid (north pointing or austral.G . when mounted as a compass needle. (b) Is ndemag large or small within the volume of a long magnet? 9-7. 3 Of two geometrically identical bar magnets. by including the charge left behind on your hair after rubbing the comb through it. 3 A small magnet. 2 In your own words. and south pointing or boreal) could explain the magnetism of magnets.in indoors.4 T. it makes a maximum of nine vibrations per minute.4 times per minute indoors. how can you determine which magnet is magnetized and which is not? You can move the magnets.9 . Experimentally... by neglecting the effect of the distant magnetic pole.:~!:~. 9 . by their effect on iron filings. the moment of inertia I is dependent upon the axis about which the molecule is rotating.8. but not for w o o d m w h e n the depolarization field is negligible relative to the .. Poisson proposed.2 Consider a needle-shaped sample of permalloy in the earth's magnetic field of 0. 9-G.9 .416 Chapter 9 ~ The Magnetism of Magnets 9-7. for magnetic resonance.25 cm 2.. 5 Poisson's magnetic fluid model predicts that a magnet in a strong magnetic field can develop a very large magnetization Oust as an electrical conductor can develop a very large electric polarization when placed in a large electric field).. which both have ' . (b) Repeat for a pancake-shaped molecule. it is determined that one of them is magnetized and one is not. 9 . (a) Discuss the relative values of I for a cigar-shaped molecule.

.! . (b) With Bz for a dipole. (c) Let B~(+l/2) be shorthand for B~(x. and dBx/dy = 4.2 3 J/K. also applies to permanent magnets.24 Problem 9-G. paramagnetic or diamagnetic? (b) Explain why there is no net force along y.24.:i. and the disk finally is lubricated. 8 Consider a thin disk normal to the % . attractive magnet.. where By(0) is shorthand for By(x. z ) = 0 by symmetry.i. 0. and then is given circumferential grooving. (a) Show that.. where d~ is taken counterclockwise. of length l. .. (d) With qm = M A = x H A ~ x(By/~o)A. (e) Evaluate F~ for X = 0. d24 ~ (2rrpdz)Br + (rrp2)a(dBz/dz).8 x 10 -5.] 9 . 1 1 Earnshaw's theorem. a flat magnet resting on a tabletop can support stably one end of a similar magnet whose other end is in contact with the table. ~~ Figure 9.27.G .. . find Bp near the axis (small p)..2 T/m.8. from (9. Show that F~ = qm[Bx(l/2) . (a) If another. used for magnetic storage of information in the form of magnetized regions. Figure 9.~. (a) Estimate the volume of the unit cell. on the axis of a dipole. See . for volume V = A/. Estimate the storage density. so Bp . show that Fx = V(x/~t0).:'~::i.. The surface is given a hard coating of nickel-phosphorus. which alone cannot be used to levitate an object stably. This is about the same as for the 4~t~ of the Fe +2 ion in the unit cell volume.7. a cobalt alloy magnetic layer. In 1996. related to fixed electric charges (Section 3. or hard drives.6.26 Problem 9-G.26. . where Gb is a gigabyte. By = 0.24. A chromium underlayer. repulsive magnet. (c) Certain field-sensitive bacteria contain about 20 magnetite spheres of d 50 nm. the field due to the magnet is nearly vertical.8 mm 3. who discovered diamagnetism.8).. However. depicted in Figure 9. . . track widths were of the order of 5 #m.. 9 .08 Gb/in z. ..25 Problem 9-G. which cancel. This induces charges • . 1 2 A magnet is in a vertical tube on the earth's surface. where kB = 1. 7 Consider a small square loop of . Hence. . of thickness dz and radius p centered ~:..G . L x__y Figure 9.. (a) Show that 0 = fl B .!!!~iii. (a) Is the sample. and note that B~(x. See Figure 9. using the straight-line approximation for differences. (b) Estimate the critical volume V~ of magnetite at which the energy of magnetic alignment in the earth's magnetic field equals the thermal energy k~ T. 9 .dimension a x a. . At the sample.Problems 417 external field. 9 . See Figure 9. and the force on the sample is measured with a balance. a knowledge of the properties of the field component By and of the volume of the sample permit x to be determined from a measurement of Fx. 9 Hard disks.) This method is due to Faraday.~ ( . in the absence of any sources of B.. and a hydrogenated carbon overlayer are then sequentially sputtered on..2 ~tm.05 T. z). B)/dx..G .~iiili.Bx(-l/2)] .. O = J B . 9 . z). +t/2.p / 2 ) ( d B z / d z ) . By definition.... Hence dBy/dx = dBx/dy. 0. (b) Applying this to the previous problem. is fixed below the first Figure 9.. and bit lengths (the region defining a region of well-defined magnetization) were of order 0.~ qml(dBx/dy). d~= a2(dBy/dx dBx/dy). 1 0 M for aligned magnetite (Fe304) is 5 x 105 J/T-m 3. V = 3. will the vertical equilibrium position of the first magnet be stable? (b) If another. in the xy-plane..11).:../ I i y .~ m A = MA on the top and bottom of the sample. show that F~ = Al(x/#o)By(dB~/dy).. Is this enough magnetic moment to align the bacteria despite the randomizing influence of the thermal energy? 9 . 8 bits equals 1 byte..G . so M = X H ~ X By(0)/~t0. is suspended vertically in the midplane y = 0 between the N and S poles of a source magnet. i: . is fixed above the first magnet.G . The Fe +3 ions in the unit cell have opposing moments.G .. i. have been made from aluminum platters in the following way.38 x 10 . By(dBy/dx) = (1/2/z0)d(2~. Use f (x + a) ~ f (x) + (df/dx)a. [Answer: Of order 0.z-axis.. and room temperature is T = 293 K. The sample. Discuss why this situation does or does not violate Earnshaw's theorem.

loosely. indicate how the turntable will twist.i"~i'i~. 0) and has its moment pointing along 5..27 Problem 9-G. (d) With l the moment of inertia of the turntable. and hard disks. Determine which of the magnets is held on more strongly.418 Chapter 9 ~ The Magnetism of Magnets magnet. (a) Indicate how each magnet will twist. Discuss this in the context of reading and writing printed matter. (c) Compute the torque on each magnet. 9-G. will the vertical equilibrium position of the first magnet be stable? 9 .. 0. (a) Can one permanent magnet below another permanent magnet be in equilibrium? (b) Can one permanent magnet below another permanent magnet be in stable equilibrium? (c) Why doesn't Earnshaw's theorem apply to diamagnets and paramagnets? (d) How can the diamagnets make the equilibrium stable? to a frictionless turntable. ....14 A theorem about storage of information states. ~ rotate about the vertical axis..%i!ii:. 0.a ... Indicate the magnetization (if any) of the part of the refrigerator near each magnet..27 shows two refrigerator-type permanent magnets placed against a refrigerator ("soft iron"). .G . their bases attached 9-G. 1 3 A small magnet can be levitated below a large magnet with two pieces of (diamagnetic) graphite. of moments/il and . including the domain structure of the magnets.16. lie in the horizontal plane and are free to .16 Figure 9. One magnet is centered at ( .. that the ratio of energy-to-read to energy-to-write can be made very small. one above and one below the smaller magnet. compute its angular acceleration... (b) Using conservation of angular momentum. compact disks. . 9-G. .15 Two magnets. 0) and has its moment pointing along 3?The other is centered at (a. Figure 9..../12.

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