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1. What is involved in a water supply system?

A water supply system involves water demand, water sources, water treatment and
water distribution

2. What are the factors when considering water demand?

Some factors considering water demand are climate data( rainfall and temperature
which could influence water usage), Historical water use(with different customer types),
daily and seasonal water use patterns, predicted changes(land use, climate, demography),
other factors(water price, water saving measures).

3. Describe the four commonly considered water sources.

Surface water- from streams, river, lakes, canals, reservoirs. Surface water is
easy to abstract, but easy to contaminate, high in suspended solid(TSS) and pathogens

Groundwater- from aquifers accessible by wells. Groundwater is low in suspended
solid(TSS) due to soil filtering, high in dissolved solid (TDS), not easy to recharge,
and difficult to clean up if polluted

Seawater- Obtained through desalination. There are many ways in desalinating
seawater and the four popular ones are: distillation, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis
and ion exchange.

Reclaimed and reused water- from former wastewater treated to remove solids and
certain impurities. Instead of being discharge into surface water bodies such rivers and
oceans, it is use in irrigation, landscaping, groundwater recharge, indirect portable
water, etc.

4. Describe the three approaches that could be used to estimate the required reservoir
storage.

Mass curve method (Rippl Diagram)- A mass curve of supply is a curve showing the
total volume entering a reservoir site over a certain time period.

Water balance method- this method is similar to the mass curve method is also
based on the past flow records. Instead of using a graph to derive reservoir storage
information, water balance is applied with a table to solve the reservoir storage and
spillage.

Synthetic minimum flow method- this method is based on probability analysis and
synthetic flow data instead of the real flow data are used in the storage estimation