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AN ROINN OIDEACHAIS AGUS EOLAÍOCHTA

L EAVING C ERTIFICATE

CHEMISTRY
SYLLABUS
(O RDINARY L EVEL AND H IGHER L EVEL )

LEAVING CERTIFICATE PROGRAMMES

Aims and Principles The Leaving Certificate (Established)
1. The general aim of education is to contribute The Leaving Certificate (Established) programme
towards the development of all aspects of the offers students a broad and balanced education
individual, including aesthetic, creative, critical, while allowing for some specialisation.
cultural, emotional, expressive, intellectual, for Syllabuses are provided in a wide range of sub-
personal and home life, for working life, for liv- jects. All subjects are offered at Ordinary and
ing in the community and for leisure. Higher levels. In addition, Mathematics and Irish
are also offered at Foundation level.
2. Leaving Certificate programmes are presented
within this general aim, with a particular empha- The certificate is used for purposes of selection
sis on the preparation of students for the into further education, employment, training and
requirements of further education or training, for higher education.
employment and for their role as participative,
enterprising citizens. The Leaving Certificate Vocational
Programme (LCVP)
3. All Leaving Certificate programmes aim to pro-
vide continuity with and progression from the The Leaving Certificate Vocational Programme is
Junior Certificate programme. The relative an intervention within the Leaving Certificate
weighting given to the various components — (Established). LCVP students study a minimum
e.g. personal and social (including moral and of five subjects (at Higher, Ordinary or
spiritual) development, vocational studies and Foundation levels), including Irish and two sub-
preparation for further education and for adult jects from specified vocational subject groupings.
and working life — within the programmes may They are also required to take a recognised
vary. course in a Modern European language, other
than Irish or English. In addition LCVP students
4. Programmes leading to the award of the Leaving take three Link Modules on Enterprise Education,
Certificate are of two years duration and are Preparation for Work and Work Experience.
offered in three forms:
In particular, the LCVP aims to foster in students
i. The Leaving Certificate (Established) a spirit of enterprise and initiative and to devel-
op their interpersonal, vocational and technolog-
ii. The Leaving Certificate Vocational Programme ical skills.

iii. The Leaving Certificate Applied The Leaving Certificate Applied
The Leaving Certificate Applied is a distinct, self-
5. All Leaving Certificate programmes, in contribut- contained Leaving Certificate programme. It is
ing to a high quality education, emphasise the designed for those students who do not wish to
importance of : proceed directly to third level education or for
those whose needs, aspirations and aptitudes
• self-directed learning and independent are not adequately catered for by the other two
thought Leaving Certificate programmes. The Leaving
Certificate Applied is structured around three
• a spirit of inquiry, critical thinking, problem main elements – Vocational Preparation,
solving, self-reliance, initiative and enterprise Vocational Education and General Education -
which are interrelated and interdependent. This
• preparation for further education, for adult programme is characterised by educational expe-
and working life riences of an active, practical and student-cen-
tred nature.
• lifelong learning.

LEAVING CERTIFICATE

CHEMISTRY

(ORDINARY AND HIGHER LEVEL)

include the principles. social and economic – of concern to citizens. which are offered at two levels. Leaving Certificate science syllabuses are designed to incorporate the following components: The syllabuses. Higher and Ordinary. . will have approximately 180 • science for the enquiring mind. or the applications of science and its interface with technology • science. to hours of class contact time over a two-year period. The remaining 30% should Ireland. with the first component significance of science for strategic development in having a 70% weighting. aspects • science for action. or pure science. which is concerned with issues – political. procedures and concepts of They should be practically and experimentally based the subject as well as its cultural and historical in their teaching. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y S Y L L A B U S • Preamble Policy Context Science education in the senior cycle should reflect The three components should be integrated within the changing needs of students and the growing each science syllabus. be allocated to the other two components in the ratio 3 to 1.

5 Higher Level Syllabus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Periodic Table and Atomic Structure . . Additional Electrochemistry and the Extraction of Metals . . 73 1 . . . . . . . . . . Formulas and Equations . . . . .31 2A. . . Volumetric Analysis . . . . . . . .25 9. Periodic Table and Atomic Structure .69 2B. . . . . .42 3. . . . Organic Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . Chemical Bonding . . Atmospheric Chemistry . . . . . . . . .45 4. . . . . . . Atmospheric Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . Stoichiometry. . . . . . . Chemical Bonding . . . . . . . . .70 Appendix 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .12 3. . . . . . . . .61 9. . . . . . . Additional Industrial Chemistry . . . . .62 Ordinary Level: Option 1 Higher Level: Option 1 1A.15 5. . . . Volumetric Analysis . . Chemical Equilibrium . . . . . Materials . . . . . . . . Environmental Chemistry: Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 8. . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Mathematical Requirements at Ordinary and Higher Level . . . . Additional Industrial Chemistry . . . . Fuels and Heats of Reaction . . . .37 2. . . . • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y S Y L L A B U S • CONTENTS Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fuels and Heats of Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional Electrochemistry and 2B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Ordinary Level Syllabus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stoichiometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Formulas and Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 1B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 Ordinary Level: Option 2 Higher Level: Option 2 2A. . Rates of Reaction . . . . . . . . . .53 7. . . . . . . . . .32 the Extraction of Metals . . . . . . . . . .49 6. . . . Chemical Equilibrium . . . . 7 1. . . . .54 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Appendix 2 . . . . . . . .47 5. .14 4. Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organic Chemistry . . .19 7. . . . . . .29 1B. . 6 Higher Level Objectives . . . . . . . . Environmental Chemistry: Water . . . . . . . .27 1A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 2. 35 Ordinary Level Objectives . . . . Rates of Reaction .18 6. . . . 36 Ordinary Level Core Higher Level Core 1.

approximate amount of time needed. • To develop skills in laboratory procedures and The syllabus is designed for 180 hours of class techniques. technological aspects of chemistry and an understanding of the historical development of The format in which the syllabus is presented does chemistry not imply any particular order of teaching. the • To illustrate generally how humanity has aims and objectives of the syllabus. In both cases. The entire Ordinary level syllabus is The remaining 12 class periods may be used for presented first. All material within and rational thought the syllabus is examinable. and each experiment has the same number • To encourage an appreciation of the scientific. Structure of the Syllabus including revision. Teaching strategies should promote. evaluation. the remaining 83 class periods may be used for supplementary work. common to both levels. (ii) the depth of treatment and enjoyment of. or five class periods per week). including time for revision. communication and problem. environmental and syllabus. syllabus. in a positive manner. • To provide a foundation course in chemistry for The third column includes mandatory experiments those students who will continue their studies in (twenty-one for Ordinary level and twenty-eight for chemistry or in related subjects Higher level). specific sub-sections of the syllabus. 187 class periods in total are recommended for all the solving. These are numbered in order. At Ordinary level. in the Ordinary level syllabus as in the Higher level social. 2 . A and limitations of these procedures specific number of class periods for each sub-section • To develop skills of observation. the remaining 30% deals with the social • To develop an appreciation of scientific method and applied aspects of chemistry. this level where appropriate. Each in total are recommended for all the specific sub- option is an expansion of material that is contained in sections of the syllabus. 258 class periods The syllabus consists of a core and options. At Higher level. analysis. an expanded syllabus format These specifications are intended only to indicate the has been adopted. including further revision. within sections. The syllabus is presented in four columns. chemistry (iii) suitable activities • To provide a relevant course for those students who will complete their study of chemistry at (iv) references to relevant social and applied aspects. benefited from the study and practice of chemistry The syllabus consists of approximately 70% pure chemistry. of the syllabus is recommended. together with the ability to assess the uses 40 minutes each. followed by the entire Higher level supplementary work. the core. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y S Y L L A B U S • Introduction Aims The aims of the syllabus. carried out with due regard for contact time (the equivalent of 270 class periods of safety. giving are: (i) the content • To stimulate and sustain students’ interest in. economic.

or 2B. either Option 1 or Option 2. Practical work is an integral part of the appropriate. such as fume cupboards. 2A. An the medium of the written examination paper. Ordinary level students will study one option from 1A. in their entirety. All material within the syllabus is safety glasses and pipette fillers. There should be an appreciation of the errors inherent in an experiment and of the precautions that can be taken to reduce such errors. it will initially be assessed through the syllabus must be carried out by the students. a deeper and more quantitative treatment of chemistry is required. Students will be given full recognition for carrying out mandatory experiments using computer interfacing and other modern methods of computer- aided technology. objectives. students’ practical work should be supplemented by teacher demonstrations where indicated throughout the syllabus. The Higher level syllabus contains additional material. 3 . forms part of the Higher level syllabus. Higher level students must study. In addition. The mandatory experiments included in study of chemistry. Safety equipment. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y S Y L L A B U S • Practical Work Assessment In all experimental work. this is not obligatory. except mandatory experiment 4. An adequate record of their practical work must be element of practical assessment may be included as retained for the period of the course. Differentiation between Ordinary level and Higher level There are two main differences between Ordinary level and Higher level: (i) Range of topics All the Ordinary level material.2A in the Ordinary level syllabus (see page 14). 1B. At Higher level. safety should be a major The syllabus will be assessed in relation to its concern. However. should be used where examinable. (ii) Depth of treatment The Ordinary level syllabus provides an overview of chemistry and its applications to everyday life. the part of the overall assessment at a later stage.

• L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y S Y L L A B U S • 4 .

LEAVING CERTIFICATE CHEMISTRY ORDINARY LEVEL SYLL ABUS 5 .

6 . • perform experiments safely and co-operatively • select and manipulate suitable apparatus to perform specified tasks • make accurate observations and measurements • interpret experimental data and assess the accuracy of experimental results. Competence Students should have a knowledge of Students should be able to • basic chemical terminology. Attitudes • basic chemical principles Students should appreciate • how chemical problems can be solved • advances in chemistry and their influence on our lives • how the scientific method applies to chemistry. graphical and mathematical form 5. historical. principles and • translate scientific information in verbal. facts. concise. environmental. accurate and comprehensible manner • use chemical facts and principles to make 2. • scientific information in verbal. graphical methods and mathematical form • scientific theory • organise chemical ideas and statements • social. • that the understanding of chemistry contributes to 3. Knowledge 4. technological and • report experimental procedures and results in a economic aspects of chemistry. Understanding qualitative chemical predictions Students should understand • perform simple chemical calculations • how chemistry relates to everyday life • discuss public issues relating to chemistry. and how chemists work. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • Ordinary Level Syllabus Objectives The objectives of the syllabus are: 1. Skills the social and economic development of society Students should be able to • the range of vocational opportunities that use • follow instructions given in a suitable form chemistry.

sodium each main group. Thomson: negative charge of the electron. alkali metals. theory. PERIODIC TABLE AND ATOMIC STRUCTURE Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 1. Minute size of atoms. theory (outline principles only. mass. Symbols of elements History of the idea of elements. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • CORE 1. mathematical treatment not Atoms. including the contributions of the Greeks. Very brief outline of the which may be atoms. note including the contribution of demonstrate trends in their differences compared with the Mendeleev. 1. elements arranged so as to relative atomic mass. halogens and noble gases. Rutherford: discovery of the nucleus as shown by the α–particle scattering experiment. protons and neutrons (relative mass. physical and chemical modern periodic table. and Bohr: model of the atom. relative charge. required): Dalton: atomic Law of conservation of mass. with the modern periodic table. 1–36. mass number (A). hydrogen and carbon as examples of isotopes. in particular and potassium. molecules historical development of atomic or ions.2 Atomic Structure (Time needed: 5 class periods) Matter is composed of particles.1 Periodic Table (Time needed: 4 class periods) Elements. The periodic table as a list of Arranging elements in order of History of the periodic table. Boyle. Brief statement of the principal Demonstration of the reaction resemblances of elements within with water of lithium. Relative atomic mass (A r). Properties of electrons. isotopes. Davy and Moseley. alkaline earth metals. The Use of the mass spectrometer 12C scale for relative atomic in determining relative atomic masses. Comparison of Mendeleev's table properties. location within atom). 7 . Atomic number (Z ).

3 Radioactivity (Time needed: 3 class periods) Alpha.1* Sodium street lights. power (this can be shown using (discovery of radiation from One example each of: an appropriate videotape. a γ-emitter. Pierre Curie (discovery of a β-emitter. e. 60Co for cancer treatment. if uranium salts). e. Half-life (non-mathematical 14C age determination treatment). Explanations for general trends in values: (i) down a group (ii) across a period (covalent radii of main group elements only).g. 60Co. Radioisotopes. Marie and an α-emitter. 1–20 (numbers of electrons in each main energy level).) Widespread occurrence of radioactivity. Uses of radioisotopes (three examples). Atoms Organisation of particles in (Time needed: 7 class periods) atoms of elements nos.g. 1. 14C (Principle of Geiger-Müller tube polonium and radium).g. not required. (calculations not required). beta and gamma Demonstration of properties – Historical outline of radiation (nature and detection and penetrating radioactivity: work of Becquerel penetrating ability). 241Am desired).4 Electronic Structure of Energy levels in atoms. *Mandatory experiments are defined at the end of each section of the syllabus 8 . e. Classification of the first twenty elements in the periodic table on the basis of the number of outer electrons. PERIODIC TABLE AND ATOMIC STRUCTURE (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 1. fireworks. Mandatory experiment 1. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 1. Food irradiation. Atomic radii (covalent radii only).

K. and (ii) acidified water with Chrome and nickel plating. Mandatory Experiments 1. Na with Cl2.5 Oxidation and Reduction Introduction to oxidation and Rusting of iron. Na. Oxidation and reduction in terms of loss and gain of electrons. Cutlery. order of their ability to be e. other than displacement reactions. not required). Mg with Cu2+). screening effect and below (reactivity of halogens). 9 . PERIODIC TABLE AND ATOMIC STRUCTURE (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 1.4 Electronic Dependence of chemical Structure of properties of elements on their Atoms (continued) electronic structure. inert electrodes.2 Redox reactions of group VII elements: halogens as oxidising agents (reactions with bromides. Swimming-pool water treatment. (Time needed: 7 class periods) reduction: simple examples only. 1. Explanations in terms of atomic See mandatory experiment 1. iodides.g. Ba. nuclear charge for general trends in properties of elements in groups I and VII. solution with copper electrodes movement.2 Use of scrap iron to extract series of metals arranged in (half equations only required.2 radius. Purification of copper.1 Flame tests (Li. Electrolysis of (i) copper sulfate Demonstration of ionic Electroplating. Mg with O2.g. Displacement reactions of metals (Zn with Cu2+. Zn with Cu2+. 1. oxidised (reactions. e. 2Br– – 2e– → Br2). Sr and Cu only). • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 1. Fe2+ and sulfites). The electrochemical series as a Mandatory experiment 1. Oxidising and reducing agents. copper.

solvents of ionic and covalent substances. covalent bonds. using dot and cross diagrams. Sodium chloride crystal Examination of a model of the structure. in everyday life (two examples of each). Characteristics of covalent Testing solubility in different substances. salt tablets to replace salt lost by sweating).1 Ionic materials in everyday life substances. 2. 2. Bonding and valency in terms Using the octet rule to predict of the attainment of a stable the formulas of simple electronic structure. compounds of the first 36 elements (excluding d-block elements) and the hydroxides and carbonates of these elements (where such exist). related to their chemical unreactivity.2 Ionic Bonding (Time needed: 4 class periods) Positive and negative ions. double and triple diagrams. Polar and non-polar covalent Polarity test for liquids (use of Polar and non-polar materials bonding. Octet rule compounds – binary and its limitations. NaC1 crystal. CHEMICAL BONDING Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 2. 10 . • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 2. e.g. Stability of noble gas electron Uses of helium and argon configurations. Ionic bonding as electron transfer. bonds using dot and cross Single. charged plastic rod).1 Chemical Compounds Compounds.3 Covalent Bonding (Time needed: 4 class periods) Molecules. Characteristics of ionic Mandatory experiment 2. Simple chemical (Time needed: 6 class periods) formulas. Representation of ionic bonds Minute size of ions. (two uses. Minute size of molecules. Covalent bonding as the sharing Representation of covalent of pairs of electrons.

1 Tests for anions in aqueous solutions: chloride. Electronegativity differences and Prediction of bond type using polarity of bonds. 2. 11 . nitrate. sulfate.4 Electronegativity (Time needed: 2 class periods) Electronegativity. illustrate molecular shapes. carbonate. Forces (Time needed: 1 class period) Mandatory Experiments 2. Periodic variation of electronegativity – explanation for general trends in values: (i) down a group (ii) across a period. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 2.5 Shapes of Molecules and Shapes of some simple Use of models or balloons to Intermolecular molecules. electronegativity differences. CHEMICAL BONDING (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 2.

t.1 States of Matter (Time needed: 1 class period) Motion of particles in solids. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 3. formulas. Diffusion (Graham’s law not NH3 and HCl. smoke and air. Calculations not required. grams.p. Charles’s law. 3.p. Calculation of molecular formulas. STOICHIOMETRY. given the empirical formulas and the relative molecular masses (examples should include simple biological substances. Simple examples. ink and water. given the percentage composition by mass. Combined gas law: Simple calculations.2 Gas Laws (Time needed: 3 class periods) Boyle's law.). Structural formulas. K).3 The Mole (Time needed: 9 class periods) Avogadro constant. correction of gas volumes to = = T1 T2 s.t. (units: Pa. Converting moles to Avogadro number of particles. including P1V1 P2V2 constant. Percentage composition by Calculations. liquids and gases. relative molecular mass (Mr). litres and number of Standard temperature and particles. mass. Boyle’s air pump. FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 3. required). cm3. Molar volume litres to moles.4 Chemical Formulas (Time needed: 6 class periods) Empirical and molecular Calculations of empirical formulas. such as glucose and urea). molar mass. Converting grams and pressure (s. 3.t. The mole as Calculation of relative molecular the SI unit for amount of mass from relative atomic substance containing the masses.p.. Mandatory experiment 3. 12 . at s. Calculations not required.1 3.

STOICHIOMETRY.1 Determination of the relative molecular mass of a volatile liquid (conical flask or gas syringe may be used). FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 3. (Time needed: 9 class periods) chemical equations. Calculations concept (balanced equations will involving masses and volumes.5 Chemical Equations Chemical equations. 13 . Calculations based on balanced Calculations in g and kg rather equations using the mole than tonnes. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 3. Mandatory Experiments 3. be given for all calculations). Balancing Simple examples.

using the formula method.g. Standard solutions. bases and salts. Calculation of % (v/v). use Arrhenius theory of acids and of stomach powders for acid bases (for aqueous solutions indigestion. (Balanced equations will be given in all volumetric problems. use of lime in agriculture. Solving volumetric problems.) Mandatory experiment 4. Mandatory experiment 4. 4. Colour intensity as a function of concentration (simple treatment only).2 Mandatory experiment 4.2A Mandatory Experiments 4. and volume. number of moles from molarity Use of % (v/v).g. (Time needed: 6 class periods) Expression of solution Calculation of molarity from concentration in mol l–1 concentration in grams per litre (molarity). e. 4.1 Preparation of standard solution of sodium carbonate.3 Volumetric Analysis Apparatus used in volumetric (Time needed: 10 class periods) analysis. and the use of this titration in making the salt sodium chloride. 4.2 Acids and Bases (Time needed: 3 class periods) Acids. Primary standards. 14 .2A A hydrochloric acid/sodium hydroxide titration. Correct titrimetric procedure. wine. Acid-base titrations.1 Concentration of Solutions Solutions. Household acids and bases (two Neutralisation – formation of a examples of each).1 4. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 4. only). VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 4.2 Standardisation of a hydrochloric acid solution using a standard solution of sodium carbonate. g l–1 and also in and vice versa. examples of neutralisation. Everyday salt from an acid and a base. e.

solubility (qualitative properties of methylbenzene. Methane as a contributor to the greenhouse effect. Systematic names. octane. Hazards of methane production in slurry pits. 5. 15 . solubility (qualitative properties of methane. and vegetation as methane sources.2 Structure of Aliphatic Alkanes. solvents]. structural Use of models. cyclohexane and 2. as examples of aromatic compounds.2. formulas and structural isomers of alkanes to C-5. formulas and structural isomers of alkenes to C-4. (Time needed: 5 class periods) only ethyne to be considered. but not isomers. natural gas and petroleum Decomposition of animal waste (Time needed: 1 class period) as sources of hydrocarbons. Physical properties [physical Demonstration of the solubility state. coal mines and refuse dumps. of hexane. structural Use of models. alkenes and alkynes as Hydrocarbons homologous series. Physical properties [physical Demonstration of the solubility state. ethene only) in water and in non-polar and ethyne. For alkynes. FUELS AND HEATS OF REACTION Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 5.3 Aromatic Hydrocarbons Structure of benzene. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 5. See aromatic compounds (Time needed: 1 class period) methylbenzene and ethylbenzene (page 20).4- trimethylpentane (iso-octane) to be considered. Structures. 5. only) in water and in non-polar solvents]. heptane. Use of models. Systematic names.1 Sources of Hydrocarbons Coal.

of combustion. naphtha. (Time needed: 4 class periods) Production of the refinery gas. naphtha.4 Exothermic and Endothermic Chemical reactions can result in Demonstration of an exothermic Reactions a change in temperature. Composition of natural gas and liquid petroleum gas (LPG). (Time needed: 5 class periods) Exothermic and endothermic reactions (and changes of state). Uses of the refinery gas. Lead in petrol. gas kerosene. 16 . • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 5. Composition of petrol. gas oil and residue oil and residue fractions. Heats of Kilogram calorific values of combustion of different fuels. Heat of combustion. light light gasoline. Alternatives to lead: improving octane number by (i) isomerisation (ii) dehydrocyclisation (iii) catalytic cracking. Octane numbers as a measure of the tendency of a fuel to cause knocking. Auto-ignition. Mandatory experiment 5. and their uses (calculations not required). kerosene. Addition of mercaptans to natural gas for safety reasons. Heat of reaction (general term).1 Sign of ∆H. 5. and an endothermic reaction. FUELS AND HEATS OF REACTION (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 5.5 Oil Refining and its Products Fractionation of crude oil. Bomb Use of the bomb calorimeter in calorimeter as an instrument determining calorific values of for accurately measuring heats foods. fractions. Combustion of alkanes and other hydrocarbons. gasoline. fuels.

2 Preparation and properties of ethyne [combustion. FUELS AND HEATS OF REACTION (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 5.2 Oxyacetylene welding and (Time needed: 3 class periods) combustion. unsaturation. Potential as a (i) electrolysis of water fuel. 17 . • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 5. products not required for the tests for unsaturation). Hydrogen: manufacture by Industrial uses. (ii) steam reforming of natural gas (simple treatment only). tests for unsaturation using bromine water and acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution].6 Other Chemical Fuels Ethyne: preparation. 5. Mandatory experiment 5. Mandatory Experiments 5. tests for (equations and structures of cutting.1 Determination of the heat of reaction of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide.

(i) particle size (ii) catalysts.2 Studying the effects on the reaction rate of (i) concentration and (ii) temperature.1 Plotting and simple interpretation of reaction rate graphs. 6. Nature of reactants. Catalytic converters: (i) nature of catalysts (ii) reactions catalysed (iii) environmental benefits. catalysed by cobalt(II) salts. Catalysts. Demonstration of the oxidation of potassium sodium tartrate by hydrogen peroxide.1 Reaction Rates (Time needed: 3 class periods) Rate of reaction. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 6. Mandatory experiment 6.2 Demonstration of the oxidation of methanol using a hot platinum or nichrome catalyst. (Time needed: 7 class periods) reaction rate of Temperature. Particle size. Mandatory experiment 6. Mandatory Experiments 6.2 Factors Affecting Rates of Reaction Concentration.1 Monitoring the rate of production of oxygen from hydrogen peroxide. using sodium thiosulfate solution and hydrochloric acid. Demonstration of the effects on Dust explosions. Enzymes as catalysts produced by living cells (two examples). RATES OF REACTION Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 6. 6. Catalyst poisons. 18 . using manganese dioxide as a catalyst.

2 Planar Carbon (Time needed: 9 class periods) Unsaturated organic compounds. Alkenes: non-polar double bond. 19 . ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 7. Fermentation as a source of (primary and secondary alcohols ethanol. intermediate between double and single. Physical properties [physical state. 7. as appropriate. ethanoic acid in vinegar. Simple explanation of the use of the circle to represent the identical bonds in benzene. nomenclature up to C-4 water. Structure and nomenclature up to C-4. (i) cyclohexane and (ii) water. Structure and nomenclature up to C-4. solubility (qualitative only) in water and in non-polar solvents]. Alcohols: structure and Comparison of structure with Ethanol as a solvent. use of fermentation in only). Use of models. agent. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 7. Physical properties [physical Mandatory experiment 7. Use of models. nomenclature up to C-4. Structure and (i) cyclohexane and (ii) water. Methanol as a denaturing in non-polar solvents]. Physical properties Solubility of (a) methanol and the brewing and distilling [physical state. Carbonyl compounds (aldehydes Solubility of ethanal in only): polar double bond. (qualitative only) in water and (i) cyclohexane and (ii) water.1 Tetrahedral Carbon Saturated organic compounds. Use in making plastics. solubility (qualitative only) in water and in non-polar solvents]. solubility (b) butan-1 -ol in industries.1 state. as appropriate. Use as fuels. ants. Carboxylic acids: polar double Solubility of ethanoic acid in Methanoic acid in nettles and bond. (Time needed: 3 class periods) Alkanes.

Not all aromatic compounds are carcinogenic.3 Organic Chemical Reaction Types Students are not. Aromatic acid-base indicators: phenolphthalein. They are required to be able to write balanced equations for the reactions. pharmaceutical compounds (one example in each case. in general. e. e. Carcinogenic nature of some aromatic compounds. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 7. aspirin (structure of aspirin not required). (i) products of the addition reactions of ethene with chlorine. industrial solvent. An indication of the range and Inspect structural formulas of a Aromatic compounds form the scope of aromatic chemistry range of consumer products to basis of dyestuffs. chlorine. unless otherwise indicated. using structural formulas. pressure. Industrial importance of water and hydrogen chloride. solvent) for these reactions. (a) Addition reactions Alkenes – reactions with Industrial sources. benzene. bromine. 7. detergents. 20 . methyl orange (structures not required). Solubility of methylbenzene in Use of methylbenzene as an (continued) (i) cyclohexane and (ii) water. (Time needed: 14 class periods) required to know the conditions (temperature. (structures not required).g. except where specified elsewhere in the syllabus. hydrogen. bromine.g. show the presence of benzene herbicides and many rings. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 7.2 Planar Carbon Aromatic compounds. water and hydrogen chloride (ii) hydrogenation of vegetable oils. catalyst. structures not required).

3 Organic Chemical Polymerisation reaction (of Alkenes as raw materials in the Reaction Types ethene and propene only – industrial manufacture of (continued) reaction mechanism not plastics. Mandatory experiment 7. extinguishers.3 (equations and structures of products not required. fire halogenated alkanes. unless specified elsewhere in the syllabus). unless specified elsewhere in the syllabus). Mandatory experiment 7. industry (two examples of synthetic products of this industry. (c) Elimination reactions Dehydration of alcohols. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 7.2 Soap manufacture. (b) Substitution reactions Halogenation of alkanes. required). Non-flammability of fully Flame retardants.5 (half equations only required). Combustion – a reaction common to most organic compounds. Alcohols as motor fuels. 21 . • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 7. Oxidation of aldehydes to acids Mandatory experiment 7. (d) Redox reactions Alcohols: Oxidation using KMnO4 or Mandatory experiment 7. required).4 Ethanal formation in the Na2Cr2O7 to (i) aldehydes and metabolism of ethanol in the (ii) acids (half equations only human body. Combustion of alcohols. scope of the petrochemical relative to ethene. Unreactivity of benzene with An indication of the range and regard to addition reactions. structures not required.

advanced separation techniques.3 Organic Chemical (e) Reactions as acids Reaction Types Reactions of alcohols with (continued) sodium. e.7 Use of thin-layer in Organic Chemistry technique in which a mobile chromatography (TLC) in the (Time needed: 3 class periods) phase carrying a mixture is separation of dyes taken from caused to move in contact with fibres in forensic work. (f) Organic synthesis: principles and examples Chemical synthesis involves Useful products of organic (i) bond breaking and synthesis (two examples. paracetamol.g. 7. structures and synthetic routes not required).g. product chemistry (two examples of useful organic natural products. aspirin. with sodium hydroxide and with sodium carbonate. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 7. (ii) bond forming. structures not required). steam scope of organic natural distillation. Reactions of carboxylic acids with magnesium. 22 .4 Organic Natural Products Extraction techniques. e. Example of organic synthesis: PVC from ethene (structures and synthetic route required).6 An indication of the range and (Time needed: 4 class periods) solvent extraction. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 7. 7.5 Chromatography and Instrumentation Chromatography as a separation Mandatory experiment 7. Mandatory experiment 7. a selectively absorbent GC and HPLC as more stationary phase.

Brief reference to the principles of each method. vitamins in foods. 7. Gas chromatography (GC). Drug tests on athletes.1 Recrystallisation of benzoic acid and determination of its melting point. 7.2 Preparation of soap. 23 . not required. (It should be noted that these techniques are applicable not only to organic chemistry but also to many other areas of chemistry. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 7. 7. chromatography (HPLC).3 Preparation and properties of ethene [combustion. or both: in Organic Chemistry (continued) Mass spectrometry (cf. tests for unsaturation using acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution and bromine water].4 Preparation and properties of ethanal [properties limited to reactions with (i) acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution.5 Chromatography Instrumental methods of Examples of uses: and Instrumentation separation or analysis. 7.6 Extraction of clove oil from cloves (or similar alternative) by steam distillation.1. blood alcohol tests. High-performance liquid Growth-promoters in meat.7 Separation of a mixture of indicators using paper chromatography or thin-layer chromatography or column chromatography. waste dump and (ii) trace organic pollutants in water.2.) Mandatory Experiments 7. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 7. Interpretation of spectra etc. (ii) Fehling’s reagent and (iii) ammoniacal silver nitrate].5 Preparation and properties of ethanoic acid (properties limited to reactions with sodium carbonate and magnesium). 7. Analysis of (i) gases from a (Time needed: 3 class periods) page 7). 7.

(ii) Cr2O7 + H2O 2– (iii) Fe3+ + CNS– 2CrO4 + 2H 2– Fe(CNS)2+ + } (to demonstrate the effects of concentration changes on an equilibrium mixture).1 Industrial application of Le (Time needed: 5 class periods) Effect (if any) on equilibrium Chatelier’s principle in the position of concentration. in the Haber process. 8. Mandatory Experiments 8. the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction.1 Chemical Equilibrium Reversible reactions – dynamic (Time needed: 4 class periods) equilibrium. catalytic oxidation of sulfur pressure.2 Le Chatelier’s Principle Le Chatelier’s principle. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 8. Mandatory experiment 8.1 Simple experiments to illustrate Le Chatelier’s principle: (i) CoC142– + 6H20 Co(H20)62+ + 4C1– (to demonstrate the effects of both temperature changes and concentration changes on an equilibrium mixture). At equilibrium. Equilibrium law and constant (K c only). • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 8. temperature and dioxide to sulfur trioxide and catalyst. 24 .

e. Deionisation. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: WATER Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects It is strongly recommended that students visit a water treatment plant – industrial or municipal. flocculation.3 Water Treatment (Time needed: 4 class periods) Water treatment – sedimentation. Causes of temporary and Tests on scale deposits in a Removal of hardness by boiling permanent hardness. Calculation of pH of dilute aqueous solutions of strong acids and bases (calculation of pH of mixtures of strong acids and bases not required). 9.g. filtration. fluoridation and pH adjustment. phosphates. The role of nutrients in the Awareness that there are EU eutrophication of water. reduction of level of phosphates and nitrates). bacterial breakdown.1 pH Scale (Time needed: 4 class periods) pH scale. 9. kettle. e.g. i. chlorination. and ion exchange. e. screening.2 Hardness in Water (Time needed: 3 class periods) Hardness in water. Use of universal indicator paper or solution. 25 . limits for various chemical species in water (two examples. Sewage treatment (primary. e. tertiary. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 9. 9. Limitations of the pH scale – usefulness confined to dilute aqueous solutions. specific metal ions). settlement. secondary. Cost of tertiary treatment.g. nitrates.

2 Determination of total suspended and total dissolved solids (expressed as p. Organic chemical pollutants. Brief reference to principles of each method. Mandatory Experiments 9. milk. silage. 9.m.1 Analysis of (i) lead in water and (ii) fertilisers.2 experiment 2. 26 . Colorimetry Mandatory experiment 9.1). • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 9. mandatory Mandatory experiment 9. Tests for anions (cf.p. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: WATER (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 9. e.g.1 Colorimetric experiment to estimate free chlorine in swimming-pool water or bleach (using a colorimeter or a comparator). Determination of pH. industrial waste.) by filtration and evaporation respectively. sewage.4 Water Analysis (Time needed: 6 class periods) Instrumental methods of Examples of uses: analysis: pH meter Analysis of river and lake water.

(i) feedstock (raw materials. dyes. pesticides. 27 . costs of waste disposal) (ix) site location (x) suitable materials for the construction of chemical plant (unreactive. This visit should be a structured one. disposal or sale) (v) waste disposal and effluent control (waste water treatment. variable costs. paints. Awareness of the contributions successful industrial chemical of chemistry to society. metals. continuous and semi- continuous industrial chemical processes.1 General Principles (Time needed: 4 class periods) Batch. 1B. e. food-processing. medicines. on- site training. herbicides and and pressure variables. catalyst) (iv) co-products (separation. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • Options: Ordinary level students to choose ONE from options 1A. emission control) (vi) quality control (vii) safety (location of site. increasing crop yields by the (iii) product yield (temperature use of fertilisers. preparation) semiconductors. enzymes. catalyst) as plastics and synthetic fibres. resistant to corrosion). safety features) (viii)costs (fixed costs. catalysts. liquid crystals (ii) rate (temperature and and alternative materials such pressure variables.g. processes. such as provision of pure water. 2A and 2B. 1A. fuels. detergents. recycling and selling of useful co- products. monitoring of hazards. OPTION 1A: ADDITIONAL INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects It is strongly recommended that students visit a particulat local chemical plant. cost reduction by use of heat exchangers. Characteristics of effective and See above.

(c) Magnesium oxide Use of magnesium oxide as a manufacture from sea water. heat-resistant material in the Equation required for formation walls of furnaces. and its conversion to urea.2 Case Study (Time needed: 5 class periods) A case study based on the Irish Awareness of the range and chemical industry.1 as far as they industry. (b) Nitric acid manufacture from ammonia. water vapour and air. using the principles products produced by this outlined in 1A. of magnesium oxide. (a) Ammonia manufacture from natural gas. Equation required for ammonia formation. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • OPTION 1A: ADDITIONAL INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 1A. ONE of the scope of the Irish chemical three following processes should industry (two examples of be studied. and its use to make fertilisers. other than those are relevant to the process: referred to in the case study chosen). Equation required for oxidation of nitrogen monoxide. 28 .

e. carbon dioxide. Carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke and vehicle exhaust fumes. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • OPTION 1B: ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 1B.1 Oxygen (Time needed: 1 class period) Manufacture of oxygen using Uses of oxygen and of liquid liquefaction and fractional nitrogen (two examples in each distillation of air.g. The greenhouse effect and the influence of human activity on it. keeping foods fresh. Natural fixation of nitrogen. carbon dioxide on universal indicator solution. flushing out Atmospheric abundance. dangerous vapours from oil tankers.3 Carbon Dioxide (Time needed: 3 class periods) Combustion of carbon to give carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Carbon monoxide as a neutral Carbon monoxide as a poison. 29 . Possible implications of the increased greenhouse effect. nitrogen and oxygen in an electric discharge. 1B. Carbon dioxide as an acidic Demonstration of the effect of oxide.2 Nitrogen (Time needed: 1 class period) Structure and inertness. Greenhouse gases and their relative effects (especially carbon dioxide and water vapour). Any two uses. Reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels by dissolving in the ocean. The carbon cycle. case). oxide. Nitrogen cycle. Fermentation in ethanol Carbon dioxide in carbonated production as a source of drinks. 1B.

CFCs are believed to be the main cause of damage to the ozone layer. Uses of CFCs. indicator solution.4 Atmospheric Pollution Oxides of nitrogen and sulfur: (Time needed: 2 class periods) sources of pollution (natural. 1B. e. methane. Dissolving of nitrogen dioxide Demonstration of the effect of Acid rain and its effects on the and sulfur dioxide to form sulfur dioxide on universal environment.g. chlorination of ozone layer. CFCs and HCFCs. Beneficial effect of the ozone layer. 30 . domestic. Effects of damage to the ozone layer. gases using limestone. Formation of ozone in the stratosphere. internal combustion engine).5 The Ozone Layer (Time needed: 2 class periods) Chloroalkanes: preparation from Chlorofluorocarbons and the alkanes. industrial. Scrubbing of waste acids. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • OPTION 1B: ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 1B.

molecules. heat conductivity and electrical conductivity). exemplified by the recycling of polystyrene (stages: sorting. crystal structure.g. poly(chloroethene) and fibres (two examples of uses of poly(phenylethene). properties (density. hardness) of poly(ethene). these polymers in plastics and poly(phenylethene). 2A. Alloys. (Time needed: 5 class periods) Polymerisation of alkenes: Demonstration of physical The industrial and domestic poly(ethene) (low-density). The discovery of buckminsterfullerene (structure not required). Contributions of covalent macromolecular crystals (i) Braggs: development of the – physical properties related to X-ray technique for determining the crystal binding forces. importance and advantages of poly(chloroethene). Recycling of plastics. molecular. Brief history of the discovery of low-density poly(ethene). Monomers. metallic and Use of models. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • OPTION 2A: MATERIALS Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 2A. drying and re-extrusion). vitamin B12. Crystal structure is determined (ii) Dorothy Hodgkin: by scattering of X-rays by the determination of the crystal crystal (non-mathematical structure of complex organic treatment only).3 Metals (Time needed: 1 class period) Comparison between metals and non-metals (hardness. malleability.1 Crystals (Time needed: 3 class periods) Ionic. penicillin (structures not required). 31 . each polymer). shredding. Carbon in steel and hardness. flexibility. lustre. ductility. washing. e.2 Addition Polymers Addition polymers. 2A.

case). Al) (Time needed: 2 class periods) Recycling of aluminium. use as catalysts). • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • OPTION 2B: ADDITIONAL ELECTROCHEMISTRY AND THE EXTRACTION OF METALS Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 2B. 2B. (application of a protective layer on a metal: galvanising and surface coating). 2B.4 Strongly Electropositive Extraction by electrochemical Uses (two examples in each Metals (Na and methods. 2B. 32 . The electrochemical series (reactions of metals with acids. simple cell. stages). and steel. Steels as alloys of iron. 2B. water and oxygen not required). Electric arc process for steel Environmental aspects of iron manufacture (outline of main and steel production. Manufacture of iron (blast Uses of iron and steel (two furnace – chemical aspects) examples in each case).2 Electrolysis of Molten Salts Electrolysis of molten lead (Time needed: 1 class period) bromide.1 The Electrochemical Series Different combinations of metals Contributions of Galvani. (Time needed: 1 class period) produce different voltages in a Davy and Faraday. Volta.3 Corrosion (Time needed: 1 class period) Corrosion of metals. using inert electrodes. Relative Corrosion prevention corrodibility of metals.5 d-Block Metals (Time needed: 4 class periods) Transition elements: general chemical properties (colour.

except where the traditional name continues to enjoy widespread use. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y O R D I N A R Y L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • APPENDIX 1 Only the systematic names for organic compounds will be used on examination papers. Knowledge of these traditional names is not examinable. A representative list of such compounds follows: EAVING L C ERTIFICATE CHEMISTRY Systematic Name Traditional Name ethanal acetaldehyde ethanoic acid acetic acid ethyne acetylene ethanol ethyl alcohol ethene ethylene 2. particularly in industrial and everyday life.2. the traditional name will also be given in parentheses immediately after the systematic name. 33 . In these cases.4-trimethylpentane iso-octane chloromethane methyl chloride poly(ethene) polyethylene poly(phenylethene) polystyrene poly(chloroethene) polyvinyl chloride methylbenzene toluene The systematic names for inorganic compounds are not required.

• L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y S Y L L A B U S • 34 .

LEAVING CERTIFICATE CHEMISTRY HIGHER LEVEL SYLL ABUS 35 .

• L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • Higher Level Syllabus Objectives The objectives of the syllabus are: 1. environmental. Understanding • explain both familiar and unfamiliar phenomena Students should understand by applying known laws and principles • how chemistry relates to everyday life • use chemical facts and principles to make chemical • scientific information in verbal. and how chemists work. Competence Students should have a knowledge of Students should be able to • basic chemical terminology. • how the scientific method applies to chemistry. Knowledge 4. graphical and predictions mathematical form • perform simple chemical calculations • basic chemical principles • identify public issues and misconceptions relating • how chemical problems can be solved to chemistry and analyse them critically. technological and economic aspects of chemistry. Attitudes Students should appreciate 3. facts. graphical methods and mathematical form • scientific theories and their limitations • organise chemical ideas and statements and write clearly about chemical concepts and theories • social. 36 . Skills Students should be able to • advances in chemistry and their influence on our lives • follow instructions given in a suitable form • that the understanding of chemistry contributes to • perform experiments safely and co-operatively the social and economic development of society • select and manipulate suitable apparatus to • the range of vocational opportunities that use perform specified tasks chemistry. 5. • report experimental procedures and results in a concise. historical. accurate and comprehensible manner 2. • make accurate observations and measurements • interpret experimental data and assess the accuracy of experimental results. principles and • translate scientific information in verbal.

physical and chemical modern periodic table. Stoney: naming of the electron. Law of conservation of mass. 1. Boyle. alkaline earth metals. mathematical treatment not Atoms. elements arranged so as to relative atomic mass. Symbols of elements History of the idea of elements. The periodic table as a list of Arranging elements in order of History of the periodic table. Crookes: vacuum tubes.1 Periodic Table (Time needed: 3 class periods) Elements. protons discovery of the nucleus as shown and neutrons (relative mass. required): Dalton: atomic theory. discovery of protons atom). Bohr: model of the atom. Comparison of Mendeleev’s table with the modern periodic table. including the contributions of the Greeks. Newlands. location within experiment. note including the contributions of demonstrate trends in their differences compared with the Dobereiner.2 Atomic Structure (Time needed: 6 class periods) Matter is composed of particles. in particular and potassium.) 1. 37 . PERIODIC TABLE AND ATOMIC STRUCTURE Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 1. Davy and Moseley. Mendeleev and Moseley. 1–36. Thomson: negative charge of the electron. Brief statement of the principal Demonstration of the reaction resemblances of elements within with water of lithium. properties. sodium each main group. cathode rays. halogens and noble gases. molecules development of atomic theory or ions. by the α−particle scattering relative charge. Very brief outline of the historical which may be atoms. Minute size of atoms. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • CORE (Black text is for Higher level only. Millikan: magnitude of charge of electrons as shown by oil drop experiment (experimental details not required). Chadwick: discovery of the neutron. e/m for electrons (experimental details not required). Rutherford: Properties of electrons. in nuclei of various atoms. alkali metals. (outline principles only.

60Co for cancer treatment. production of positive ions. a γ-emitter. if uranium salts). Marie and an α-emitter.g. detection (mathematical treatment excluded). mass (continued) number (A ). beta and gamma Demonstration of properties – Historical outline of radiation (nature and detection and penetrating radioactivity: work of Becquerel penetrating ability). 14C (Principle of Geiger-Müller tube polonium and radium). 60Co. not required. Radioisotopes. Half-life (non-mathematical 14C age determination treatment).2 Atomic Structure Atomic number (Z ). isotopes.g. hydrogen and carbon as examples of isotopes. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 1. power (this can be shown using (discovery of radiation from One example each of: an appropriate videotape. 1.g. 241Am desired). The Calculation of approximate Use of the mass spectrometer 12C scale for relative atomic relative atomic masses from in determining relative atomic masses.g. mass number (e. 38 . calculation Fundamental processes that of approximate relative atomic occur in a mass spectrometer: mass of chlorine). e. PERIODIC TABLE AND ATOMIC STRUCTURE (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 1. Uses of radioisotopes (three examples). Relative atomic mass (A r). acceleration. Distinction between chemical reaction and nuclear reaction (simple equations required – confine examples to alpha and beta emissions). vaporisation of substance. Food irradiation.3 Radioactivity (Time needed: 2 class periods) Alpha. abundance of isotopes of given mass.) Widespread occurrence of radioactivity. separation. (calculations not required). Pierre Curie (discovery of a β-emitter. e. e.

Line spectra as evidence for Viewing of emission spectra of energy levels. *Mandatory experiments are defined at the end of each section of the syllabus. Energy sub-levels. 1–20 (numbers of electrons in each main energy level). Arrangement of electrons in individual orbitals of p-block atoms. Atoms Organisation of particles in (Time needed: 11 class periods) atoms of elements nos. Classification of the first twenty elements in the periodic table on the basis of the number of outer electrons. elements using a spectroscope or a spectrometer. PERIODIC TABLE AND ATOMIC STRUCTURE (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 1. Sodium street lights. Building up of electronic structure of the first 36 elements.and p-block elements only. Shapes of s and p orbitals.) Atomic orbitals. Electronic configurations of ions of s. (Non-mathematical treatment in both cases.4 Electronic Structure of Energy levels in atoms. Emission and absorption spectra Mandatory experiment 1. Wave nature of the electron.1* Atomic absorption spectrometry of the hydrogen atom – (AAS). spectrum as an example. Balmer series in the emission fireworks. Heisenberg uncertainty principle. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 1. 39 .

4 Electronic Dependence of chemical Structure of properties of elements on their Atoms (continued) electronic structure. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 1. Explanations for general Atoms (continued) trends in values: (i) down a group (ii) across a period (covalent radii of main group elements only). PERIODIC TABLE AND ATOMIC STRUCTURE (C0NTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 1. Second and successive ionisation energies.4 Electronic Atomic radii (covalent radii Structure of only). First ionisation energies. screening effect and below (reactivity of halogens). 1.2 radius. 40 . Evidence for energy levels provided by successive ionisation energy values. Explanations in terms of atomic See mandatory experiment 1. nuclear charge for general trends in properties of elements in groups I and VII. Explanations for general trends in values: (i) down a group (ii) across a period (main group elements) and for exceptions to the general trends across a period.

2Br– – 2e– → Br2). (Half equations only required.2 Use of scrap iron to extract series of metals arranged in (half equations only required. Na. Oxidation and reduction in terms of loss and gain of electrons. PERIODIC TABLE AND ATOMIC STRUCTURE (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 1. Purification of copper. inert electrodes.) Mandatory Experiments 1. e. copper.) universal indicator) and of aqueous potassium iodide (using phenolphthalein indicator) with inert electrodes. Swimming-pool water treatment. order of their ability to be e. (Time needed: 7 class periods) reduction: simple examples only. other than displacement reactions. solution with copper electrodes movement. The electrochemical series as a Mandatory experiment 1. only required. 41 . Na with Cl2.2 Redox reactions of group VII elements – halogens as oxidising agents (reactions with bromides. Displacement reactions of metals (Zn with Cu2+. Oxidising and reducing agents. K.1 Flame tests (Li. Mg with O2.5 Oxidation and Reduction Introduction to oxidation and Rusting of iron. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 1. Electrolysis of (i) copper sulfate Demonstration of ionic Electroplating. 1. oxidised (reactions. iodides.g. Mg with Cu2+).g. Zn with Cu2+. Ba. Fe2+ and sulfites). (Half equations aqueous sodium sulfate (using Cutlery. Sr and Cu only). and (ii) acidified water with Demonstration of electrolysis of Chrome and nickel plating. not required).

using dot and cross diagrams.g. Bonding and valency in terms Using the octet rule to predict of the attainment of a stable the formulas of simple electronic structure. in everyday life (two examples of each).1 Ionic materials in everyday life (two uses. Stability of noble gas electron Uses of helium and argon configurations. Cr and Mn only). Characteristics of covalent Testing solubility in different substances. Representation of ionic bonds Minute size of ions. 2. e. Distinction between sigma and pi bonding. Mandatory experiment 2.3 Covalent Bonding (Time needed: 4 class periods) Molecules. Sodium chloride crystal structure. Octet rule compounds – binary compounds and its limitations. of the first 36 elements (excluding d-block elements) and the hydroxides.2 Ionic Bonding (Time needed: 4 class periods) Positive and negative ions. solvents of ionic and covalent substances. sulfites and sulfates of these elements (where such exist). using dot and cross diagrams. carbonates. hydrogencarbonates. Ionic bonding as electron transfer. charged plastic rod). related to their chemical unreactivity. Fe. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 2. Minute size of molecules. Variable valency of transition elements (Cu. CHEMICAL BONDING Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 2. 2. Characteristics of ionic substances. double and triple covalent bonds. Covalent bonding as the sharing Representation of covalent bonds of pairs of electrons. salt tablets to replace salt lost by sweating). Single. Polar and non-polar covalent Polarity test for liquids (use of Polar and non-polar materials bonding. Simple chemical (Time needed: 5 class periods) formulas. nitrates. 42 . Examination of a model of the NaCl crystal.1 Chemical Compounds Compounds.

H2S.5 Shapes of Molecules and Shapes of some simple Use of models or balloons to Intermolecular molecules. 2. Periodic variation of electronegativity – explanation for general trends in values: (i) down a group (ii) across a period. Forces (Time needed: 5 class periods) Using electron pair repulsion theory to explain shapes of molecules of type ABn for up to four pairs of electrons around the central atom (refer to bond angles). • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 2. Electronegativity differences and Prediction of bond type using polarity of bonds. illustrate molecular shapes. Distinction between intramolecular bonding and intermolecular forces. dipole-dipole. hydrogen bonding. of C2H4 boiling point of a covalent and HCHO.4 Electronegativity (Time needed: 2 class periods) Electronegativity. 43 . electronegativity differences. CHEMICAL BONDING (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 2. (Shapes of molecules with pi bonds not to be considered. and of H2O and substance. Effect of the Comparison of the boiling intermolecular forces on the points of H2 and O2.) Relationship between symmetry and polarity in a molecule (dipole moments not required). Intermolecular forces: van der Waals’.

nitrate. phosphate. sulfate.1 Tests for anions in aqueous solutions: chloride. Calculation of oxidation numbers of other elements. CHEMICAL BONDING (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 2. Use of hydrogen peroxide). 44 .g. except for (in their compounds). oxidation numbers in nomenclature of transition metal compounds. hydrogencarbonate. Calculation of oxidation (Time needed: 5 class periods) Rules for oxidation numbers numbers of transition metals (exclude peroxides. Oxidation and reduction in Bleaches as examples of terms of oxidation numbers. carbonate. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 2. NaOC1) or reducing agents (e. oxidising agents (e. Mandatory Experiments 2.g. SO2). sulfite.6 Oxidation Numbers Oxidation states and numbers.

litres and number of spectra not required). Molar volume litres to moles. 3.. Equation of state for an ideal gas: PV = nRT (units: Pa. Mandatory experiment 3. Charles’s law. liquids and gases. K). ink and water. molecular mass (M r ). Boyle’s air pump. correction of gas volumes to = = T1 T2 s. K).p. The kinetic theory of gases Calculations involving (non-mathematical treatment): PV = nRT (units: Pa. Standard temperature and particles. 3. m3. smoke and air.1 States of Matter (Time needed: 1 class period) Motion of particles in solids. and number of at s. Converting moles to only – interpretation of mass Avogadro number of particles. Calculations not required. required). Combined gas law: Simple calculations. m3. STOICHIOMETRY.3 The Mole (Time needed: 9 class periods) Avogadro constant. ideal gases. Diffusion (Graham’s law not NH3 and HCl. molar mass.2 Gas Laws (Time needed: 7 class periods) Boyle’s law. The mole as Calculation of relative molecular M r determination using a mass the SI unit for amount of mass from relative atomic spectrometer (simple treatment substance containing the masses.t. assumptions of kinetic theory.1 45 . • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 3.). Calculations not required.t. Reasons why gases deviate from ideal gas behaviour. cm3. FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 3. including P1V1 P2V2 constant.p. Avogadro’s law.p. K). Converting moles to number of atoms of a molecular species.t. (units: Pa. relative particles to moles. grams. Converting grams and pressure (s. Gay-Lussac’s law of combining volumes.

Percentage yields. mass. Calculations involving excess of one reactant. given the masses of reactants and products. Balancing redox equations (ionic equations only – ignore spectator ions). Calculation of empirical formulas. Calculations based on balanced Calculations in g and kg rather equations using the mole than tonnes.4 Chemical Formulas (Time needed: 6 class periods) Empirical and molecular Calculations of empirical formulas. Balancing Simple examples. be given for all calculations). formulas. given the percentage composition by mass. such as glucose and urea). Calculations concept (balanced equations will involving masses and volumes.5 Chemical Equations Chemical equations. Mandatory Experiments 3. given the empirical formulas and the relative molecular masses (examples should include simple biological substances. Structural formulas. 46 . (Time needed: 11 class periods) chemical equations. Calculation of molecular formulas.1 Determination of the relative molecular mass of a volatile liquid (conical flask or gas syringe may be used). Percentage composition by Calculations. Calculation of percentage yields. STOICHIOMETRY. FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 3. 3. Simple examples. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 3.

% (v/v).2 Acids and Bases (Time needed: 4 class periods) Acids. e. Simple calculations involving percentage concentrations. g l–1 and also in and vice versa. VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 4. Household acids and bases (two Neutralisation – formation of a examples of each). (Time needed: 8 class periods) Expression of solution Calculation of molarity from concentration in mol l–1 concentration in grams per litre (molarity). use Arrhenius and Brønsted-Lowry of stomach powders for acid theories of acids and bases (for indigestion. 47 . Calculation of % (w/v). • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 4. Conjugate acid-base pairs. e. Primary standards. number of moles from molarity Use of % (v/v).g.1 Concentration of Solutions Solutions. Everyday salt from an acid and a base. use of lime in agriculture. wine. Mandatory experiment 4.g. Calculation of the effect of dilution on concentration. bases and salts. examples of neutralisation. % (w/w). and volume. Standard solutions. aqueous solutions only).1 4. Colour intensity as a function of concentration (simple treatment only).

8 Mandatory Experiments 4.8 Determination of the percentage (w/v) of hypochlorite in bleach.5 A potassium manganate(VII)/ammonium iron(II) sulfate titration.) Calculation of the relative molecular mass of a compound and of the amount of water of crystallisation in a compound from titration data.4 Determination of the amount of water of crystallisation in hydrated sodium carbonate. VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 4. Correct titrimetric using the formula method. 4. Mandatory experiment 4.4 Redox titrations.8 Calculations based on mandatory experiments 4. (Either method may be used when both methods are applicable.2 Mandatory experiment 4.3 Volumetric Analysis Apparatus used in volumetric Solving volumetric problems.2 Standardisation of a hydrochloric acid solution using a standard solution of sodium carbonate. 4.) Mandatory experiment 4.1 Preparation of a standard solution of sodium carbonate.6 Mandatory experiment 4. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 4. where the formula method is not applicable. procedure.5–4. Solving volumetric problems from first principles. Acid-base titrations. 4.5 Mandatory experiment 4. 48 . (Time needed: 22 class periods) analysis.6 Determination of the amount of iron in an iron tablet. 4. 4. (Balanced equations will be given in all volumetric problems.3 Mandatory experiment 4. 4.7 An iodine/thiosulfate titration. 4.3 Determination of the concentration of ethanoic acid in vinegar.7 Mandatory experiment 4.

Physical properties [physical Demonstration of the solubility state. (Time needed: 5 class periods) only ethyne to be considered. For alkynes.4- trimethylpentane (iso-octane) to be considered. Physical properties [physical Demonstration of the solubility state. heptane. only) in water and in non-polar solvents]. solubility (qualitative properties of methylbenzene. See aromatic compounds.1 Sources of Hydrocarbons Coal.2 Structure of Aliphatic Alkanes. solvents]. alkenes and alkynes as Hydrocarbons homologous series. 49 . natural gas and petroleum Decomposition of animal waste (Time needed: 1 class period) as sources of hydrocarbons.2. FUELS AND HEATS OF REACTION Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 5. 5. 5. as examples of aromatic compounds. of hexane. cyclohexane and 2. Hazards of methane production in slurry pits. and vegetation as methane sources. structural Use of models. structural Use of models. Methane as a contributor to the greenhouse effect. ethene only) in water and in non-polar and ethyne.3 Aromatic Hydrocarbons Structure of benzene. Systematic names. Structures. solubility (qualitative properties of methane. Systematic names. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 5. (Time needed: 1 class period) methylbenzene and ethylbenzene page 55. Use of models. formulas and structural isomers of alkanes to C-5. formulas and structural isomers of alkenes to C-4. but not isomers. octane. coal mines and refuse dumps.

Simple calculations of heat of formation. and their uses combustion of different fuels. (calculations not required). Bomb Use of the bomb calorimeter in calorimeter as an instrument determining calorific values of for accurately measuring heats foods. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 5. formation of reactants and products. Simple calculations of heat of reaction. energy in methane is calculated. Combustion of alkanes and other hydrocarbons.1 Sign of ∆H. (Time needed: 9 class periods) Exothermic and endothermic reactions (and changes of state). and an endothermic reaction. FUELS AND HEATS OF REACTION (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 5. Bond energy (concept only – Illustrating bond energies by no calculations except for the showing how the C–H bond illustrative example indicated). Law of conservation of energy. Heats of of fuels. Heat of reaction (general term). Mandatory experiment 5.4 Exothermic and Endothermic Chemical reactions can result in Demonstration of an exothermic Reactions a change in temperature. Heat of combustion. using heats of Hess’s law. Kilogram calorific values of combustion. Heat of formation. using other heats of formation and one heat of reaction. (Other kinds of heat of reaction calculation not required.) 50 .

5 Oil Refining and its Products Fractionation of crude oil. Auto-ignition. Alternatives to lead: improving octane number by (i) isomerisation (ii) dehydrocyclisation (iii) catalytic cracking. Addition of mercaptans to natural gas for safety reasons. 51 . naphtha. fractions. Composition of natural gas and liquid petroleum gas (LPG). • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 5. FUELS AND HEATS OF REACTION (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 5. naphtha. Internal combustion engine in relation to auto-ignition. Adding oxygenates (notably methyl tert-butyl ether) to increase the octane number and reduce pollution (structure of methyl tert- butyl ether not required). Lead in petrol. Composition of petrol. Relationship between octane number and (i) chain length (ii) degree of branching (iii) cyclic structure. gas kerosene. gasoline. Octane numbers as a measure of the tendency of a fuel to cause knocking. kerosene. (Time needed: 4 class periods) Production of the refinery gas. gas oil and residue oil and residue fractions. light light gasoline. Uses of the refinery gas.

(equations and structures of cutting. (ii) steam reforming of natural gas (simple treatment only). Potential as a (i) electrolysis of water fuel. 52 .2 Preparation and properties of ethyne [combustion. products not required for the tests for unsaturation).2 Oxyacetylene welding and (Time needed: 3 class periods) tests for unsaturation.1 Determination of the heat of reaction of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide. 5. FUELS AND HEATS OF REACTION (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 5. Hydrogen: manufacture by Industrial uses. tests for unsaturation using bromine water and acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution]. Mandatory experiment 5. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 5.6 Other Chemical Fuels Ethyne: preparation. Mandatory Experiments 5. combustion.

Surface adsorption and Demonstration of the oxidation intermediate formation theories of potassium sodium tartrate by of catalysis. RATES OF REACTION Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 6. Activation energy and influence of temperature on the rate of reaction. Mandatory experiment 6. Particle size. Distinction between average and Calculation of instantaneous instantaneous rate. (i) particle size (ii) catalysts. the effect of hydrogen peroxide.2 Demonstration of the oxidation of methanol using a hot platinum or nichrome catalyst. 53 . cobalt(II) salts. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 6. 6. (Time needed: 8 class periods) reaction rate of Temperature. Enzymes as catalysts produced by living cells (two examples). Demonstration of the effects on Dust explosions.2 Studying the effects on the reaction rate of (i) concentration and (ii) temperature. Mandatory experiment 6. using reaction profile diagrams.1 Monitoring the rate of production of oxygen from hydrogen peroxide. using manganese dioxide as a catalyst.1 Reaction Rates (Time needed: 3 class periods) Rate of reaction. rate from graphs. using sodium thiosulfate solution and hydrochloric acid. Catalysts.2 Factors Affecting Rates of Reaction Concentration. Catalyst poisons. Nature of reactants. 6.1 Plotting and simple interpretation of reaction rate graphs. Mandatory Experiments 6. catalysed by catalysts on activation energy. Catalytic converters: (i) nature of catalysts (ii) reactions catalysed (iii) environmental benefits.

Use of models. cyclohexane and (ii) water. Use as fuels. use of fermentation in only). nomenclature up to C-4 water. (qualitative only) in water and (i) cyclohexane and (ii) water. 7. Physical properties Solubility of (a) methanol and the brewing and distilling [physical state. Alcohols: structure and Comparison of structure with Ethanol as a solvent. Use in making plastics. as appropriate. as appropriate. agent.1 Tetrahedral Carbon Saturated organic compounds. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 7.2 Planar Carbon (Time needed: 11 class periods) Unsaturated organic compounds. Structure and nomenclature up to C-4. Carbonyl compounds (aldehydes Solubility of ethanal in (i) Benzaldehyde in almond kernels only): polar double bond. Use of models. Alkenes: non-polar double bond. Physical properties [physical state. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 7. 54 . Chloroalkanes: structure and nomenclature up to C-4. Fermentation as a source of (primary and secondary alcohols ethanol. solubility (qualitative only) in water and in non-polar solvents]. (Time needed: 4 class periods) Alkanes. state. (structure of benzaldehyde not Structure and nomenclature up required). to C-4. solubility (b) butan-1 -ol in industries. solubility (qualitative only) in water and in non-polar solvents]. Methanol as a denaturing in non-polar solvents]. Physical properties [physical Use as solvents.

(i) cyclohexane and (ii) water. Sigma and pi bonding in benzene. Physical properties [physical state. Use of ethanoic acid in the manufacture of cellulose acetate (structure of cellulose acetate not required). Aromas of esters. Simple explanation of the use of the circle to represent the identical bonds in benzene. ethanoic acid in vinegar.g. Physical properties [physical Solubility of propanone in state. nomenclature up to C-4. intermediate between double and single. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 7. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 7. Esters: structural formulas and Solubility of ethyl ethanoate in Fats as natural esters. nail varnish remover). Structure and (i) cyclohexane and (ii) water. solubility (qualitative only) in water and in non-polar solvents]. Carboxylic acids: polar double Solubility of ethanoic acid in Methanoic acid in nettles and bond. nomenclature up to C-4. Aromatic compounds.1 state. Physical properties [physical Mandatory experiment 7. Ethyl ethanoate as a solvent. Solubility of methylbenzene in Use of methylbenzene as an (i) cyclohexane and (ii) water. only) in water and in non-polar Propanone as a solvent (e. 55 . industrial solvent.2 Planar Carbon Ketones: structure and (continued) nomenclature up to C-4. Use of propanoic acid and benzoic acid and their salts as food preservatives (structure of benzoic acid not required). solubility (qualitative only) in water and in non-polar solvents]. ants. in solvents]. solubility (qualitative (i) cyclohexane and (ii) water.

bromine. detergents. They are required to be able to write balanced equations for the reactions. (a) Addition reactions Alkenes – reactions with Industrial sources. pressure. unless otherwise indicated.g. pharmaceutical compounds (one example in each case. in general. 56 .g. except where specified elsewhere in this syllabus.2 Planar Carbon An indication of the range and Inspect structural formulas of a Aromatic compounds form the (continued) scope of aromatic chemistry range of consumer products to basis of dyestuffs. structures not required). aspirin (structure of aspirin not required). water and hydrogen chloride (ii) hydrogenation of vegetable oils. Carcinogenic nature of some aromatic compounds.3 Organic Chemical Reaction Types Students are not. show the presence of benzene herbicides and many rings. (structures not required). Not all aromatic compounds are carcinogenic. solvent) for these reactions. hydrogen. benzene. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 7. catalyst. methyl orange (structures not required). Aromatic acid-base indicators: phenolphthalein. using structural formulas. 7. (i) products of the addition reactions of ethene with chlorine. (Time needed: 21 class periods) required to know the conditions (temperature. e. chlorine. bromine. Industrial importance of water and hydrogen chloride. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 7. e.

required).2-dibromoethane. Mechanism of free radical substitution (monochlorination of methane and ethane only). industry (two examples of synthetic products of this industry. unless specified elsewhere in the syllabus).3 Organic Chemical Mechanisms of ionic addition Reaction Types (addition of HCl. Evidence for this mechanism: (i) use of ultraviolet light even for a very short period causes a chain reaction (ii) formation of trace quantities of ethane and butane in the monochlorination of methane and ethane. 1 -bromo-2-chloroethane and 1 . Evidence for this mechanism: reaction of ethene with bromine water containing sodium chloride results in the formation of 2-bromoethanol. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 7. Unreactivity of benzene with An indication of the range and regard to addition reactions. scope of the petrochemical relative to ethene. Polymerisation reaction (of Alkenes as raw materials in the ethene and propene only – industrial manufacture of reaction mechanism not plastics. respectively (iii) these reactions are speeded up by the addition of a known source of free radicals. C12. 57 . structures not required. Br2. (b) Substitution reactions Halogenation of alkanes. such as tetraethyllead. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 7. only (continued) to ethene).

Combustion – a reaction common to most organic compounds. Non-flammability of fully Flame retardants. (c) Elimination reactions Dehydration of alcohols. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 7.2 Soap manufacture (structures of (structures of reactants and reactants and products products required).3 Organic Chemical Esterification. Mandatory experiment 7. Combustion of Alcohols as motor fuels. alcohols. Ketones are not easily oxidised.4 Ethanal formation in the Na2Cr2O7 to Calculation of percentage yield metabolism of ethanol in the (i) aldehydes and (ii) acids (the balanced equation will be human body. 58 . Oxidation of aldehydes to acids Mandatory experiment 7.5 (half equations only required). given). • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 7. Mandatory experiment 7. fire halogenated alkanes. extinguishers. (d) Redox reactions Alcohols: Oxidation using KMnO4 or Mandatory experiment 7.3 (equations and structures of products not required unless specified elsewhere in the syllabus). Calculation of percentage yield (the balanced equation will be given). Reaction Types (continued) Base hydrolysis of esters. (half equations only required). Reduction of carbonyl compounds using H2/Ni catalyst. required).

Reaction Types (continued) Reactions of alcohols with sodium. (f) Organic synthesis: principles and examples Chemical synthesis involves (i) bond breaking and (ii) bond forming. Acidic nature of the carboxylic acid group.4 Organic Natural Products Extraction techniques.5 Chromatography and Chromatography as a separation Mandatory experiment 7.6 An indication of the range and (Time needed: 4 class periods) solvent extraction. with sodium hydroxide and with sodium carbonate.g.3 Organic Chemical (e) Reactions as acids and synthetic route required). 59 . a selectively absorbent GC and HPLC as more stationary phase. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 7. e. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 7. recalling familiar reactions. Reactions of carboxylic acids with magnesium. Working out reaction schemes of up to three conversions. Mandatory experiment 7. advanced separation techniques.7 Use of thin-layer Instrumentation in technique in which a mobile chromatography (TLC) in the Organic Chemistry phase carrying a mixture is separation of dyes taken from (Time needed: 3 class periods) caused to move in contact with fibres in forensic work. steam scope of organic natural distillation. Example of organic synthesis: PVC from ethene (structures 7. structures not required). product chemistry (two examples of useful organic natural products. 7.

g. Interpretation of spectra etc.1 Recrystallisation of benzoic acid and determination of its melting point.4 Preparation and properties of ethanal [properties limited to reactions with (i) acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution. 7. e. radiation (reference to molecular vibrations not required). tests for unsaturation using acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution and bromine water]. 7. Ultraviolet absorption spectrometry Quantitative determination of as a quantitative technique organic compounds (e. (ii) Fehling’s reagent and (iii) ammoniacal silver nitrate]. (It should be noted that these techniques are applicable not only to organic chemistry but also to many other areas of chemistry. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 7.7 Separation of a mixture of indicators using paper chromatography or thin-layer chromatography or column chromatography. 7. Gas chromatography (GC). plastics and involving absorption of infra-red drugs.1. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 7. plant pigments). ultraviolet light.5 Preparation and properties of ethanoic acid (properties limited to reactions with sodium carbonate.) Mandatory Experiments 7. 7. 60 .6 Extraction of clove oil from cloves (or similar alternative) by steam distillation. 7. High-performance liquid Growth-promoters in meat. Brief reference to the principles of each method. or both: Instrumentation in Organic Chemistry Mass spectrometry (cf.2. not required. drug involving the absorption of metabolites. Infra-red absorption spectrometry Identification of organic (IR) as a ‘fingerprinting’ technique compounds. Analysis of (i) gases from a (continued) page 38). waste dump and (ii) trace organic pollutants in water.5 Chromatography Instrumental methods of Examples of uses: and separation or analysis.g.2 Preparation of soap.3 Preparation and properties of ethene [combustion. Drug tests on athletes. chromatography (HPLC). blood alcohol tests. vitamins in foods. 7. magnesium and ethanol).

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8. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM
Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects

8.1 Chemical
Equilibrium Reversible reactions – dynamic
(Time needed: 8 class periods) equilibrium. At equilibrium, the
rate of the forward reaction
equals the rate of the reverse
reaction.

Equilibrium law and constant Calculations involving
(K c only). equilibrium constants (K c ).

8.2 Le Chatelier’s
Principle Le Chatelier’s principle. Mandatory experiment 8.1 Industrial application of Le
(Time needed: 5 class periods) Effect (if any) on equilibrium Chatelier’s principle in the
position of concentration, catalytic oxidation of sulfur
pressure, temperature and dioxide to sulfur trioxide and
catalyst. in the Haber process.

Mandatory Experiments
8.1 Simple experiments to illustrate Le Chatelier’s principle:
(i) CoC142– + 6H20 Co(H20)62+ + 4C1– (to demonstrate the effects of both temperature changes and concentration
changes on an equilibrium mixture).
(ii) Cr2O7 + H2O
2–

(iii) Fe3+ + CNS–
2CrO4 + 2H
2–

Fe(CNS)2+
+
} (to demonstrate the effects of concentration changes on an equilibrium mixture).

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9. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: WATER
Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects

It is strongly recommended that students visit a water treatment plant – industrial or municipal.

9.1 pH Scale
(Time needed: 6 class periods) Self-ionisation of water; K w;
pH scale. Use of universal
indicator paper or solution.
Limitations of the pH scale –
usefulness confined to dilute
aqueous solutions. Calculation of pH of dilute
aqueous solutions of strong
acids and bases (calculation of
pH of mixtures of strong acids
and bases not required).

pH of weak acids and bases. Approximate method of
calculation to be used –
assuming that ionisation does
not alter the total
Theory of acid-base indicators. concentration of the non-ionised
Choice of indicator. Titration form.
curves.

9.2 Hardness in Water
(Time needed: 3 class periods) Hardness in water.

Causes of temporary and Tests on scale deposits in a Removal of hardness by boiling
permanent hardness. kettle. and ion exchange.

Deionisation. Relative purity of
deionised and distilled water.

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9. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: WATER (CONTINUED)
Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects

9.3 Water Treatment
(Time needed: 5 class periods) Water treatment –
sedimentation, flocculation,
filtration, chlorination,
fluoridation and pH adjustment.

Sewage treatment (primary, e.g.
settlement, screening; secondary,
e.g. bacterial breakdown;
tertiary, i.e. reduction of level
of phosphates and nitrates).
Cost of tertiary treatment.

The role of nutrients in the
eutrophication of water.
Pollution caused by uncontrolled
use of nitrate fertilisers.

Pollution by heavy metal ions Removal by precipitation.
in water – especially Pb 2+, Polluting potential of heavy
Hg 2+ and Cd 2+ metals from batteries in the
absence of recycling.

Awareness that there are EU
limits for various chemical
species in water (two examples,
e.g. nitrates, phosphates,
specific metal ions).

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64 . mandatory Mandatory experiment 9.g. silage.) 9. 1.4 Organic chemical pollutants. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • 9. e. Brief reference to principles of each method. (Balanced ionic equation required.1 Analysis of (i) lead in water and (ii) fertilisers.3 Biochemical oxygen demand Mandatory experiment 9.1). Tests for anions (cf. Mandatory Experiments 9. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY: WATER (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 9. industrial waste.4 Water Analysis (Time needed: 11 class periods) Instrumental methods of Examples of uses: analysis: pH meter Analysis of river and lake water.4 Estimation of dissolved oxygen by redox titration. sewage. absorption spectra (page 39)]. 9.3 Estimation of total hardness using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (edta).1 Colorimetric experiment to estimate free chlorine in swimming-pool water or bleach (using a colorimeter or a comparator). milk.g. lead. e. Colorimetry Mandatory experiment 9. AAS [cf.) by filtration and evaporation respectively.p. 9. flame tests Analysis of heavy metals in (mandatory experiment water.2 Determination of total suspended and total dissolved solids (expressed as p. cadmium.m.1). (BOD). Mandatory experiment 9. Determination of pH.2 experiment 2.

catalysts. dyes. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • Options: Higher level students to choose between Option 1 and Option 2 in their entirety. variable costs. Characteristics of effective and See above. continuous and semi- (Time needed: 3 class periods) continuous industrial chemical processes.g. This visit should be a structured one. e. 65 . use of fertilisers. disposal or sale) (v) waste disposal and effluent control (waste water treatment. Awareness of the contributions successful industrial chemical of chemistry to society. processes such as provision of pure water. monitoring of hazards. catalyst) as plastics and synthetic fibres. fuels. paints. (iii) product yield (temperature increasing crop yields by the and pressure variables. on-site training. (iv) co-products (separation. 1A. detergents. metals. herbicides and catalyst) pesticides. food-processing.1 General Principles Batch. safety features) (viii) costs (fixed costs. OPTION 1A: ADDITIONAL INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects It is strongly recommended that students visit a particular local chemical plant. medicines. liquid crystals (ii) rate (temperature and and alternative materials. (i) feedstock (raw materials. preparation) semiconductors. emission control) (vi) quality control (vii) safety (location of site. such pressure variables. resistant to corrosion). enzymes. costs of waste disposal) (ix) site location (x) suitable materials for the construction of chemical plant (unreactive. cost reduction by use of heat exchangers. recycling and selling of useful co- products.

(c) Magnesium oxide manufacture from sea water. (b) Nitric acid manufacture from ammonia. and its conversion to urea. water vapour and air. other than those are relevant to the process: referred to in the case study chosen). using the principles products produced by this outlined in 1A. and its use to make fertilisers.1 as far as they industry. 66 . fertiliser. heat-resistant material in the walls of furnaces. Equations required for (i) oxidation of ammonia (ii) oxidation of nitrogen monoxide (iii) formation of nitric acid (iv) formation of Use of ammonium nitrate as a ammonium nitrate. (a) Ammonia manufacture from natural gas. Equations required for (i) conversion of calcium carbonate to calcium oxide (ii) conversion of calcium oxide to calcium hydroxide (iii) formation of magnesium hydroxide (iv) formation of Use of magnesium oxide as a magnesium oxide. ONE of the scope of the Irish chemical three following processes should industry (two examples of be studied. Equations required for (i) hydrogen production (ii) removal of carbon dioxide (iii) ammonia formation (iv) urea synthesis. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • OPTION 1A: ADDITIONAL INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 1A.2 Case Study (Time needed: 5 class periods) A case study based on the Irish Awareness of the range and chemical industry. Use of urea as a fertiliser.

g. case). • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • OPTION 1B: ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 1B. dangerous vapours from oil tankers. Carbon monoxide as a neutral Carbon monoxide as a poison. Any two uses. chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)]. also methane. Natural fixation of nitrogen. 67 . 1B. carbon dioxide. e. Reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels by dissolving in the ocean. Fermentation in ethanol Carbon dioxide in carbonated production as a source of drinks.1 Oxygen (Time needed: 1 class period) Manufacture of oxygen using Uses of oxygen and of liquid liquefaction and fractional nitrogen (two examples in each distillation of air. Possible implications of the increased greenhouse effect. The carbon cycle. Nitrogen cycle. oxide. flushing out Atmospheric abundance. nitrogen and oxygen in an electric discharge. Carbon dioxide as an acidic Demonstration of the effect of oxide.2 Nitrogen (Time needed: 2 class periods) Structure and inertness. The greenhouse effect and the influence of human activity on it. keeping foods fresh. Carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke and vehicle exhaust fumes. 1B. Greenhouse gases and their relative effects [especially carbon dioxide and water vapour. carbon dioxide on universal indicator solution. Carbon dioxide in water – free and combined as carbonate and hydrogencarbonate.3 Carbon Dioxide (Time needed: 4 class periods) Combustion of carbon to give carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.

CFCs are believed to be the main cause of damage to the ozone layer. Replacements for CFCs.g.5 The Ozone Layer (Time needed: 4 class periods) Chloroalkanes: preparation from Chlorofluorocarbons and the alkanes. 68 . 1B. Breakdown of CFCs in the stratosphere. Removal of ozone by Cl atoms (equations required). methane. Uses of CFCs. Beneficial effect of the ozone layer. Scrubbing of waste acids. Formation of ozone in the stratosphere (equation required). industrial. Residence times of CFCs. internal combustion engine). Photodissociation of ozone (equation required). chlorination of ozone layer. gases using limestone. CFCs and HCFCs. Role of methane in absorbing Cl atoms. Effects of damage to the ozone layer. Dissolving of nitrogen dioxide Demonstration of the effect of Acid rain and its effects on the and sulfur dioxide to form sulfur dioxide on universal environment. indicator solution. O atoms and NO molecules. e. domestic.4 Atmospheric Pollution Oxides of nitrogen and sulfur: (Time needed: 2 class periods) sources of pollution (natural. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • OPTION 1B: ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY (CONTINUED) Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 1B.

molecular. lustre. 2A. high-density poly(ethene). importance and advantages of high-density). each polymer). crystal structure. heat conductivity and electrical conductivity). poly(chloroethene) fibres (two examples of uses of poly(tetrafluoroethene). Monomers. Recycling of plastics. malleability.3 Metals (Time needed: 1 class period) Comparison between metals and non-metals (hardness. 2A. (Time needed: 5 class periods) Polymerisation of alkenes: Demonstration of physical The industrial and domestic poly(ethene) (low-density and properties (density. molecules. poly(propene). these polymers in plastics and poly(phenylethene). e. Brief history of the discovery of poly(tetrafluoroethene). vitamin B12. metallic and Use of models. Structural differences between Brief history of the discovery of low-density and high-density low-density poly(ethene) and of poly(ethene). Alloys. and poly(phenylethene). • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • OPTION 2A: MATERIALS Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 2A. shredding. washing. penicillin (structures not required). Contributions of (Time needed: 3 class periods) covalent macromolecular crystals (i) Braggs: development of the – physical properties related to X-ray technique for determining the crystal binding forces.g. drying and re-extrusion).2 Addition Polymers Addition polymers. poly(chloroethene).1 Crystals Ionic. Crystal structure is determined (ii) Dorothy Hodgkin: by scattering of X-rays by the determination of the crystal crystal (non-mathematical structure of complex organic treatment only). Carbon in steel and hardness. flexibility. The discovery of buckminsterfullerene (structure not required). 69 . exemplified by the recycling of polystyrene (stages: sorting. ductility. hardness) of poly(ethene).

electrolysis to aluminium. case). • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • OPTION 2B: ADDITIONAL ELECTROCHEMISTRY AND THE EXTRACTION OF METALS Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 2B. Aluminium from bauxite: Environmental aspects of bauxite → pure alumina – aluminium production. Anodising. Relative Corrosion prevention corrodability of metals. Al) (Time needed: 4 class periods) Sodium in Downs cell. Recycling of aluminium.4 Strongly Electropositive Extraction by electrochemical Uses (two examples in each Metals (Na and methods.) 2B. 70 . Volta. using inert electrodes. Chlorine is an important by- product. water and oxygen not required). (Time needed: 1 class period) simple cell.2 Electrolysis of Molten Salts Electrolysis of molten lead (Time needed: 1 class period) bromide. 2B. Series produce different voltages in a Davy and Faraday. The electrochemical series (reactions of metals with acids.1 The Electrochemical Different combinations of metals Contributions of Galvani. Sacrificial anodes.3 Corrosion (Time needed: 2 class periods) Corrosion of metals. Protective layers on Al. 2B. Economics of cheap electricity in the extraction of Al. (Half equations only required. Porous nature of the oxide layer formed by anodising allows dyeing. Cr. (application of a protective layer on a metal: galvanising and surface coating).

Electric arc process for steel Environmental aspects of iron manufacture (outline of main and steel production. use as catalysts).5 d-Block Metals (Time needed: 4 class periods) Transition elements: general chemical properties (colour. Steels as alloys of iron. Manufacture of iron (blast Uses of iron and steel (two furnace – chemical aspects) examples in each case). 71 . and steel. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • OPTION 2B: ADDITIONAL ELECTROCHEMISTRY AND THE EXTRACTION OF METALS Content Depth of Treatment Activities Social and Applied Aspects 2B. stages). variable valency.

except where the traditional name continues to enjoy widespread use. Knowledge of these traditional names is not examinable. 72 . A representative list of such compounds follows: Systematic Name Traditional Name ethanal acetaldehyde ethanoic acid acetic acid propanone acetone ethyne acetylene ethyl ethanoate ethyl acetate ethanol ethyl alcohol ethene ethylene methanal formaldehyde methanoic acid formic acid 2. the traditional name will also be given in parentheses immediately after the systematic name. • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y H I G H E R L E V E L S Y L L A B U S • APPENDIX 2 Only the systematic names for organic compounds will be used on examination papers. The systematic names of inorganic compounds are not required. In these cases. section 2.4-trimethylpentane iso-octane methanol methyl alcohol chloromethane methyl chloride poly(ethene) polyethylene poly(phenylethene) polystyrene poly(chloroethene) polyvinyl chloride methylbenzene toluene The systematic names for H4edta and methyl tert-butyl ether are not required.6).2. except for compounds of transition metals (cf. particularly in industrial and everyday life.

reciprocals. log10 x. students should be advised to equations using consistent units show clearly all expressions to be evaluated using a calculator. 10 best curve through a set of data presented • find weighted means graphically • use an electronic calculator for addition. • solve simple algebraic equations y Higher level: as above. calculus techniques. Mathematical requirements Students should be able to The chemistry syllabus does not require Higher level mathematics. x. There is no requirement for the use of • translate information between numerical. • comprehend and use the symbols >. for the duration of the course and when answering the examination paper. Use of calculators • make approximate evaluations of numerical Students will be expected to have an electronic expressions and use such approximations to check calculator conforming to the examination regulations calculator calculations. x . • L E AV I N G C E R T I F I C AT E C H E M I S T R Y S Y L L A B U S • Mathematical Requirements for Ordinary and Higher levels Black text is for Higher level only. <. 1/x . It is recommended that Algebra students have available the following keys: Students should be able to x Ordinary level: +. • formulate simple algebraic equations as The number of significant figures given in the answer to a mathematical models of physical situations numerical problem should match the number of significant figures given in the question. • change the subject of an equation memory. and x2. for allocate appropriate physical units to it. logarithms and their inverses 73 . EE or EXP. ∝ . • determine the slope of a curve at a point and subtraction. • substitute for physical quantities in physical In carrying out calculations. x. x. Graphs 2. verbal and graphic forms • select appropriate variables and scales for graph Arithmetic plotting Students should be able to • understand the concept of significant figures • determine the slope of a linear graph and allocate appropriate physical units to it • recognise and use significant figures as appropriate • choose by inspection a straight line that will serve • recognise and use expressions in decimal and as the best straight line through a set of data standard form (scientific) notation represented graphically • recognise and use prefixes indicating -3 3 • choose by inspection a curve that will serve as the multiplication by 10 . ∆x. square roots.=. –. squares. 1 0 . ÷. algebraic. multiplication and division. 1.

Procedures for drawing up National Syllabuses The NCCA’s Course Committees for the Leaving Certificate (Established) have the following membership: • Association of Secondary Teachers. the NCCA’s Course Committees prepare the syllabuses. Ireland • Teachers’ Union of Ireland • Joint Managerial Body • Association of Community and Comprehensive Schools • Subject Association • Irish Vocational Education Association • National Council for Educational Awards • Conference of Heads of Irish Universities • Department of Education and Science (Inspectorate). . On the basis of a brief provided by Council. Further information may be obtained by contacting the NCCA at 24 Merrion Square. hav- ing considered such recommendations. The NCCA. advises the Minister for Education and Science accordingly. Recommendations of Course Committees are submitted to the Council of the NCCA for approval. Dublin 2.

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