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# Proximate analysis (wt.

## % wet PKS basis)

Moisture content 11
Volatile matter 67.2
Fixed carbon 19.7
Ash 2.1
Holocellulose-cellulose 27.7
Alpha-cellulose-hemicellulose 21.6
Lignin 44

## Ultimate analysis (wt.% dry basis)

C 49.74
H 5.32
O 44.86
N 0.08
S 0.16
HHV = 16.14 MJ/kg
Component Ultimate Ultimate analysis Weight(kg) Moles Normalize
analysis (daf) (dry with ash) (kmol)
C 49.74 49.74 48.70 4.058 1
(100 − 2.1)
100
= 48.70
H 5.32 5.32 5.21 5.21 1.284
(100 − 2.1)
100
= 5.21
O 44.86 44.86 43.92 2.745 0.676
(100 − 2.1)
100
= 43.92
N 0.08 0.08
(100 − 2.1)
100
= 0.08
Ash - 2.1
Total 100 100

100
Therefore, the fuel is C1 H1.284 O0.676 and ‘molecular weight’ of the fuel is 4.058 =
kg fuel
24.64 kmol C

## Stoichiometric combustion equation:

CH1.284 O0.676 + a(O2 + 3.76N2 ) → CO2 + 0.198H2 O + 3.76aN2

## Where, a = 1 + 1.284⁄4 − 0.676⁄2 = 0.983

Thus,
CH1.284 O0.676 + 0.983(O2 + 3.76N2 ) → CO2 + 0.198H2 O + 3.696N2
When the fuel is burned with stoic. air and all substances at STP and water is liquid:

## hc = −HHV = ∑ Np (h0f )p − ∑ Nr (h0f )r = 1(−393520) + 0.198(−285830) − 1(h0f,fuel )

p r

kJ kg fuel kJ
In mole basis, the HHV= 16.14 × 103 kg fuel × 24.64 kmol C = 397689.6 kmol C

## Thus, hc = −397689.6 = 1(−393520) + 0.198(−285830) − 1(h0f,fuel )

kJ
h0f,fuel = −52424.74
kmol C