You are on page 1of 4

IJRMET Vol.

5, Issue 2, May - Oct 2015 ISSN : 2249-5762 (Online) | ISSN : 2249-5770 (Print)

Design and Development of Roll Cage for an


All Train Vehicle – SAE BAJA
1
Manjot Singh, 2Suraj Ghimire
1
Dept. of Mechanical Engg., Panjab University SSG Regional Centre, Hoshiarpur, Punjab, India
2
Dept. of Automobile Engg., Gulzar College of Engineering, Khanna, Punjab, India

Abstract Table 2: Material Properties


BAJA SAE is an all terrain vehicle competition which gives Material Prop. AISI-1018
under-graduate students a practical experience in engineering
Density 7700 kg/m3
sciences. It deals with modeling of roll cage of an automobile (SAE
BAJA) and analyzing it to give an optimum design. BAJA is most Tensile Ultimate Strength 440 MPa
economical off- road vehicle can be used in rugged environment, Tensile Yield Strength 370 MPa
so we should analyze the impact forces of terrain environment. Poisson’s Ratio 0.29
The roll cage must be constructed of steel tubing, with minimum Carbon Content 0.14 - 0.2 %
dimensional and strength requirements dictated by Society of
Automotive Engineers (SAE). Increased concern about the roll B. Roll Cage Elements
cage has created the importance of simulation and analysis thereby The roll cage is a space frame of tubular steel.
predicting failure modes of the frame. In the present paper, we
have used ANSYS to investigate the response of the frame under Primary Members are :-
various impacts. Rear Roll Hoop (RRH)
Roll Hoop Overhead Members (RHO)
Keywords Front Bracing Members (FBM)
Roll Cage, Analysis, All Terrain Vehicle, Finite Element Analysis, Lateral Cross Member (LC)
Factor of Safety, ANSYS. Front Lateral Cross Member (FLC)

I. Introduction Secondary Members are :-


The objective of the study is to design, develop and fabricate Lateral Diagonal Bracing (LBD)
the roll cage for All - Terrain Vehicle in accordance with the Lower Frame Side (LFS)
rulebook of SAE BAJA 2015 Rulebook . Material for the roll Side Impact Member (SIM)
cage is selected based on strength, cost and availability. The roll Fore/Aft Bracing (FAB)
cage is designed to incorporate all the automotive sub-systems. Under Seat Member (USM)
Based on the result obtained from these tests the design is modified
accordingly. The purpose of the roll cage is to maintain a minimum
space surrounding the driver and to support all subsystems. The
cage is designed and fabricated to prevent any failure of the cage’s
integrity. Designing of roll cage is done with ergonomic and safety
conditions as specified in SAE rule book.

II. Design and Development


The design and development process of the roll cage involves
various factors; namely material selection, roll cage elements,
frame design and finite element analysis.
The details of each step are given below :-

(a). Material
Table 1: Roll Cage Dimensions Fig. 1: Roll Cage Elements

MATERIAL AISI -1018 (M.S.) C. Roll Cage Views

Wall Thickness 3 mm

Outer Dia. 1 inch

Length 65 in

Height 54 in

Width 34 in

Total Weight 72.36 kg Fig. 2: Side View

74 International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering & Technology w w w. i j r m e t. c o m


ISSN : 2249-5762 (Online) | ISSN : 2249-5770 (Print) IJRMET Vol. 5, Issue 2, May - Oct 2015

divided into two parts on each node. The value recorded for the
deformed shape is 10 mm which abides by the safety regulations
and standards of SAE BAJA competition.

Fig. 5: Front Impact Analysis

Fig. 3: Top View Table 3: Stress Analysis for Front Impact


Parameters Values
Front Load Applied 9G
Impact Max. Stress 330 MPa
Analysis Max. Deformation 10 mm
Factor of Safety 1.68

(ii). Side Impact Test


The impact loading is simulated by restricting displacements at
certain locations, and applying discrete forces at various points on
the frame where the weight is concentrated. The frame is modeled
in ANSYS using 3D elastic beam elements (BEAM4). The side
impact analysis is carried out as there is a possibility of collision
with another vehicle from either direction. Thus, the stresses acting
on the side members of the roll cage are analyzed. The deceleration
value for side impact is 9G. The load is applied on two nodes .
The nodal solution shows a deformation of 8.2 mm . The Max.
Fig. 4: Isometric View Stresses came out to be 372 MPa which is inside the permissible
range of the material .
III. Finite Element Analysis
As the Roll cage was developed by plotting key points ,so every
member of the roll cage is considered to be properly constrained
at every joint. For boundary conditions for Frontal Impact test,
the roll cage is to be fixed from the rear side and the front member
will come across the applied load. In the similar way, for Side
Impact test, one side of the roll cage elements are fixed while the
other side will be applied with load. For Rollover Impact test, the
lower elements of the roll cage are fixed.

Assumptions :-
1. The chassis material is considered to be isotropic and
homogenous.
2. Chassis tube joints are considered to be perfect joints.

(i). Front Impact Test


It is the impact wherein there is a possibility of vehicle crashing
into another vehicle. The value of load for frontal impact is 9G.
The load is applied on two nodes at front . Thus, the force gets Fig. 6: Side Impact Analysis

w w w. i j r m e t. c o m International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering & Technology  75


IJRMET Vol. 5, Issue 2, May - Oct 2015 ISSN : 2249-5762 (Online) | ISSN : 2249-5770 (Print)

Table 4: Stress Analysis for Side Impact


Parameters Values
Load Applied 9G
Side
Impact Max. Stress 372 MPa
Analysis
Max. Deformation 8.2 mm
Factor of Safety 1.75

(iii). Roll-over Impact Test


The rollover impact analysis is carried out by considering the
stresses induced on the members of the roll cage when the vehicle
topples down from a slope with an angle of 45°. In this impact,
the upper and rear members of the vehicle will bear the force. The
deceleration value for rollover impact is 4G. The number of nodes
on which the load is applied is 4.The maximum deformation is 6.7 Fig. 8: Rear Analysis
mm in the members of the vehicle The maximum stress i.e. 254
MPa was observed at the upper members of the vehicle which is Table 6: Stress Analysis for Rear Impact
well below the permissible range. Parameters Values
Rear Load Applied 9G
Impact Max. Stress 374 MPa
Analysis Max. Deformation 7.2 mm
Factor of Safety 1.3

IV. Safety and Ergonomics

A. Design Considerations
1. Safety and Confort.
2. Durability
3. Manufacturability
4. Easy Driver Exit

B. Features
• Kill Switches have been Installed.
• SIA certified Race Suit , Certified Motocross Helmet, Gloves,
Fig. 7: Roll Over Analysis Neck brace.
• Using a replica of our Roll Cage that suggest that the driver
Table 5: Stress Analysis for Roll-over Impact can easily enter or exit the vehicle within 5 seconds as per
rulebook.
Parameters Values
Load Applied 4G
Roll-over
Impact Max. Stress 254 MPa
Analysis
Max. Deformation 6.7 mm
Factor of Safety 1.56

(iv). Rear Impact Test


It is the impact wherein there is a possibility of vehicle crashing
into another vehicle from back. The value for load for Rear Impact
is 9 G. The maximum deformation is 7.2 mm in the members
of the vehicle. The impact loading is simulated by restricting
displacements at certain locations, and applying discrete forces
at various points on the frame where the weight is concentrated.
The frame is modeled in ANSYS using 3D elastic beam elements
. The maximum stress i.e. 374 MPa was observed , which is safe
with factor of safety of 1.3.
Fig. 9: BAJA Vehicle Modelling

76 International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering & Technology w w w. i j r m e t. c o m


ISSN : 2249-5762 (Online) | ISSN : 2249-5770 (Print) IJRMET Vol. 5, Issue 2, May - Oct 2015

V. Conclusion
The design, development and fabrication of the roll cage is Suraj Ghimire is currently in 4th year
carried out successfully. The roll cage is used to build an ATV of Automobile Engineering Program
by integrating all the other automotive systems like transmission, at Gulzar College of Engineering,
suspension, steering ,etc. Punjab, India. Mr. Suraj is a member
of a number of student organizations
The use of finite element analysis was invaluable to the design including the SAEINDIA GULZAR
and analysis of the frame for SAE-BAJA off-road vehicle. Safety COLLEGIATE CLUB & Innovation
is of utmost concern in every respect; for the driver, crew & & Entrepreneurship club. In Feb
environment . The analysis was helpful in finding out the maximum 2015,Suraj participated in SAEINDIA
deformation, Von Mises stress and the factor of safety for five BAJA 2015 Dynamic round after the
different impact tests namely frontal impact, side impact, rollover success of Virtual round.
impact and Rear Impact.
He completed his Six month internship in Automotive Electronics
The findings from the finite element analysis and the actual failure (CRDI & MPFI Technology) from Medhaavi Center for Automotive
will allow future designers to integrate a solution to this problem Research, Punjab, India. These experiences provided him with
into their design from the beginning. valuable experience and insight into the Calibration method,
working of a variety of engines.
References
[1] BAJA SAE INDIA Rulebook , 2015 Suraj have been actively participating in different co-curricular
[2] Automobile Engineering, Kirpal Singh activities as a participant and organizer during department/
[3] Sadhu Singh,“Strength of Materials”, Khanna Publishers, professional society functions throughout his bachelor’s career
New Delhi, INDIA, 2012. which exhibits his eagerness to learn and leadership quality. He
[4] Chandrupatla,“Finite Element Analysis for Engineering and has Won a 2nd Prize in Automotive Genius in the Robomania
Technology”, University Press (INDIA) Private Limited, 2014.He is also in the Top Ten Merit listed student of Punjab
New Delhi, 2011. Technical University (PTU).
[5] Design of Machine Elements V B Bhandari

Manjot Singh is currently in his 4th year


of study in the B.E. (Mechanical Engg.)
at Panjab University, Chandigarh,
India. Mr. Singh is a Vice- Chairperson,
member of a number of professional
and student organizations including
the Society of Automotive Engineers
(SAE), Training and Placement Cell,
Panjab University SSG RC.

During the past Internship, Manjot


participated in Mechanical Engineering
internship with the Medhaavi Centre for Automotive Research,
Punjab, worked with Various Prestigious IIT’s and NIT’s on
Development of Engine Tuning, Calibration and Testing. These
experiences provided him with valuable experience and insight
into the Engine Testing, Calibration.

Manjot has been awarded the Certificate of Academic Excellence


by Panjab University , Chandigarh for outstanding Academic
Record . He also done Diploma in Mechanical Engg. with Hons
grabbing the Medal and Certificate. He successfully organized the
1st National Conference on Mechanical Engg. (NCME-2014) ,
worked as a Core Committee Member.

w w w. i j r m e t. c o m International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering & Technology  77