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Balbiran, Janel C. ASSIGNMENT NO.

BSHRM 1A ENG 002


Figures of Speech 4. Antaclasis
A figure of speech is a word or phrase
that has a meaning something different It is a rhetorical device in which a word
than its literal meaning. It can be a is repeated and whose meaning changes in
metaphor or simile that is designed to the second instance. Antanaclasis is a
further explain a concept. Or, it can be common type of pun.
a different way of pronouncing a word or
Example:
phrase such as with alliteration to give
Your argument is sound, nothing but
further meaning or a different sound.
sound. – Benjamin Franklin.
1. Alliteration The word sound in the first instance
means solid or reasonable. The second
The repetition of an initial consonant instance of sound means empty.
sound.
5. Anticlimax
Example: Sally sells seashells.
Refers to a figure of speech in which
2. Allusion statements gradually descend in order of
importance.
The act of alluding is to make indirect
reference. It is a literary device, a Example:
figure of speech that quickly stimulates She is a great writer, a mother and a
different ideas and associations using good humorist.
only a couple of words.
6. Antiphrasis
Example: David was being such a
scrooge!. (Scrooge" is the allusion, and A figure of speech in which a word or
it refers to Charles Dicken's novel, A phrase is used to mean the opposite of
Christmas Carol. Scrooge was very greedy its normal meaning to create ironic
and unkind, which David was being humorous effect. From the Greek : anti
compared to.) "opposite" and phrasis, "diction".

3. Anaphora Example:
She's so beautiful. She has an
The repetition of the same word or phrase attractive long nose.
at the beginning of successive clauses
or verses. (Contrast with epiphora and
epistrophe.)

Example: I came, I saw, I conquered –


Julius Caesar

7. Antithesis

The juxtaposition of contrasting ideas in balanced phrases.

Example:
Many are called, but few are chosen.

8. Apostrophe

Breaking off discourse to address some absent person or thing, some abstract quality,
an inanimate object, or a nonexistent character.

Example:
"O, pardon me, thou bleeding piece of earth,
That I am meek and gentle with these butchers!
Thou art the ruins of the noblest man
Balbiran, Janel C. ASSIGNMENT NO.
BSHRM 1A ENG 002
That ever lived in the tide of times." 12. Climax
Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Act 3,
Scene 1 Refers to a figure of speech in which
words, phrases, or clauses are arranged
9. Assonance in order of increasing importance.

Identity or similarity in sound between Example:


internal vowels in neighboring words. "There are three things that will
endure: faith, hope, and love. But the
Example: greatest of these is love."
"The crumbling thunder of seas" – Robert 1 Corinthians 13:13
Louis Stevenson

10. Cataphora

Refers to a figure of speech where an


earlier expression refers to or 13. Dysphemism
describes a forward expression.
Cataphora is the opposite of anaphora, a Refers to the use of a harsh, more
reference forward as opposed to backward offensive word instead of one considered
in the discourse. less harsh. Dysphemism is often
contrasted with euphemism. Dysphemisms
Example: are generally used to shock or offend.
After he had received his orders, the
soldier left the barracks. (he is also a Example:
cataphoric reference to the soldier Snail mail for postal mail.
which is mentioned later in the
14. Ellipsis
discourse.
Refers to the omission of a word or
11. Chiasmus words. It refers to constructions in
which words are left out of a sentence
A verbal pattern in which the second half but the sentence can still be
of an expression is balanced against the understood.
first but with the parts reversed. Example:

Example:
He knowingly led and we followed blindly

15. Euphemism

The substitution of an inoffensive term for one considered offensively explicit.

Example:
Going to the other side for death
Passed away for die

16. Hyperbole

An extravagant statement; the use of exaggerated terms for the purpose of emphasis or
heightened effect.

Example:
The bag weighed a ton.

17. Irony
The use of words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning. A statement or
situation where the meaning is contradicted by the appearance or presentation of the
idea.
Balbiran, Janel C. ASSIGNMENT NO.
BSHRM 1A ENG 002
Example:
His argument was as clear as mud.

18. Litotes Example:


A figure of speech consisting of an A lead foot is driving behind me. (This
understatement in which an affirmative refers to someone who drives fast. This
is expressed by negating its opposite. metalepsis is achieved only through a
Example: cause and effect relationship. Lead is
heavy and a heavy foot would press the
19. Merism accelerator, and this would cause the
It is a figure of speech by which car to speed.)
something is referred to by a
conventional phrase that enumerates 22. Metonymy
several of its constituents or traits.
Example: A figure of speech in which one word or
Flesh and bone. (Referring to the phrase is substituted for another with
body). which it's closely associated; also,
the rhetorical strategy of describing
20. Metaphor something indirectly by referring to
things around it.
An implied comparison between two
unlike things that actually have Example:
something important in common. Crown. (For the power of a king.)
The White House. (Referring to the
Example: American administration.)
All the world's a stage,
And all the men and women merely 23. Onomatopoeia
players;
They have their exits and their The use of words that imitate the
entrances; sounds associated with the objects or
(William Shakespeare, As You Like It, actions they refer to.
2/7)
Example:
21. Metaplesis clap
murmur
It is a figure of speech in which
reference is made to something by means 24. Oxymoron
of another thing that is remotely
A figure of speech in which incongruous
related to it, either through a causal
or contradictory terms appear side by
relationship, or through another figure
side.
of speech.

Example:
Dark light
Living dead

25. Paradox

A statement that appears to contradict itself.


Example:
Drowning in the fountain of eternal life
Deep down, you're really shallow.

26. Personification

A figure of speech in which an inanimate object or abstraction is endowed with human


qualities or abilities.
Balbiran, Janel C. ASSIGNMENT NO.
BSHRM 1A ENG 002
Example:
"Ah, William, we're weary of weather,"

said the sunflowers, shining with dew. Example:


"Our traveling habits have tired us. Forward planning
Can you give us a room with a view?" It's a free gift.
They arranged themselves at the window
and counted the steps of the sun, 31. Understatement
and they both took root in the carpet
A figure of speech in which a writer or
where the topaz tortoises run.
speaker deliberately makes a situation
William Blake
seem less important or serious than it
(1757-1827)
is.

Example:
27. Pun "The grave's a fine and private place,
But none, I think, do there embrace."
A play on words, sometimes on different (Andrew Marvell, "To His Coy Mistress")
senses of the same word and sometimes
on the similar sense or sound of
different words.

Example:
"Atheism is a non-prophet institution."
(The word "prophet" is put in place of
its homophone "profit", altering the
common phrase "non-profit institution")

28. Simile

A stated comparison (usually formed


with "like" or "as") between two
fundamentally dissimilar things that
have certain qualities in common.

Example:
He fights like a lion.

29. Synecdoche

A figure of speech in which a part is


used to represent the whole (for
example, ABCs for alphabet) or the
whole for a part ("England won the
World Cup in 1966″).

Example:
A hundred head of cattle (using the
part head to refer to the whole animal)

30. Tautology

A statement that says the same thing


twice in different ways, or a statement
that is unconditionally true by the way
it is phrased.