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8.4 TRANSFORMER | DATE : …………………..

IDEA OF TRANSFORMER

What will happen if a mobile phone is  Power stations generate electricity used by factories, offices,
directly connected to 240 V mains supply? transport systems and homes
How is possible to adjust to voltage of 240  Electricity is often transmitted at 132 000 V, but when it comes
V from the mains supply to a voltage of 5.0 into our homes, it is about 240 V.
V?  How and why is this done?

What is a A transformer is an electrical device, which ………………..or …………………… an ……………………….


transformer? voltage based on the principle of……………………………. …………………….
Apakah transformer?
Transformer ialah suatu alat elektrik yang digunakan untuk ………………………. Atau
………………………. beza keupayaan bekalan arus ……………………………… berdasarkan prinsip
………………………. ……………………….

Describe the
structure of a simple
transformer

 A transformer consists of ……………. coils of wire wound round separately on a


……………………… soft-iron core.
 The coil connected to the input voltage is called the ………………………. coil. The coil
connected to the output voltage is called the …………………………. coil.
 The purpose of the common iron core is to provide a magnetic field linkage in the
secondary coil.
 Transformer terdiri dari ………….. gegelung yang dililit secara berasingan pada teras besi
lembut ……………………..
 Gegelung yang bersambung kepada voltan input ialah gegelung ………………. Gegelung yang
bersambung kepada voltan output ialah gegelung …………………….
 Tujuan menggunakan satu teras besi ialah untuk menghasilkan medan magnet yang
berhubung dalam gegelung sekunder

Why does the


transformer not
work with a d.c
power supply?

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8.4 TRANSFORMER | DATE : …………………..

(a) (b)
Based on figure (a)
 When the switch is closed, the bulb …………………… momentary.
Apabila suis dihidupkan, mentol ……………………….. seketika
 When the current in the primary core is steady, the bulb ……………… off.
Apabila arus dalam gegelung primer malar, mentol ……………… menyala,
 When the switch is opened, the bulb …………………… momentary.
Apabila suis dibuka, mentol ……………………….. seketika

Based on figure (b)


 As an alternative to constantly opening and closing the circuit, an ………………… supply can
be used for the primary coil.
Sebagai alternative membuka dan menutup litar, bekalan arus ……………………… boleh
digunakan pada gegelung primer.
 The alternating current will create a continually …………….. magnetic field which will
………………. a current in the secondary coil, thus ……………….. up the lamp all the time.
Arus ulang alik akan menghasilkan medan magnet yang ………………………. yang akan
……………….. arus dalam gegelung sekunder, seterusnya ……………..mentol sepanjang masa

Describe the  A transformer works on the principle of ……………………….. ……………………..


operating principle  When a.c voltage, Vp is applied to the ………………………. coil of transformer, an
of a simple …………………………………. current flows through the coil.
transformer  The soft-iron core is ……………………….
 An alternating current has varying ………………………. and ………………………., hence
there is change in the direction and magnitude of ……………………….
……………………….
 The soft iron core provides a varying ……………………….. ……………………….. in the
……………………….. coil
 The varying magnetic field will produce an ……………………….. current and
……………………….. voltage, Vs in the secondary coil.

 The frequency of the secondary voltage Vs is the ……………… as that of the primary
voltage, Vp

 Transformer bekerja berdasarkan prinsip ………………………. ……………………….Apabila


beza keupayaan ulang alik dibekalkan kepada gegelung ………………………., arus
………………………. mengalir melalui gegelung.
 Teras besi lembut di ……………………….
 Arus ulang alik mempunyai ………………………. dan ………………………. yang berubah-
ubah, maka terdapat perubahan arah dan magnitud ……………………….
……………………….
 Teras besi lembut membekalkan……………………….. ……………………….. berubah-ubah
arah dan magnitud dalam gegelung ………………………..
 ……………………….. ……………………….. yang berubah-ubah juga wujud dalam gegelung
sekunder
 Medan magnet yang berubah-ubah akan menghasilkan arus ……………………….. dan beza
keupayaan ……………………….., Vs dalam gegelung sekunder.
 Frekuensi voltan sekunder, Vs ………………………..dengan voltan primer, Vp

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8.4 TRANSFORMER | DATE : …………………..

State the For an ideal transformer (100% efficient)


relationship Transformer unggul (kecekapan 100%)
between number of
turns in coils with
voltage in a
transformer,
(Vp , Np, Vs and Ns)

Step-up transformer Step-down transformer


Transformer injak naik Transformer injak turun

N >N N <N
s p s p
V >V V <V
s p s p

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8.4 TRANSFORMER | DATE : …………………..

Efficiency of a In an ideal transformer,


transformer Transformer unggul
Kecekapan  there is no energy ……………… during the process of transforming the voltage.
transformer …………………. tenaga hilang dalam proses pemindahan voltan

In a real transformer/ Dalam transformer sebenar


 some energy is ………………… in the transformer especially in the form of ……………...
sebahagian tenaga …………….. dalam transformer terutama dalam bentuk …………..
 The output power is …………………… than the input power.
Kuasa output …………………… daripada kuasa ……………………
 Hence the efficiency of the transformer is ……………….. than 100%.
Maka kecekapan transformer ……………. dari 100%

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8.4 TRANSFORMER | DATE : …………………..

Example 1: For each of the following diagram, calculate the output voltage and state type of transformer.

Example 2
The diagram shows a 12 V, 36 W bulb lights up with normal brightness when it is connected to a 240 V
mains supply through a transformer. The number of turns of the primary coil is 500. The transformer is
an ideal transformer.
Rajah menunjukkan mentol 12 V, 36 W menyala dengan kecerahan normal apabila ia disambung kepada
bekalan kuasa 240 V melalui transformer. Bilangan lilitan gegelung primer ialah 500. Transformer itu
ialah transformer unggul.

Find/ Kira
(a) The number of turns of the
secondary coil
Bilangan lilitan gegelung sekunder
(b) Output power and input power
Kuasa output dan kuasa input
(c) Is
(d) Ip

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8.4 TRANSFORMER | DATE : …………………..

Example 3
The diagram shows a 12 V, 48 W bulb
lights up with normal brightness when
it is connected to a 240 V mains supply
through a transformer.
Rajah menunjukkan mentol 12 V, 48 W ,
menyala dengan kecerahan normal
apabila ia disambung kepada bekalan
kuasa au 240 V.

Calculate/ Hitung;
a) The number of turns of the primary
coil
Bilangan lilitan gegelung primer
b) The current in the secondary coil
Arus dalam gegelung sekunder
c) The efficiency of the transformer
Kecekapan transformer

Example 4
A step up transformer has 10 000 turns on its secondary coil and 100 turns on its primary coil. An
alternating current of 5.0 A flows in the primary coil when it is connected to a 12 V a.c supply. Calculate:
Transformer injak naik mempunyai 10 000 lilitan gegelung sekunder dan 100 lilitan gegelung primer. Arus
ulang alik 5.0 A mengalir dalam gegelung primer apabila bekalan kuasa 12.0 V disambung. Hitung:

(a) the input power to the transformer /kuasa input transformer


(b) the e.m.f induced across the secondary coil / dge aruhan merentasi gegelung sekunder
(c) What is the maximum current that could flow in a circuit connected to the secondary coil if the
transformer is 100% efficient.
Arus maksimum yang boleh mengalir dalam litar yang bersambung kepada gegelung sekunder jika
kecekapan transformer ialah 100 %.

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8.4 TRANSFORMER | DATE : …………………..

WAYS TO REDUCE THE POWER LOSS IN TRANSFORMERS

 Practically, the efficiency of a transformer can never be …………………


Secara praktis, kecekapan sebuah transformer tidak mungkin mencapai ……………………
 This is due to the power ……………….. during the transmission of ac supply from primary coil to the
secondary coil
Ini disebabkan ……………… kuasa semasa pemindahan dari bekalan au dari gegelung primer kepada
gegelung sekunder
 The power loss is due to / Kehilangan kuasa disebabkan

(a) …………………………………………………..
(b) …………………………………………………..
(c) …………………………………………………..
(d) …………………………………………………..

Causes of energy loss in transformers Ways to improve the efficiency of a transformer


Punca kehilangan kuasa dalam transformer Cara meningkatkan kecekapan transformer

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8.4 TRANSFORMER | DATE : …………………..

EXERCISE 8.4 : OBJECTIVE Qs Based on the diagram, determine the


output voltage
1 A transformer works based on the Berdasarkan rajah, tentukan voltan output
principle of
Transformer bekerja berdasarkan prinsip A 6 V ac B 12 V ac
C 120 V ac D 240 V ac
A catapult field / medan lastik E 360 V ac
B electromagnetic induction / aruhan
elektromagnet
C the heating effect of a current / kesan
pemanasan arus
D the electromagnetism of a current /
arus elektromagnet 200 V

4 The diagram shows a multi-tap


transformer.
Which pair of terminals would you connect
to produce an output voltage of 18 V?
teras besi lembut = soft iron core Rajah menunjukkan sebuah transformer
mentol = bulb ‘multitap’.
Pasangan terminal manakah akan
The diagram shows an electrical circuit. menghasilkan voltan output 18 V?
Which of the following is not true?
A JK B JL
A The bulb shows a momentary lighting C KL D KM
at the time when switch S is closed
Mentol menyala seketika apabila suis S
ditutup
B The bulb shows a steady lighting
when switch S is kept closed
Mentol menyala berterusan apabila
suis S terus ditutup
C The bulb blinks when switch S is
closed and opened continuously
Mentol berkelip apabila suis S ditutup
dan dibuka berterusan 5 The diagram shows a circuit containing a
D The bulb shows a momentary lighting transformer and three bulbs lighting up
at the time when switch S is opened with normal brightness. The number of
Mentol menyala seketika apabila suis S turns of the secondary coil is 120.
dibuka What is the number of turns of the primary
coil?
3 Rajah menunjukkan litar mengandungi
transformer dan tiga mentol yang menyala
dengan kecerahan normal. Bilangan lilitan
gegelung sekunder ialah 120. Berapakah
bilangan lilitan gegelung primer?

a.u. = ac A 400 B 800


lilitan = turns C 1200 D 2400
E 4800

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8.4 TRANSFORMER | DATE : …………………..

6 An ideal transformer consists of 2000 turns 7. The core of a transformer is made up of


of primary coil and 100 turns of secondary soft iron because
coil. The primary coil is connected to 240 Teras bagi transformer diperbuat daripada
V. A bulb labeled 3.6 W is connected in the besi lembut kerana
secondary coil. If the bulb light up with
normal brightness, what is the current flows A it releases heat to surrounding
through it? Membebaskan haba kesekitaran
Sebuah transformer unggul mengandungi B it reduces hysteresis effect
2000 lilitan gegelung primer dan 100 lilitan Mengurangkan kesan histerisis
gegelung sekunder. Gegelung primer C it reduces eddy current
bersambung kepada 240 V. Sebuah mentol Mengurangkan arus pusar
berlabel 3.6 W disambung kepada gegelung D it reduces flux leakage
sekunder. Jika mentol menyala dengan Mengurangkan kebocoran fluks
kecerahan normal, berapakah arus yang
mengalir melaluinya? 8 The laminated iron core is used in a
transformer because it can reduces
A. 0.5 A B 0.30 A Teras besi berlamina digunakan dalam
C 12.0 A D 20.0 A transformer kerana ia akan mengurangkan
E 50.0 A
A hysteresis effect / kesan histerisis
B eddy current / arus pusar
C flux leakage / kebocoran fluks
D the resistance of the coil / rintangan
didalam gegelung

8.4 TRANSFORMERS 10. SPM 2011/40


Which diagram shows a step down transformer?
9. SPM 2003/38
The diagram shows a circuit containing an ideal
transformer.

Which statement is correct about the brightness of


bulb P and bulb Q?

A. Bulb P is brighter than bulb Q


B. Bulb P and bulb Q have the save brightness
C. Bulb Q is brighter than bulb P

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8.4 TRANSFORMER | DATE : …………………..

11. SPM 2005/36 D.


The diagram shows the structure of an ideal
transformer.

13. SPM 2007/42


The purpose of using laminated iron core in a
What is the potential difference across the bulb? transformer is to
A. 7 V D. 60 V A. reduce resistance
B. 24 V E. 160 V B. reduce eddy current
C. 30 V C. prevent flux leakage
D. magnetized and demagnetized iron core easily
12. SPM 2007/41
Diagram 25 shows a transformer connected to a
cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO).
14. SPM 2008/42
Diagram 25 shows a simple transformer. The bulb
lights up at normal brightness.

Diagram 25
Which of the following wave traces is correct when
the extra coil is on the core and connected in series What happens if the a.c. input is replaced by a 3 V
with the secondary coil? battery?

A. A. The bulb does not light up


B. The brightness of the bulb remains unchanged
C. The brightness of the bulb increase
D. The bulb blows

15. SPM 2009/42


What is the type of copper wire used and the
B. function of the laminated soft iron core in a
transformer?
Type of Function of laminated
copper wire soft iron core
A. Low To increase eddy
resistance current

B. High To increase eddy


C. resistance current
C. Low To reduce eddy current
resistance
D. High To reduce eddy current
resistance

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8.4 TRANSFORMER | DATE : …………………..

16. SPM 2006/41 19. SPM 2013/41


The function of a transformer in an electrical Diagram 28 shows a step down transformer
energy transmission system is to Rajah 28 menunjukkan satu transformer injak
A. increase the power turun.
B. reduce the resistance
C. change the potential difference
D. speed up the time of transmission

17. SPM 2010/45


Diagram 36 shows an electric circuit consisting a
step-down transformer and two identical bulbs P
and Q.
When the current in the primary coil increases,
Which comparison of the highness of bulbs P and Apabila arus dalam gegelung primer bertambah,
Q is correct?
A. the frequency of the induced current in the
secondary coil increases
frekuensi arus aruhan dalam gegelung
sekunder bertambah
B. the frequency of the current in the primary
coil decreases
frekuensi arus aruhan dalam gegelung
primer berkurang
Diagram 36 C. magnetic field in the secondary coil
decreases
A. Brightness of P = Brightness of Q medan magnet dalam gegelung sekunder
B. Brightness of P > Brightness of Q berkurang
C. Brightness of P < Brightness of Q D. magnetic field in the primary coil
increases
medan magnet dalam gegelung primer
18. SPM 2013/39 bertambah
Which is a functional step down transformer?
Transfomer injak turun manakah yang berfungsi?
20. SPM 2015/38
Diagram 31 shows a bulb 24 V, 18 W lights up
with normal brightness.
Rajah 31 menunjukkan sebiji mentol 24 V, 18 W
menyala pada kecerahan normal.

What happens to the bulb when the number of turns


in secondary coil increases to 50 turns?
Apakah yang akan terjadi pada mentol apabila
bilangan lilitan pada gegelung sekunder ditambah
kepada 50 lilitan?

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8.4 TRANSFORMER | DATE : …………………..

A Dimmer
Malap
B Brighter
Lebih terang
C Blown up
Terbakar
D The brightness unchanged
Kecerahan tidak berubah

21. SPM 2015/39


Below is the conversation between Azeem and
his father
Di bawah ialah perbualan antara Azeem dan
bapanya.

Azeem: Daddy, what is the use of


handphone charger?
Ayah, apakah kegunaan
pengecas telefon bimbit?
Father: To reduce the voltage supplied
to our home from 240 V to
12V.
Untuk menurunkan bekalan
voltan ke rumah kita daripada
240 V kepada 12 V.
Azeem: Is the function the same as
transformer at the electrical
substation?
Adakah fungsinya sama
dengan transformer di
pencawang elektrik?
Father: Yes.
Ya.

Why the size of transformer at the electrical


substation bigger than that of handphone
charge?
Kenapa saiz transformer di pancawang elektrik
lebih besar daripada pengecas telefon bimbit?

A. Voltage depends on the diameter f the


transmission cable
Voltan bergantung kepada diameter
kabel penghantaran
B. Voltage deepnds on the number of turn
of a transformer coil
Voltan bergantung kepada bilangan
lilitan ggegelung transformer.
C. Voltage depends on the resistance of the
transformer coil
Voltan bergantung kepada rintangan
gegelung transformer
D. Voltage depends on the type of the
transmission cable
Voltan bergantung kepada jenis kabel
penghantaran

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8.4 TRANSFORMER | DATE : …………………..

STRUCTURED AND ESSAY QUESTIONS


1. SPM 2007/7
Diagram 7 shows a simple transformer.
Rajah 7 menunjukkan transformer ringkas.

Diagram 7

(a) (i) Name the type of the transformer.


Namakan jenis transformer.

[1 mark]
(ii) State why soft iron is used as the transformer core.
Nyatakan mengapa besi lembut digunakan sebagai teras transformer.

[1 mark]
(b) The number of turns on the primary coil in Diagram 7 is 1 000.
Calculate the number of turns on the secondary coil.
Bilangan lilitan gegelung primer dalam Rajah 7 ialah 1 000.
Hitung bilangan lilitan dalam gegelung sekunder.

[2 marks]

(c) The transformer in Diagram 7 is used to switch on an electrical appliance. The current in the primary coil is
0.1 A and the efficiency is 75%.
Transformer dalam Rajah 7 digunakan untuk menghidupkan alat elektrik. Arus yang mengalir dalam
gegelung primer ialah 0.1 A dan kecekapan ialah 75%.

(i) Calculate the output power of the transformer.


Hitung kuasa output transformer.

[2 marks]

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8.4 TRANSFORMER | DATE : …………………..

(ii) An electrical appliance which needs 20 W of power is connected to the transformer output.
Suggest a modification to the transformer that enables the appliance to function correctly.

[1 mark]
2. SPM 2008/4
Diagram 4.1 shows a computer battery charger connected to a 240 V a.c. power supply. The battery charger
contains box X and box Y.
Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan sebuah pengecas computer disambungkan kepada bekalan kuasa 240 V. Pengecas
computer mengandungi kotak X dan kotak Y.

(a) The function of the component in box X is lower the voltage from 240 V a.c to 20 V a.c
Fungsi komponen dalam kotak X ialah mengurangkan voltan 240 V kepada 20 V au.

(i) Name the component in box X.


Namakan komponen dalam kotak X.

[1 mark]
(ii) Explain why a.c. not d.c. is supplied in Diagram 4.1?
Terangkan mengapa au bukan at digunakan dalam Rajah 4.1?

[1 mark]
(iii) State the physics concept which explains how the component in box X works.
Nyatakan konsep fizik yang menerangkan bagaimana komponen dalam kotak X bekerja.

[1 mark]

(b) The efficiency of the component in box X is 80%.


Calculate the input current when the output power is 65 W.
Kecekapan komponen dalam kotak X ialah 80%.
Hitung arus input apabila kuasa input ialah 65 W.

[2 marks]

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8.4 TRANSFORMER | DATE : …………………..

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8.4 TRANSFORMER | DATE : …………………..

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8.4 TRANSFORMER | DATE : …………………..

4. SPM 2016/10

(d) Diagram 10.4 shows a low efficiency transformer.


Rajah 10.4 menunjukkan sebuah transformer dengan kecekapan yang rendah.

Diagram 10.4
Rajah 10.4

You are required to modify the transformer in Diagram 10.4 so that the efficiency of the transformer
is increased.
Anda dikehendaki untuk mengubahsuai transformer dalam Rajah 10.4 supaya
kecekapan transformer itu meningkat.
State and explain the modifications based on the following aspects:
Nyata dan terangkan pengubahsuaian berdasarkan aspek-aspek berikut:
(i) the type of material used for the wire.
jenis bahan yang digunakan untuk dawai.
(ii) the diameter of wire.
diameter dawai.
(iii) the type of material of the core.
jenis bahan yang digunakan untuk teras.
(iv) the characteristics of the core.
ciri-ciri teras.
(v) the distance between primary coil and secondary coil.
jarak antara gegelung primer dan gegelung sekunder.
[10 mark]
[10 markah]

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