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DRILLING ENGINEERING

Lesson 1-2
Rheology of Drilling and
Completion Fluids

Dr.Ir. Sudjati Rachmat, DEA


Lesson 2

Rheology of Drilling and


Completion Fluids
Rheology of Drilling and
Completion Fluids
• Functions of Drilling/Completion Fluids
• Fluid Types,
• Fluid Models
• Introduction to Rotary Viscometer
• Other Testing Equipment
• Objectives of Monitoring Fluids

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Functions of
Drilling/Completion Fluids
1. Remove cuttings from the well.
2. Control formation pressures.
3. Suspend and release cuttings.
4. Seal permeable formations.

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Functions of
Drilling/Completion Fluids
5. Maintain wellbore stability.
6. Minimize reservoir damage.
7. Cool, lubricate, and support the bit and
drilling assembly.
8. Transmit hydraulic energy to tools and
bit.

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Functions of
Drilling/Completion Fluids
9. Ensure adequate formation evaluation.
10. Control corrosion.
11. Facilitate cementing and completion.
12. Minimize impact on the environment

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Fluid Types
• Water based
• Oil based
• Air
• Mists
• Foams

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Flow Regimes
• Plug Flow
– Flat flow profile
– Velocity at walls is
almost the same as in
the middle
– Low velocities, and
high viscosities

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Flow Regimes
• Laminar flow
– Parallel layers of mud
flow
– Bullet shaped flow
profile
– Velocity at the wall is
approximately 0
– Velocity at the middle
is maximum

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Flow Regimes
Laminar Flow

Drillstring

Annulus

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Flow Regimes
• Turbulent flow
– Flow pattern is eratic

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Wellbore
Flow Regimes Turbulent
flow
Summary Transition
flow
Complete
Streamline
Incomplete
Streamline

Plug flow
No Flow
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Fluid Models
• Newtonian Model
• Bingham Plastic Model
• Power Law Model

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Rheology
• The study of how matter deforms and
flows.
• Primarily concerned with the relationship
of shear stress and shear rate and the
impact these have on flow characteristics
inside tubulars and annular spaces.

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Hydraulics
• Describes how fluid flow creates and uses
pressures.

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Rheological Models
• In drilling fluids, the flow behavior of the
fluid must be described using rheological
models and equations before hydraulic
equations can be applied.

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Viscosity
• Funnel Viscosity – Marsh Funnel
• Apparent Viscosity
• Effective Viscosity
• Plastic Viscosity
• Yield Point
• Low-shear viscosity and Low-shear-rate
viscosity
• Gel Strengths

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Funnel Viscosity
Measured in
Sec/quart

Marsh Funnel

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Shear Stress & Shear Rate
• Shear Stress – Force required to sustain
the shear rate.
• Shear Rate – Function of the fluid velocity

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Newtonian Model
• Shear Stress, , is
proportional to the
Shear Rate,  
• Plot intersects at the

origin
 300 rpm
 = Viscosity,
centipoise = 300 
reading

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Bingham Plastic Model
• Shear Stress, , is
proportional to the
Shear Rate, 
• Plot intersects at the
Yield Point (not 0)
= py
p = PV
y = YP

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Power Law Model
• Shear Stress, , is proportional to the Shear Rate, 
• Plot intersects at the origin

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Which is correct?

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Introduction to Rotary
Viscometer
• Viscosity,
PV, YP, n, K
all calculated
from
viscometer
readings

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Viscometer

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Rotational Viscometer

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Other Testing Equipment
• Filter Press
– Measures filter
cake thickness
and Fluid Loss

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Other Testing Equipment
• pH meters used to measure pH of whole
mud, filtrate, and filter cake
• Retorts used to determine oil content, etc.
• Test for sand content
• Test for clay content

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Objectives of Monitoring
Fluids
• Identify potential hole problems and to
identify their causes
– could be poor hole cleaning
– hole erosion
– formation damage
– sensitive formations
– pressure control problems

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