The iPhone OS or OS X iPhone is the operating system developed by Apple Inc. for the iPhone and iPod Touch. Like Mac OS X, from which it was derived, it uses the Darwin foundation. iPhone OS has four abstraction layers: the Core OS layer, the Core Services layer, the Media layer, and the Cocoa Touch layer. The operating system takes less than half a gigabyte (GB) of the device's total memory storage. This operating system did not have an official name until the release of the first beta version of the iPhone SDK on March 6, 2008. Before then, Apple marketing literature simply stated that the "iPhone uses OS X," a reference to Apple's desktop operating system, Mac OS X. As of February, 2009, there are over 20,000 applications officially available for the iPhone and over 500 million have been downloaded from the App Store. User interface The iPhone OS's user interface is based on the concept of direct manipulation, using multitouch gestures. Interface control elements consist of sliders, switches, and buttons. The response to user input is supposed to be immediate to provide a fluid interface. Interaction with the OS includes gestures such as swiping, tapping, pinching, and reverse pinching. Additionally, using internal accelerometers, rotating the device on its y-axis alters the screen orientation in some applications. A home screen with application icons, and a dock at the bottom of the screen, showing icons for the applications the user accesses the most, is presented when the device is turned on or whenever the home button is pressed. The screen has a status bar across the top to display data, such as time, battery level, and signal strength. The rest of the screen is devoted to the current application. There is no concept of starting or quitting applications, only opening an application from the home screen, and leaving the application to return to the home screen. It is possible to force an application to quit by holding down the home button, however. While some multitasking is permitted it is not obtrusive or obvious. Thirdparty apps are quit when left, but with a future software update, notifications will be able to be pushed from Apple's servers to the iPhone or iPod touch. Many of the included applications were designed to work together; allowing for the sharing or cross-propagation of data from one application to another (e.g., a phone number can be selected from an email and saved as a contact or dialed for a phone call.) Application support

The central processing unit used in the iPhone and iPod Touch is an ARM-based processor instead of the x86 (and previous PowerPC or MC680x0) processors used in Apple's Macintosh computers, and it uses OpenGL ES 1.1 rendering by the PowerVR 3D graphics hardware accelerator co-processor. Mac OS X applications cannot be copied to and run on an iPhone OS device. They need to be written and compiled specifically for the iPhone OS and the ARM architecture. However, the Safari web browser supports "web applications," as noted below. Authorized third-party native applications are available for devices with iPhone OS 2.0 through Apple's App Store. [edit] Included applications In version 2.2, the iPhone home screen contains these default applications: SMS (Text messaging), Calendar, Photos, Camera, YouTube, Stocks, Maps (Google Maps with Assisted GPS), Weather, Clock, Calculator, Notes, Settings, iTunes (with access to the iTunes Music Store and iTunes Podcast Directory), App Store and Contacts. Four other applications delineate the iPhone's main purposes: Phone, Mail, Safari, and iPod. The iPod Touch retains many of the same applications that are present by default on the iPhone, with the exception of the Phone, SMS, and Camera apps. The "iPod" App present on the iPhone is split into two apps on the iPod Touch: Music, Videos and Podcasts. The bottom row of applications is also used to delineate the iPod Touch's main purposes: Music, Videos, Photos, and iTunes. Web applications At the 2007 Apple Worldwide Developers Conference Apple announced that the iPhone and iPod Touch will support third-party "applications" via the Safari web browser, referred to as web applications. The applications can be created using web technologies such as AJAX. Unsupported third-party native applications See also: List of iPhone OS Applications Currently, the iPhone and iPod Touch can only officially install full programs through the App Store. However, from version 1.0 unauthorized third-party native applications are available. Such applications face the possibility of being broken by any iPhone OS update, though Apple has stated it will not design software updates specifically to break native applications (other than applications that perform SIM unlocking). The main distribution methods for these applications are the Installer and Cydia utilities, which can be installed on the iPhone after major methods of jailbreaking. iPhone SDK

iPhone SDK included in Xcode 3.1 final. On October 17, 2007, in an open letter posted to Apple's "Hot News" weblog, Steve Jobs announced that a software development kit (SDK) would be made available to third-party developers in February 2008. The SDK was released on March 6th, 2008, and allows developers to make applications for the iPhone and iPod Touch, as well as test them in an "iPhone simulator". However, loading an application onto the devices is only possible after paying an iPhone Developer Program fee. Since the release of Xcode 3.1, Xcode is the development environment for the iPhone SDK. Developers are free to set any price for their applications to be distributed through the App Store, of which they will receive a 70% share. Developers can also opt to release the application for free and will not pay any costs to release or distribute the application except for the membership fee. SDK history The iPhone SDK was officially announced on March 6, 2008, at an Apple Town Hall meeting. The first Beta release of the SDK, with iPhone OS version 1.2b1 (build 5A147p), was made available immediately, while the launch of the App Store required a firmware update which was released on July 11, 2008. This update was free for iPhone users; however, there was a nominal charge for iPod Touch owners due to the accounting rules used to track sales of the devices. Date released March 27, 2008 OS SDK details version iPhone Release for iPhone OS version 2.0b2 (build 5A225c), which added Interface OS Builder, an application for building graphical user interfaces for iPhone 2.0b2 applications.

Beta 2 iPhone April 8, OS Release for iPhone OS version 2.0b3 (build 5A240d). 2008 2.0b3 Beta 3 Release for iPhone OS version 2.0b4 (build 5A258f). This version of the SDK iPhone supports OpenGL 3D graphics, primarily used to make games, and indications April 23, OS that some applications will be allowed to run in the background (as the iPod, 2008 2.0b4 Phone, and Mail applications do), something that Apple had previously stated Beta 4 was not possible. iPhone OS May 6, 2008 Release for iPhone OS version 2.0b5 (build 5A274d). 2.0b5 Beta 5 iPhone Release for iPhone OS version 2.0b6 (build 5A292g). The code in this update May 29, OS gave hints about updates to Apple's .Mac service and also gave a first reference 2008 2.0b6 to the upcoming version of Mac OS X, version 10.6 Snow Leopard. Beta 6 iPhone Release for iPhone OS version 2.0b7 (build 5A331), which unlocked Apple's OS June 9, 2008 .Mac replacement, MobileMe. This release was for WWDC, Apple's developer's 2.0b7 conference, which is noted as part of the name of the iPhone OS beta download. Beta 7 iPhone June 26, OS Release for iPhone OS version 2.0b8 (build 5A345). 2008 2.0b8 Beta 8 iPhone Release for iPhone OS version 2.1 (build 5F90). Apple notes that applications July 24, OS 2.1 built using the 2.1 SDK will not run on the iPhone 2.0 software, and will not yet 2008 Beta 1 be accepted into the App Store. iPhone July 30, OS 2.1 Release for iPhone OS version 2.1. 2008 Beta 2 iPhone August 8, OS 2.1 Release for iPhone OS version 2.1. 2008 Beta 3 iPhone September OS 2.2 Release for iPhone OS version 2.2 (Build 5G29). 25, 2008 Beta 1 November iPhone Release for iPhone OS version 2.2 (build 9M2621). 20, 2008 OS 2.2 January 27, iPhone Release for iPhone OS version 2.2.1 (build 9M2621a). 2009 OS

2.2.1 SDK contents As the iPhone is based on a variant of the same XNU kernel that is found in Mac OS X, the tool chain used for developing on the iPhone is also based on Xcode. The SDK is broken down into the following sets: Cocoa Touch Multi-touch events and controls Accelerometer support View hierarchy Localization (i18n) Camera support Media OpenAL Audio mixing and recording Video playback Image file formats Quartz Core Animation OpenGL ES Core Services Networking Embedded SQLite database GeoLocation Threads OS X Kernel TCP/IP Sockets Power management File system Security Along with the Xcode toolchain, the SDK contains the iPhone Simulator, a program used to emulate the look and feel of the iPhone on the developer's desktop. Originally called the Aspen Simulator, it was renamed with the Beta 2 release of the SDK. Note that the iPhone Simulator is not an emulator and runs code generated for an x86 target.

The SDK requires an Intel Mac running Mac OS X Leopard. Other operating systems, including Microsoft Windows and older versions of Mac OS X, are not supported. Licensing The SDK itself is a free download, but in order to release software, one must enroll in the iPhone Developer Program, a step requiring payment and Apple's approval. Signed keys are given to upload the application to Apple's App Store. Applications can be distributed in three ways: through the App Store, through enterprise deployment to a company's employees only, and on an "Ad-hoc" basis to up to 100 iPhones. This distribution model for iPhone software appears to make it impossible to release software based upon code licensed with GPLv3. Any code that modifies code licensed under GPLv3 must also be licensed as GPLv3. Also, a developer is not able to distribute an application licensed under the GPLv3 without also distributing the signing keys (which Apple owns) to allow upload of modified versions of that software to be run. Core Location Core Location is a software framework in Mac OS X. It is primarily used by applications on the iPhone OS 2.0 for detection of the device's location. It was announced as part of the iPhone Software Roadmap event on March 6, 2008, and was made available as part of the iPhone SDK. Java Apple has not announced any plans to enable Java to run on the iPhone. Sun Microsystems announced plans to release a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) for iPhone OS, based on the Java Platform, Micro Edition version of Java. This would enable Java applications to run on iPhone and iPod Touch. Soon after the announcement, developers familiar with the SDK's terms of agreement believed that by not allowing 3rd-party applications to run in the background (answer a phone call and still run the application, for example), allowing an application to download code from another source, or allowing an application to interact with a 3rd-party application (Safari with JVM, for example), it could hinder development of the JVM without Apple's cooperation. It is clear that Java running on the iPhone is outside the bounds of the iPhone SDK Agreement. The guideline in question is rule 3.3.2, which reads: 3.3.2 — An Application may not itself install or launch other executable code by any means, including without limitation through the use of a plug-in architecture, calling other frameworks, other APIs or otherwise. No interpreted code may be downloaded and used in

an Application except for code that is interpreted and run by Apple’s Published APIs and built-in interpreter(s). However, some iPhone users have shown that it was possible to install and use a J2ME stack on a iPhone, though it involved jailbreaking. It has also been revealed that there were talks between Sun and Apple concerning the availability of Java on the iPhone, and that Sun was working in that intent with a company called Innaworks[38][39]. Curiously, the ARM processor used in the iPhone includes an environment for accelerated Java execution built into the hardware. Flash The iPhone OS does not support Flash. Adobe has announced plans to release a version of its Flash Lite software as a third-party application for the iPhone, though it has not yet launched. Furthermore, Flash Lite supports only a subset of the features of standard Flash. Unofficially, Flash videos can be viewed by using a jailbroken iPhone with certain thirdparty applications. SVG Mobile Safari supports SVG starting with the iPhone firmware 2.1. The SVG support features scripting and most of the static parts of the SVG 1.1. specification. SMIL animation is not yet supported for SVG graphics. It will be delivered after the Webkit SMIL implementation is mature enough. In addition to SVG, the HTML Canvas is supported. Hacking and jailbreaking Main article: Jailbreak (iPhone) The iPhone OS has been subject to a variety of different hacks for a variety of reasons, centered around adding functionality not supported by Apple.

Jailbroken first generation iPod Touch, running iPhone OS version 1.1.1.

With the advent of iPhone OS 2.0, the focus of the jailbreaking community has shifted somewhat. Prior to iPhone 2.0's release, jailbreaking was the only way to allow third-party applications on the device. Now with iPhone 2.0, native applications are allowed under certain rules imposed by Apple. This has lead to the jailbreaking community focusing on providing functionality disallowed on the device, under Apple's SDK terms. These functions include background applications, or the ability for third-party applications to run after appearing to have closed, and the ability to alter the applications written for the device by Apple. Some began attempts to disable Apple's kill switch, although these efforts were largely abandoned once the kill switch was proven to only disable Core Location[citation needed]. There has been a notable shift away from jailbreaking with the new App Store's debut, in most part due to users' acceptance of Apple's compromise on opening up the platform[citation needed] , although there has still been substantial interest from the jailbreaking community, especially with the release of Pwnage Tool from the "iPhone Dev Team" which was released soon after firmware 2.0 for the iPod Touch and iPhone. Some jailbreakers also attempt to pirate paid App Store applications; this new focus has caused some strife within the jailbreaking community. The other major focus of jailbreaking since 2.0 has been to reverse the SIM Lock that is forced onto most iPhones. The first generation iPhone can be fully unlocked with the iPhone Dev Team's BootNeuter application, and the iPhone 3G can be unlocked with a new beta effort dubbed "yellowsn0w"[42] and quickPWN 2.2.1. INTRODUCTION ABOUT IPHONE The iPhone is an internet-connected multimedia smartphone designed and marketed by Apple Inc. with a flush multi-touch screen and a minimal hardware interface. The device does not have a physical keyboard, so a virtual keyboard is rendered on the touch screen instead. The iPhone functions as a camera phone (including text messaging and visual voicemail), a portable media player (equivalent to an iPod), and Internet client (with email, web browsing, and local Wi-Fi connectivity). The first generation phone hardware was quad-band GSM with EDGE; the second generation also adds UMTS with HSDPA. Apple announced the iPhone on January 9, 2007. The announcement was preceded by rumors and speculation that circulated for several months. The iPhone was initially introduced in the United States on June 29, 2007 and has since been introduced worldwide. It was named Time magazine's "Invention of the Year" in 2007. On July 11, 2008, the iPhone 3G was released. It supports faster 3G data speeds and Assisted GPS. History and availability

Main article: History of the iPhone

iPhone quarterly sales

Worldwide iPhone availability:Original iPhone was available; now 3G iPhone 3G only Available later Development of iPhone began with Apple CEO Steve Jobs' direction that Apple engineers investigate touchscreens. Apple created the device during a secretive and unprecedented collaboration with AT&T Mobility—Cingular Wireless at the time—at a development cost of US$150 million over thirty months. Apple rejected the "design by committee" approach that had yielded the Motorola ROKR E1, a largely unsuccessful collaboration with Motorola. Instead, Cingular gave Apple the liberty to develop the iPhone's hardware and software in-house. Numerous codenames and even fake prototypes were devised to keep the project secret. Jobs unveiled iPhone to the public on January 9, 2007 in a keynote address. Apple was required to file for operating permits with the FCC, but such filings are available to the public, so the announcement came several months before the iPhone received approval. The iPhone went on sale in the United States on June 29, 2007. Apple closed its stores at 2:00 pm local time to prepare for the 6:00 pm iPhone launch, while hundreds of customers lined up at stores nationwide. On launch weekend, Apple sold 270,000 iPhones in the first thirty hours. The original iPhone was made available in the UK, France, and Germany in November 2007, and Ireland and Austria in spring of 2008.

On July 11, 2008, Apple released the iPhone 3G in twenty-two countries, including the original six. Forty-eight more are expected to follow in the months afterwards. Apple sold 1 million iPhone 3Gs in its first 3 days on sale, enough to overload Apple's United States iTunes servers. On October 21, 2008 Apple announced sales of 6.89 million iPhone 3Gs in the fourth quarter of 2008, totaling 13 million iPhones to date. iPhone sales from that quarter surpassed RIM's BlackBerry sales of 5.2 million units. By revenue, Apple is the third largest mobile phone manufacturer, after Nokia and Samsung. Within Apple's fiscal fourth quarter, up to September 30, 2008, the iPhone represented 39 percent (US$4.6 billion) of the company's total quarterly revenues, although some of this income is deferred.[23] Hardware

Rear view of an original iPhone. The back is made of metal and black plastic.

Size comparison, from top to bottom, between: -a first generation iPod Nano

-a first generation iPhone -a fourth generation iPod Specifications Apple publishes a full description of the iPhone 3G's technical specifications. Specifications for the original model were available before the release of the 3G model.

Features common to both versions Screen size: 3.5 in (89 mm) Screen resolution: 480×320 pixels at 163 ppi, with 3:2 aspect ratio Input devices: Multi-touch screen interface plus a "Home" button and "Sleep/Wake" located on the top of the iPhone. Built-in rechargeable, non-removable battery 2 megapixel camera Location finding by detection of cell towers and Wi-Fi networks Samsung S5L8900 (412 MHz ARM 1176 processor, PowerVR MBX 3D graphics coprocessor) Memory: 128 MB DRAM Storage: 8 GB or 16 GB flash memory Operating System: iPhone OS Quad band GSM / GPRS / EDGE: GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900 Wi-Fi (802.11b/g) Bluetooth 2.0 with EDR 20Hz to 20kHz frequency response (both internal and headset)

A highlighted view of the proximity and ambient light sensors on the first-generation iPhone. Original model 4 GB model (discontinued after two months), 8 GB model or 16 GB model Size: 4.5 inches (115 mm) (h) × 2.4 inches (61 mm) (w) × 0.46 inch (11. mm) (d) Weight: 135 g (4.8 oz) Battery has up to 8 hours of talk, 6 hours of Internet use, 7 hours of video playback, and up to 24 hours of audio playback, lasting over 250 hours on standby. Headphone jack (recessed) Digital SAR of 0.974 W/kg

3G model

The proximity and ambient light sensors on the iPhone 3G. Color: Black (8 GB or 16 GB) or white (16 GB) Size: 4.5 inches (115.5 mm) (h) × 2.4 inches (62.1 mm) (w) × 0.48 inch (12.3 mm) (d) Weight: 133 g (4.7 oz) Headphone jack (non-recessed) Battery has up to 10 hours of 2G talk, 5 hours of 3G talk, 5 (3G) or 6 (Wi-Fi) hours of Internet use, 7 hours of video playback, and up to 24 hours of audio playback, lasting over 300 hours on standby. 3G for broadband data speeds (Tri band UMTS / HSDPA: UMTS 850 / 1900 / 2100)

Assisted GPS, with preference to location based on Wi-Fi or cell towers Digital SAR Rating: 1.38 W/kg Screen and input The 9 cm (3.5 in) liquid crystal display (320×480 px at 6.3 px/mm, 160 ppi) HVGA touchscreen with scratch-resistant glass is specifically created for use with a finger, or multiple fingers for multi-touch sensing. Because the screen is a capacitive touchscreen, bare skin is required. Most gloves or a stylus prevent the necessary electrical conductivity. The screen is also capable of rendering up to 262,144 colors. The display responds to three sensors. A proximity sensor shuts off the display and touchscreen when the iPhone is brought near the face during a call. This is done to save battery power and to prevent inadvertent inputs from the user's face and ears. An ambient light sensor adjusts the display brightness which in turn saves battery power. A 3-axis accelerometer senses the orientation of the phone and changes the screen accordingly. Photo browsing, web browsing, and music playing support both upright and left or right widescreen orientations. Later, a software update allowed the first generation iPhone to use cell towers and Wi-Fi networks for location finding despite lacking a hardware GPS. The iPhone 3G supplements those methods with A-GPS. The iPhone has three physical switches on the sides: wake/sleep, volume up/down, and ringer on/off. These are made of plastic on the original iPhone and metal on the iPhone 3G. A single "home" hardware button below the display brings up the main menu. The touch screen furnishes the remainder of the user interface. The back of the original iPhone was made of brushed metal with a black plastic accent. The iPhone 3G features a full plastic back to increase GSM signal strength. The plastic is black for the 8 GB model, but the 16 GB version is also available in white. Audio Loudspeakers are located above the screen and the left side of the bottom of the unit; the microphone is located on the right. Volume controls are located on the left side of the unit and as a slider in the iPod application. Both speakers are used for handsfree operations and media playback. The 3.5 mm TRS connector for the headphones is located on the top left corner of the device. The headphone socket on the original iPhone is recessed into the casing, making it incompatible with most headsets without the use of an adapter. The iPhone 3G has a flush mounted headphone socket. The iPhone's headphones are similar to those of most current smartphones, incorporating a microphone. A multipurpose button in the microphone can be used to play or pause music,

skip tracks, and answer or end phone calls without touching the iPhone; newer versions also incorporate volume controls. A small number of third-party headsets specifically designed for the iPhone also include a microphone and control button. Wireless earpieces that use Bluetooth technology to communicate with the iPhone are sold separately. They do not support stereo audio. Composite or component video at up to 576i and stereo audio can be output from the dock connector using an adapter sold by Apple. Unlike many similar phones, the iPhone requires third party software to support voice recording. Battery The iPhone features an internal rechargeable battery. It is not user-replaceable, similar to the batteries of existing iPods, and unlike those of most existing cellular phones. If the battery malfunctions or dies prematurely, the phone can be returned to Apple and replaced for free while still under warranty. The warranty lasts one year from purchase and is extended to two years with AppleCare. The cost of having Apple provide a new battery and replace it when the iPhone is out of warranty is slightly less than half the cost of a new 8 GB iPhone. Since July 2007 third party battery replacement kits have been available at a much lower price than Apple's own battery replacement program. These kits often include a small screwdriver and an instruction leaflet, but as with many newer iPod models the battery in the original iPhone has been soldered in. Therefore a soldering iron is required to install the new battery. The iPhone 3G uses a different battery fitted with a connector, although replacing the battery oneself still voids the warranty.[44] The original iPhone's battery was stated to be capable of providing up to seven hours of video, six hours of web browsing, eight hours of talk time, 24 hours of music or up to 250 hours on standby. Apple's site says that the battery life "is designed to retain up to 80% of its original capacity after 400 full charge and discharge cycles", which is comparable to the iPod batteries. The iPhone 3G's battery is stated to be capable of providing up to seven hours of video, six hours of web browsing on Wi-Fi or five on 3G, ten hours of 2G talk time, or five on 3G, 24 hours of music, or 300 hours of standby. The Foundation for Taxpayer and Consumer Rights, a consumer advocate group, has sent a complaint to Apple and AT&T over the fee that consumers have to pay to have the battery replaced. Though the battery replacement service and its pricing was not made known to buyers until the day the product was launched, a similar service had been well established for the iPods by Apple and various third party service providers. SIM card

See also: iPhone SIM Lock removal

The original iPhone's SIM card slot shown as open, with ejected SIM card. The SIM card is located in a slot at the top of the device. It can be ejected with a paperclip or a tool included with the iPhone 3G. In most countries, the iPhone is usually sold with a SIM lock, which prevents SIM cards from being used on different mobile networks. Storage The iPhone was initially released with two options for internal storage size: 4 GB or 8 GB. On September 5, 2007, Apple discontinued the 4 GB models. On February 5, 2008, Apple added a 16 GB model.All data is stored on an internal flash drive; the iPhone does not contain any memory card slots for expanded storage. Included items Both the iPhone and the iPhone 3G include (or included) written documentation, stereo earbuds with microphone, a dock connector to USB cable, and a cloth for cleaning the screen. The original iPhone also included a dock to hold the iPhone upright; it is not compatible with the iPhone 3G, for which a slightly different dock is sold separately. The iPhone 3G includes a tool to eject the SIM card; the original model required a paperclip for this purpose. Both versions include a USB power adapter, although iPhone 3Gs sold in North America, Japan, Colombia, Ecuador, or Peru include a more compact version than those bundled with iPhone 3Gs sold elsewhere, or the original model. Software Main article: iPhone OS See also: iPhone OS version history

The default Home screen of the iPhone shows applications provided by Apple. Users can download additional applications from the App store, create Web Clips, and rearrange the icons as they please. iPhone OS is the operating system running on the iPhone (both original and 3G models) and the iPod Touch. It is based on a variant of the same basic Mach kernel that is found in Mac OS X. iPhone OS includes the software component "Core Animation" from Mac OS X v10.5 which, together with the PowerVR MBX 3D hardware, is responsible for the interface's smooth animations. The operating system takes up less than half a GB of the device's total 8 GB or 16 GB storage. It is capable of supporting bundled and future applications from Apple, as well as from third-party developers. Software applications cannot be copied from Mac OS X but must be written and compiled specifically for the iPhone. Like the iPod, the iPhone is managed with iTunes version 7.3 or later, which is compatible with Mac OS X version 10.4.10 or later, and 32-bit or 64-bit Windows XP or Vista. The release of iTunes 7.6 expanded this support to include 64-bit versions of XP and Vista, and a workaround has been discovered for previous 64-bit Windows operating systems. Apple provides free updates to the iPhone's operating system through iTunes, in a similar fashion to the way that iPods are updated. Security patches, as well as new and improved features, are released in this fashion. For example, iPhone 3G users initially experienced dropped calls until an update was issued.

Interface The interface is based around the home screen, a graphical list of available applications. iPhone apps normally run one at a time, although most functionality is still available when making a call or listening to music. The home screen can be accessed at any time by a hardware button below the screen, closing the open application in the process. By default, the Home screen contains the following icons: Text (SMS messaging), Calendar, Photos, Camera, YouTube, Stocks, Maps (Google Maps), Weather, Clock, Calculator, Notes, Settings, iTunes (store), and App Store. Docked at the base of the screen, four icons for Phone, Mail, Safari (Internet), and iPod (music) delineate the iPhone's main purposes. On January 15, 2008, Apple released software update 1.1.3, allowing users to create "Web Clips", home screen icons that resemble apps that open a user-defined page in Safari. After the update, iPhone users can rearrange and place icons on up to nine other adjacent home screens, accessed by a horizontal swipe. Users can also add and delete icons from the dock, which is the same on every home screen. Each home screen holds up to sixteen icons, and the dock holds up to four icons. Users can delete Web Clips and third-party application, but not Apple's default programs, at any time. Almost all input is given through the touch screen, which understands complex gestures using multi-touch. The iPhone's interaction techniques enable the user to move the content up or down by a touch-drag motion of the finger. For example, zooming in and out of web pages and photos is done by placing two fingers on the screen and spreading them farther apart or bringing them closer together, an gesture known as "pinching". Scrolling through a long list or menu is achieved by sliding a finger over the display from bottom to top, or vice versa to go back. In either case, the list moves as if it is pasted on the outer surface of a wheel, slowly decelerating as if affected by friction. In this way, the interface simulates the physics of a real 3D object. Other visual effect include horizontally sliding sub-selection, the vertically sliding keyboard and bookmarks menu, and widgets that turn around to allow settings to be configured on the other side. Menu bars are found at the top and bottom of the screen when necessary. Their options vary by program, but always follow a consistent style motif. In menu hierarchies, a "back" button in the top-left corner of the screen displays the name of the parent folder. Phone

The iPhone making a call presents a number of options. When held close to the face, the screen is disabled. The iPhone allows audio conferencing, call holding, call merging, caller ID, and integration with other cellular network features and iPhone functions. For example, if a song is playing while a call is received, it gradually fades out, and fades back when the call has ended. The proximity sensor shuts off the screen and touch-sensitive circuitry when the iPhone is brought close to the face, both to save battery and prevent unintentional touches. The iPhone only supports Voice dialing through third party applications[citation needed] and video calling is not supported at all. The iPhone includes a visual voicemail (in some countries) feature allowing users to view a list of current voicemail messages on-screen without having to call into their voicemail. Unlike most other systems, messages can be listened to and deleted in a non-chronological order by choosing any message from an on-screen list. AT&T, O2, T-Mobile Germany, and Orange modified their voicemail infrastructure to accommodate this new feature designed by Apple.[citation needed] A music ringtone feature was introduced in the United States on September 5, 2007. Users can create custom ringtones from songs purchased from the iTunes Store for a small additional fee. The ringtones can be 3 to 30 seconds long from any part of a song, can fade in and out, pause from half a second to five seconds when looped, or loop continuously. All

customizing can be done in iTunes, and the synced ringtones can also be used for alarms. Custom ringtones can also be created using Apple's GarageBand software 4.1.1 or later (available only on Mac OS X) and third-party tools. Custom ringtones are not supported in some countries.

Multimedia The layout of the music library is similar to that of an iPod or current Symbian S60 phones. The iPhone can sort its media library by songs, artists, albums, videos, playlists, genres, composers, podcasts, audiobooks, and compilations. Options are always presented alphabetically, except in playlists, which retain their order from iTunes. The iPhone uses a large font that allows users to touch their selection. Users can rotate their device horizontally to access Cover Flow. Like on iTunes, it shows the different album covers in a scroll-through photo library. Scrolling is achieved by swiping a finger across the screen. The iPhone supports gapless playback. Like the fifth generation iPods introduced in 2005, the iPhone can play video, allowing users to watch TV shows and films. Unlike other image-related content, video on the iPhone plays only in the landscape orientation, when the phone is turned sideways. Double tapping switches between wide-screen and full-screen video playback. The iPhone allows users to purchase and download songs from the iTunes Store directly to their iPhone over Wi-Fi with the iTunes Wi-Fi Music Store, and as of Macworld San Francisco 2009, over the cellular data network. Internet connectivity

Wikipedia Main Page on iPhone's Safari in landscape mode

Internet access is available when the iPhone is connected to a local area Wi-Fi or a wide area GSM or EDGE network, both second-generation (2G) wireless data standards. The iPhone 3G also supports third-generation UMTS and HSDPA 3.6, but not HSDPA 7.2 or HSUPA networks. AT&T introduced 3G in July 2004, but as late as 2007 Steve Jobs felt that it was still not widespread enough, and the chipsets not energy efficient enough, to be included in the iPhone. The iPhone 3G has a maximum download rate of 1.4 Mbp/s. Support for 802.1X, an authentication system commonly used by university and corporate Wi-Fi networks, was added in the 2.0 version update. By default, the iPhone will ask to join newly discovered Wi-Fi networks and prompt for the password when required. Alternatively, it can join closed Wi-Fi networks manually. The iPhone will automatically choose the strongest network, connecting to Wi-Fi instead of EDGE when it is available. Similarly, the iPhone 3G prefers 3G to 2G, and Wi-Fi to either. Users can disable all wireless connections by activating Airplane Mode. Safari is the iPhone's native web browser, and it displays pages similar to its Mac OS X counterpart. Web pages may be viewed in portrait or landscape mode and supports automatic zooming by pinching together or spreading apart fingertips on the screen, or by double-tapping text or images.The iPhone supports neither Flashnor Java. Consequently, the UK's Advertising Standards Authority banned an advertisement claiming the iPhone could access "all parts of the Internet" on grounds of false advertising. The iPhone supports SVG, CSS, HTML Canvas, and Bonjour. The maps application can access Google Maps in map, satellite, or hybrid form. It can also generate directions between two locations, while providing optional real-time traffic information. Support for walking directions, public transit, and street view was added in the version 2.2 software update.[58] During the iPhone's announcement, Jobs demonstrated this feature by searching for nearby Starbucks locations and then placing a prank call to one with a single tap. Apple also developed a separate application to view YouTube videos on the iPhone, which streams videos over Wi-Fi, 2G, or 3G after encoding them using the open H.264 codec. Simple weather and stock quotes also tap in to the Internet. iPhone users can and do access the internet frequently, and in a variety of places. According to Google, the iPhone generates 50 times more search requests than any other mobile handset. According to Deutsche Telekom CEO René Obermann, "The average Internet usage for an iPhone customer is more than 100 megabytes. This is 30 times the use for our average contract-based consumer customers." Text input

Virtual keyboard on the original iPhone's touchscreen. For text input, the iPhone implements a virtual keyboard on the touchscreen. It has automatic spell checking and correction, predictive word capabilities, and a dynamic dictionary that learns new words. The keyboard can predict what word the user is typing and complete it, and correct for the accidental pressing of keys adjacent to the presumed desired key. The keys are somewhat larger and spaced farther apart when in landscape mode, which is supported by only a limited number of applications. Holding a finger over a section of text brings up a magnifying glass, allowing users to place the cursor in the middle of existing text. The iPhone does not support cut, copy, or pasting text. The virtual keyboard can accommodate 21 languages, including character recognition for Chinese. A lack of focus on text-messaging is widely considered a chief weakness of the iPhone, although a large number of users evidently have no issue using the device for this purpose. E-mail The iPhone also features an e-mail program that supports HTML e-mail, which enables the user to embed photos in an e-mail message. PDF, Word, Excel, and Powerpoint attachments to mail messages can be viewed on the phone. Apple's MobileMe platform offers push email, which emulates the functionality of the popular BlackBerry email solution, for an annual subscription. Yahoo! offers a free push-email service for the iPhone. IMAP (although not Push-IMAP) and POP3 mail standards are also supported, including Microsoft Exchange and Kerio MailServer. In the first versions of the iPhone firmware, this was accomplished by opening up IMAP on the Exchange server. Apple has also licensed Microsoft ActiveSync and now supports the platform (including push email) with the release of iPhone 2.0 firmware.The iPhone will sync e-mail account settings over from Apple's own Mail application, Microsoft Outlook, and Microsoft Entourage, or it can be manually configured on the device itself. With the correct settings, the e-mail program can access almost any IMAP or POP3 account. Camera and photos

The photo display application The iPhone features a built in 2.0 megapixel camera located on the back for still digital photos. It has no optical zoom, flash or autofocus, and does not support video recording. Version 2.0 of iPhone OS introduced the capability to embed location data in the pictures, producing geocoded photographs. The iPhone includes software that allows the user to upload, view, and e-mail photos. The user zooms in and out of photos by sliding two fingers further apart or closer together, much like Safari. The Camera application also lets users view the camera roll, the pictures that have been taken with the iPhone's camera. Those pictures are also available in the Photos application, along with any transferred from iPhoto or Aperture on a Mac, or Photoshop in Windows. Third party applications See also: iPhone SDK and App Store At WWDC 2007 on June 11, 2007 Apple announced that the iPhone would support thirdparty "web applications" written in AJAX that share the look and feel of the iPhone interface. On October 17, 2007, Steve Jobs, in an open letter posted to Apple's "Hot News" weblog, announced that a software development kit (SDK) would be made available to third-party developers in February 2008. The iPhone SDK was officially announced on March 6, 2008, at the Apple Town Hall facility. It allows developers to develop native applications for the iPhone and iPod Touch, as well as test them in an "iPhone simulator". However, loading an application onto the devices is only possible after paying a Apple Developer Connection membership fee. Developers are free to set any price for their applications to be distributed through the App Store, of which they will receive a 70 percent share. Developers can also opt to release the application for free and will not pay any costs to release or distribute the application beyond the membership fee. The SDK was made available immediately, while the launch of applications had to wait until the firmware update which was released on July 11, 2008. The update was free for iPhone users, but not for iPod Touch owners, whose devices can run iPhone applications only after paying a small fee. Once a developer has submitted an application to the App Store, Apple holds

firm control over its distribution. For example, Apple can halt the distribution of applications it deems inappropriate as has happened with a US$1000 program that has as sole purpose to demonstrate the wealth of its user. Apple has been criticized for banning third party applications that enable a functionality that Apple doesn't want the iPhone to have. In 2008, Apple rejected Podcaster, which allowed iPhone users to download podcasts directly to the iPhone claiming it duplicated the functionality of iTunes. Apple has since released a software update that grants this capability. NetShare, another rejected app, would have enabled users to tether iPhones to laptop (or desktop) computers and thereby use the iPhone as an Internet modem. Many third-party Safari "applications" and unsigned native applications are also available. The ability to install native applications onto the iPhone outside of the App Store will not be supported by Apple. Such native applications could be broken by any software update, but Apple has stated it will not design software updates specifically to break native applications other than applications that perform SIM unlocking. As of September 15, 2008, iPhone software version 2.1 is still "exploitable" by the same method that enabled unsigned applications in software versions as early as version 1.1.3, indicating that Apple is making good on their promise not to intentionally cripple unofficial development. Others The built-in Bluetooth 2.x+EDR supports wireless earpieces, which requires the HSP profile, but notably does not support stereo audio (requires A2DP), laptop tethering (requires DUN and SPP), or the OBEX file transfer protocol (requires FTP, GOEP, and OPP). The lack of these profiles prevent iPhone users from exchanging multimedia files with other bluetooth-enabled cell phones, including pictures, music and videos. Text messages are presented chronologically in a mailbox format similar to Mail, which places all text from recipients together with replies. Text messages are displayed in speech bubbles (similar to iChat) under each recipient's name. The iPhone currently has built-in support for e-mail message forwarding, drafts, and direct internal camera-to-e-mail picture sending. However, it does not yet have capabilities for delivery reports, MMS, or copy/cut/paste. Support for multi-recipient SMS was added in the 1.1.3 software update. Accessibility The iPhone can enlarge text to make it more accessible for vision-impaired users, and can accommodate hearing-impaired users with closed captioning and external TTY devices. Nevertheless, Apple states that "effective use of the iPhone requires a minimal level of visual acuity, motor skills, and an ability to operate a few mechanical buttons. Use of iPhone by someone who relies solely on audible and tactile input is not recommended." The iPhone 3G has not been rated under the United States Federal Communication Commission guidelines for hearing aid compatibility at either level M3 or T3.

Intellectual property Apple has filed more than 200 patents related to the technology behind the iPhone. LG Electronics claimed the iPhone's design was copied from the LG Prada. Woo-Young Kwak, head of LG Mobile Handset R&D Center, said at a press conference, “We consider that Apple copied Prada phone after the design was unveiled when it was presented in the iF Design Award and won the prize in September 2006.” On September 3, 1993, Infogear filed for the U.S. trademark "I PHONE" and on March 20, 1996 applied for the trademark "IPhone". "I Phone" was registered in March 1998, and "IPhone" was registered in 1999. Since then, the I PHONE mark had been abandoned. Infogear's trademarks cover "communications terminals comprising computer hardware and software providing integrated telephone, data communications and personal computer functions" (1993 filing), and "computer hardware and software for providing integrated telephone communication with computerized global information networks" (1996 filing). Infogear released a telephone with an integrated web browser under the name iPhone in 1998. In 2000, Infogear won an infringement claim against the owners of the iphones.com domain name. In June 2000, Cisco Systems acquired Infogear, including the iPhone trademark. On December 18, 2006 they released a range of re-branded Voice over IP (VoIP) sets under the name iPhone. In October 2002, Apple applied for the "iPhone" trademark in the United Kingdom, Australia, Singapore, and the European Union. A Canadian application followed in October 2004 and a New Zealand application in September 2006. As of October 2006 only the Singapore and Australian applications had been granted. In September 2006, a company called Ocean Telecom Services applied for an "iPhone" trademark in the United States, United Kingdom and Hong Kong, following a filing in Trinidad and Tobago. As the Ocean Telecom trademark applications use exactly the same wording as Apple's New Zealand application, it is assumed that Ocean Telecom is applying on behalf of Apple. The Canadian application was opposed in August 2005 by a Canadian company called Comwave who themselves applied for the trademark three months later. Comwave have been selling VoIP devices called iPhone since 2004. Shortly after Steve Jobs' January 9, 2007 announcement that Apple would be selling a product called iPhone in June 2007, Cisco issued a statement that it had been negotiating trademark licensing with Apple and expected Apple to agree to the final documents that had been submitted the night before. On January 10, 2007 Cisco announced it had filed a lawsuit against Apple over the infringement of the trademark iPhone, seeking an injunction in federal court to prohibit Apple from using the name. More recently, Cisco claimed that the trademark lawsuit was a "minor skirmish" that was not about money, but about interoperability.

On February 2, 2007, Apple and Cisco announced that they had agreed to temporarily suspend litigation while they hold settlement talks, and subsequently announced on February 20, 2007 that they had reached an agreement. Both companies will be allowed to use the "iPhone" name in exchange for "exploring interoperability" between their security, consumer, and business communications products. Restrictions SIM Lock removal

Unlocked iPhone firmware version 2.0 using GrameenPhone Network in Bangladesh. While initially iPhones were only sold on the AT&T network with a SIM lock in place, various hackers have found methods to "unlock" the phone; more recently some carriers have started to sell unlocked iPhones. More than a quarter of iPhones sold in the United States were not registered with AT&T. Apple speculates that they were likely shipped overseas and unlocked. AT&T has stated that the "iPhone cannot be unlocked, even if you are out of contract". On November 21, 2007, T-Mobile in Germany announced it would sell the phone unlocked and without a T-Mobile contract, caused by a preliminary injunction against T-Mobile put in place by their competitor, Vodafone. On December 4, 2007, a German court decided to grant T-Mobile exclusive rights to sell the iPhone with SIM lock, overturning the temporary injunction. In addition, T-Mobile will voluntarily offer to unlock customers' iPhone after the termination of the contract. On carriers where removal of the iPhone's SIM lock is allowed, the carrier can submit a request to Apple which will then remove the carrier locking on the next restore of the iPhone through iTunes. Note that in certain countries, where unlocked phones are required to be available by law, the iPhone is sold without a contract and without a SIM lock; on average, such units carry prices of US$700+ for the 8 GB model. Examples include Hong

Kong, Italy, New Zealand, and Russia. In Australia, all three carriers (Optus, Telstra, and Vodafone) will also provide an unlock after requesting it from the carrier. Activation The iPhone normally prevents access to its media player and web features unless it has also been activated as a phone with an authorized carrier. On July 3, 2007, Jon Lech Johansen reported on his blog that he had successfully bypassed this requirement and unlocked the iPhone's other features with a combination of custom software and modification of the iTunes binary. He published the software and offsets for others to use. Unlike the original, the 3G iPhone must be activated in the store in most countries. This need for in-store activation, as well as the huge number of first-generation iPhone and iPod Touch users upgrading to iPhone OS 2.0, caused a worldwide overload of Apple's servers on July 11, 2008, the day on which both the iPhone 3G and iPhone OS 2.0 updates were released. After the update, devices were required to connect to Apple's servers to authenticate the update, causing many devices to be temporarily unusable. Users on the O2 network in the United Kingdom, however, can buy the phone online and activate it via iTunes as with the previous model. iPhones purchased in Australia as a prepaid kit likewise do not require in-store activation, but require activation online at the Optus website and iTunes. Buyers can also activate iPhones via iTunes on Spain's Movistar network. Shops usually offer activation for the buyer's convenience. Third party applications The iPhone's operating system is designed to only run software that has an Apple-approved cryptographic signature. This restriction can be overcome by "jailbreaking" the phone, which involves replacing the iPhone's firmware with a slightly modified version that does not enforce the signature check. Doing so may be a circumvention of Apple's technical protection measures. Apple, in a statement to the United States Copyright Office in response to EFF lobbying for a DMCA exception for this kind of hacking, claimed that jailbreaking the iPhone would be copyright infringement due to the modification of system software needed to jailbreak the iPhone.

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