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COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN UOIT Fall 2016

COORDINATE SYSTEMS
oThree types of coordinates systems are needed to
input, store, and display model geometry and graphics

•Model Coordinate System (MCS)


•Working Coordinate System (WCS)
•Screen Coordinate System (SCS)
COORDINATE SYSTEMS
oModel Coordinate System (MCS) – Reference
space of model with respect to which all model
geometrical data is stored
oCartesian coordinate system (x, y, z) – origin can be
chosen by the user
oSoftware typically chooses 1 of 2 possible
orientations
COORDINATE SYSTEMS
oHorizontal XY plane defines the top view of the
model
oVertical XY plane defines the front view
COORDINATE SYSTEMS
oMCS typically the default WCS
•XY plane is the default sketch plane, defines model
orientation in 3D space
•Intersection is MCS origin
•First face of model to be constructed becomes top or
front view
oMCS is only the coordinate system the software
recognizes when storing/retrieving information
oRelationship between MCS planes and the model
views must be understood
COORDINATE SYSTEMS
oWorking Coordinate System (WCS) –
Auxiliary coordinate system used when desired
sketch plane is not one of the three default
MCS planes
oUseful for cases such as inclined model faces
oUsers can define a Cartesian coordinate system whose
XY plane is coincident with the desired plane of
construction
oOnly one active WCS at any one time
COORDINATE SYSTEMS
oDefining WCS – requires 3 non-collinear points to
define XY plane
oP1 defines origin
oX-axis → P2 – P1
oTemp vector → P3 – P1
oY-axis → cross product of X-axis and Temp vector
oZ-axis → cross product of X-axis and Y-axis
COORDINATE SYSTEMS
oOnce a WCS is defined, user coordinate inputs are
interpreted by software in reference to system
oSoftware converts user inputs to MCS before storing
data
oCalculates homogeneous transformation between
MCS and WCS

𝑚 𝑚 𝑤
𝑃= 𝑤 [𝑇] ∗ 𝑃
𝑚 𝑚
𝑚 𝑤 [𝑅] 𝑃𝑤,𝑜𝑟𝑔
𝑤[𝑇] =
000 1
COORDINATE SYSTEMS
𝑚 𝑚 𝑤
𝑃= 𝑤 [𝑇] ∗ 𝑃
wP

mP

WCS

MCS
COORDINATE SYSTEMS
𝑚 𝑚
𝑚 𝑤 [𝑅] 𝑃𝑤,𝑜𝑟𝑔
𝑤[𝑇] =
000 1
wP

mP

mP WCS
w,org

MCS
COORDINATE SYSTEMS
oR is rotation matrix of WCS with respect to MCS
oColumns give direction cosines
𝑟11 𝑟12 𝑟13
𝑚
𝑤 𝑅 = 𝑟21 𝑟22 𝑟23
𝑟31 𝑟32 𝑟33

oPorg is position vector that describes origin of WCS


relative to MCS 𝑥
𝑚
𝑃𝑤,𝑜𝑟𝑔 = 𝑦
𝑧
COORDINATE SYSTEMS
oScreen Coordinate System (WCS) – 2D
device dependent coordinate system whose
origin is located at lower left corner of graphics
display
oPhysical dimensions of device screen determine
range of coordinate system
oCan use full screen, normalized range, or custom user-selected range
oTransformation from MCS to SCS is performed by software before
displaying model views/graphics
ENGINEERING DRAWINGS – CHAPTER 4
oEngineering Drawing – A tool to document a
design and communicate it
oFrom production, inspection and assembly to sales
and marketing
oReference used throughout product lifecycle
oFormats and customs specific to each discipline
o Mechanical/Industrial: 3D models with unique views

oNo limit to number of drawings


o Fewer the better

oCAD systems treat drawings as separate files


o Templates often provided
ENGINEERING DRAWINGS – CHAPTER 4
oEngineering Drawing Process
oDrafting tables and tools replaced by CAD
oDrafting paper went through chemical process to
preserve content
o Turned blue as a result
o To this day, engineering drawings referred to as blueprints
DRAWING STRUCTURE
oUniversal structure
o Views
o Title block
o BOM
o Labels & notes

Figure 4.1 Structure of an


engineering drawing
DRAWING CONTENT
oDrawings contain several features necessary to
fully describe part:
oModel views
oDimensions
oTolerances
oAnnotations
oBOM
oAssembly instructions
oSurface finish
oRoughness symbols
Figure 4.1 Structure of an
engineering drawing
DRAWING CONTENT
o1st Stage – Views
oDefined and placed while file is open
oOrthographic projection rules are enforced
o Front, top, right

oCan move around


oScale up or down
DRAWING CONTENT
o2nd Stage – Dimensions and Tolerances
oDimension type (Cartesian, ordinate)
oHeight, font, units
oStandard (ANSI, ISO)
oFinal stages
oLabels and notes, title block, BOM
oPrint and save

oDrawings often checked by lead person


oMust be signed off by an authority
MODEL AND DRAWING ASSOCIATIVITY
oCAD systems provide 2-way associativity between
model and drawing modes
oChange in model mode reflected in drawing mode
oChange in drawing mode reflected in model mode
oChanges automatically reflected in other mode
oREBUILD or UPDATE command
DRAWING SETUP – SIZE OF DRAWING
oAlways limit drawing to within specified bounds of
drawing sheet
owill be printed that way on paper of finite size
oFactors to consider:
oActual size of drawing
oSpace needed for dimensions, notes, BOM, and other
details
oSpace between different views to avoid clutter
oSpace for border and title block
DRAWING SETUP – SIZE OF DRAWING
English System (inches)

Limits (1:4) – Limits (4:1) –


Paper Size Sheet Size Limits (1:1) Reduction Magnification

A 12 x 9 12, 9 48, 36 3, 2.25

B 18 x 12 18, 12 72, 48 4.5, 3

C 24 x 18 24, 18 96, 72 6, 4.5

D 36 x 24 36, 24 144, 96 9, 6

E 48 x 36 48, 36 192, 144 12, 9


DRAWING SETUP – SIZE OF DRAWING
Metric System (mm)

Limits (1:4) – Limits (4:1) –


Paper Size Sheet Size Limits (1:1) Reduction Magnification

A4 210 x 197 210, 297 1050, 1485 42, 59.4

A3 297 x 420 297, 420 1485, 2100 59.4, 84

A2 420 x 594 420, 594 2100, 2970 84, 118.8

A1 594 x 841 594, 841 2970, 4205 118.8, 168.2

A0 841 x 1189 841, 1189 4205, 5945 168.2, 237.8


DRAWING SETUP – SIZE OF DRAWING

Figure 4.2 (Lee) Setting limits in a drawing. Above drawing requires 24 units
x direction and 18 units y direction. Sheet size determines limits, text size,
dimensioning scale factor, etc.
METHODS OF ANGLE OF PROJECTION
oWhen a view of a model is created, model is
projected onto a plane parallel to model face and
normal to the observer line of sight
oVisible (solid lines) vs. Hidden (dashed)
METHODS OF ANGLE OF PROJECTION
oLocation of projection plane defines the method of
angle of projection (type of projection)
oMethod of first angle of projection
oBehind model and away from observer line of sight
oProjected view is opposite of what name indicates

Requesting a top view results in a


bottom view being shown
METHODS OF ANGLE OF PROJECTION
oLocation of projection plane defines the method of
angle of projection (type of projection)
oMethod of third angle of projection
oBetween observer and model
oProjected view is same as what view name indicates
METHODS OF ANGLE OF PROJECTION
oModel views do not change, only their appearance

Effect of the method of angle of projection on


model views for third angle projection.
METHODS OF ANGLE OF PROJECTION
oModel views do not change, only their appearance

Effect of the method of angle of projection on model views for first angle projection.
CAD systems allow user to select projection for engineering drawings.
TYPES OF VIEWS
oProjected View
oProjecting an existing view in a given direction
oSelect an existing view and click adjacent to it
o e.g., using Front view to create profile view
TYPES OF VIEWS
oNamed view
oStandard predefined view (front, back, isometric)
oCAD software provides list to select from
TYPES OF VIEWS
oAuxiliary view
oCustom view created using a custom viewing angle
o e.g., normal view of inclined plane to show true size, shape, location of feature
TYPES OF VIEWS
oSectional View
oCut open model to reveal important hidden details of its
geometry
o need to define direction
TYPES OF VIEWS
oDetailed View
oMagnify a small portion of a given view to show the
details of that portion only
TYPES OF VIEWS
o3 standard views include at a minimum
oUse same scale
oAfter placement, views need to be moved around
and resized to fit drawing sheet
TYPES OF DIMENSIONS
oDifferent types exist
oCartesian (x, y, z)
oRadial (radius, diameter)
oAngular
oTrue length (not along x,
y axis)
oOrdinate
TYPES OF DIMENSIONS
oOrdinate dimensions
oUses same reference for
all dimensions in one
direction
oMachinist finishes two
datum surfaces, then
measures dimensions
relative to each datum
oreduces cost for
machining part
ANNOTATIONS
oAdding notes and
labels to a drawing
oNotes: standalone
text without leaders
oLabels: notes with
leaders
TOLERANCES
oAllows for variability
during manufacturing
oNo perfection in all
manufacturing
conditions
oTolerances assigned
based on functional
requirements of part
o↑ tolerance, ↑ $$$
TOLERANCES
oOnly assigned to
dimensions that direct
affect function
oAll other dimensions
given ‘general
tolerances’
TOLERANCES

Table 10.2 – Tolerances related to machining processes (Giesecke et al,


Modern Graphics Communication, 4e, 2010).
TOLERANCES
Basic Size, mm Basic Size, mm Basic Size, mm Basic Size, mm
First Second First Second First Second First Second
Choice Choice Choice Choice Choice Choice Choice Choice
1 6 40 250

1.1 7 45 280
Table 10.3 – Preferred
1.2 8 50 300
sizes. First-choice
1.4 9 55 350 column diameters
1.6 10 60 400 readily available in
1.8 11 70 450 stock sizes for round,
2 12 80 500 square, and hexagonal
2.2 14 90 550 products (Giesecke et
2.5 16 100 600 al, Modern Graphics
2.8 18 110 700 Communication, 4e,
3 20 120 800 2010).
3.5 22 140 900

4 25 160 1000

4.5 28 180

5 30 200

5.5 35 220
TOLERANCES

Table A13 – Preferred


metric hole basis clearance
fits, ANSI B4.2-1978
(R1994) (Giesecke et al,
Modern Graphics
Communication, 4e, 2010).
DIMENSIONING RULES
oProvide size and location of each feature in
drawing
oFor flat features, give thickness dimension in edge
view, and all other dimensions in top view
oDimension features in view that shows their true
size and shape
oUse diameter dimensions for circles and radial
dimensions for arcs
oOmit unnecessary dimensions
DIMENSIONING RULES
oEnsure dimensions are large enough to see,
spaced out from each other, and away from profile
oProvide gap between profile lines (feature edges)
and dimension extension lines
oUse consistent size and style of leader lines, text,
and arrows
oAvoid over- or under-dimensioning
MODELING AIDS AND TOOLS
oAll CAD/CAM systems provide a generic set of
modeling aids and tools
oVarious aids help speed up completion of design
tasks in CAD/CAM systems
oIncreased productivity is one of the most
recognized benefits of using CAD/CAM systems
•Manipulation and editing of geometric data/entities
easier with CAD
•Correcting/revising existing geometry in manual
construction is very time consuming
MODELING AIDS AND TOOLS
oGood understanding and efficient use of
functions and commands on CAD/CAM system
enables users to better correct errors and
mistakes
•Most non-productive way to deal with a mistake –
deleting partially wrong entity and reconstruct it
•e.g., if correct entity is created in wrong position, re-
orient it
oWe will only look at semantics. User can find
menus in CAD/CAM system
GEOMETRIC MODIFIERS
oGeometric Modifier – word that changes mode
of input and output in a command
oGeometric modifiers are used to facilitate
entering and extracting information to and from
system
•Major advantage – Provides ability to deal with
specific existing geometric information in geometric
model without needing to calculate it explicitly
GEOMETRIC MODIFIERS
oThree common
geometric modifiers:
oEnd – signifies an end
point of a curve (curve has
2 ends)
oOrigin – identifies the
center of a curve
oIntersection – indicates the
intersection point of two
entities

Figure 3.1 User clicks button and then


selecting (clicking) desired entity.
If more than one solution exists, user
clicks entity closest to desired solution.
LAYERS
oCAD/CAM users often want to group/separate
certain types of information related to model
oLayer – thought of as sheet of transparency
oUsers organize layers to present models as they
desire
LAYERS
oLayer activities:
oCreate/delete layers
oModify properties
oName, colour, line
type/weight, visibility
oUse in geometric
construction
oAssigned to current layer
LAYERS
oIndustrial CAD/CAM
applications:
oIndexing
oModel geometry
oManufacturing notes
oDrafting
oAnalysis and technical
illustrations
oConstruction aids
COLOURS
oUsed to distinguish entities of geometric models
from each other

oColour assigned by layer


oAll entities assigned to a particular layer are displayed
in the colour assigned to that layer (layer property
manager)
GRIDS
oGrid – a network of uniformly spaced points
superimposed on the screen
oDisplayed as a series of dots
oApplications
oSketching
oMoving entities
oMeasuring between points
oPlanning layouts
oPlacing text at specific locations
oFreehand clicks to indicate geometry location
GRIDS
oRectangular
oConstructing equally
spaced entities
GRIDS
oRectangular
oConstructing equally
spaced entities
oRadial
oSeries of dots
extending from origin
GRIDS
oGrid Activities
oTurn grids on/off
oTurn grid snap on/off
oSet grid size and
properties (origin)
GROUPS
oCreated by selecting any entity that belongs to it
oOperation affects all member entities at same time
oGroups can be dissociated (deleted) by user once
no longer needed
oIndividual member of group cannot be deleted unless
group is first deleted
oApplications
oMotion of mechanism consisting of links that rotate
and/or translate in space: more efficient to group
components of a link that rotate/translate together
BASIC DRAWING FUNCTIONS –
STRAIGHT LINE
oSeveral ways to draw lines:
oSpecifying two end points (point and click, snap to
grid, or start at existing point)
oDrawing tangent line to curve (specify one point
explicitly and system determines other end point)

Figure 4.4 (Lee) Various types of straight


lines.
BASIC DRAWING FUNCTIONS – CIRCLE
AND CIRCULAR ARC
oSeveral ways to draw circles:
oDefine centre point and radius
oThree points on circle
oTangent to two straight lines
oTangent to circle and straight line
oFor circular arc, specify start and end points in addition
to parameters of complete circle
BASIC DRAWING FUNCTIONS – SPLINE
oSeveral ways to draw splines:
oDraw arbitrary curve same way as drawn manually
with adjustable (French) curves
oInterpolate curve through points
o usually represented as third-order equation

oUsing control points


o Control points do not have to lie on curve
BASIC DRAWING FUNCTIONS –
DELETING
oDelete function allows user to pick entities (lines,
points, curves, etc.)
oEntities disappear when picked
oUnigraphics has Quick Trim function
BASIC DRAWING FUNCTIONS –
FILLETING AND CHAMFERING
oFilleting (rounding) – adding circular arc between
two intersecting lines
oarc is tangent to both lines
oFilleting used for concave corners, rounding for
convex corners. In Unigraphics, Edge Blend
function

(a) Original shape (b) After filleting


(rounding)
BASIC DRAWING FUNCTIONS –
FILLETING AND CHAMFERING
oFilleting (rounding) – adding circular arc between
two intersecting lines
oarc is tangent to both lines
oChamfering – adding straight line segment
between two intersecting lines

(a) Original shape (b) After filleting (c) After chamfering


(rounding)
BASIC DRAWING FUNCTIONS –
FILLETING AND CHAMFERING
oSequence for filleting or chamfering:
oFillet or chamfer size provided
oTwo intersecting lines picked – fillet or chamfer added to corner of lines
oUnnecessary portions of lines deleted after fillet or chamfer added

oSome systems do Step 3 automatically


(SolidWorks, Unigraphics)
BASIC DRAWING FUNCTIONS –
HATCHING
oFills closed polygon with specific pattern
ospecify closed polygon to be hatched
ospecify boundaries of holes to avoid hatching these
oIndicates cross sections and materials

Figure 4.6 (Lee) Types of hatching.


ENTITY SELECTION METHODS
oManipulation and editing operations usually act on
existing entities
oEach operation requires user to identify or select
desired entity and input data
oSeveral methods for selecting entities:
ENTITY SELECTION METHODS
oIndividual entity
oAll displayed entities
oGroups
oEnclosing polygon
ENTITY VERIFICATION AND COPYING
oVerification provides information about existing
entities in a model database
oProvides entity type, geometric information, and layer
number
oExisting entities may be copied or duplicated
oCopy or move an existing entity to a different layer
oConstructing geometry that has repetitive patterns
GEOMETRIC ARRAYS
oGeometric Array – a number of identical entities
placed uniformly at specified locations
oUsers specify the number of entity copies and the
spacing between them
oRectangular arrays: entities separated by increments
along the X, Y, Z axes of proper coordinate system
oCircular arrays: entities separated by increments in the
radial and/or angular directions
GEOMETRIC ARRAYS
oBase entities generate arrays
oarrows show direction of copying base entities

Figure 3.9 Rectangular arrays or patterns. In NX, use Instance Feature.


GEOMETRIC ARRAYS
oBase entities generate arrays
oarrows show direction of copying base entities

Figure 3.10 Circular arrays or patterns.


TRANSFORMATIONS
oUseful productivity tools
for manipulating existing
entities
oTranslation: requires
translational distance
and direction
oRotation: requires an
axis and angle of
rotation
TRANSFORMATIONS
oUseful productivity tools
for manipulating existing
entities
oMirror: requires a
mirroring axis
oScale (zoom, magnify):
requires a scale factor
GEOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS
oBasic geometric measurements can be obtained
using the measure operation:
oMinimum distance between two entities, two points, or
an entity and a point
oAngle between two lines
oAngle specified by three points
oLength of contour of connected set of entities
GEOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS

Figure 3.13 Geometric


measurements.
SUMMARY
oSetting up engineering drawings
oCAD drawings and CAD views, first angle and third
angle projections
oComponents of a drawing – title block, revision
block, dimensioning, tolerances
oNotes and labels
oManufacturing information and rules for
dimensioning and tolerancing, with manufacturing
consideration
oGeometric modifiers for more efficient use of
geometric information in a model