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 The Mindanao, Philippines Outbreak

The outbreak of EBO-R in the United States caused by infected monkeys in
the United States prompted the Philippine government to investigate
whether the workers in the primate facilities were at risk for contracting
EBO-R, and, if so, to what degree they were at risk. The investigative team
studied 186 people, 48 of whom were from wildlife collection areas and the
remaining 138 were from the four primate export facilities in the area
(Ferlite Farms being one of the four). Twelve of the 186 people tested had
serological evidence of infection with EBO-R. 22% of the workers at Ferlite
Farms had positive IFAT (indirect fluorescent antibody test) titers, which
was significantly higher than at the other three export facilities. Of the five
employees in Ferlite's animal hospital, four had positive IFATs. Workers in
the hospital had more positive titers than the rest of the workers at Ferlite

All of the monkeys at Ferlite were killed after this outbreak of EBO-R in

Ferlite Farms
Ferlite Farms is located in a 2.5 to 3-hectare area in Calamba, Laguna,
Philippines, which is approximately 40 km South of Manila. Ferlite uses
open cages as their holding facilities. Individual cages are used in their
quarantine facility. Until 1996, Ferlite exported 1500 monkeys annually to
the United States. The monkeys used for breeding come from Zamboanga
and Iligan City. Supposedly, Ferlite quarantines the monkeys 30 days prior
to shipping.


o Miranda. and then transported by truck to Hazleton Research Products' (HRP) Reston Primate Quarantine Unit in Reston. The HRP veterinarian conducted a few necropsies of the dead monkeys from this shipment in Room F and. through Amsterdam to New York. Philippines were flown from Manila. 1989.S. et al. 29 additional monkeys in Room H had also died. N and O Times. HRP's Reston Unit already had approximately 500 cynomolgus monkeys when this shipment arrived. 337:425-26.Update o Breeder wants his monkeys spared.  The Reston. HRP made the decision to euthanize all of the remaining monkeys in Room F to prevent possible further spread. Meanwhile. 1996. scare.G. all primates imported into the United States must be quarantined for 30 days to insure that they are disease free before they are released. April 18. In any transcontinental shipment of animals. based on the clinical symptomatology and on gross anatomy. ergo it is not possibile that the monkeys contracted Ebola from fomites contaminated by a prior shipment of monkeys. Before USAMRIID finished their diagnosis. there were sporadic deaths in the remaining monkey population at Reston. o WHO Ebola-Reston Investigation. Virginia. made an initial diagnosis of simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF). The HRP vet sent samples of the dead monkey tissue to United States Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) for conclusive diagnosis. the pathogen was not contained by the euthanization of the monkeys in Room F. Virginia Outbreak On October 2.E. Seroepidemiological study of filovirus related to Ebola in the Philippines. There had not been any African species quarantined in the Reston unit for many years. Because of the 1976 Marburg incident. The HRP vet became alarmed by this. CNN Interactive. 100 cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) from Ferlite Farms in Mindanao Island. The pattern of the deaths nor the pathology in the dead monkeys was indicative of SHF. SHF was isolated in the tissue cultures that HRP sent to USAMRIID. The Lancet 1991. this particular shipment of nonhuman primates had a far larger number of deaths in Room F than would normally have been expected. However. SHF is a terrible disease in monkeys (fortunately it does not infect humans) and is easily transmitted amongst them. These monkeys were placed in Room F of the Reston Unit on October 4. Philippines . During the 10 days following the euthanization of the monkeys in Room F. o Philippines bans export of monkeys over U. USAMRIID was conducting additional tests on the monkey tissue cultures and discovered that Ebola was also responsible for the Reston monkey deaths from an electron micrograph of damaged tissue from one of the dead Reston monkeys. M. Unfortunately. The monkeys in Room H were from a .. a high attrition rate is to be expected due to this experience.

Were the Room H monkeys contracting the pathogen from the Reston Quarantine Unit or were they infected with the pathogen back in the Philippines? The Room F monkeys were euthanized on November 16. Ferlite Farms was experiencing a hemorrhagic disease outbreak concurrently. unknowingly. All six of the individuals worked with the primates. 1989. four (all of whom were animal handlers at one quarantine facility) had serologic evidence of recent infection with Ebola- Reston. Because of the threat that Ebola might spread to the remaining animals in the quarantine unit and that it might infect the staff. the remaining animals (~500) in Room H were euthanized on November 30.separate shipment (but from the same supplier. They tested 550 people with varying levels of exposure to monkeys (or monkey tissues or body fluids) with an indirect immunofluorescence assay test (IFAT) and confirmed the results using Western blot. The second person was an employee at Hazleton's Texas Primate Center. It is likely that the Room H monkeys were sub-clinically harboring EBO on arrival. Ferlite Farms. The Room H shipment of monkeys arrived on November 8. It is likely that one of the four infected himself when he cut his finger while performing a necropsy on an infected monkey. and a coherent plan of action was formulated to insure the safety of the community and the humane treatment of the Reston primates. CDC researchers conducted an additional study on the prevalence of seropositivity to filoviruses. On November 29. Of them. quarantine facilities and had had regular contact with quarantined nonhuman primates for three years.6%) people tested were positive to at least . One of these two people is a worker at a facility that temporarily houses nonhuman primates before delivery to U. the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and the Virginia Department of Health met with USAMRIID. Ferlite Farms) that had arrived at the Reston Unit on November 8. The remaining two people were seropositive at low titer and had evidence of past infection. On November 28. The Room H monkeys arrived at the Reston unit while the Room F monkeys were still alive.S. Anderson). 42 of the 550 (7. Both the Room F and Room H cynomolgus monkey shipments came from Ferlite Farms in the Philippines. sent a shipment of EBO-infected cynomolgus monkeys to Philadelphia. EBO has an incubation period ranging from five to seven days in nonhuman primates (personal correspondence. The mode of transmission for the other three handlers is not known. 1989. None of the six who seroconverted developed a filovirus- related illness. Six of the 178 people who had contact with the infected monkeys at the Reston Quarantine Unit seroconverted.

1997.8%) import quarantine facility staff members were seropositive. 1990:39(16). RK.266. please see: o Peters. None of the 42 who tested seropositive reported having any illness believed to be caused by a filovirus. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report April 27.J. EBO-CI. Update: Filovirus Infections Among Persons with Occupational Exposure to Nonhuman Primates. et al. et al. The Lancet 1990. o Miller. o Jahrling. 12 were positive (2. the CDC conducted a cross-sectional study on the seroprevalence of filovirus on the serum from 449 adults in outpatient primary care facilities throughout the United States. 16 of the remaining 284 (5. MBG). Combined Simian Hemorrhagic Fever and Ebola Virus Infection in Cynomolgus Monkeys. P. Virginia. 26 of 266 (9. In order to assess the significance of the prevalence of the seropositivity in people who have contact with monkeys and their bodily fluids/tissues.7%) (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 39(24): 404-05. D. o Dalgard. Using the same IFAT and Western blot of the filoviruses (EBO-Z. Preliminary report: isolation of Ebola virus from monkeys imported to USA. EBO-R.W. Virus Hunter: Thirty Years of Battling Hot Viruses Around the World.42(2):152-57. EBO-S.B. Laboratory Animal Science 1992.6%) persons having contact with monkeys (or with monkey tissue or body fluids) outside of import quarantine facilities were seropositive. . C.335:502-05.273. of theses 449. For further information on the EBO-R outbreak in Reston. 1990).