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These organelles are found in the liver and kidney cells. They are small,
membrane-bound sacs, and contain powerful oxidative enzymes. Their chief
function is to remove toxic substances.

These are spherical, granular particles which occur freely in the matrix or remain
attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes contain RNA
(ribonucleic acid) and proteins. Their function is to provide the surface for protein


This is found in the cytoplasm near the outer surface of the nucleus and contains
two cylinders called centrioles. The centrosome is found only in the animal cell.
The centrosome and the centrioles play an important role by forming the poles of
the spindle during cell division.

These may be cylindrical, rod-shaped or spherical and distributed in the
cytoplasm. Each mitochondrion is bound by a double membrane. The inner
membrane is folded into ridges called cristae, which increase the surface area of
the membrane. It is in the mitochondria that the sugar is finally burnt during
cellular respiration. The energy thus released is stored as high-energy chemicals
called ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Hence, mitochondria are termed as the
“power house” or the “power plant” of the cell. The body cells use the
energy stored in ATP for synthesis of new chemical compounds, the transport of
these compounds and for mechanical work.
Structure of mitochondria
Plastids: These organelles are found only in plant cells.
Plastids are of three types
Chloroplasts :

They are green and found in leaves. The green colour is due to the
presence of chlorophyll. Chromoplasts

They are yellow, orange and red, and found in flowers and fruits.

They are colourless and found in roots, seeds and underground stems.

The function of the chloroplast is to trap solar energy for photosynthesis.

Chromoplasts impart colour to flowers to attract insects for pollination.
Leucoplasts store food in the form of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

This is a prominent, spherical or oval structure found at the centre of the cell. It is
the controlling centre of all cell activities and has been described as the brain of
the cell. It regulates all metabolic and hereditary activities of the cell.
The nucleus is composed of the following structures:
Nuclear Membrane
Chromatin network

Structure of a nucleus

Nuclear membrane:
This is a double-layered membrane which separates the nucleoplasm from the
cytoplasm. The nuclear membrane has minute pores which allow the
selective transfer of material between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm.

Within the nuclear membrane, completely filling up the space, is a clear, semi-
solid, granular substance or matrix called the nucleoplasm. The nucleolus and the
chromatin network lie suspended in the nucleoplasm.

Nucleolus: This dense, spherical granule found in the nucleus contains RNA
(ribonucleic acid) which is responsible for protein synthesis in the cytoplasm.

Chromatin network:
These are very fine thread-like, coiled filaments uniformly distributed in the
nucleoplasm. At the time of cell division, the chromatin becomes thick and ribbon
like and are known as chromosomes. The chromosomes contain genes, which are
composed of DNA (deoxy-ribonucleic acid). Genes are responsible for storing and
transmitting hereditary characteristics from one generation to another. A gene is
the functional unit of a chromosome. Genes are arranged in single linear order
along the chromosome. One gene may be responsible for a single characteristic,
or a single characteristic may be transmitted by a set of genes.
A Typical Animal Cell:

A Typical Plant Cell

A Generalised Animal Cell as observed under an Electron Microscope.

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
This is a complex network of tubes, the lumen of which is filled with fluid. Two
types of endoplasmic reticula are seen -
Tubes with a smooth surface are called smooth endoplasmic reticula. They
secrete lipids.
Tubes with spherical bodies (ribosomes) attached are known as rough
endoplasmic reticula.

The functions of the endoplasmic reticulum are to form the skeletal framework of
the cell, to provide a pathway for the distribution of nuclear material from one
cell to the other and to synthesize fats, steroids and cholesterol with the help of
enzymes secreted by the cell.

Golgi Apparatus

Also known as Golgi Complex or Golgi Bodies, they consist of tiny,

elongated, flattened sacs (cisternae), which are stacked parallel to one another
along with some vacuoles and clusters of vesicles. The function of the Golgi Body
is to secrete certain hormones and enzymes. It also forms lysosomes and
peroxisomes. The Golgi body is usually found close to the nucleus.

These are tiny, spherical, sac-like structures scattered all over the cytoplasm.
Their main function is digestion. They contain powerful destructive enzymes
capable of digesting all organic material, and hence called “digestive bags”.
Lysosomes present in white blood cells are capable of digesting bacteria and
viruses. During starvation, lysosomes digest proteins, fats and glycogen in the
cytoplasm, and supply energy to the cell. They are also capable of digesting worn
out cell organelles, or even digesting the entire damaged cell containing them.
Hence, “suicide bag” is a sobriquet that is often used for Lysosomes.

These organelles are found in the liver and kidney cells. They are small,
membrane-bound sacs, and contain powerful oxidative enzymes.
Their chief function is to remove toxic substances.
Discovery of Cell Robert Hooke at first examining a thin slice of dead cork [the
bark of a tree] through a self-designed microscope in 1665. Robert Hooke predicts
that the cork resembled the structure of a honeycomb consisting of many little
boxes. He called these boxes cells. He described about this in his book

Cell is a Latin word which means ‘a little room’. The word cell was derived from a
Greek word “Cellulae” which means small room. First living cell was discovered by
A.V. Leeuwenhoek with the improved microscope in pond water.
Q. What are Living Organisms made up of?
Answer: All living organisms that we observe around us are made up of cells.

Q. Who gave the cell theory? What does it state? Which organism is an
exception of cell theory?
Answer: Two biologists, “Schleiden and Schwann” gave the “Cell theory” which
was later on expanded by “Rudolf Virchow”. Cell theory states that
(a) All plants and animals are composed of cells. (b) Cell is the basic unit of life. (c)
All cells arise from pre-existing cells. Viruses are the exceptions of cell theory.Þ


(a) New cells are formed from pre-existing cells.

(b) Movement of water molecules from their higher concentration to their

lowerconcentration through a semi- permeable membrane is called Osmosis.
(c) The functional components of cell are plasma membrane, cytoplasm &

(d) Protoplasm has two parts- cytoplasm & nucleoplasm.

(e) Nucleus, mitochondria & plastids have their own DNA & ribosomes.

(f) The shrinkage or contraction of the contents of the cell away from the cell wall
is known as plasmolysis.

(g) The process by which Amoeba can engulf a food particle is endocytosis.

(h) Biogenesis is the manufacture of lipids required for making cell membrane.

(i) A cell that lacks nuclear membrane is called a prokaryotic cell & the nuclear
region is called nucleoid.

(j) Movement of materials in & out of the cell takes place by diffusion & osmosis.

2. What is the advantage of multicellularity over unicellularity?

Ans- Division of labour.

3. What are the chromosomes made up of?

Ans- DNA & proteins

4. A cell placed in a solution swells up. What kind of solution is it? Why does it
Ans- It is a hypotonic sol ution & water enters the cell by endosmosis causing the
cell to swell up.

5. Why are lysosomes known as “suicidal bags”?

Ans- They secrete powerful digestive enzymes to digest the worn out and
damaged cell
organelles as well as the cell itself when it loses its functional ability.

6.Why is the nucleus so significant in a cell?

Ans- Nucleus has the following important functions-
(i) It controls all cell activities
(ii) It contains hereditary material that transmits hereditary information from one
generation to the next(iii) It helps in cell division

7. Differentiate between plant and animal cells.

1- Surrounded by two membranes- cell wall & cell membrane.
2- Possess three types of plastids chloroplasts, chromoplasts, leucoplasts.
3- Do not possess lysosomes.
4- Nucleus is towards the periphery.
5- Centrioles are absent

1- Surrounded only by cell / plasma membrane.
2-Do not possess plastids.
3-Possess lysosomes
4-Nucleus is in the center ..
5-Centrioles present & help in cell division.

8. Give the major functions of the following cell organelles-

(a) Endoplasmic reticulum RER-- Synthesis of proteins as it
has ribosomes attached to it SER- Synthesis of lipids required for making
cell membrane
(b) Golgi apparatus-----------Storage & packaging of various products.
(c) Mitochondria------Production of ATP(Adenosine Triphosphate) which is
a source of energy.
(d) Ribosomes ---Protein synthesis
(e) Golgi ApparatusStorage & packaging of various products.
(f) LysosomesDigestion of worn out & damaged organelles

Q. Why do we put peel off the skin of onion (called epidermis) immediately in a
watch-glass containing water?
Answer: This will help to keep peel wet.

Q. All cells come from pre-existing cells .Justify?

Answer: All organisms around are made up of cells. There are single cells
organism called unicellular like amoeba where as some single body are made up
of many cells called multi-cellular organism. Cells divide to produce cells of their
own kind. Hence, all cells come from pre-existing cells.

Q. What are the types of cell on the basis of type of organization?

Answer: (i) Prokaryotic cells: Cells having less developed nucleus without nuclear
membrane and nucleolus. E.g. Bacteria. These are primitive and incomplete cells.

(ii) Eukaryotic cells: Cells having well developed nucleus with unclear membrane
and nucleolus. e.g. Plants and animals.

Q. How do all cells look alike in terms of shape and size?

Answer: Cells are of variable shapes and sizes. Their shape is according to the
function. Generally cells are spherical but they may be long and branched(nerve
cell), Kidney shaped (guard cell in plant’s leaves), discoidal (RBC), spindle shaped
(muscle cell) etc.
Size of cell varies from 0.2 mm to18 cm in diameter. Some are microscopic while
some are visible with naked eyes.
For example:

Þ Size of a typical cell in a Multicellular organism ranges from 20-30 mn.

Þ The largest cell is ostrich egg (15 cm. in diameter with shell & 8 cm. in diameter
without shell)

Þ The longest cell is nerve cell. (up to 1m. or more) and Red Blood cells are the
smallest cell in our body.

Þ Smallest cells so far known are PPLOs e.g. mycoplasma (0.1mm in diameter.)

Þ Human egg is 0.1 mm. in diameter.

Þ Unicellular alga, Acetabularia is about 10cm long.

Q. How does a living cell perform basic functions?

Answer: a living cell perform basic functions by division of labour among specific
components within it known as cell organelles.

In Text:

1. Who discovered cells, and how?

Answer: Robert Hooke at first examining a thin slice of dead cork [the bark of a
tree] through a self-designed microscope in 1665 and discovered cell.

2. Why is cell called the structural and functional unit of life?

Answer: All living things are made up of small structures called cells. Cells also
perform all the basic functions in all living things. This is why cell is called the
structural and functional unit of life.

Q. What is a cell made up of?

Answer: A cell is made up of plasma membrane, nucleus and cytoplasm

Q. What is the function of plasma membrane?

Answer: plasma membrane is the outermost covering of the cell present in both
plants [below the cell wall] and animal cell.
Singer and Nicholson gave the fluid mosaic model of plasma membrane according
to him it consists of a protein layer between two layers of lipids.

(a) It separates the contents of the cell from its external environment.

(b) It allows the entry and exit of some materials in and out of the cell.

Q. How does the movement of substances take place into the cell?
Answer: Some substances like carbon dioxide or oxygen can move across the cell
membrane by a process of diffusion whereas water can move across the cell
membrane by a process of osmosis.

Q. What are diffusion and osmosis?

Answer: Diffusion is a spontaneous movement of a substance from a region of
high concentration to a region to a region of concentration is low through a
selectively permeable membrane.
The movement of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
from a region of high water concentration to a region of low water concentration
is called osmosis. Therefore, osmosis is a special case of diffusion through a
selectively permeable membrane.

Q. How do substances move out of the cell?

Answer: As there is a difference of concentration of CO2 inside and outside a cell,
CO2 moves out of the cell, from a region of high concentration, to a region of
low concentration outside the cell by the process of diffusion.

Q. What will happen if we put an animal cell or a plant cell into a solution of
sugar or salt in water?
Answer: The cell swell up as the cell will gain water by osmosis. This happens
because the concentration of the solution outside the cell is lesser than that of
cytoplasm of cell.

Q. What are isotonic solution, hypertonic solution and hypotonic solutions?

Answer: Types of solution on the basis of concentration:

(A)Isotonic solution: When the concentration of the solution outside the equal to
the Concentration of cytoplasm of the cell it is called as isotonic solution.

(B) Hypertonic solution: When the f concentration of the solution outside the cell
is more than that inside the cell. Due to this cell looses water and becomes

(C) Hypotonic solution: When the concentration of the solution outside the cell is
lesser than that of cytoplasm of cell. Due to this cell swells up and bursts.

Q. Remove the shell of an egg by dissolving it into dilute hydrochloric acid. Put
the egg in pure water and left it for 5 minutes. What do we observe?
Answer: The egg swells because the cell will gain water by osmosis. This happens
because the medium surrounding the cell has a higher water concentration than
the cell

Q. When we put dried raisins or apricots in plain water and leave them for some
time they swell. Why?
Answer: Each dried raisins or apricots gains water by osmosis and swells when
placed in water.
Q. Why is the cell known the 'fundamental and structural unit of life '
Ans: ell is called as the structural and functional unit of the living organism
because it the smallest living entity that is capable of an independent existence.
Separated cell organelles cannot be said to be living and are not capable of
independent existence.

Q, what is a semi permeable membrane? what are the differences between

semi permeable membrane and selectively permeable membrane?
Ans: a semi permeable membrane is a membrane that allows only the entry of
substances that are helpful for the body. a semi permeable membrane is also
called a selectively permeable membrane.

Q. Which cell in the human body does not have the mitochondria?
Ans: Mature erythrocytes don't have mitochondria

Q.What are plastids? Write their functions?

Plastids are double membrane organelles which are found in plant cells only.
Functions: 1. By trapping solar energy, green plastids manufacture food through
2. Chloroplasts provide colored to various flowering parts.
3. Leucoplasts help in storage of protein, starch and oil

Q. which structure of animal cells forms the asters of spindle ?

Ans: Centrioles.

Q. Name two semi- autonomous organelles?

Ans: Chloroplast and mitochondria

Q. Which cell organelle is rich in acid hydrolases?

Ans: Lysomes are loaded with acid hydrolases

Q. Which cell organelles are called ribonucleoprotine particle?

Ans: Ribosome.

Q. Differentiate between SER and RER

Ans: Rough endoplasmic reticulum[RER] has ribosomes attached to it giving a
rough appearance thereby deriving its name. RER- involved in protein synthesis
as ribosomes are concerned with protein synthesis.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum [SER] is devoid of ribosomes. SER-concerned with
lipid synthesis in intestinal cells and with steroid formation in adrenals

Q. what is the difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes?

Prokaryotes Eukaryotes
They are mainly multicellular except for
They are mainly unicellular
They have only a few organelles Many organelles
DNA is circular DNA is linear
DNA lies in the cytoplasm (Nucleus
DNA is inside the nucleus
Cell division occurs mostly through binary
Mitosis, meiosis or both take place.

Q .What is the difference between osmosis and diffusion.

Osmosis Diffusion
It is the movement of water. It is the movement of solute particle.
Membrane is required Membrane is not required.
Movement from low concentration to Movement from high concentration to
high concentration of solute. low concentration of solute.
It is associated with liquids. It is associated with both liquid and

Q. Where are peroxisomes found ?

Ans: Peroxisomes are small, living, membrane bound, sac like cell organelle found
in photosynthetically active cells of plants, liver and kidneys. These are meant for
removing toxic substances from the cell by oxidative reactions. These are also
involved in photorespiration in plants.

Q. what are the chemical reactions take place in cytoplasm, nucleoplasm, and in
Ans: 1. Cytoplasm- Reactions of glycolysis.
2. Mitochondria- Reactions of Kreb's cycle.
3. Nucleoplasm- Reactions involving formation of RNA.

Q. what is Diffusion?
Ans: Diffusion is a spontaneous movement in which a substance moves from its
region of higher concentration to the region of lower concentration. For example,
in the case of a perfume, it moves from the region of higher concentration to
lower concentration. So, it is a type of diffusion.

Q . What is dictyosomes ?
Ans: Dictyosomes are membranous or vesicular structures making up the Golgi
apparatus. They together with golgi vesicles form the golgi apparatus .

Q. Which tissue protects the entire body?

Answer: Epithelial tissue

Q.Give one example each of:

Answer1. Squamous epithelium (simple) - cheek cells
2. Columnar epithelium - intestine

Q.Give one example of connective tissue in which matrix is solid?

Answer : Bone

Q. Name the following:

Ans: 1. Multinucleate muscle fibre: - skeletal muscle fibre

2. Spindle shaped muscle fibre: - smooth muscle fibre

3. Tissue which stores fats: - adipose

4. Process of neuron, which carries impulse: -axon

Q.Name one structure in your body, which bears ciliated epithelium.

Answer: Respiratory tract

Q.What is aerenchyma?

Ans: It is a specialized parenchyma found in aquatic plants which

consists of network of small cells that enclose air cavities.
Q.What is the difference between simple plant tissue and simple
animal tissue?

1. Consists of same type of Cells. Consists of one or more types

of Cells.
2. Arrangement varies. Arranged in a single layer.

Q.What is the utility of tissues in multicellular organisms?

Answer: 1.Division of labour 2. Higher organization 3. Higher survival

Q.What is a synapse

Answer: Junction between two neurons.

Q.Where is apical meristem found?

Answer: Root and stem tips

Q. Identify the type of tissue in the following?

Answer: 1. Skin - epithelial 2. Bark - cork 3. Bone - connective

4. Lining of kidney tubules - epithelial 5. Vascular bundle - xylem and
Q. What is the role of epidermis?

Answer: a. Protection b. Regulates transpiration C. Exchange of

Q.What will happen if apical meristem is damaged?

Ans:Growth in length will stop.

Q.What are the components of phloem?

Ans:1. Phloem parenchyma 2. Phloem fibres 3. Sieve tubes 4.

Companion cells
Q.Name all simple plant tissues?

Ans:1. Parenchyma 2. Collenchyma 3. Sclerenchyma

Q.1: The largest cell in the human body is -

(a)Nerve cell (b) Muscle cell (c)Liver cell (d)Kidney cell

Q.2: The barrier between the protoplasm and the other environment in an animal cells
(a)Cell wall (b) Nuclear membrane (c) Tonoplast (d) Plasma membrane

Q.3: The term ‘Cell’ was given by -

(a)Leeuwenhoek (b) Robert hooke (c) Flemming (d) Robert Brown

Q.4: Who proposed the cell theory? -

(a)Schleiden and Schwann (b) Watson and Crick (c) Darwin and Wallace (d) Mendel
and Morgan

Q.5: A plant cell differs from an animal cell in the absence of -

(a)Endoplasmic Reticulum (b) Mitochondria (c) Ribosome (d) Centrioles
Q.6: Centrosome is found in -
(a)Cytoplasm (b) Nucleus (c) Chromosomes (d) Nucleolus

Q.7: The power house of a cell is -

(a)Chloroplast (b) Mitochondrion (c) Golgi apparatus (d) Nucleolus

Q.8: Within a cell the site of respiration (oxidation) is the -

(a)Ribosome (b) Golgi apparatus ( c) Mitochondrion (d) Endoplasmic Reticulum

Q.9: Which is called ‘Suicidal Bag’?

(a)Centrosome (b) Lysosome (c) Mesosome (d) Chromosome

Q.10: Ribosomes are the center for -

(a)Respiration (b) Photosynthesis (c) Protein synthesis (d) Fat synthesis

Q.11: Double membrane is absent in -

(a)Mitochondrion (b) Chloroplast (c) Nucleus (d) Lysosome

Q.12: Cell organelle found only in Plant is -

(a)Golgi apparatus (b) Mitochondria (c) Plastids (d) Ribosomes

Q.13: Organisms lacking nucleus and membrane bound organelle are -

(a)Diploids (b) Prokaryotes (c) Haploids (d) Eukaryotes

Q.14: Animal cell is limited by -

(a)Plasma membrane (b) Shell membrane (c) Cell wall (d)Basement membrane

Q.15: The network of Endoplasmic Reticulum is present in the -

a)Nucleus (b) Nucleolus (c)Cytoplasm (d)Chromosomes

Q.16: Lysosome are reservoirs of -

(a)Fat (b) RNA (c) Secretary Glycoprotein (d) Hydrolytic Enzymes

Q.17: The membrane surrounding the vacuole of a plant cell is called -

(a)Tonoplast (b) Plasma membrane (c)Nuclear membrane (d)Cell wall

Q.18: Cell secretion is done by -

(a)Plastids (b) ER (c)Golgi apparatus (d)Nucleolus

Q.19: Centrioles are associated with -

(a)DNA synthesis (b) Reproduction (c)Spindle formation (d)Respiration
Q.20: Main difference between animal cell and plant cell is -
(a)Chromosome (b) Ribosome (c)Lysosome (d) Endoplasmic Reticulum

Q.21: Animal cell lacking nuclei would also lack in -

(a) Chromosome (b) Ribosome (c) Lysosome (d) Endoplasmic Reticulum

Q.22: Plasmolysis occurs due to -

(a)Absorption (b ) Endosmosis (c)Osmosis (d)Exosmosis

Q.23: A plant cell becomes turgid due to -

(a)Plasmolysis (b) Exosmosis (c) Endosmosis (d) Electrolysis

Q.24: Solute concentration is higher in the external solution -

(a)Hypotonic (b) Isotonic (c) Hypertonic (d) None of the above

Q.25: A cell placed in hypertonic solution will -

(a)Shrink (b) Show Plasmolysis (c) Swell up (d) No change in shape or size

Q.26: The radiant energy of sunlight is converted to chemical energy and is stored as -
(a)AMP (b) ADP (c)ATP (d)APP
Q.27: Which of the following organelle does not have membrane?
(a)Ribosome (b) Nucleus (c) Chloroplast (d)Mitochondria

Q.28: Root hair absorbs water from soil through -

(a)Osmosis (b) Active transport (c) Diffusion (d)Endocytosis

Q.29: The number of lenses in compound light microscope is -

(a)2 (b)3 (c)4 (d)1

Q.30: The history of the cell began in 1665 with the publication of Micrographia
in London by -
(a)Robert Hooke (b) Robert Brown (c) Strasburger (d)Dujardin

Q.31: Cell inclusions are -

(a)Non-living materials present in the cytoplasm (b) Another name of cell organelle
(c) Cytoskeletal framework of cell (d) Combined name for cell wall and plasma

Q.32: Which cell organelle is not bounded by a membrane -

(a)Ribosome (b) Lysosome (c)ER (d)Nucleus

Q.33: Which of the following cellular part possess a double membrane?

(a)Nucleus (b) Chloroplast (c)Mitochondrion (d)All of the above

Q.34: Cristae and Oxysomes are associated with -

(a)Mitochondria (b) Plastids (c)Golgi apparatus (d)Plasma membrane
Q.35: Karyotheca is another name of -
(a)Nuclear envelope (b) Nucleus (c)Nuclear pores (d)Nucleolus

Q.36: Cell organelle that acts as supporting skeletal framework of the cell is -
(a) Golgi apparatus (b) Nucleus (c) Mitochondria (d) ER

Q.37: Plastids are present in -

(a)Animal cell only (b) Plant cells only
(c)Both animal cells and Plant cells (d)Neither animal nor plant cell

Q.38: Cell wall of plant is chiefly composed of -

(a)Hemicellulose (b) Cellulose (c)Phospholipids (d)Proteins

Q.39: Intercellular connections of plant cells are called -

(a)Middle lamella (b)Micro fibrils (c)Matrix (d)Plasmodesmata

Q.40: Genes are located on the -

(a)Chromosomes (b)Nucleolus (c)Nuclear membrane (d)Plasma membrane

Q.41: Chromatin consists of -

(a)RNA (b) DNA (c)RNA and histones (proteins) (d)DNA and histones (proteins)

Q.42: Different types of chromosomes can be recognized by the positions of the

following separating the two arms -
(a)Centromere (b) Genes (c) Spindle (d)Nucleus

Q.43: Name of the process that requires energy provided by ATP -

(a)Diffusion (b) Osmosis (c) Active transport (d)Plasmolysis