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Project No. Sheet No.

Rev

CALCULATION SHEET

Project Made By HaN


Location Date

Design Notes and Assumption

1. Design Soil Parameters are listed below:

Soil Layer MD ALL


Unit Weigth, g (kN/m ) 3
15 19
Vertical Coefficient of Consolidation, cv (m2/yr) 1.3 2
Horizontal Coefficient of Consolidation, ch (m /yr)
2
2.6 4
Compression Ratio, CR 0.29 0.11
Recompression Ratio, RR 0.029 0.011
Overconsolidation Ratio, OCR 1 1
Coefficient of Secondary Compression (OC), Cae 0.6% 0.5%
Coefficient of Secondary Compression (NC), Cae 1.5% 1.0%
Thickness of Soil Layer, H (m) 26 10
Length of Drainage Path, Hdr (m) 26 5

2. Design Information are listed below:

Mean Sea Level, MSL = 1.2 mPD


Seabed Level, SBL = -3 mPD
Final Formation Level = 5.5 mPD
Surcharge Level = 11.5 mPD
Future Imposed Load = 20 kPa
gw = 10.25 kN/m3

3. Adopted Fill Parameters are listed below:

Bulk Unit Weight, Logarithmic Creep


Type of Fill Material gfill (kN/m3) Compression Ratio, a
Type A Untreated 0.65%
Type B/D Treated 0.20%
19
Surcharge Treated 0.20%
Rock Fill (Average) 0.20%

4. Design details of prefabricated vertical drain are listed below:

Equivalent Radius of Prefabricated Drains, rw = (100 + 4)/p


= 33.10 mm
Drain Spacing, D = 1.0 m
Equivalent Drain Spacing, d' = 1.05D = 1.05 m (Triangular Pattern)
n = d'/(2rw) = 15.9

By Vertical Drain Theory - Barron (1948),


Consolidation Ratio by Vertical Drain, Uh = 1 - exp[-8Tn/F(n)]
where F(n) = n2/(n2-1) x ln(n) - (3n2-1)/(4n2) = 2.03
Rev

ATION SHEET

HaN
Primary Consolidation

Assumed Corrected Corrected Calculated


Primary Initial Excess Time for Time for Total Effective Primary Primary
Formation Consolidation Sub-layer Initial Effective Pore Water Time for Vertical Radial Stress Consolidation Consolidation Remarks
Level Settlement Thickness Stress Pressure Construction Drainage Drainage Increment Overall Degree Settlement Settlement
FL sp(a) Dsv'(fill)(7) Hi z svo' Duo(8) t tv th Dsv' of Consolidation sp(4) sp
Stage (mPD) (m) (kPa) Soil Strata Sub-layer (m) (mPD) (kPa) (kPa) (Months) (months) Tv(5) (months) Th(6) Uv(1) Uh(2) Uf(3) (kPa) Uoverall(10) (m) (m) Notes:
1 2.6 -4.3 6.2 0.18 : Uv = 1 - S[ 2/M2 x exp[-M2Tv] where M = (p/2)(2m+1) and m=0 to ∞
(1)

2 2.6 -6.9 18.5 0.07 : Uh = 1 - exp[-8Tn/F(n)]


(2)

3 2.6 -9.5 30.9 0.04 : Uf = 1 - (1 - Uv)(1 - Uh)


(3)

4 2.6 -12.1 43.2 0.03 : Primary Consolidation Settlement = CR x Hi x log[(svo' + Dsv')/svo']


(4)

1: Fill to 5 2.6 -14.7 55.6 0.02 : Tv = cvtv/Hdr2


(5)

+2.5mPD & MD 84.2 1.5 0.0002 0 0.00 5.2% 0% 5.2% 4.4 5%


2.5 2.6 84.2 3 0.45 - : Th = chth/Hdr2
(6)
Install Band 6 2.6 -17.3 67.9 0.02
Drain : Dsv'(fill) = (FL - MSL)g + (MSL - SBL + sp(a))g'
(7)
7 2.6 -19.9 80.3 0.02
8 2.6 -22.5 92.6 0.02 : Duo = Dsv'(fill) - Dsv'
(8)

9 2.6 -25.1 105 0.01 : Dsv' = Dsv'(fill) - (1 - Uf)Duo


(9)

10 2.6 -27.7 117.3 0.01


(10)
: Uoverall = Dsv'/Dsv'(fill)
ALL - 10 -34 167.3 84.2 1.5 0.01 0 0 11.5% 0% 11.5% 9.7 12% 0.03
1 2.6 -4.3 6.2 0.58
2 2.6 -6.9 18.5 0.32
3 2.6 -9.5 30.9 0.22
2: 4 2.6 -12.1 43.2 0.17
Completion 5 2.6 -14.7 55.6 0.14
MD 84.2 2.5 0.0004 0.5 0.10 5.4% 32% 35.6% 30.0 36%
of Band 2.5 2.6 84.2 6 2.6 -17.3 67.9 4 0.12 1.92 -
Drain 7 2.6 -19.9 80.3 0.10
Installation
8 2.6 -22.5 92.6 0.09
9 2.6 -25.1 105 0.08
10 2.6 -27.7 117.3 0.07
ALL - 10 -34 167.3 84.2 2.5 0.0167 0 0 14.6% 0% 14.6% 12.3 15% 0.03
1 2.6 -4.3 6.2 0.71
2 2.6 -6.9 18.5 0.42
3 2.6 -9.5 30.9 0.31
4 2.6 -12.1 43.2 0.24
3: MD 5 2.6 -14.7 55.6 0.20 ≈ 2.6 ->
MD 84.2 3 0.0005 1 0.20 5.4% 54% 56.5% 47.6 57%
Consolidatio 2.5 2.6 84.2 6 2.6 -17.3 67.9 4.5 0.17 2.61 Recalculation is
n to 50% 7 2.6 -19.9 80.3 0.15 not required
8 2.6 -22.5 92.6 0.14
9 2.6 -25.1 105 0.12
10 2.6 -27.7 117.3 0.11
ALL - 10 -34 167.3 84.2 3 0.02 0 0 16.0% 0% 16.0% 13.5 16% 0.04
1 2.6 -4.3 6.2 0.83
2 2.6 -6.9 18.5 0.52
3 2.6 -9.5 30.9 0.39
4 2.6 -12.1 43.2 0.32
5 2.6 -14.7 55.6 0.27
4: Fill to MD 105.9 0.25 0 0.25 0.05 5.0% 18% 22.1% 71.0 46%
5.5 4 153.5 6 2.6 -17.3 67.9 5 0.23 3.34 -
+5.5mPD
7 2.6 -19.9 80.3 0.21
8 2.6 -22.5 92.6 0.19
9 2.6 -25.1 105 0.17
10 2.6 -27.7 117.3 0.15
ALL - 10 -34 167.3 140.0 0.25 0.0017 0 0 6.3% 0% 6.3% 22.3 15% 0.06
1 2.6 -4.3 6.2 0.92
2 2.6 -6.9 18.5 0.60
3 2.6 -9.5 30.9 0.47
4 2.6 -12.1 43.2 0.39
5: MD 5 2.6 -14.7 55.6 0.33 ≈ 4 ->
MD 105.9 0.75 0.0001 0.75 0.15 5.1% 44% 46.9% 97.3 63%
Consolidatio 5.5 4 153.5 6 2.6 -17.3 67.9 5.5 0.29 3.98 Recalculation is
n to 50% 7 2.6 -19.9 80.3 0.26 not required
8 2.6 -22.5 92.6 0.24
9 2.6 -25.1 105 0.21
10 2.6 -27.7 117.3 0.20
ALL - 10 -34 167.3 140.0 0.75 0.005 0 0 8.6% 0% 8.6% 25.5 17% 0.07
1 2.6 -4.3 6.2 0.99
2 2.6 -6.9 18.5 0.66
3 2.6 -9.5 30.9 0.52
4 2.6 -12.1 43.2 0.44
5 2.6 -14.7 55.6 0.38
6: Fill to MD 113.2 0.25 0 0.25 0.05 5.0% 18% 22.1% 122.3 58%
8.5 4 210.5 6 2.6 -17.3 67.9 6 0.34 4.49 -
+8.5mPD
7 2.6 -19.9 80.3 0.30
8 2.6 -22.5 92.6 0.28
9 2.6 -25.1 105 0.25
10 2.6 -27.7 117.3 0.23
ALL - 10 -34 167.3 185.0 0.25 0.0017 0 0 6.3% 0% 6.3% 37.2 18% 0.10
1 2.6 -4.3 6.2 1.14
2 2.6 -6.9 18.5 0.80
3 2.6 -9.5 30.9 0.65
4 2.6 -12.1 43.2 0.56
7: MD 5 2.6 -14.7 55.6 0.49
MD 113.2 2.25 0.0004 2.25 0.44 5.4% 83% 83.9% 192.3 91%
Consolidatio 8.5 4 210.5 6 2.6 -17.3 67.9 8 0.44 5.64 -
n to 90% 7 2.6 -19.9 80.3 0.40
8 2.6 -22.5 92.6 0.37
9 2.6 -25.1 105 0.34
10 2.6 -27.7 117.3 0.32
ALL - 10 -34 167.3 185.0 2.25 0.015 0 0 13.9% 0% 13.9% 51.2 24% 0.13
1 2.6 -4.3 6.2 1.16
2 2.6 -6.9 18.5 0.82
3 2.6 -9.5 30.9 0.67
4 2.6 -12.1 43.2 0.58
5 2.6 -14.7 55.6 0.51
8: Fill to MD 75.2 0.25 0 0.25 0.05 5.0% 18% 22.1% 208.9 78%
11.5 4 267.5 6 2.6 -17.3 67.9 8.5 0.46 5.86 -
+11.5mPD
7 2.6 -19.9 80.3 0.42
8 2.6 -22.5 92.6 0.39
9 2.6 -25.1 105 0.36
10 2.6 -27.7 117.3 0.33
ALL - 10 -34 167.3 216.3 0.25 0.0017 0 0 6.3% 0% 6.3% 64.8 24% 0.16
1 2.6 -4.3 6.2 1.21
2 2.6 -6.9 18.5 0.86
3 2.6 -9.5 30.9 0.71
4 2.6 -12.1 43.2 0.62
9: MD 5 2.6 -14.7 55.6 0.55
MD 75.2 1.25 0.0002 1.25 0.25 5.2% 62% 64.0% 240.4 90%
Consolidatio 11.5 4 267.5 6 2.6 -17.3 67.9 9.5 0.50 6.25 -
n to 90% 7 2.6 -19.9 80.3 0.45
8 2.6 -22.5 92.6 0.42
9 2.6 -25.1 105 0.39
10 2.6 -27.7 117.3 0.37
ALL - 10 -34 167.3 216.3 1.25 0.0083 0 0 10.5% 0% 10.5% 73.9 28% 0.17
300
Fill to +11.5mPD

250
Fill to +8.5mPD
Dp' (kPa)

200

Fill to +5.5mPD
150

Fill to +2.5mPD
100

50

Time (Months)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
0

Time Dp' U Settlement Remarks


Settlement (m)

1
(mths) (kPa) (m)
0 0 0% 0 -
2 3 84.2 5% 0.45 1: Fill to +2.5mPD & Install Band Drain
4 84.2 36% 1.92 2: Completion of Band Drain Installation
4.5 84.2 57% 2.61 3: MD Consolidation to 50%
3 5 153.5 46% 3.34 4: Fill to +5.5mPD
5.5 153.5 63% 3.98 5: MD Consolidation to 50%
4 6 210.5 58% 4.49 6: Fill to +8.5mPD
8 210.5 91% 5.64 7: MD Consolidation to 90%
8.5 267.5 78% 5.86 8: Fill to +11.5mPD
5 9.5 267.5 90% 6.25 9: MD Consolidation to 90%

Estimated Settlement at Reclamation Area (Band Drain @1.0m Triangular Pattern)


Project No. Sheet No. Rev

CALCULATION SHEET

Project Made By HaN


Location Date

Calculation of Residual Settlement

1. Residual Settlement due to primary consolidation

As the effective stress increment in the marine deposit (MD) and alluvium silt/clay is greater than
that due to future loading, the MD and alluvium silt/clay are considered over-consolidated. A
rebound will occur after removal of surcharge loading. The change in settlement will then follow
recompression curve when the future imposed load (20kPa) is applied on the reclamation.

Effective stress due to self weight of marine mud (at centre of soil layers)
= 13 x (15 - 10.25) = 61.8 kPa

Effective stress due to self weight of marine mud and alluvium silt/clay (at centre of soil layers)
= 26 x (15 - 10.25) + 5 x (19 - 10.25) = 167.3 kPa

Primary Consoldiation Settlement = 6.25 m

Effective stress due to fill


= (5.5 - 1.2) x 19 + [1.2 - (-3) + 6.25] x (19 - 10.25) = 173.1 kPa

Effective stress due to imposed load = 20 kPa

Residual Settlement due to primary consolidation (MD)


= 26 x 0.029 x log[(61.8+173.1+20)/(61.8+173.1)]
= 27 mm

Residual Settlement due to primary consolidation (Alluvium Silt/Clay))


= 10 x 0.011 x log[(167.3+173.1+20)/(167.3+173.1)]
= 3 mm

2. Settlement due to secondary consolidation

Seondary consolidation of a soil layer at a given time t is calculated using the following formula
(Carter, 1996):
ss = CaeHolog[(t2-t0)/(t1-t0)]
where t2 = Time for residual settlement calculation = 50 yr
t1 = time at site handover = 2 yr
t0 = Start of the time for secondary consolidation calculation = 0.42 yr
Project No. Sheet No. Rev

CALCULATION SHEET

Project Made By HaN


Location Date

Settlement due to secondary consolidation (MD)


= 0.006 x 26 x log[(50-0.42)/(2-0.42)]
= 233 mm

Settlement due to secondary consolidation (Alluvium Silt/Clay)


= 0.005 x 10 x log[(50-0.42)/(2-0.42)]
= 75 mm

3. Settlement within reclamation fill

The creep settlement of granular fill is modelled as a linear relationship with log time by the
following formula (Sowers et al, 1965):
sc = Halog(t2-tc)/(t1-tc)]
where t2 = Time for residual settlement calculation = 50 yr
t1 = time at site handover = 2 yr
tc = Time for completing fill placement or the construction period = 0.83 yr

Due to the primary settlement, the thickness of the reclamation fill


= [5.5 - (-3) + 6.25] = 14.75 m

Thickness of Type A untreated fill (from +2.5mPD to sea bed)


= 5.5 m

Thickness of Type B/D treated fill


= 9.25 m

Settlement within reclamation fill (Type A untreated fill)


= 5.5 x 0.0065 x log[(50-0.83)/(2-0.83)]
= 58 mm

Settlement within reclamation fill (Type B/D treated fill)


= 9.25 x 0.002 x log[(50-0.83)/(2-0.83)]
= 30 mm

4. Total Residual Settlement


= 27 + 3 + 233 + 75 + 58 + 30
= 426 mm
Project No. Sheet No. Rev

CALCULATION SHEET

Project Made By HaN


Location Date
Rev

ATION SHEET

HaN
Rev

ATION SHEET

HaN
Rev

ATION SHEET

HaN