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2015 高考英语语法填空考点预测

新东方在线 李辉

“Grammar is confusing. Fortunately, LiHui will tell you some wonderful tips which can make it easier (for you) (to
conquer English) .” (它们)
这件事 (什么事儿呢)

fortune 运气 n.
mistune 不幸 n.
fortunate 幸运的 adj.
unfortunate 不幸的 adj.
fortunately 幸运地;幸运的是 adv.
unfortunately 不幸地;不幸的是 adv.

【语法填空十四条军规】
一、如果一个句子没有谓语动词,或者虽然已有谓语动词,但所填的动词与之是并列关系时,就是填谓语动词(考时态/被动/虚拟)
JJ __is__ (be) ugly.
JJ __is__ (be) ugly but is tender.

靠“关系”做语法题!

【纯时态的】
 A boy on a bike __caught__(catch) my attention. He was riding beside the bus and waving his arms. 一般过去=讲故事!
 In 1969, the pollution was terrible along the Cuyahoga River near Cleveland, Ohio. It __was_(be) unimaginable (that it could ever be
cleaned up).
 (On their return) the father asked his son (to explain) (what he had learnt). The boy, (who had remained silent and deep in thought) (on
the journey home), _replied_ (reply) in a way (that shocked his father). The boy said he wanted to become a farmer.
 They didn’t take many chances in their lives. They just __followed___ (follow) orders.
 I had to ask for a leave (to take Jack to the hospital) (because he __had cut___ (cut) his finger).过去完成时=过去之前
take a chance=take a risk=冒险
ask for a leave 请假

【被动】
(1)The new gum can _be removed_ (remove) easily (from pavements, shoes and clothes).
(2)But someone must have taken them because they’re _gone_ (go).
(3)Her mother was excited.“Your father has at last decided to stop smoking,” Jane _was informed_ (inform).

【虚拟】
含义:你说出来的这句话,不是真实的,而是虚拟的!
结构:在本来的时态上加一个 did.
这句话是虚拟出来的!
I wish I would go to the moon. [虚拟将来] will go + did =would go
I wish I were you.[虚拟现在] am +did + were
I wish I had arrived earlier. [虚拟过去] arrived + did = had arrived.

He walked into the classroom proudly as if he _had bought_ (buy) the whole school.
Are they there? Oh, my goodness. I _must have put_(put) them in there (when the phone rang).

情态动词+have done=描述过去!!! !
must have done 肯定做了某事吧
can’t have done 不可能做了某事吧
would have done 本来会做某事
could have done 本来能够做某事
should have done 本应该做某事
might have done 本来有可能做某事

注意:谓语动词=助动词+实义动词
(1)will/shall + do
(2)have/has/had + done
(3)be + doing/done
(4)情态动词+ do / have done

二、如果一个句子已有谓语动词,且不是并列谓语动词时,所给动词要用非谓语形式,这时要根据句子所缺句子成分和所填单词含义
来确定具体的非谓语形式。
主动 doing
被动 done
要做、去做 to do(未做)
__To complete_(complete) the project as followed, we’ll have to work for two more hours per day.
I heard a passenger behind me shouting to the driver, but he refused _to stop_(stop) until we reached the next stop.
Still, the boy kept _riding_(ride).
The new gum adds a special polymer to modify(修改,改变) its properties(特性), __making_ (make) it far __less__ (little) sticky.
With the problem _solved_ (solve), I felt proud of my achievement.
The headmaster went into the meeting room, _followed_ (follow) by some teachers.
注:如果非谓语前面有名词,则这个非谓语是在描述这个名词;如果非谓语前面没有名词,这个非谓语描述主句主语。
Smiling, LiHui walked in. 微笑着,李辉走进来。

The sky waiting for the rain, I am waiting for you.


非谓语结构 真正的句子

The sky is waiting for the rain, and I am waiting for you.
真正的句子 and 真正的句子

三、如果有第三个动词提示词,可能变为其他词性(名词/动名词/形容词)
“判形式,找相关! ”
介词后面跟名词! !!! !!! !!
 While there are ___amazing___(amaze) stories of instant transformation, for most of us the ___changes___(change) are gradual and
require a lot of effort and work, like cleaning up a polluted river.
 One morning, I was waiting at the bus stop, worried about_being_(be) late for school.
 But Jane knew (from past experience) [that her ___choices___ (choose) of ties hardly ever pleased her father].
 A new scientific study shows that education can affect our _appearance_ (appear) (more than we have realized).
 I’m not afraid of _being caught_ (catch) by the police, because there was no cop anywhere around.

catchcatching
be caught  being caught

【练习】
例 1. The first card _was designed_ (design) (by J.C.Horsley) (as a commercial endeavor).
例 2. That was definitely not an attractive idea so I politely declined her invitation, _closed_ (close) my book and walked away.
例 3. All over the world, people move from place to place. More and more people__leave_ (leave) towns and farms (to move) (to cities). This
_moving_(move) to cities is called urbanization.
例 4. Smaller cars are just one of the directions (that the car industry is taking). Also the industry _will produce_(produce) cars (that pollute
less and have a less harmful effect )(on the environment) (these days). 描述趋势、描述未来
例 5. Nobody knows (what _would have happened_) (happen) (if she had refused to pay). 主过将完,从过完
例 6. His fear (of failure) kept him (from classroom games) (that other children _were playing_)(play) (with joyous abandon).
例 7. The happiest (happy) of people don’t necessarily (necessary)have the best of everything; they just make the most of everything that
_comes__ (come) along their way.
例 8. The country life (he was used to) __has changed__ (change) greatly since the opening policy 改革开放政策.
完成时+(since+过去时)

例 9. The international agreement, (intended to encourage children not to smoke and __help__ (help) people kick the habit) , __was
signed___ (sign) on February 27 last summer.

intend 的发出者只能是人,所以这里的 agreement 和 intend 只能是被动关系,故使用 intend 的过去分词形式:intended

例 10. It is not enough only _to memorize_(memorize) rules from a grammar book.
例 11. You know, __speaking_(speak) out your inner feeling won’t make you feel ashamed. 动名词作主语
例 12. __To complete_(complete) the project as planned, we’ll have to work two more hours a day.
例 13. The young student did all (that he could) _to pass_ (pass) the examinations.
例 14. Some people say that oldest children, (who are smart and strong-willed), are very likely __to succeed__(success).

例 15. He saw the stone, _saying_(say) to himself: “The night will be very dark.”
例 16. There will be a meeting, _starting_(start) later this year to review the film.
例 17. …….Lessons (_learned_(learn) in sports) can help us in our dealing with other people.
例 18. At 9:07pm, Sept.25, The Shenzhou VII spacecraft was lifted by the long March Ⅱ-F carrier rocket into space. The launch of the Shenzhou
VII is China’s third manned space venture since October 23, when it joined Russia and the United States as the only countries __to have sent__
(send) astronauts into space.
注意 :名词前有 first, second,…last, only 修饰时,后面要用 to do / to have done 做后置定语。
注意:非谓语结构中出现 have,表示非谓语动作发生在谓语动作之前。

四、句子缺主语/宾语,应该补名词/代词
It has been said before, but experiencing it myself has made _me_ want to say it again: a smile can cross all language barriers.

句型:A made B do C
A 让 B 做 C 这件事儿

A real trial began (when I stood) (on the platform) (with my legs) (trembling) and (with my mind blank). …Gradually I found _myself_ back,
giving out my speech with difficulty.
反身代词:返回来说自身——当主语是我,宾语也是我时,宾语的我用 myself

英语句子有三个最基本结构:
1、有什么 There be + n. +doing sth.
2、谁干了什么 sb do sth.
3、谁是什么 sb is sth

a/an/the my/your/his/her/their this/that/these/those


五、名词前加限定词(冠词、形容词性物主代词、指示代词)
We had _an_ amazing conversation.
She apologized (for the mistake) and gave us a spare VIP room (on _the_top floor).
A young man, (while traveling through a desert), came across a spring 泉 (of clear water). __The__ water was sweet.

最简单做题法:
翻译成“一”
,用 a/an
翻译成“那”
,用 the
翻译成“你的”,用 your
翻译成“这个”用 this
翻译成“这些”用 these
 下列情况很可能填不定冠词 a/an:
(1)________+可数名词(单数);
(2)________+形容词+可数名词(单数)。
It was mid-afternoon and I had been listening to the radio and reading _a_ book.

 下列情况下很可能填定冠词 the:
(1)________ (+定语)+名词+ of 等介词短语(表示特指);
(2)________ (+定语)+名词+定语从句(表示特指);
(3)________ (+定语)+名词+不定式短语或分词短语(表示特指)。
(4)________ + first/last/only/most +名词
When it was time to leave, I said “thank you” in Korean, using some of __the__ few words (I had learned).
Now, years later, this river is one of _the_ most outstanding examples (of environmental clean­up).
It was probably the fact that she sat in __the_ last row.

六、动词原形前加助动词(will/shall/does/do/did)/情态动词/to
Then the driver stood up and asked,“_Did_ anyone lose a suitcase at the last stop?” A woman on the bus shouted, “Oh, dear! It's _mine_(I).”

七、修饰名词或作表语,用形容词
So, I’m very careful not to give out my _personal_ (person) information.
That would be a very_reasonable_ (reason) thing to do in a big city
Just be _patient_(patience).
Finally, that hard work paid off and now the water in the river is _cleaner_ (clean) than ever.

八、提示词是形容词,很可能要变副词(修饰动词、形容词、副词、整句)
 He must be _mentally_ (mental) disabled.
 When we were wondering what to do, the manager came out. She was _surprisingly_(surprise) helpful.
 The boy finished by saying, “Before the trip I thought we were rich but today I learnt who is _truly_ (true) rich.” With this, the boy got
up and walked away, leaving his father sitting on their comfortable sofa, totally _speechless 形容词,修饰爸爸_ (speech).
 But a recent study saw things quite __differently___ (different).
 His teacher took a deep drink, smiled _warmly_ (warm), and thanked his student very much for the sweet water.
 The river was so polluted that it __actually__ (actual) caught fire and burned.
 But such a small thing couldn’t __possibly_ (possible) destroy a village.
Everyone on the bus began talking about what the boy had done, and the crowd of strangers _suddenly_(sudden) became friendly to one
another.

JJ runs very fast.


程度副词

副词用法:
(1)作用:修饰动词/形容词/副词/整句
(2)位置:句子前,句子后,be 后实前助实间
Slowly, I went out.
I went out slowly.
JJ is undoubtedly an ugly teacher.
I slowly went out.
I was slowly walking out.

九、形容词/副词的比较级、最高级
 1、碰到 as 选原级,碰到 than 选比较级,in/of/among 最高级
We were both laughing the whole time at our complete inability to communicate in words. I felt _less lonely_ (lonely) than I had expected
that night.
 2、修饰比较级:far, a little, a bit, much, a lot, a great deal, any, even, still, slightly
JJ becomes far/a little/a bit/much/a lot/a great deal uglier.
Does JJ become any uglier?
Yes, he becomes even uglier than before.
JJ is still uglier than PP.
In fact, JJ is slightly uglier than PP.

One day, he came up with an idea that he would pluck up all of his crop a few inches. He did so the next day. He was very tired after doing this
for a whole day, but he felt very happy since the crop did “grow” _higher_ (high).
Fine snow covered the yard, dusted the top of my truck and whitened the road. But that wasn’t the _worst_ (bad) part. All the rain from
yesterday had frozen solid—coating the needles on the trees in fantastic patterns, and making the driveway very slippery.

十、连接名词或代词时,用介词
介词唯一的语法:跟名词!! !!!
 如果将“________(+限定词)+名词”或“________+代词”结构去掉,句子剩余部分仍然结构完整时,空格处填介词
One day a rich man took his son on a trip to the country. He wanted to show his son how the poor lived so he could be thankful (_for_ his
wealth).
The only reason a man would sell salt _at_a lower price would be because he was desperate for money. And anyone who took advantage of
that situation would be showing a lack of respect _for_the sweat and struggle of the man who worked very hard to produce it.”

 填介词时,除了考虑与其后名词的搭配,还要考虑与前面的动词、形容词的搭配。
I didn’t understand __why__ this would happen and my credit card had already been charged_for_ the reservation.

for
介词:因为,为了,过多久
连词:因为

十一、It 结构考辨认
(1)it 作形式主语
It + is + adj + (that 从句/to do)
这件事儿是什么样子的,什么事儿呢?……
Jane was walking round the department store. She remembered (how difficult _it_ was) (to choose a suitable Christmas present) (for her
father).
It took years of work _to reduce_(reduce) the industrial pollution and clean 洁净 the water.

(2)it 作形式宾语
Sb think/find/believe it + adj + (that 从句/to do)
某人认为/发现/相信这件事是什么样子的,什么事儿呢?……
I think _it_ good to have a balance of viewpoints.
平衡 意见
(3)it 替代前文的内容。
It is said that a short-tempered man (in the Song Dynasty) (960—1279) was very anxious (to help his rice crop grow up quickly). He was
thinking about _it_ day and night.
这件事被说(什么事儿呢)一个急脾气的男人在宋朝非常焦急去帮助他的稻子长高得快。

十二、并列结构必出题(A~~ and B~~结构中,A 和 B 结构相同含义相似)


I sometimes order products or service online (to save money and time) (instead of going to a store and _buying_ (buy) what I’m looking for).
For a family of four, this is more convenient as well as _cheaper_ (cheap) to sit _comfortably_ (comfortable) at home.
Being very short of money and wanting to do something useful,I applied,fearing as I did so,that _without_ a degree and with no experience
of teaching my chances of getting the job were slim.
Valentine’s Day is the time of the year when couples show their love for each other by sending cards, flowers and chocolates. Its origins are
_unclear_ (clear) and hidden in the river of time. Nobody knows exactly who St. Valentine was…
【看清并列两项的逻辑关系】
 There were many people waiting at the bus stop, __and__ some of them looked very anxious and _disappointed_(disappoint).
 But the river wasn't changed (in a few days) __or__ (even a few months).
 Go to the village and buy some salt, but pay a fair price for it: neither too much _nor_ __too little.
 We_were told_(tell) that our rooms hadn’t been reserved for that week, _but_ for the week after.

十三、固定搭配须积累
I got a place next ___to___ the window, so I had a good view of the sidewalk.
In the beginning, there was only ___a___very small amount of unfairness in the world, but everyone added a little, always ___thinking___
(think) that it was only small and not very important ,and look where we have ended up today.”
十四、三大从句靠翻译
若两个句子(两个主谓结构)之间,没有句号或分号,也没有连词,那空格处必定是填连接词,否则,句子结构就不完整。
 Nick’s guests, _who_ had heard their conversation, asked why they should not buy salt more cheaply if they could. 定从修饰人
 He filled his leather container so that he could bring some back to an elder _who_ had been his teacher. 定从修饰人
 Behind him were other people (to _whom_ he was trying to talk).定从修饰人
 Maybe you are facing an impossible situation. Maybe you have a habit _that/which_ is driving your family crazy. 定从修饰物
 Of course whenever they turned to look at him, they had to look at Mary, _which_ made her feel like a star. “which=这件事儿”
 The next day, my brother and I went to the beach _where_we watched some people play volleyball. 定从修饰地点“在那儿”
 In Japan, for example, it is normal for the woman to send chocolates to the man, _____ in Korea April 14th is known as “Black
Day”…
“表对比,用 while”
 _Although_ he thought he could escape attention by sitting at the back, he was wrong.
 My friends walked me (to the bus stop) and waited (with me) _until_ the bus arrived.
小技巧:主句从句都不完整时,90%填 what
They spent a couple of days and nights on the farm of _what_ would be considered a poor family.
The new boy looked at the teacher (_for_ a few seconds) and all the other students wondered _what_ the boy would do.

【语法填空十四条军规】
1、缺谓语动词时,填谓语动词
2、不缺谓语动词时,填非谓语动词
3、有第三个动词提示词时,可能要换词性
4、缺主语宾语,填名词代词
5、名词前面填限定词(冠词/形容词性物主代词/指示代词)
6、动词原形前面填助动词/情态动词/to/not
(do/does/did/will/shall)(should/can/may/must)
7、修饰名词或作表语,用形容词
8、提示词是形容词,常变副词
9、比较级/最高级
10、介词+名词
11、it 句型
12、并列结构
13、固定搭配
14、三大从句

【语法填空两大解题原则】
1、把话说清楚:词形转换
2、把话说完整:句子成分

A. The dog is lovely. I want it.


B. The dog is lovely. I want one.

Although I am hungry, I can’t go to dinner.


Hungry as/though I am, I can’t go to dinner.