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# Department of Electrical Engineering

Faculty Member:____________________ Dated: 18-October-2017
Semester:___________1________________ Section: _______A _________

EE-212: Basic Electronics

Lab1: INTRODUCTION TO BASIC LABORATORY EQUIPMENT

Report
Viva
Name Reg. No Marks / Total/15
Marks / 5
10

Abdullah Aamir Khan 212052

Muhammad Sohaib Raza 213790

Hamza Naveed 237827

EE-212: Basic Electronics Page 1

The student will be required to use the breadboard to plug in various resistor combinations.5.3.1. The students will be measuring the currents and voltages of the circuits mentioned below using the DMM. the students are to familiarize themselves with the equipment before its use: 5. Resistors (See Annexure 2) EE-212: Basic Electronics Page 2 . To use MULTIMETER as a voltmeter and Ammeter in order to measure voltage and current respectively.4. calculate the expected voltages and currents and compare those with the measured values. Conduct of Lab 3.3. Learn to patch up/make simple circuits. Objectives 2.Introduction 1. The lab attendents and Teaching Assistants will be available to assit the students. Test bench (See Annexure 1) 5.1. The first laboratory execise is to familiarize the students with the use of basic laboratory equipment including the breadboard. In case some aspect of the lab experiment is not understood the students are advised to seek help from the teacher.2. the lab attendent or the assigned Teaching Assistant (TA). Learn the COLOUR CODES scheme to determine the values of resistances. The students are required to work in groups of three to four. The Multimeter 5. 4.3. 2. Lab Equipment 5. each student must attempt to understand and use the laboratoy set-up and conduct at least one or two parts of the requirement experimentation. The objectives of this lab are: 2. 2.1. The following equipment would be used in this experiment. The Power Supply (See Annexure 2) 5. The Breadboard (See Annexure 1) 5. power supply and the Digital multimeter (DMM). 2. The differences between the calculated values and measured values would be analyzed.2.

The red pin is put at the point of higher (or +ve) potential while the black pin is put at points of lower (or Adjustment Buttons for –ve) potential. The two measuring leads of the multimeter. Laboratory Experiment DISPLAY PART I Familiarization with Digital Multimeter. different parameters EE-212: Basic Electronics Page 3 .

g Press DCA button in order to measure the DC Current Red and White Probes are connected as shown in the diagram. e.THE MILLIMETRE CONNECTED AS AN AMMETRE Press the button for the required parameter value to be measured. for measuring the max current of 2A EE-212: Basic Electronics Page 4 .

e.THE MULTIMETRE CONNECTED AS A VOLTMETRE Press the button for the required parameter value to be measured.g Press DCV button in order to measure the DC Voltage Red and Black Probes are connected as shown in the diagram. for measuring the max voltage of 1000V EE-212: Basic Electronics Page 5 .

EE-212: Basic Electronics Page 6 .MEASURING RESISTANCE WITH DMM The button is pressed to measure resistance.

What is the range of voltage and current that the DMM can measure? Range of I: __________2 A_________________________________________________________ Range of V: _____1000 V_________________________________________________________ Range of R: ______500 Ω_________________________________________________________ The circuits for this lab report are designed using a simulation software. The following legend details the symbols used to represent different electronic equipment.Notice that for measuring both voltage and resistance. Legend Resistance Power supply Multimeter Connecting Wires EE-212: Basic Electronics Page 7 . the positive (red) pin is connected in the same socket. Consider your DMM and the pictures given above.

To measure voltage across a different set of points you will have to disconnect the voltmeter and connect it between the desired points. Here the voltmeter is shown connected across points B and C.5x10-3 W____________________________________ PS: __________2. Calculate the current passing through the resistor R1 (known as IR1). EE-212: Basic Electronics Page 8 . Fill in the required results in Table 1. power absorbed by resistor R1 (PR1) and the power delivered by the source (PS). IR1: ____________5x10-4 A_____________________________________ PR1: __________2. Now connect the DMM as volt meter in order to measure the voltage in the circuit as shown in the configuration below. PART II MEASUREMENTS USING DMM Simple Circuit using a known resistor / resistors FIGURE 1 I.5x10-3 W____________________________________ II.

0004 V EE-212: Basic Electronics Page 9 .0001 V 0. Here the ammeter is shown connected between points A and B. FIGURE 2a Now connect the DMM as ammeter in order to measure the current in the circuit as shown in the configuration on the following page. To measure current at different points you shall have to disconnect the ammeter and connect it between the desired points.0001 V 2 Voltage C-D 0V -0.0004 V 0. Fill in the required results in Table 1 FIGURE 2b SNo Value Calculated Measured Difference 1 Voltage A-B 0V 0.

078 mA TABLE 1 Comment on any variations observed between the measured and the calculated values of the voltages and currents.449 mA 0. Little variation was observed in case of voltage and current which may be present due to resistance in copper wires.051 mA 5 Current C-D -0. __ Vary the voltage from 0 to 5 V in 5 steps of 1V each and note down the values of voltage and current. From the slope of the graph calculate the resistance and compare against the given value.411 mA 0. or systematic or human error while making observations. 3 Voltage A-C 5V 4. Use these values to plot a graph below.5 mA -0.5 mA -0.0037 V 4 Current A-C -0. V (V) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 100 200 300 400 500 I(μA) EE-212: Basic Electronics Page 10 .5 mA 0.9963 V 0.089 mA 6 Current A-B 0.422 mA 0.

FIGURE 3a FIGURE 3b SNo Value Calculated Measured Difference 1 Voltage A-B 8.002 V 3 Current A-D -1.002 V 0.182 V 0.684 mA 0.361%______________________ III.148 V 2 Voltage C-D 0V 0.Value of R : _____10936.1-10000)/10000 *100% = 9.33 V 8.667 mA -0.983 mA TABLE 2 EE-212: Basic Electronics Page 11 . Repeat the method employed in part II page 9 for the following configurations and note down the results in the table 2.1 Ω____________________________________________________________ %age Deviation: _____Difference of Resistance/Applied Resistance_____________________ = (10936.

or systematic or human error while making observations. FIGURE 4a FIGURE 4b EE-212: Basic Electronics Page 12 . Repeat the method employed for part II page 9 for the following configurations and note down the results in the table 3. __ IV. Little variation was observed in case of voltage and current which may be present due to resistance in copper wires.Comment on any variations observed between the measured and the calculated values of the voltages and currents.

9103 mA 0. SNo Value Calculated Measured Difference 1 Voltage A-B 9.0013 mA 5 Current D-E 0.91 V 0.09 V 9. or systematic or human error while making observations.909 mA 0.9143 V 0.004 V 2 Voltage C-D 0V 0.086 V 0.002 V 0. __ EE-212: Basic Electronics Page 13 .001 mA TABLE 3 Comment on any variations observed between the measured and the calculated values of the voltages and currents.002 V 3 Voltage D-E 0.0043 V 4 Current A-D 0.909 mA 0. Little variation was observed in case of voltage and current which may be present due to resistance in copper wires.91 mA 0.

How to make parallel and series combination? __________________________ 3. The holes in a single panel are wired together whereas holes of adjacent panels are not wired together.Figure A Figure B Consider Figure A and B above. How to use breadboard? ____________________________________________ 2. Explain. How to use Digital Multimeter?_______________________________________ Problem: The ammeter showed out of limit many times. summarize what you have learned in the lab and explain any difficulties you encountered. This lab taught me:___________________________________________________ 1. wires of resistor are connected in holes of a panel. In figure A._____________________ EE-212: Basic Electronics Page 14 . How to use power supply? _ _________________________________________ 4. explain in which configuration the resistor is short or active. Utilizing what you have learned in this lab and in class about nodes. (Refer to Annexure 2 for further help) The resistor is active in the configuration present in Figure A._____________________________ In your own words.

ANNEXURE 1 OSCILLOSCOPE TRAINER WITH MULTIMETER POWER MULTIMETER Function Generator BREADBOARD BENCHTOP SUPPLY HANDHELD BOARD EE-212: Basic Electronics Page 15 .

THE VERTICAL NODES OF A BREADBOARD The Horizontal Nodes The Vertical Nodes EE-212: Basic Electronics Page 16 .

ANNEXURE 2 RESISTORS CONNECTED IN SERIES WITH POWER SUPPLY ACROSS THEM RESISTORS IN PARALLEL WITH POWER SUPPLY ACORSS THEM EE-212: Basic Electronics Page 17 .

9Volts NOTICE THAT THE CURRENT KNOB IS TURNED A LITTLE UP.THE POWER SUPPLY IS SET TO DELIVER A VOLTAGE OF 4. THE POWER SUPPLY WOULD NOT SUPPLY ANY VOLTAGE DISPLAY Voltage CURRENT Knob KNOB NEGATIVE TERMINAL POSITIVE TERMINAL EE-212: Basic Electronics Page 18 . IF IT WERE SET TO ZERO.

node #16.e. EE-212: Basic Electronics Page 19 . Hence the resistors share one common node i.TWO RESISTORS CONNECTED IN SERIES AND PARALLEL Notice that the left end of the 1st resistor is connected at node #7 while the right end is connected at node #16 and the left hand end of the 2nd resistor is connected at node #16 and the right end at node #28.