BEC - Notes Chapter 1 http://cpacfa.blogspot.


Sole Proprietorship and Joint Venture Sole Proprietorship • Filing not required - simplest form of business ownership • Sole proprietor not considered a separate entity from the business, so will have to personally file for bankruptcy • Personally liable for all obligations of the business • Life of entity limited to the life of the sole proprietor • Sole proprietor can transfer interests at will Joint Ventures An association of persons or entities for a single transaction or project. JV's are treated as a partnership (P/S) General Partnership General Partnership - an association of two or more persons who agree to carry on as co-owners of an ongoing business for profit • Filing not required • At least two owners of the partnerships • Personally liable for all obligations of the business • A partnership may be dissolved after a partner dies or otherwise dissociates from the partnership unless the partners have agreed otherwise, or vote to continue the partnership • Taxes flow through the P/S to the partners (taxed at their rates) • A partner cannot transfer his P/S interest without unanimous consent of the other partners • A general P/S may file for bankruptcy as a separate entity In a general P/S • All partners are general partners • All partners share equally in mgmt, profits and losses unless agreed otherwise (even when capital contributions are not equal) • Within the ordinary course of business a majority vote is needed • Matters outside the ordinary course of business require unanimous consent - Admitting new partners - Confessing a judgement or submitting a claim for arbitration - Making a fundamental change in the business (sale of goodwill) - Changing the P/S agreement - Assignment of P/S property to others • All partners have unlimited personal liability for obligations of the P/S • All partners (individually) have the actual or apparent authority to bind the P/S with respect to all normal partnership business transaction (except when a third party knows the partner lacks actual authority) - Actual authority - all authority that a principal expressively gives to an agent plus any authority that is reasonable implied from the express grant (Partner is store manager, reasonable to imply the partner has the authority to hire employees, buy merchandise, etc) - Apparent authority extends only to the ordinary course of business (sign a lease, hire/fire employees, purchasing equipment, granting warranties) - The P/S may ratify an unauthorized act (if the P/S likes an unauthorized act by partner) • All partners must approve major business decisions • A partner who acts outside the scope of his actual authority will be liable to the P/S for any damages caused by the unauthorized act (breach of contract) 1

An agreement can be implied from conduct showing intent to enter into a business for profit together. partners are not liable if notice is filled with the state or each 3rd party Liability of an incoming partner is limited to financial contribution to P/S for debts prior to his/her arrival. partners are required to devote themselves full-time and are not entitled to remuneration (salary) • As a general rule.Notes Chapter 1 http://cpacfa.BEC . However.Interest in P/S (profit and losses) is assignable. an agreement is required under the statue of frauds Dissociation (P/S may or may not continue) of a partner does not necessarily cause a dissolution (business it wound up and then terminated) Events of a dissociation: • A partner wants to withdraw • An event set forth in the P/S agreement that causes a dissociation • A partner is expelled by unanimous vote • A partner becomes a debtor in bankruptcy • A partner dies When a partner dissociates actual authority ends but apparent authority continues for two years until 3rd party is given notice. then the losses are split • Step 3: If there is leftover after paying creditors. and is personally liable of all debts incurrent by the partnership after he becomes a partner Events that may cause a dissolution: • A partner withdraws • A P/S lasts for a specified length of time • An event set forth in the P/S agreement that causes a dissolution • Issuance of judicial decree on application of a partner • Issuance of a judicial decree on application of a transferee Distribution of assets • Step 1: Liquidate assets • Step 2: Pay creditors (insiders or outsiders). No express agreement is necessary. but no mgmt right come with the assignment 2 . orally or in Intent to form a P/S (either Express. if the liquidation of assets do not cover the costs to pay the creditors. For debts prior to dissociation. in conduct) is the key to general P/S formation.blogspot. partners remain liable unless released by creditors (novation) For debts incurred after dissociation. return capital to partners or split losses • Step 4: If there is anything left. divide profits Financial Structure of a general partnership • Partners are not required to make any particular contribution to their P/S • Unless otherwise agreed. or Implied. partners have no right to use P/S property for anything other than P/S business • Partners do not have the right to assign P/S property • An individual partner's creditors can not use P/S property to settle debts (credit card debt can't be settled with P/S property) • Partners right in a P/S do not pass to his estate • P/S interest is completely different that P/S Property . if the P/S wants to exist for mare than a year.

has not apparent authority • A LP may be dissolved by .Statement about management duties.P/S interest is passes on to a partners heirs Partners are generally liable for all contracts entered into and all torts committed by other partners within the scope of the P/S business The partners' liability is joint and several for the entire amount.Individual's creditors may go after the P/S interest. But you are still liable for your own acts\ • Must file with the sate Limited Partnership • Is comprised of at least 1 general partner who manages the business and is personally liable (for all P/S debts) and at least one limited partner (whose liability is limited to capital contribution) • Unanimous consent required for either the GP or LP to sell their interest. or a new partner be added • Partners must make some type of capital contribution • Absent an agreement.Allowing name to be used in P/S name . is not an agent.A statement that the entity is an LLC . not the P/S property . and all the general advantages and disadvantages of a G/P Differences • Not personally liable for debts of the P/S or acts/torts committed by another partner. bring derivative action • A LP can lose limited liability is they do any 1 of the following . you are liable for all P/S obligations Limited Liability P/S A limited liability P/S (LLP) is similar to a G/P in most respects.Notes Chapter 1 http://cpacfa. inspect the P/S books.BEC .The address of the LLC's registered office and registered agent (usually a corporate lawyer) . does not owe fiduciary duty. employee or agent. but you can lose your investment. transact business with P/S.Occurrence of time or stated time in the P/S agreement . otherwise all share equally in mgmt [Similar to articles of incorporation except there is no stock information] • The owners or members are not personally liable for the obligations of the company • Income flows through to members 3 . including sharing of profits/losses.Withdrawal or death of a general partner .Participate in control (3rd party has reason to believe that the LP is a general partner) A limited partnership and corporation are both created under a state statute and require filing with the state Limited Liability Company/Corporation • Must file with the state articles of organization which includes .blogspot. no control power. Meaning if the other partners flee the country.Written consent of all general partners .Judicial decree • A LP has a right to vote on fundamental . may assign interest.The name of the LLC . profit and loss allocation is based on capital contribution • A LP is like a shareholder.Serve as a general partner .

but some aspects (federal tax. directors. enter into contracts with third parties who are interested in becoming shareholders (stock subscription) . file for bankruptcy Each member is an agent and has the actual and apparent authority to bind the LLC. each manager is an agent. but may adopt agreement to centralize management (manager managed) Like a corporation an LLC is a distinct legal entity. directors select executive officers to manage day-to-day operations • • • • • • • • Members may not sell ownership interest in the LLC without consent of other members All members have right to manage.Notes Chapter 1 http://cpacfa.taxed like a partnership. however there are restrictions on S Corps . securities regulation) are governed by federal law. ownership interest [while in GP. flowthrough. estates or certain trusts . corporate tax rates lower than personal rates S Corp .Name of corporation . bankruptcy (this cause dissociation and may lead to dissolution] • A P/S lasts for a specified length of time • An event set forth in the P/S agreement that causes a dissolution • Issuance of judicial decree Profit and loss allocated based on members contributions Corporation • Must file with state called articles of incorporation . The state statue is called Revised Model Business Corporation Act (RMBCA) Promoters. but may be liable for torts the individual commits • Perpetual life.Shareholders must be individuals.Foreign shareholders are generally prohibited Certain types of businesses (insurance companies and savings institutions) cannot file for bankruptcy regardless of what type of entity they are formed as Most aspects of corporate law are governed by state law. LP voting strength is equal unless agreed otherwise] Events that may cause a termination or dissolution [similar to a GP]: • Consent of all members • A partner withdraws.Name and addresses of each of the incorporators . can continue after the death of resignation of owners or managers • Stock holders free to transfer ownership interest whenever they want to whomever they want\ C Corp . but the other members are not agents and does not have the power to bind the LLC Voting strength based on capital. and officers are not personally liable for obligations of the corporation (just lose investment).Promoters are generally personally liable on the contracts (B1-33 more detail on this) 4 .BEC . Members owe a fiduciary duty If the LLC is Manager managed. LLP.double taxation (if income is distributed to stockholders).Number of shares authorized to be issued .One of more classes of shares must have unlimited voting rights • Directors are elected by shareholders.Stock can not be held by more than 100 persons .Name and addresses of the corporations registered agent .The corporation must be domestic . who raise capital for the corporation.blogspot. retirement.Can only be one class of stock . it can own land. sue. death.

Inadequate capitalization . it is said to be acting "ultra vires" and may effect the firm. Commingling personal funds with corporate funds 2. the business will be treated as a corporation in all aspects Doctrine of incorporate Estoppel .entity did not make a good faith attempt to incorporate so shareholders are personally liable Piercing the corporate veil .com .a majority in attendance. 6 must be present at a meeting to have a quorum Operation of a corporation • A corporation only needs only one director 5 .rules for running the entity. of a de jure (properly formed) corporation will be held liable (because the legislative privilege of conducting business is being abused).courts hold shareholders. [So you don't need to file twice for incorporation] Quorum .all of the requirements for incorporation are met and it will be recognized for all purposes De facto corporation doctrine . They are not part of the articles of incorporation and are not required to be filed with the state • Bylaws may not contain rules that conflict with the articles of incorporation • Can be amended by board of directors or the shareholders De jure . but the business might still be treated as a corporation. active in operation of the business. There are three reasons the corporate veil will be pierced: 1.a corporation not incorporated within the state (Cali corp going to NY to do business) Domestic corporation . if a party who treats a business as if it were a validly formed corporation will be estopped (legally barred) from claiming in a legal proceeding that the corporation was not validly formed [if the 3rd party reasonably believes that they were dealing with a corp {not fraud}.corporation is under capitalized at the time of formation 3.if the corporation was formed to defraud existing personal creditors Foreign corporation . so if there are 10 board members. • A shareholder may seek an injunction (order from the court) prohibiting the corp from the action • The corp or shareholders may sue to recover damager from the directors or officers who authorized the ultra vires act • The state (usually the attorney general) may bring an action to have the corp dissolved for committing the act Bylaws .requirements for incorporation are not met.Even if the corporation adopts a promoters contract.blogspot. but the business might still be treated as a corporation. the promoter remains liable unless the promoter is released by the third party (novation) Ultra Vires Act .Notes Chapter 1 http://cpacfa.incorporated within the state A foreign corporation may not transact business (maintain an office within the state or conduct regular intrastate business) within a state it has registered with the state and has obtained a certificate of authority. Committing fraud on existing creditors . then the party can not claim the corp was not valid] Defective corporation . if the incorporators made a good faith attempt to incorporate and operated as if they had incorporated.BEC .requirements for incorporation are not met.If the corporation has a narrow purpose cause (some states do not require it) and the corporation undertakes business outside the clause. officers or directors.

so if 4 of the 6 approve the action. the board must value the land in good faith Unpaid stock .minimum price the stock can be issued for legally (to ensure the corporation would be capitalized to a certain level Under • The articles of incorporation usually name the initial director. Board adopts resolution by majority vote. to pay for stock. it would be valid • Individually. shareholders are treated as unsecured creditors Cumulative Preferred shares . etc) If property is accepted for stock. real estate. need majority 4. Gets paid before noncumulative preferred 6 . both A&B's boards and shareholders must approve the fundamental change • Consolidations A+B=C. setting forth the action taken. examples are: • Amendments to the articles of incorporation • Mergers A+B=A. directors have no right or power to act. A needs only the board approval.stock that has been issued in exchange for property worth less than the part value A corporation has no obligation to allocate profits and losses to among shareholders.blogspot. services to be performed.outstanding shares repurchases by the corporation Par value . if dividends are declared by the board of directors. they owe a fiduciary duty • Directors may not vote by proxy. Parent's board makes decision unilaterally Authorized shares .BEC . with the state Merger of a subsidiary (parent owning 90% or more of a subsidiary) . B's boards and shareholders must approve the fundamental change • Sale of all or substantially all of the corporations assets (purchasing company. both A&B's boards and shareholders must approve the fundamental change • Share exchanges A acquires all the outstanding shares of B. the subscriber may be liabel to either the corporation or its creditors Watered stock . who hold office until the first annual meeting.termination of corporate existence (could be involuntary through judicial proceedings) Procedures for fundamental changes 1. Filing of articles.authorized shares issues to shareholders Treasury shares .gets paid dividends in arrears. Eligible shareholders vote. and action may be taken with a majority of vote of those present. setting forth the proposed action for shareholder approval 2. only needs board approval) • Dissolutions . they are agents and have fiduciary duties Fundamental changes require both board and shareholder approval. officers have powers. However. but failed.shares described in the articles of incorporation Outstanding shares . Notice to shareholders given whether they are entitled to vote 3.Parent needs only boards approval. buy side. • Directors may be removed by shareholder vote with or without cause • Director's meetings are only valid if a quorum is present.a subscriber has promised. must be there physically • Individually. board of directors can issue the stock price at any level and be issued in exchange for any benefit to the corporation (services rendered. they are not agents.Notes Chapter 1 http://cpacfa.

the shareholder may that the right to bring derivative action to enforce the corporations rights if three prerequisites are met: 1. so can cast all votes for one single candidate (protects minority shareholder) B1-46 example of cumulative voting Shareholders may vote only is a quorum is present. auditors.the right to purchase additional shares to maintain their proportionate voting strength. the noncumulative shares lose out Stock dividends .all shared owned by the party are transferred to a trustee. but they can not put an absolute bar against selling shares.blogspot.gets paid before common stockholders.Only liable of the deal is unfair and causes damage to the corporation • Directors may remove officers with or without cause. Improper purposes to personally benefit the inspecting shareholder include obtaining the contact information of shareholders to create a commercial mailing list Pre-emptive rights . consultants to make decisions) • Should not profit from material inside information • Can not serve on the board of a competitor • Should disclose conflicts of interest and abstain from voting .vote on a fundamental change and lose. The shareholder must have made a demand on the board Board of directors • Job to initiate fundamental changes • Declare dividends • Uses good faith (talks and relies on the officers. if a dividend is declared but not paid within the year.less formalistic.Notes Chapter 1 http://cpacfa.the corporation has legal cause of action but refuses to bring action. The shareholder must be suing in the best interests of the corporation 3. Examples of restrictions include: • Right of first refusal . but the corporation may be liable for damages (not the stockholders or directors) 7 .authorized shares owned by the corporation but Noncumulative Preferred shares .BEC . and they may vote by proxy (appointment valid for 11 months) Shareholders may enter into several agreements to protect voting power • Voting trust . The shareholder may dissent and demand that the corporation pay them fair value of their shares (buy them out) Derivative action .each share is entitled to one vote for each director position being filled in any way. Shareholder must have been a shareholder during time of the alleged wrong 2. No pre-emptive right unless articles of incorporation provide for them Dissenting shareholder . shareholder do not owe federal taxes Cumulative voting . The removal can occur even if it breaches the officers' contract. because no assets are specified persons the option to buy shares before selling to an outsider • Requiring that specified persons approve the transfer of stock • Prohibiting the transferring of shares to a certain type of persons. shareholders simple agree among themselves to vote a certain way Shareholders in small corporations (closely held corporations) can put restriction on the transfer of stock. who votes and distributed dividends in accordance with provisions of the voting trust • Voting agreements . such as competitors Shareholders have the right to inspect the books and records upon request if its for a proper purpose.

up to three months.blogspot.breach of fiduciary duty intentional act • Financial benefits received by the director for which he was not entitled • Intentional harm inflicted upon the corporation or shareholders • Unlawful distributions authorized by the director (pay dividends which renders the corp. insolvent) • Intentional violations of criminal law • Breaches of duty of loyalty For tax purposes.BEC .com Corporations are allowed to indemnify (repay) directors for expenses for any lawsuit (for accidents or negligence. if a company desires a fiscal year (instead of calendar year). not intentional torts) brought against them in their corporate capacity Limitation on director's liability . that year end must be approves by the IRS Corporations may defer taxes.Notes Chapter 1 http://cpacfa. by switching from calendar year end to fiscal year end. must be approves by IRS 8 .

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