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Research

Methodology
Guideline for Undergraduate Students

Dayo Odukoya & Oladunjoye Oludotun
University of Lagos

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Research
Methodology
Guideline for Undergraduate Students

© 2007
Dayo Odukoya, Ph.D & Oladunjoye Oludotun, Ph.D
Distance Learning Institute,
University of Lagos
234-8034730219; 01-7434613
dayo_odukoya@yahoo.com
jso.oludotun@gmail.com
234-802-324-9540

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Dedication

With excitement and deep sense of
appreciation, we wholly dedicate this
development-oriented publication to
our all-sufficient Father,
Jehovah God Almighty.

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Distance Learning Institute. 3 . who did not only prompt the execution of this project. Acknowledgement We acknowledge with thanks everyone who has made this publication possible. but also contributed in meaningful ways through their questions and responses in the classroom. God bless you all richly and make you agents of development in Nigeria and beyond. we particularly thank the 2007 Year 5 students of the Departments of Accounting and Business Administration. In this regard. University of Lagos.

Content  Fly Page  Supervisor’s Certification  Dedication  Acknowledgment  Content Page INTRODUCTION 5  Objectives  General Information  Research Topics  Basic Structure SAMPLE ILLUSTRATIONS FOLLOWING 10 THE BASIC STRUCTURE FORMAT CONCLUSION 32 Reference 4 .

Use the help of an English major if necessary.  Do not use contractions [e. but rather as ‘brainographic’ errors.g. your Discussion and Conclusion could be a mix of present and past tense.  Do not use slang in your write-up.  Thoroughly proof-read your work. Depending on the tone of discussion. while using present tense in reporting the Results. knowing that research is a principal tool of development worldwide. Use New Times Roman.  Avoid multiple ‘Introductions’ and ‘References’  Do not hyphenate [split] words at the end of a line. in Nigeria and also beyond. It’s] 5 .  Use past tense in the Introduction. General Information  Use 1. Errors seen will not be accepted as ‘typographic’ errors. size 16 for major headings and size 14 for sub-headings. INTRODUCTION Objectives  The primary objective of this lecture is to bring all stakeholders to the same page on Distance Learning Institute’s (DLI) Research Methodology standard [which in reality is international standard]  The secondary objective is to build the research capacity of the undergraduate students both at DLI. Literature review and Methodology. size 12 for the main text.5 line spacing.

Not more than 3. Block 3. spell them out the first time. g.  Citations Techniques: Male babies generally weigh more than female babies [Odukoya.  Spell out any number when it occurs first in a sentence. me and my and the phrase. give them the credit by citing them. Figure 2.  Avoid excessive use of the terms.  In abstract. except when in a table or figure number. If in doubt.  If you use someone’s idea or words. one decimal or two decimal points all through. check it up.  Do not use too many abbreviations. 1997].  Be consistent with number formats e. kg.  Capitalize nouns that are followed by numbers or letters e.  When abbreviating any term. I. etc  Numbers 0-9 should be spelled out.  Avoid the use of sexist language [gender biased]  Get friends to read your work. except when they begin a sentence. 6 .g. then it needs work.g. Odukoya reported that male babies generally weigh more than female babies. personally speaking. if they cant understand it.g. m. In 1997. Refusal to do so is plagiarism. Numbers 10 and above should be written as numbers.  All measurement reporting should be done in metric system e. use digit for all numbers. Odukoya (1997) reported that male babies generally weigh more than female babies. cm. Avoid guessing spellings.

Avoid ‘term paper’ topics. Smith (1998) noted that ‘the world is round’ (p.  Multiple citation in parentheses should be done alphabetically as follows: (Odukoya. 1998. it could spell the failure of the entire project. spell out all of the authors last names e. See Appendix 1 for the suggested themes. 7 . M (2007) --------------------------- Research Topics The research topic is one of the most sensitive issues in conducting empirical research. Randy.g.. and Harrison (2007) suggested that … When cited the second or third time. 2007. However the suggestions are limited to the department of Business Administration and Accounting.  You must give page numbers for direct quotes e. Avoid this error. If you miss the conception and articulation of the research topic. Oludotun. use Odukoya et al (2007) suggested that . Quite a number of undergraduate project works have been rejected solely because of poorly conceived research topics. as cited in Jones.g.. 2007)  If you cite something second hand.1) --------------------------- Source: Many of the points listed above can be attributed to: Plonsky. The first time a reference is cited in the text. This guideline offers a sample of research themes from which researchable topics could be drawn. Hassan. make it clear as such: (Obe. 2003). Peter.

Basic Structure  Cover Page  Fly Page  Abstract  Supervisor’s Certification  Dedication  Acknowledgment  Content Page Chapter 1 Introduction  Background  Statement of Problem  Statement of Objective  Significance of Study  Research Questions  Research Hypotheses [if any]  Scope of Study  Operational Definition of Terms Chapter 2 Literature Review  Elucidation of Key Concepts in the Project Title  Theoretical background  Empirical background [if any] Chapter 3 Methodology  Research Design  Population of Study  Sample and Sampling Technique 8 .

 Instruments  Procedure for Data Collection  Data Analysis Chapter 4 Results  Tables of Results [with brief explanations] Chapter 5 Discussion  Summary of Findings  Discussion  Recommendations  Limitation of Study  Suggestion for Further Study [if any]  Conclusion Reference Appendices  Sample of Research Instrument[s]  Charts [if any]  Pictures [if any]  Special Tables [if any] -------------------- 9 .

-------------------------------- Cover/Fly Page An Assessment of the Authenticity of Popular Advertisements in Nigeria Lola Harrison Matric No. 961002315 A project submitted to the Distance Learning Institute. In some sections. University of Lagos in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Science (B.) in Business Administration December 2007 10 .Sc. Presented in the following sections are illustrations on how the various segments of an empirical research should be reported. SAMPLE ILLUSTRATIONS FOLLOWING THE BASIC STRUCTURE FORMAT The illustrative topic chosen to explain the subject of Research Methodology in this publication is: An Assessment of the Authenticity of Popular Advertisements in Nigeria. only brief explanations were made.

 No paragraph.  State the aim or core objective of the study  Next. state the core findings. University of Lagos under my close supervision ------------------------------ Dr. Distance Learning Institute.  Next. hence you are permitted to use single line spacing. Use single spaced blocked format. It is a technical summary of the project. For a sample of a typical abstract. So ensure the information therein is also in the body of the report. No citation please. Use past tense. see Appendix 2 Supervisor’s Certification I certify that this research project was carried out by Lola Harrison.Abstract  The abstract last should be written last. including your sample size. state the research design and method used. Samson Johnson Department of Business Administration University of Lagos 11 . type of instrument used for data collection and data analyses made.  Don’t put the project title. an undergraduate student of the Department of Business Administration.  End the abstract with the core recommendation made  The abstract should not exceed one page.

Results and Discussion  Ensure correct pagination  Ensure what is reflected in the content is actually in the body of the report.  Use bigger font size for Chapters 1-5 topic … i.  Make the statement short and concise.e. Introduction. 1. 1. Acknowledgement  Using simple coherent expressions.g.  Do not exceed one page. 12 . acknowledge those who contributed to the success of your research work in tangible ways. 1.Dedication  Avoid dedicating your work to God and men at the same time. Literature Review. Choose one. Methodology.1 etc  Indent sub-topics under the parent topic.1. Content Page  Obey the numbering principle e.1.

all in the bid to win patronage by all means possible. When it comes to printed media. While some would quickly switch to other stations when such adverts came on the air. Johnson (2005) in a longitudinal study of made-in-Nigeria products reported that in order to make up for deficiency in quality.Chapter 1 Introduction  Background It is almost becoming a common phenomenon to find six or more advertisements out of every 10 advertisements featured in National Newspapers and Televisions not fulfilling their promises. This trend. Informal observations made over the years revealed that many notable companies and institutions were involved in these seeming sharp practices. many companies often resorted to making false claims in their advertisement slogans. [In reality. the common reaction tended to be quick flips over the adverts. The influx of facsimile products of better quality is not helping matters either. over the years tended to make people to develop distrust for advertisements in Nigeria. the background should be more detailed than what is presented here]. only to resume watching their loved programme when such adverts were over. But the question is. ‘is lying the way out of the challenge?’ Would this rather not undo and destroy the culprit companies in the long run? It is this and related questions this study is poised to find answers to. 13 . Others resorted to using the opportunity to attend to other pressing issues.

It is these pertinent problems that prompted this research study.  Statement of Objective This study is aimed at achieving the following objectives:  Ascertain the authenticity of popular adverts in Nigeria  Assess the magnitude of problems caused by fake adverts [if any]  Assess peoples’ reaction to the fake adverts [if any]  Assess effect of fake advert [if any] on product sales  Significance of Study The significance of this study can be drawn from the statements of problem and purpose above. The fact that many people are likely to be freed from recurrent frustrations. only to discover the claims are not true. At times. 14 . colossal amount of money may be wasted in the process. disappointments and un-told hazards as a result of findings of this study lend support to its significance. Statement of Problem It is not un-common to purchase a product or use a service based on certain claims in the product’s advertisement. the health and life of the consumers could be ill- affected. The correction of any seeming sharp practices is also apt to significantly enhance genuine product development in the country. This trend tends to lead to disappointment and frustration on the part of consumers. Depending on volume of purchases made.

Use truly researchable questions. though occasionally it could be applied in survey or quasi- experimental studies.e. This presents the researcher as un-biased.  Research Hypotheses [if any]  There is no significant difference in the proportion of authentic and fake adverts in Nigeria. Remember that research hypothesis is more applicable to experimental studies. Research Questions  What are the proofs of the authenticity of popular adverts in Nigeria?  What are the problems caused by fake adverts in Nigeria [if any]?  What are peoples’ reactions to fake adverts [if any]?  What are the effects of fake advert [if any] on product sales? Avoid examination questions.  Scope of Study This study is limited to the commercial and political cities of Nigeria – i. Only the null hypotheses [as stated above] should be stated.  There is no significant relationship in the frequency of fake adverts’ presentation and product sales. Lagos and Abuja. Avoid questions demanding ‘yes’ or ‘no’ responses. The scope of 15 . This is due to the representative nature of these cities in terms of all the major tribes in the country.

It is not necessarily the same thing as dictionary definition of terms. So do not mix them up]  Operational Definition of Terms This section is reserved for technical words. expressions. and purposely defined words used in your research topic. [Note that the scope of study is not the same as limitation of study. That is why it is called ‘operational definition of terms’. In fact. 16 . it is expected that most of the definitions that will presented here may not be found literally in any standard dictionary.  Authenticity – An advert is regarded as authentic in this study if it fulfils everything it promises in its advertisement.the study is also limited to popular adverts featured in major television stations aired in these capital cities. Samples of such definitions relating to the illustrative research topic given earlier are:  Popular Advertisement – An advert is regarded as popular when 5 or more people out of every 10 people interviewed confirms they are aware of it.

the elements of the Literature Review can be broken down as follows:  Product Development [Generally and in Nigeria]  Marketing  Advertisements and their effects  Fake Advertisements and their effects  Historical Background on some popular adverts in Nigeria [vis-à-vis opinions on them]  Corruption.  Cite authors appropriately. For our hypothetical research topic. relevance and natural flow all through your review. logicality. Use extensive relevant and current literature.Chapter 2 Literature Review Breakdown of the key concepts in the project title  Ensure all the key concepts in your research topic are succinctly addressed in your literature review. Integrity and Authenticity in Nigeria  Concept of Assessment 17 .  Ensure coherence. Consequently.  Avoid verbatim copy. as a rule. do not quote more than three or four authors in 10 pages. and ensure the references of all cited authors are reflected in the Reference.

To date. Harrison conducted an empirical study on the effect of advertisement on the sales of some popular products in America. the genesis of billboard advertisement was attributed to Hanson in 1961’. See samples of theoretical and empirical background write-ups below. Worldwide. 18 . There are various forms of advertisement. Please note that the citations and many of these statements made in these illustrations are hypothetical and merely used for illustrative purpose. Freezer & Yuri (2004) in a similar study conducted in England came up with virtually the same findings as that of Harrison. Theoretical Background Sample ‘theoretical background’ is presented below: ‘Stones (2001) defines advertisement as … Hardly can one make tangible sales without concerted advertisements. we are yet to find record of any such studies conducted in Nigeria or any African country’. Empirical Background Sample ‘empirical background’ is presented below: ‘In 1978. He found among others that … Benson.These issues should be addressed theoretically and empirically according to available information. advertisements have been known to promote sales. For instance.

Some can be categorized as Non-Parametric Research Designs while others are Parametric Research Designs.Chapter 3 Methodology  Research Design There are many research designs that could be adopted by a researcher.  Descriptive Design  Survey Designs  Desk Review Designs  Correlation Designs  Ex-post Facto Designs  Experimental Designs  Quasi-experimental Designs  Exploratory Design  Case Study Designs  Ethnographic Designs etc Some of these research designs are Quantitative in nature while some are Qualitative. Research design can be described as the overall plan showing how all the major parts of the research – sample. measures. depending on the objective of the study. ‘For our 19 . Some of the popular research designs to date are listed below. Detailed explanation of these designs is clearly beyond the scope and objective of this publication. The research design gives direction to the whole study. Choice of research design often determines the type of statistical analysis to conduct. analysis – work together to address the central research questions.

and how were they selected. You can also use a table to summarise your sample figures according to the parameters listed above. not all your target population will participate in the study. particularly those who fall within the category of those who are likely to respond to your questionnaire or treatment package. Ideally. disability status. Include details like gender. The latter is the subject of sampling technique. In reality.hypothetical study. sexual orientation etc. include the socioeconomic status. and ethnicity. how many. Some of the popular sampling techniques in use are:  Random Sampling Technique  Systematic Sampling [first order the population then select say every 10th person etc] 20 . the research designs used were the survey and correlation research designs’. This is where the concepts of sample and sampling techniques discussed below emanated. If appropriate.  Sample and Sampling Technique Indicate who participated in the study. ‘The population for our hypothetical study included all literate and mature persons who were capable of making intelligent evaluation of popular advertisements on the television and major newspapers within Abuja and Lagos metropolis’.  Population of Study Population refers to the universe of your research target audience. age. what is done is to randomly select a manageable but representative sample from the population.

modalities and devices used to collect information that are necessary for finding reliable and valid answers to the research questions and hypotheses raised. weighing scale.  Purposive Sampling Technique [deliberate inclusion of presumably typical areas or groups in the sample]  Cluster Sampling Technique [Deliberate division of a population into sections before random selection of sections and sample from within the sections]  Quota Sampling [common practice in Nigeria]  Stratified Sampling [Groups within population]  Convenience or Accidental Sampling [weakest] ‘Using the stratified sampling technique. 134 were female while 166 were male. Table 1: Distribution of Sample Male Female Total Abuja 67 81 148 Lagos 99 53 152 Total 166 134 300 Note: This table can be more detailed than this  Instruments The word ‘instrument’ refers to the tools. etc. Consequently. Consequently. It 21 . Table 1 below shows the detail of the sample’. 300 respondents constituted the sample. gadgets. the sample for our hypothetical study was randomly selected from the population. examples of such instruments are ruler. tests. questionnaire. Out of this number.

Neutral. Failure to do this is what often cause the ‘garbage in garbage out’ experience. No amount of robust statistics can correct such error. Strongly Disagree]  10-point Scale  Checklist  Sentence completion  Open ended questions [Free expression] etc Ensure you obey the following rules when writing questions [i. prompts] in a questionnaire:  Be conscious of your research purpose and objectives 22 . A ‘failed’ instrument is often tantamount to a failed project. Disagree.e. Basically. Agree. a standard behaviour measurement instrument should contain the following core elements:  Clear Title [one that relates to the project title]  Synopsis of the questionnaire purpose  Statement of confidentiality.  Respondents’ Biodata [Section A]  Instruction [for responding to questionnaire]  The main questionnaire [Section B] The questionnaire format could adopt any of the following styles:  5-point Likert Scale [Strongly Agree.is important that the reliability and validity of the instrument(s) proposed for use in a study be ascertained first before the actual commencement of the study.

travelling schedule. the more necessary it is to carry out this step.  Data Analysis It is in this section you will explain the methods or ways you adopted in analysing the data collected from the field. This is at times called field manual.  Avoid too many questions. Many factors often inform the choice of data analysis technique to use. establishing rapport. administration of research instruments. clear and logical. obtaining permission from relevant authorities to conduct study. The more sensitive the research project.  Avoid ambiguity. Do not expect your questionnaire to give information which you can only get as secondary data.  Avoid grammatical errors. A pilot study is often necessary to validate a research instrument before final usage.  Avoid researchable questions. [Please note that the subjects of reliability and validity are beyond the scope of this publication]  Procedure for Data Collection This involves clearly explaining the steps taken to gather data for the project. cultural limitations etc  Avoid ‘double-barrel’ questions. Be simple.  Avoid examination questions. It includes procedure for obtaining respondents’ consent. motivational techniques used. For 23 . This information has a way of informing the end users of your research finding about its authenticity. Be conscious of the respondents’ level of education. retrieval of research instruments etc.

ordinal scale. [Again. 24 . the level of measurement used [whether nominal scale. Some questions or hypotheses naturally demand qualitative analysis while some require quantitative analysis. interval scale or ratio scale] determines the type of statistics to use in analysis. The way the research question or hypothesis is phrased also largely determines the type of analysis to conduct. Please refer to them] It is not compulsory to present details of your analysis in the body of the report. this is a subject that is beyond the scope of this publication. What is necessary is simply stating the type of analysis done and how it was done. However. The general rule here is that the lower levels of measurement [especially nominal and ordinal scale] naturally adopt the non-parametric statistical methods while the interval and ratio scale data often qualify to use the parametric statistical techniques.instance. Many books on Statistical Methods for Behavioural Research and Qualitative Analysis deal with this subject in-depth. this is not a hard and fast rule.

 You may or may not include illustrative charts here. Tables are the popular formats often used. So in this chapter. the mean performances being compared.  Give brief and clear meaning of the results under each table. The most important thing is to ensure that you are presenting results and nothing else. Please consult the relevant textbooks on this subject for details. As general rule. the Student t-test demands stating the level of significance [p<. such that it will answer the research question or hypothesis.  Also note there are standard ways of presenting the results of certain statistical analysis.  Do not attempt to discuss the findings yet.  Do not repeat data analysis procedures here. These could be placed under the appendix. Quite naturally. However.Chapter 4 Results  Tables of Results [with brief explanations] You will notice that the last segment of chapter 3 is ‘Data Analysis’. follow the guidelines below:  Using your research questions as sub-topics. For instance.01 or p<. Leave that for Chapter 5. in present tense. what should follow analysis is ‘Results’. it could be any other format. you are expected to present the results you obtained from the analysis conducted on data collected.05] and the Degree of Freedom. 25 . The result should be presented in clear and easy-to- comprehend formats. present your results in tabular forms [or in any other clear format]. the N value etc.

Some sample findings are presented below:  A significant majority of the popular adverts in Nigeria were fake. Is the finding agreeing or disagreeing with previous submissions in literature and why? Drive home your landmark findings.  Many of the adverts were causing serious adverse effects on customers. amongst other untold hardship caused the Researcher. draw out the core findings made and ‘Summary of Findings’ here.Chapter 5 Discussion  Summary of Findings From the results obtained which were presented in chapter 4.  Limitation of Study Sample ‘Limitation of Study’ is presented below: ‘This study was limited by inadequate fund.  Recommendations Sample recommendation is presented below: ‘It was recommended that the relevant Government Agency should as a matter of urgency look into issue with the view of arresting the negative trend’.  This in turn was adversely affecting the sales of some of the products being advertised  Discussion Relate your discussion to the literatures you reviewed earlier. The 26 . This grossly limited the sample size.

 Suggestion for Further Study [if any] Sample ‘Suggestion for Further Study’ is presented below: ‘We recommend that.uncooperative attitude of the staff of target companies and the populace to research matters was another limiting factor’. the situation could degenerate to further stagnate the overall development of the nation.  Conclusion Sample conclusion is presented below: ‘From the findings of this study and in relation with submissions from related studies and literature. with availability of fund and necessary logistics. If un-checked. This has dealt untold hardship on the affected customer financially and health- wise. It is strongly recommended that the relevant Government Agency should respond pro- actively to arrest the dangerous trend’. there were strong indications that many of the popular advertisements in Nigeria as the time of this study were fake. 27 . this study should be replicated in other major cities in Nigeria to justify the generalizability of the findings of this study’.

London: Steven & John Johnson. 76-82 Harrison. (Eds. 28 . History of Advertisement. 107-124.  Arrange your reference alphabetically  Bolden or underline the book titles or journal title.). In Black. Freezer & Yuri (2004). S. (2001). New York: Harper & Row Stones. Effect of Advertisement on Product Sales in London. Advertisements in the 21st Century. Tokyo: Platinum Press. P. Business Review. Effect of Advertisement on Product Sales in California. H. Sample references are presented below: Benson.References  Ensure all authors cited are reflected in the reference  Use the APA standard of referencing. T (2005). (1978).  Reference is used for only cited authors while bibliography is used for all books or journals consulted but not necessarily cited. Introduction to Marketing. 61 (2). Business Abstracts. 23(1). J & Strutton.

charts and related graphic illustrations here.  You can also place some secondary data [e. Current Ratio. Debt to Earning Ratio]: Applications and Effects on Profiting and Capital Appreciation  Consumers’ Perceptions of products' quality and Effect on Sales  Comparative Analysis of Sales and Advertisements’ Truthfulness …  Driving Forces for Customers’ Preferences and Final Purchases  National Cash Flow: Implication for the Populace 29 . statement of accounts].g. See samples below: Appendix 1 Sample Researchable Themes for Business Administration and Accounting Students  Proving the efficacy of various accounting and management laws . principles in the Nigerian context . Liquidity Ratio.Appendices  Place a copy of your research instruments here.  Number your Appendices appropriately and let them reflect accordingly in the body of the report...  Share Stock Performance: Trend Analysis  Need Analysis for Different Settings and Groups  Market Surveys for new products vis-à-vis Market Share  Financial Ratios [P/E Ratio. Quick Ratio.

...  Comparative analyses of consumers and producers by state. State and National levels . sex.. And their Implications  Analyses of Taxes at LGA... Statistics and Trend of SME funding in Nigeria. Socio-Economic Status (SES) etc  Statistics of Nigerian Export Products and their Implications  Statistics of Products and Services imported into Nigeria .. Revenue Generation avenues in Nigeria  Determinants of Thriving and Failing businesses in Nigeria .  Govt.. their criteria & implications ..  Power of Brands …  Qualities of Highly Effective Managers in Nigeria …  Qualities of Highly Effective Accountants in Nigeria … 30 ..  The Common Denominator of Thriving businesses in Nigeria.

There is no significant relationship in the frequency of fake adverts’ presentation and product sales. 166 were male while 134 were female. There is no significant difference in the proportion of authentic and fake adverts in Nigeria.Appendix 2 Sample Abstract The aim of this study is to assess the authenticity of popular advertisements in Nigeria. The core research questions and hypotheses for this study were: What are the proofs of the authenticity of popular adverts in Nigeria?. What are the problems caused by fake adverts in Nigeria [if any]?. It was recommended that the relevant Government Agency should as a matter of urgency look into issue with the view of arresting the negative trend. 300 respondents were randomly selected from stratified groups within Lagos and Abuja metropolis. The core findings from the results obtained showed that a significant majority of the popular adverts in Nigeria were fake and many of these adverts were causing serious adverse effects on customers. The data collected was analyzed with basic descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage. Secondary data on sales records over time were also obtained from the selected companies. 31 . Chi- square and correlation coefficient analyses were also made. A 5-point Likert Scale was developed and validated to collect information from the respondents. Out of this number. This in turn was adversely affecting the sales of some of the products being advertised.

It is our fervent hope that this preliminary work will catalyze remarkable development. not only in the academia but in the nation as a whole. M [2007]: Psychology with Style – A Hypertext Writing Guide (for the 5th Edition of the APA Manual). Internet Publication: http://www. CONCLUSION This publication attempted to demystify the all- important subject of research methodology.socialresearchmethods. Reference Plonsky. in a fashion that beginners in the field of study could assimilate.net/kb/desintro.htm 32 . especially sections that were deemed technical. simple but relevant illustrations were made under each section. To achieve this objective.

Please direct all enquiries on how you can discover. The vision of Talents’ Chapel revolves around education and development. develop and/or deploy your talent to the servant of God via 234-8034730219 or dayo_odukoya@yahoo.com You can also visit our website: www. Ghana. Obafemi Awolowo University.talentschapel. He is a senior lecturer in physics education and educational evaluation. before joining the Research Division of the West African Examinations Council [WAEC] in Lagos and subsequently in Accra. University of Lagos. IDRC. 33 .S. It is all about research and development. Nigeria. Ile-Ife. he now serves as a Consultant and Pastor of Talents’ Chapel. It is a ministry set up to raise Talents for the speedy fulfillment of God’s end- time agenda. His other areas of specialty are distance learning and curriculum development. Dayo Odukoya obtained his doctoral degree in Psychometrics from the Department of Guidance and Counseling. Oludotun is the Deputy Director of the Distance Learning Institute. After 11 years of service with WAEC.com ---------------------------------------------------- Dr. Dr. He lectured briefly as Lecturer I in the Department of Psychology. He is a strong member of the Science Teachers Association of Nigeria [STAN]. ERNWACA and USAID/AED. UNESCO. Odukoya voluntarily retired to answer the call of God to serve in His vineyard. ADEA. The exposure afforded him the opportunity to serve as consultant to international organizations like UNICEF.About the Authors Dr. among others. Consequently. J. University of Ibadan in 1991.